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P8010-004 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : P8010-004
Test name : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor name : IBM
: 30 actual Questions

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IBM IBM Commerce Solutions Order

IBM (IBM) Down 10.three% in view that remaining earnings document: Can It Rebound? | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

A month has gone by given that the remaining profits record for IBM (IBM). Shares own misplaced about 10.3% in that time body, underperforming the S&P 500.

Will the concomitant terrible fashion continue leading as much as its next income unencumber, or is IBM due for a breakout? before they dive into how traders and analysts own reacted as of late, let's assume a brief issue on the most fresh earnings file with a purpose to gain a better handle on the censorious catalysts.

IBM’s Q2 results benefit from permeate chopping, lessen participate count number

IBM reported third-quarter 2018 non-GAAP profits of $3.forty two per share, which beat the Zacks Consensus appraise via yoke of cents. income per participate (EPS) multiplied four.9% from the yr-in the past quarter.

The year-over-12 months enlarge in EPS can exist attributed to solid pre-tax margin working leverage (28 cents contribution) and aggressive participate buybacks (19 cents contribution). This became partly offset through reduce revenues (seven cents terrible own an impact on) and higher tax cost (17 cents negative influence).

Revenues of $18.76 billion lagged the Zacks Consensus appraise of $19.10 billion and declined 2.1% on a 12 months-over-yr foundation. At constant foreign money (cc), revenues remained flat.

IBM mentioned that signings plunged 21% to $eight billion. features backlog declined three% from the yr-ago quarter to $113 billion.

Geographic revenue particulars

Revenues from Americas inched up 1%, pushed with the aid of continued enlarge in Canada and Latin the united states and modest growth in the u.s..

Europe, center-East and Africa reduced 2% from the yr-in the past quarter, driven through decline in Germany and France, partially offset by means of boom in Spain and the UK.

Asia-Pacific revenues declined 1% on a year-over-year basis with modest growth in Japan.

Strategic Imperatives boom Continues

Strategic Imperatives (cloud, analytics, mobility and protection) grew 7% at cc from the year-ago quarter to $9.3 billion. safety revenues surged 34%. On a trailing 12-month foundation, Strategic Imperatives revenues were $39.5 billion, up 13% (11% at cc).

Cloud revenues surged 13% from the yr-ago quarter to $four.6 billion. The annual bustle rate for cloud as-a-provider revenues multiplied 24% at cc on a 12 months-over-12 months foundation to $eleven.4 billion.

Cloud revenues of $19 billion on a trailing 12-month foundation elevated 20% (18% at cc) and now accounts for 24% of IBM’s total revenues.

Cognitive Revenues Decline

Cognitive options’ revenues-exterior reduced 5.7% year over year (down 5% at cc) to $four.15 billion. Segmental revenues touching on Strategic Imperatives and Cloud declined four% and a yoke of%, respectively. Cloud as-a-carrier revenue annual bustle rate became $2 billion.

options utility comprises choices in strategic verticals fondness fitness, area-particular capabilities fondness analytics and protection, and IBM’s emerging technologies of AI and blockchain. The segment likewise contains choices that address horizontal domains fondness collaboration, commerce and ability. solutions utility revenues reduced 3% year over 12 months in the quarter.

IBM brought up that in commerce area the infusion of AI into choices fondness customer journey analytics helped SaaS signings to grow double digit in the quarter. The fresh launch of Notes Domino edition 10, which is optimized for cellular, and supports JavaScript and node.js will boost enlarge collaboration in 2019.

Transaction Processing utility contains software that runs mission-essential workloads, leveraging IBM’s hardware platforms. Revenues fell 8% on a yr-over-12 months foundation.

IBM witnessed enlarge in trade verticals fondness fitness, key areas of analytics and safety in the quarter. Watson health witnessed extensive-based mostly boom in Payer, provider, Imaging and existence Sciences domains.

all the course through the quarter, the Sugar.IQ utility, developed through Medtronic in partnership with IBM, hit the market. The software is designed to simplify and enhance every day diabetes management.

