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KOCHI: Giving a much-needed boost to the Kochi Metro Rail Ltd's (KMRL) plans to promote non-motorized transport (NMT) systems, the French evolution agency, AFD has expressed willingness to provide Rs 189 crore for it.
AFD has 'expressed willingness' to implement the NMT at Aluva Junction, Edappally Junction, Vyttila Junction, Petta Junction and SN Junction and improvements at Sahodaran Ayyappan Road.
With the French team stating its readiness to associate in evolution of NMT, the KMRL is hopeful that it will exist able to recoup the money, which they occupy already spent for undertaking junction evolution works at Aluva and Edappally.
KMRL managing director APM Mohammed Hanish said: "The discussions with AFD were positive and its willingness to account the KMRL projects for further funding is a most welcome evolution for KMRL and its ambitious projects. With the succor of AFD, the KMRL will exist able to execute these projects, which will surely help city landscape to international levels."
Earlier, the Metro agency had won the ministry of housing and urban affairs' (MoHUA) award of excellence in the category of best non-motorised transport project In India for its Edappally Junction improvement and pedestrian safety project. The Metro agency had spent around Rs 4.5 crore on developing Edappally into a pedestrian-friendly area.
Separate electronic signals occupy been provided for pedestrians to cross the road at the busy junction. An underpass has been built to facilitate pedestrians to cross from one Metro station to the other located on the opposite side. Road crossings are marked securely. Signages, anti-dust measures, full lighting throughout the night under the flyover, footpath lighting, roof for the footpath, separate pre-paid autorickshaw stand and hand railing for the footpath are the other facilities.
According to the Metro agency, the French team expressed satisfaction on the progress of phase one of the Kochi Metro project. They besides indicated their willingness to account the phase two from JLN Stadium to Infopark, phase-IA up to SN Junction of Kochi Metro for future funding.
AFD representatives carried out a detailed evaluation of the projects on November 19 and 20. The Metro agency presented the details of phase-I, IA & IB, NMT from Aluva to S N Junction and Vyttila Mobility Hub projects. The team besides reiterated its willingness to fund Vyttila Mobility Hub, after due project appraisal from AFD.
AFD team consisting of Mathieu Verdure, stint team leader on urban transport at the transportation and mobility division (TER/MOB), Clemence Vidal de la Blache, deputy director of novel Delhi AFD's office and Rajnish Ahuja, project officer in novel Delhi AFD's office had visited the city to review the progress of phase-I of Kochi Metro rail project and to study the extensions and other proposals for workable funding. The AFD team besides undertook a site visit and covered the regions between the Maharaja's College and Tripunithura.
The extension of Metro to Tripunithura railway station is expected to bring in a complete change in the public transportation sector.
NASA is structure a giant rocket ship to revert astronauts to the moon and, later on, ferry the first crews to and from Mars.
But agency leaders are already contemplating the retirement of the Space Launch System (SLS), as the towering and yet-to-fly government rocket is called, and the Orion space capsule that'll ride on top.
NASA is anticipating the emergence of two reusable and presumably more affordable mega-rockets that private aerospace companies are creating. Those systems are the huge Falcon Rocket (BFR), which is being built by Elon Musk's SpaceX; and the novel Glenn, a launcher being built by Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin.
Read more: Elon Musk and SpaceX are structure a monster rocket for Mars. Here's how huge it is compared to 20 close objects.
"I deem their view is that if those commercial capabilities Come online, they will eventually retire the government system, and just saunter to a buying launch capacity on those [rockets]," Stephen Jurczyk, NASA's associate administrator, told commerce Insider at The Economist Space zenith on November 1.
However, Jim Bridenstine, the administrator of NASA, appears to occupy publicly denied his colleague's statement.
"In case there is any confusion, @NASA will NOT exist retiring @NASA_SLS in 2022 or any foreseeable date. It is the backbone of America's revert to the Moon with international and commercial partners," Bridenstine tweeted on Monday, following the initial publication of this narrative on Saturday.
In any case, NASA may soon find itself in a rare position, since the upcoming launch vehicles of SpaceX and Blue root may beat SLS back to the moon — and one of them may exist the first to send humans to Mars.
The super-size struggles with SLS
Patrick Shea inspects a 1.3% scale model of the NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) in a wind tunnel.NASA/Ames/Dominic Hart
Space Launch System is often called a super-heavy-lift rocket. This means it's designed to heave a payload of more than 55 tons (roughly the mass of a battle tank) into low-Earth orbit.
"We requisite a [super-]heavy raise launch capability," Jurczyk said. "Without it, we're not going to occupy a safe, reliable, and affordable architecture and implementation for human exploration."
Several iterations of SLS are planned through the 2020s, and the first is called obstruct 1. This rocket is expected to stand about 322 feet tall and exist able to raise about 70 tons of spacecraft hardware and supplies into orbit.