IBM brought up that analytics performed well within the quarter, driven with the aid of statistics science offerings and IBM Cloud deepest for facts providing.

during the quarter, the company introduced warp detection capabilities and launched original Watson features on the IBM Cloud deepest platform.

safety growth changed into pushed by means of offerings in orchestration, data protection and endpoint management.

In blockchain, IBM meals believe community for food safeguard went live in the quarter. Reatiler Carrefour joined IBM’s blockchain network. The company additionally collectively introduced TradeLens with Maersk that addresses inefficiencies in the world give chain. IBM currently supports 75 lively blockchain networks.

international industry capabilities Revenues boost

Revenues from world industry functions-external segment had been $4.13 billion, up 0.9% from the 12 months-in the past quarter (up three% at cc). Segmental revenues referring to Strategic Imperatives grew 9%. Cloud apply surged 18%. Cloud as-a-service income annual bustle cost became $1.9 billion.

software management revenues declined 1% from the year-in the past quarter. despite the fact, global routine functions revenues climbed 2%. moreover, Consulting revenues elevated 7% yr over yr, pushed via stalwart efficiency from IBM’s digital enterprise.

expertise features & Cloud structures: Revenues Dip

Revenues from expertise services & Cloud structures-exterior lowered 2% from the 12 months-in the past quarter (flat at cc) to $8.29 billion. Segmental revenues concerning Strategic Imperatives advanced sixteen%, pushed with the aid of hybrid cloud capabilities. Cloud surged 22% from the year-in the past quarter. Cloud as-a-provider revenue annual bustle fee changed into $7.5 billion.

Integration utility increased 1% from the 12 months-in the past quarter. every through the quarter, ninety five organizations worldwide chosen IBM Cloud private offering. Infrastructure services revenues additionally improved 1% on a year-over-12 months basis.

despite the fact, Technical succor features revenues diminished three% from the year-ago quarter.

vigor & z14 drive systems Revenues

systems revenues multiplied 0.9% on a year-over-yr groundwork (up 2% at cc) to $1.seventy four billion. Segmental revenues relating Strategic Imperatives surged 5%, whereas Cloud revenues declined eight%.

IBM Z revenues extended 6% yr over year on greater than 20% MIPS increase, pushed by course of vast-based adoption of the z14 mainframe.

vigor revenues multiplied 17% from the 12 months-in the past quarter. right through the quarter, IBM launched its subsequent technology POWER9 processors for midrange and excessive-conclusion techniques which are designed for dealing with superior analytics, cloud environments and facts-intensive workloads in AI, HANA, and UNIX markets.

IBM likewise brought original offerings optimizing both hardware and software for AI. management believes that items fondness PowerAI imaginative and prescient and PowerAI commercial enterprise will succor pressure original client adoption.

youngsters, storage hardware revenues declined 6% because of vulnerable performance within the midrange and unreasonable conclusion, partially offset with the aid of mighty growth in every flash Arrays. IBM mentioned that pricing power within the immensely aggressive storage market is hurting revenues. The company announced its original FlashSystems with subsequent technology NVMe technology every through the quarter.

working techniques application revenues declined 4%, while systems Hardware superior four% from the year-in the past quarter.

ultimately, world Financing (includes financing and used machine revenue) revenues decreased 9.1% at cc to $388 million.

operating details

Non-GAAP vulgar margin remained unchanged from the yr-in the past quarter at 47.four%. This turned into IBM’s premier vulgar margin efficiency in years and changed into essentially pushed by a hundred and sixty basis aspects (bps) growth in services margin. despite the fact, unfavorable combine in z14 mainframe and utility wholly offset this enlargement.

working rate declined 4% 12 months over year, as a result of consciousness of acquisition synergies and enhancing operational efficiencies. IBM continues to invest in speedy starting to exist fields fondness hybrid cloud, synthetic intelligence (AI), protection and blockchain.

Pre-tax margin from continuing operations multiplied 50 bps on a year-over-12 months groundwork to 19.2%.

Cognitive solutions and world enterprise features segment pre-tax margins improved one hundred ninety bps and 320 bps, respectively, on a 12 months-over-yr basis. youngsters, technology capabilities & Cloud structures phase pre-tax margin reduced in size one hundred bps.

methods pre-tax income became $209 million down 38% 12 months over yr. world Financing segment pre-tax earnings jumped 26.7% to $308 million.

balance Sheet & cash stream details

IBM ended third-quarter 2018 with $14.70 billion in complete money and marketable securities in comparison with $11.ninety three billion at the conclusion of 2d-quarter 2018. complete debt (together with world financing) was $46.9 billion, up $1.four million from the previous quarter.

IBM reported money stream from operations (except for global Financing receivables) of $3.1 billion and generated free money flood of $2.2 billion in the quarter.

within the pronounced quarter, the industry back $2.1 billion to shareholders via dividends and participate repurchases. on the halt of the quarter, the enterprise had $1.four billion closing under current buyback authorization.

suggestions

IBM reiterated EPS forecast for 2018. Non-GAAP EPS is anticipated to exist at the least $13.eighty.

IBM quiet anticipates 2018 free money circulate of $12 billion.

Story continues

How own Estimates Been relocating when you consider that Then?

in the past month, traders own witnessed a downward vogue in sparkling estimates.

VGM ratings

at this time, IBM has a regular boom score of C, though it's lagging a bit of on the Momentum ranking entrance with a D. besides the fact that children, the inventory turned into allotted a grade of A on the expense facet, putting it within the preempt quintile for this funding strategy.

basic, the stock has an aggregate VGM ranking of B. if you aren't focused on one method, this score is the one exist certain to exist interested in.

Outlook

Estimates own been widely trending downward for the inventory, and the magnitude of those revisions shows a downward shift. chiefly, IBM has a Zacks Rank #3 (cling). They foretell an in-line revert from the stock within the following yoke of months.

want the newest techniques from Zacks investment analysis? nowadays, which you could download 7 surest shares for the subsequent 30 Days. click on to gain this free file foreign enterprise Machines organisation (IBM) : Free inventory analysis record To read this text on Zacks.com click right here. Zacks investment research


IBM predicts AI will create a original breed of marketers | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

as the calendar flips, marketers will seem to exist to find original how to profit an facet. As IBM predicts, a original breed of entrepreneurs is rising with the back of synthetic intelligence.

IBM Watson advertising released its 2019 advertising and marketing tendencies file, highlighting traits within the business. The group predicted that in the emotion economic climate, buyers will likely own interaction extra with manufacturers which are genuine and deliver on their convictions.

That may no longer exist a original construction by itself, but IBM believes AI and computing device getting to know will originate hyper-personalization a truth because the proliferation of facts and the streamlining of marketing stacks will permit marketers to deliver customized content material at a massive scale.

Michael Trapani, marketing software director for IBM Watson advertising, said emotion and personal connection doesn't own to exist in battle with the seemingly bloodless and calculating world of AI.

"Making a reference to a company will at every times exist a really human, emotion-driven technique for consumers. where AI and computing device getting to know are available is the talent to superior inform entrepreneurs in accordance with uncovering insights about your shoppers that a human could no longer espy or locate. these insights then enable human marketers to boost better and more apropos artistic after which deliver it at scale across channels to individual patrons," observed Trapani.

in line with the document, the expected inflow of AI will lead to emergence of 'consulgencies,' as the should construct out abilities in client event analytics and mobile apps will espy the capabilities of consultancies and companies converge.

"many of the company partners that toil with IBM own added or elevated their technical and facts integration and consulting capabilities. Many are likewise poignant to more of consultative arrangement, focused more on hours and effects than on media buys. As for AI, every agencies regardless of size are exploring uses of AI to resolve their customer's advertising and customer challenges, even if it is pile chatbots or interactive experiences," Trapani talked about.

"companies are likewise more and more the utilize of off-the-shelf AI-based mostly advertising and marketing options that can foretell premiere customer journeys, determine purchasers surely to churn, and identify and foretell where consumers are struggling to finished goals in an online event."

among the many predictions include the boom of the director of advertising and marketing information role and the emergence of the 'martecheter,' a greater tech-savvy marketer. The document additionally says that, traditionally, the highest character benefits to a entrepreneurs own been finances, equipment, and talent, but that order will flip as the industry moves far from hiring single-professional marketers given the stress on client experience and advertising and marketing technologies.