NASA's hopes to test-launch the first obstruct 1 rocket in June 2020 on a flight called Exploration Mission-1 (or EM-1). The mission would prove SLS is safe and reliable by flying an uncrewed Orion crew capsule around the moon and back to Earth.
A crewed Exploration Mission-2 (EM-2) would result several years later.
How NASA plans to drag off its Exploration Mission-2 flight with the Space Launch System rocket and Orion spaceship.NASA
It is unknown how much an SLS launch might cost. The selfsame is besides proper for SpaceX's BFR and Blue Origin's novel Glenn, which occupy yet to publish mission pricing.
The motif for NASA's program depends on the types of missions it pursues, how many SLS rockets are launched and how frequently, and how evolution costs are accounted for. For example, the space shuttle's per-mission raw cost was about $500 million, but averaging in the entire program's evolution costs and accounting for inflation brings the per-mission motif closer to about $1.5 billion.
So far NASA has spent about $11.9 billion on SLS, and the agency is projected to requisite $4-5 billion more than it has planned by 2021. Relatedly, the scheduled launch date for EM-1 in June 2021 is about 2.5 years behind schedule.
An internal audit of NASA's program found that preventable accidents, compress management problems, and other performance issues related to Boeing, the prime contractor, is largely accountable for the cost overruns and delays.
If more hiccups Come with the SLS program, NASA may exist watching SpaceX beat the agency to the moon with a crewed mission. That's because Musk, the company's founder, is pursuing aggressive timelines to attain the moon and Mars with BFR.
How SpaceX could beat NASA back to the moon
An illustration of the SpaceX's huge Falcon Rocket, or BFR, launching into space. Here, the spaceship is shown detaching from the booster.SpaceX
SpaceX employees occupy been toiling under a tent in Los Angeles to build the top half of the system, called the huge Falcon Spaceship.
Musk and Gwynne Shotwell, SpaceX's president, occupy both said the spaceship could exist doing short launches called "hops" as soon as late 2019. Musk is besides planning to modify his mainstay Falcon 9 rocket into a "mini-BFR ship" to test some of the more challenging aspects of the ship, enjoy blazing-hot reentry into Earth's atmosphere.
The planned dimensions of SpaceX's huge Falcon Rocket. Olivia Reaney/Business Insider
In 2020 or 2021, he aims to launch a fully integrated version of BFR — a huge Falcon Booster with the huge Falcon Spaceship on top — into orbit around Earth. (Around the selfsame time, Blue root is planning to exercise novel Glenn to deliver a lander to the surface of the moon to scout for ice to execute rocket fuel.)
If SpaceX's first orbital launch and later uncrewed missions coast without an explosion or other incident, the company intends to coast a Japanese billionaire and a group of artists around the moon in 2023.
It remains to exist seen how the space agency would react to such a feat, which is essentially a creative reprise of the Apollo 8 mission of 1968. In fact, 2023 is the selfsame timeframe in which NASA plans to launch EM-2 around the moon.
An illustration of the spaceship of SpaceX's huge Falcon Rocket, or BFR, flying around the moon.SpaceX
It's besides unknown what NASA would effect if SpaceX launches its first uncrewed missions to Mars with BFR in 2022, followed by the first crewed missions in 2024. That's several years ahead of when the space agency hopes to land people on the moon, and perhaps a decade sooner than NASA would attempt a crewed Mars landing.
"We haven't really engaged SpaceX on how we'd labor together on BFR, and eventually win to a Mars mission — yet," Jurczyk said of NASA's leadership. "My guess is that it's coming."
A US space agency without an American spaceship
Nine astronauts will coast the first four crewed missions inside SpaceX and Boeing's novel spaceships for NASA, called Crew Dragon and CST-100 Starliner, respectively.NASA via AP
Right now, Jurczyk said, the space agency's leadership is laser-focused on test launches for its Commercial Crew Program, a competition for private companies to build and launch American spaceships.
The ultimate goal of Commercial Crew is to revivify US spaceflight capabilities that the agency lost when it retired the space shuttle fleet in 2011. (Ever since then, NASA has relied solely on Russia to taxi its astronauts to and from the $150 billion International Space Station.)
Boeing and SpaceX occupy each designed and built seven-person space capsules, which are each nearing approval for uncrewed and crewed test launches. SpaceX is currently looking to coast first with its Crew Dragon ship.
"Their first uncrewed flight test, perquisite now, is scheduled for January, followed by, not many months later, maybe in the springtime, their first crewed flight test to the space station," Jurczyk said.
Read more: Boeing may occupy used a lobbying difficult to plant a scathing view piece about SpaceX in US tidings outlets. At stake is billions of dollars in NASA contracts.
Once the Crew Dragon and Boeing's CST-100 Starliner ships prove they can launch safely and reliably, the agency's leadership should occupy more energy to contemplate its deep-space future with BFR and Blue Origin's novel Glenn.
"How they engage will depend a lot on the pace at which those systems and capabilities develop," Jurczyk said.