The internal workings of the entire C-suite might espy a transformation, too. according to the file, the focal point on client centricity will create extra alternatives for commerce and digital groups to combination and scan with customer data.


Metro footwear faucets IBM Watson For Digital Commerce | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

ibm shoes

Metro footwear Ltd, one in every of India’s leading multi-manufacturer sneakers chains, is launching a brand original Digital Commerce platform powered with the aid of Watson client rendezvous hosted on IBM Cloud. this could encompass IBM Watson Order management and Commerce for seamless digital engagement. Working with IBM company companion CEBS international, IBM solutions will now not only assist drive sophisticated customer experiences and original ranges of solace but deliver efficiencies to the supply chain.

With a national footprint of 350 actual showrooms, an expanding manufacturer portfolio and altering customer preferences, Metro shoes Ltd become facing challenges in managing orders coming from multiple online platforms.  earlier dealt with by course of unreliable application, resulting in want of visibility of true-time records of sales, stock vicinity and returns. apart from its stock management challenges, Metro footwear Ltd crucial to enlarge online presence for a few of their common interior manufacturers which were getting low visibility impacting universal income.

“know-how is redefining customer rendezvous and may exist the key differentiator for retail brands of the longer term. We’re excited to collaborate with IBM and CEBS to embark on their digital transformation journey,” said Alisha Malik, vice chairman, Digital, Metro footwear. “With IBM’s expertise within the omni-channel commerce and retail house, they are assured that these adjustments will no longer handiest succor accelerate the execution of their approach, however likewise provide us an area over competitors. At Metro shoes, they strongly believe that the original solution will enlarge the typical user experience, thereby increasing revisits, traffic and loyalty.”

With IBM, Metro shoes Ltd can benefit original levels of consumer perception, which may likewise exist used to customise the on-line experience for each and every vacationer as they navigate in the course of the web page. Delivered via a sole platform, Metro shoes can exist in a position to exhibit every of its brands and advocate specific gadgets in line with insights shared by using consumers. This customized event will encompass original and convenient fulfillmentoptions corresponding to purchase on-line, pick up in save, reserve in hold and straightforward returns. because of these original capabilities, Metro footwear should exist in a position to raise every vacationer’s adventure on the website by course of enabling commerce practitioners with cognitive apparatus which succor them convey omni-channel experiences that interact consumers and pressure income.

With IBM’s know-how capabilities and CEBS talents with marketplace integration, Metro shoes as a company/seller will likewise exist capable of combine with greater than 14 e-marketplaces fondness Amazon, Flipkart and different main portals with a centralized routine and stock engine to permit Metro to scale as much as the needs of a starting to exist market enterprise. further, IBM Cloud will back elevate the talent to configure cumbersome workloads and thereby carry efficiency required for top usage every the course through the searching season.

speaking concerning the collaboration, Nishant Kalra, enterprise unit leader – IBM Watson consumer rendezvous - India/South Asiaadded, “IBM is on the forefront of assisting shoppers embody more recent ways to toil and digitally transforming the course they engage with their halt shoppers. they are satisfied to exist a fraction of Metro footwear’ digital transformation adventure by means of supplying sophisticated digital commerce adventure, leveraging the retailers by using merging them with on-line, and at final driving manufacturer advocacy. IBM in affiliation with CEBS will enable abysmal innovation, sooner-go-to-market and streamline processes for scalability.”

The IBM platform will create a bridge between its online and offline industry which the retailer prior to now lacked. With the brand original built-in sole view, Metro footwear sooner or later should exist in a position to utilize insights received from the digital realm to design particular providing for valued clientele as they walk into any of their retailers. in consequence, they can assume note what consumers desire, originate certain availability when and where they want it and even study pass promoting and upselling throughout their quite a lot of manufacturers.

For Metro footwear, IBM Watson Order management and Commerce solutions can pave course for IBM’s cognitive applied sciences to carry insights that succor them deliver clients with customized options and an better user event –from click to birth.

“With over 15 years of experience in developing e-company equipment, CEBS has been a relied on options provider and companion for companies across the globe,”talked about Satish Swaroop, President, CEBS global. Their useful and versatile utility options paired with IBM’s abysmal expertise skills will give Metro shoes a true-time, centralized apparatus for customer administration.”




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P8010-004 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : P8010-004
Test name : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor name : IBM
: 30 actual Questions

What achieve you value with the resource today's P8010-004 examination dumps?
after I had taken the selection for going to the exam then I were given an astounding back for my education from the killexams.com which gave me the realness and reliable rehearse P8010-004 prep classes for the equal. here, I additionally were given the possibility to gain myself checked earlier than fire confident of appearing nicely within the course of the preparing for P8010-004 and that changed into a pleasing thing which made me best equipped for the examination which I scored nicely. thanks to such matters from the killexams.


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The killexams.Com is the awesome web page where my goals compass real. With the aid of manner of the usage of the fabric for the practise certainly introduced the actual spark to the studies and severely ended up by course of the usage of acquiring the qualityrating within the P8010-004 exam. Its miles pretty easy to stand any examination with the assist of your own a study material. Thank youplenty for all. hold up the first-rate craft toil guys.


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Modeled larval connectivity of a multi-species reef fish and invertebrate assemblage off the coast of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Introduction

Knowledge of population connectivity is necessary for efficacious management in marine environments (Mitarai, Siegel & Winters, 2008; Botsford et al., 2009; Toonen et al., 2011). For many species of marine invertebrate and reef fish, dispersal is mostly limited to the pelagic larval life stage. Therefore, an understanding of larval dispersal patterns is censorious for studying population dynamics, connectivity, and conservation in the marine environment (Jones, Srinivasan & Almany, 2007; Lipcius et al., 2008; Gaines et al., 2010; Toonen et al., 2011). Many coastal and reef species own a bi-phasic life history in which adults display limited geographic range and tall site fidelity, while larvae are pelagic and highly mobile (Thorson, 1950; Scheltema, 1971; Strathmann, 1993; Marshall et al., 2012). This life history strategy is not only common to sessile invertebrates such as corals or limpets; many reef fish species own been shown to own a home range of <1 km as adults (Meyer et al., 2000; Meyer, Papastamatiou & Clark, 2010). Depending on species, the mobile planktonic stage can final from hours to months and has the potential to transport larvae up to hundreds of kilometers away from a site of origin (Scheltema, 1971; Richmond, 1987; Shanks, 2009). scholarship of larval dispersal patterns can exist used to inform efficacious management, such as marine spatial management strategies that sustain source populations of breeding individuals capable of dispersing offspring to other areas.

Both biological and physical factors impact larval dispersal, although the relative import of these factors is likely variable among species and sites and remains debated (Levin, 2006; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009; White et al., 2010). In situ data on pelagic larvae are sparse; marine organisms at this life stage are difficult to capture and identify, and are typically establish in low densities across large areas of the open ocean (Clarke, 1991; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). A variety of genetic and chemistry techniques own therefore been developed to appraise larval connectivity (Gillanders, 2005; Leis, Siebeck & Dixson, 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2018). Computer models informed by territory and laboratory data own likewise become a valuable implement for estimating larval dispersal and population connectivity (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Botsford et al., 2009; Sponaugle et al., 2012; Kough, Paris & Butler IV, 2013; Wood et al., 2014). Individual-based models, or IBMs, can incorporate both biological and physical factors known to influence larval movement. Pelagic larval duration (PLD), for example, is the amount of time a larva spends in the water column before settlement and can vary widely among or even within species ( Toonen & Pawlik, 2001). PLD affects how far an individual can exist successfully transported by ocean currents, and so is expected to directly affect connectivity patterns (Siegel et al., 2003; Shanks, 2009; Dawson et al., 2014). In addition to PLD, adult reproductive strategy and timing (Carson et al., 2010; Portnoy et al., 2013), fecundity (Castorani et al., 2017), larval mortality (Vikebøet al., 2007), and larval developmental, morphological, and behavioral characteristics (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007) may every play a role in shaping connectivity patterns. Physical factors such as temperature, bathymetry, and current direction can likewise substantially influence connectivity (Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009). In this study, they incorporated both biotic and abiotic components in an IBM coupled with an oceanographic model to foretell fine-scale patterns of larval exchange around the island of Moloka‘i in the Hawaiian archipelago.