The key for NASA is to win as quickly as workable to some benign of super-heavy-lift capability.
"Right now they perceive the course to effect that is through SLS, because they benign of occupy the head-start and exercise these legacy technologies and systems," he said, referring to the fact that SLS will exercise space shuttle engines and other well-understood hardware.
Jurczyk added: "That's benign of where they are. They know they requisite that benign of BFR — and whatever evolves from novel Glenn — heavy-lift capability if we're going to effect human exploration of the solar system. They don't deem another approach is going to exist as safe, affordable, and reliable."
Are you a current or former NASA employee with a narrative to share? send Dave Mosher an email or account more secure options listed here.
This narrative has been updated to comprise a response from NASA's administrator. It was originally published on November 17, 2018.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is NASA's planned spacecraft to seize astronauts into space beyond Earth orbit. The agency launched the first test flight of the spacecraft in December 2014. A second flight will happen on the first uncrewed test of the Space Launch System rocket, with crewed missions scheduled to result in the 2020s.
Similar in shape to the Apollo spacecraft, Orion is designed to carry up to six astronauts to destinations such as the moon or Mars. Orion is a significant upgrade from Apollo — the spacecraft is newer and much larger than Apollo, and sports electronics decades more advanced than what Apollo's astronauts used to coast to the moon.
When it carries crews, Orion will coast in tandem with NASA's planned Space Launch System, a next-generation booster designed to bring astronauts out of low-Earth orbit again. Orion's first test flight, however, used a United Launch Alliance Delta 4 ponderous rocket.
Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The company began labor on the spacecraft in 2004 during a competition for the contract, which was valued at up to $8.15 billion when Lockheed Martin won it in August 2006.
Orion was originally built for NASA's Constellation program that was intended to bring humans to the International Space Station, the moon and, ultimately, Mars. The program was canceled in 2010 after President Barack Obama's administration requested that NASA focus on other goals.
Artist's depiction of NASA's Orion spacecraft mated to a European-built service module.
Credit: NASA/Sierra Nevada Corp,
At that point, NASA had already spent $5 billion on developing Orion and Lockheed had been working on the spacecraft for about six years. In early 2011, NASA hinted that the Orion spacecraft could exist repurposed for their novel directive. The agency followed up with a contrivance for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle — one that was relatively nearby to the previous Orion spacecraft design, but instead could exist used for the novel mandate.
"We made this preference based on the progress that's been made to date," Doug Cooke, associate administrator for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C., said to reporters on May 24, 2011. "It made the most sense to stick with [the Orion design]." [The Orion Capsule: NASA's Next Spaceship (Photos)]
The Orion spacecraft consists of a gumdrop-shaped capsule and service module, which together are about 26 feet (8 meters) long with a diameter of 16.5 feet (5 m). The spacecraft's habitable volume is 316 cubic feet (8.95 cubic meters), which is about 1.5 times larger than the Apollo spacecraft.
Orion's crew module is just one of several components of the spacecraft. Orion besides contains a launch- abort system to drag astronauts away from the spacecraft with shun rockets should something travel wrong during launch.
The service module, built by the European Space Agency, contains solar panels for electricity, oxygen for breathing and rocket engines to propel the spacecraft. Orion besides includes a spacecraft adapter (which shields the service module during launch) and an instrument unit that includes the guidance and control system for the booster. [Infographic: Orion Explained: NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle]
Engineers and technicians install the heat shield on NASA's Orion spacecraft crew module on July 25, 2018, at Kennedy Space heart in Florida.
Credit: Kim Shiflett/NASA
First test flight and beyond
Orion's first uncrewed test flight, known as Exploration Flight Test-1, or EFT-1, launched on Dec. 5, 2014. This test flight marked the first time a spacecraft built for humans has flown outside low-Earth orbit in more than 40 years — since the ultimate mission of the Apollo program in 1972.
The space capsule seemed to accomplish almost flawlessly during its 4.5-hour test flight, NASA officials said. Orion soared 3,600 miles (5,800 kilometers) above Earth before turning around for a high-speed re-entry. The parachutes and huge heat shield on Orion worked well during flight. The spacecraft beamed back some astounding images of the limb of the planet from its window during the test before it splashed down in the Pacific Ocean. [See photos from Orion's first test flight]
NASA originally planned the next Orion flight in 2017, aboard the Space Launch System rocket, but as of late 2018 the schedule has slipped to at least 2020 — with talk that it could exist delayed even further.
NASA's Office of the Inspector common published a report in 2018 that said the SLS is behind schedule and over budget. The report cited numerous issues behind the SLS development, including overoptimistic evolution schedules, weather problems and technical snags.
Meanwhile, testing and evolution on the Orion spacecraft is ongoing, with some of the major milestones in 2018 including a successful ultimate parachute test, the installation ofthe heat shield and completion of the pressure vessel.
Eventually, one of Orion's destinations could exist NASA's Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway, a lunar space station under evolution for deployment in the mid-2020s.