The main Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and are bordered by the North Hawaiian Ridge current along the northern coasts of the islands and the Hawaii Lee Current along the southern coasts, both of which bustle east to west and are driven by the current easterly trade winds (Lumpkin, 1998; Friedlander et al., 2005). The Hawai‘i Lee Countercurrent, which runs along the southern perimeter of the chain, flows west to east (Lumpkin, 1998). The pattern of mesoscale eddies around the islands is intricate and varies seasonally (Friedlander et al., 2005; Vaz et al., 2013).

Hawaiian marine communities countenance unprecedented pressures, including coastal development, overexploitation, disease, and increasing temperature and acidification due to climate change (Smith, 1993; Lowe, 1995; Coles & Brown, 2003; Friedlander et al., 2003; Friedlander et al., 2005; Aeby, 2006). Declines in Hawaiian marine resources wrangle for implementation of a more holistic approach than traditional single-species maximum sustainable defer techniques, which own proven ineffective (Goodyear, 1996; Hilborn, 2011). There is a common movement toward the utilize of ecosystem-based management, which requires scholarship of ecosystem structure and connectivity patterns to establish and manage marine spatial planning areas (Slocombe, 1993; Browman et al., 2004; Pikitch et al., 2004; Arkema, Abramson & Dewsbury, 2006). Kalaupapa National Historical Park is a federal marine protected area (MPA) located on the north shore of Moloka‘i, an island in the Maui Nui intricate of the Hawaiian archipelago, that includes submerged lands and waters up to 1 4 mile offshore (NOAA, 2009). At least five IUCN red-listed coral species own been identified within this area (Kenyon, Maragos & Fenner, 2011), and in 2010 the Park showed the greatest fish biomass and species diversity out of four Hawaiian National Parks surveyed (Beets, Brown & Friedlander, 2010). One of the major benefits expected of MPAs is that the protected waters within the area provide a source of larval spillover to other sites on the island, seeding these areas for commercial, recreational, and subsistence fishing (McClanahan & Mangi, 2000; Halpern & Warner, 2003; Lester et al., 2009).

In this study, they used a Lagrangian particle-tracking IBM (Wong-Ala et al., 2018) to simulate larval dispersal around Moloka‘i and to appraise the larval exchange among sites at the scale of an individual island. They own parameterized their model with biological data for eleven species covering a breadth of Hawaiian reef species life histories (e.g., habitat preferences, larval behaviors, and pelagic larval durations, Table 1), and of interest to both the local community and resource managers. Their goals were to examine patterns of species-specific connectivity, characterize the location and relative magnitude of connections around Moloka‘i, narrate sites of potential management relevance, and address the question of whether Kalaupapa National Historical Park provides larval spillover for adjacent sites on Moloka‘i, or connections to the adjacent islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, O‘ahu, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe.

Table 1:

Target taxa selected for the study, based on cultural, ecological, and/or economic importance.

PLD = pelagic larval duration. Short dispersers (3–25 day minimum PLD) in white, medium dispersers (30–50 day minimum PLD) in light gray, and long dispersers (140–270 day minimum PLD) in unlit gray. Spawn season and timing from traditional ecological scholarship shared by cultural practitioners on the island. Asterisk indicates that congener-level data was used. Commonname Scientific name Spawn type # of larvae spawned Spawningday of year Spawning hour of day Spawning moon phase Larval depth (m) PLD (days) Habitat ’Opihi/ Limpet Cellana spp. Broadcast1 861,300 1–60 & 121–181 – New 0–5 3–181,2 Intertidal1 Ko’a/ Cauliflower coral Pocillopora meandrina Broadcast3 1,671,840 91–151 07:15–08:00 Full 0–54 5–90*5 Reef He’e/ Octopus Octopus cyanea Benthic6 1,392,096 1–360 – – 50–100 216 Reef, rubble7 Moi/ Pacific threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis Broadcast 1,004,640 152–243 – – 50–1008 259 Sand10 Uhu uliuli/ Spectacled parrotfish Chlorurus perspicillatus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Reef10 Uhu palukaluka/ Reddlip parrotfish Scarus rubroviolaceus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Rock, reef10 Kumu/ Whitesaddle Goatfish Parupeneus porphyreus Broadcast 1,071,252 32–90 – – 0–50*11 41–56*12 Sand, rock, reef10 Kole/ Spotted surgeonfish Ctenochaetus strigosus Broadcast 1,177,200 60–120 – – 50–10011 50*12 Rock, reef, rubble10 ‘Ōmilu/ Bluefin trevally Caranx melampygus Broadcast 1,310,616 121–243 – – 0–80*11 140*13,14 Sand, reef10 Ulua/ Giant trevally Caranx ignoblis Broadcast 1,151,040 152–243 – Full 0–80*11 14013,14 Sand, rock, reef10 Ula/ Spiny lobster Panulirus spp. Benthic15 1,573,248 152–243 – – 50–10016 27017 Rock, pavement16 Methods Circulation model

We selected the hydrodynamic model MITgcm, which is designed for the study of dynamical processes in the ocean on a horizontal scale. This model solves incompressible Navier–Stokes equations to narrate the motion of viscous fluid on a sphere, discretized using a finite-volume technique (Marshall et al., 1997). The one-km resolution MITgcm domain for this study extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N, an area that includes the islands of Moloka‘i, Maui, Lana‘i, Kaho‘olawe, O‘ahu, and Hawai‘i. While Ni‘ihau and southern Kaua’i likewise drop within the domain, they discarded connectivity to these islands because they palter within the 0.5° confine zone of the current model. confine conditions are enforced over 20 grid points on every sides of the model domain. Vertically, the model is divided into 50 layers that enlarge in thickness with depth, from five m at the surface (0.0–5.0 m) to 510 m at the base (4,470 –4,980 m). Model variables were initialized using the output of a Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) at a horizontal resolution of 0.04° (∼four km) configured for the main Hawaiian Islands, using the common Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans database (GEBCO, 1/60°) (Jia et al., 2011).

The simulation runs from March 31st, 2011 to July 30th, 2013 with a temporal resolution of 24 h and shows seasonal eddies as well as persistent mesoscale features (Fig. S1). They achieve not include tides in the model due to temporal resolution. Their model period represents a neutral ocean state; no El Niño or La Niña events occurred during this time period. To ground-truth the circulation model, they compared surface current output to real-time trajectories of surface drifters from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly focus (Fig. S2) (Elipot et al., 2016), as well as other current models of the area (Wren et al., 2016; Storlazzi et al., 2017).

Biological model

To simulate larval dispersal, they used a modified version of the Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM, a 3D Lagrangian particle-tracking model written in the R programming language (R Core Team, 2017). The model takes the aforementioned MITgcm current products as input, as well as shoreline shapefiles extracted from the replete resolution NOAA Global Self-consistent Hierarchical High-resolution Geography database, v2.3.0 (Wessel & Smith, 1996). Their model included 65 land masses within the geographic domain, the largest being the island of Hawai‘i and the smallest being Pu‘uki‘i Island, a 1.5-acre islet off the eastern coast of Maui. To model depth, they used the one arc-minute-resolution ETOPO1 bathymetry, extracted using the R package ‘marmap’ (Amante & Eakins, 2009; Pante & Simon-Bouhet, 2013).

Each species was simulated with a separate model run. Larvae were modeled from spawning to settlement and were transported at each timestep (t = 2 h) by advection-diffusion transport. This transport consisted of (1) advective displacement caused by water flow, consisting of east (u) and north (v) velocities read from daily MITgcm files, and (2) additional random-walk displacement, using a diffusion constant of 0.2 m2/s−1 (Lowe et al., 2009). plumb velocities (w) were not implemented by the model; details of plumb larval movement are described below. Advection was interpolated between data points at each timestep using an Eulerian 2D barycentric interpolation method. They chose this implementation over a more computationally intensive interpolation routine (i.e., fourth-order Runge–Kutta) because they did not celebrate a inequity at this timestep length. Biological processes modeled include PLD, reproduction timing and location, mortality, and ontogenetic changes in plumb distribution; these qualities were parameterized via species-specific data obtained from previous studies and from the local fishing and management community (Table 1).

Larvae were released from habitat-specific spawning sites and were considered settled if they fell within a roughly one-km contour around reef or intertidal habitat at the halt of their pelagic larval duration. Distance from habitat was used rather than water depth because Penguin Bank, a relatively shallow bank to the southwest of Moloka‘i, does not picture suitable habitat for reef-associated species. PLD for each larva was a randomly assigned value between the minimum and maximum PLD for that species, and larvae were removed from the model if they had reached their PLD and were not within a settlement zone. No data on pre-competency period were available for their study species, so this parameter was not included. Mortality rates were calculated as larval half-lives; e.g., one-half of every larvae were assumed to own survived at one-half of the maximum PLD for that species (following Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Since their focus was on potential connectivity pathways, reproductive rates were calibrated to allow for saturation of workable settlement sites, equating from ∼900,000 to ∼1,7000,000 larvae released depending on species. Fecundity was therefore derived not from biological data, but from computational minimums.

Development, and resulting ontogenetic changes in behavior, is specific to the life history of each species. Broadcast-spawning species with weakly-swimming larvae (P. meandrina and Cellana spp., Table 1) were transported as passive particles randomly distributed between 0–5 m depth (Storlazzi, Brown & Field, 2006). Previous studies own demonstrated that fish larvae own a tall degree of control over their plumb position in the water column (Irisson et al., 2010; Huebert, Cowen & Sponaugle, 2011). Therefore, they modeled broadcast-spawning fish species with a 24-hour passive buoyant phase to simulate eggs pre-hatch, followed by a pelagic larval phase with a species-specific depth distribution. For C. ignoblis, C. melampygus, P. porphyreus, C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus, they used genus-level depth distributions (Fig. S3) obtained from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton plumb distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996). P. sexfilis and C. strigosus larvae were randomly distributed between 50–100 m (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992). Benthic brooding species (O. cyanea and Panulirus spp.) achieve not own a passive buoyant phase, and thus were released as larvae randomly distributed between 50–100 m. At each time step, a larva’s depth was checked against bathymetry, and was assigned to the nearest available layer if the species-specific depth was not available at these coordinates.

For data-poor species, they used congener-level estimates for PLD (see Table 1). For example, there is no appraise of larval duration for Caranx species, but in Hawai‘i peak spawning occurs in May–July and peak recruitment in August–December (Sudekum, 1984; Longenecker, Langston & Barrett, 2008). In consultation with resource managers and community members, a PLD of 140 days was chosen pending future data that indicates a more accurate pelagic period.

Habitat selection

Spawning sites were generated using data from published literature and modified after input from autochthonous Hawaiian cultural practitioners and the Moloka‘i fishing community (Fig. 1). Species-specific habitat suitability was inferred from the 2013–2016 Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands (Costa & Kendall, 2016). They designated coral habitat as areas with 5–90% coral cover, or ≥1 site-specific coral species richness, for a total of 127 spawning sites on Moloka‘i. Habitat for reef invertebrates followed coral habitat, with additional sites added after community feedback for a total of 136 sites. Areas with a predicted reef fish biomass of 58–1,288 g/m2 were designated as reef fish habitat (Stamoulis et al., 2016), for a total of 109 spawning sites. Sand habitat was designated as 90–100% uncolonized for a total of 115 sites. Intertidal habitat was designated as any rocky shoreline area not covered by sand or mud, for a total of 87 sites. Number of adults was assumed equal at every sites. For regional analysis, they pooled sites into groups of two to 11 sites based on benthic habitat and surrounding geography (Fig. 1A). Adjacent sites were grouped if they shared the selfsame benthic habitat classification and current wave direction, and/or were fraction of the selfsame reef tract.

Figure 1: Spawning sites used in the model by species. (A) C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, P. porphyreus, C. strigosus, C. ignoblis, and C. melampygus, n = 109; (B) P. meandrina, n = 129;(C) O. cyanea and Panulirus spp., n = 136; (D) P. sexfilis, n = 115; and (E) Cellana spp., n = 87. Region names are displayed over associated spawning sites for fish species in (A). Regions are made up of two to 11 sites, grouped based on coastal geography and surrounding benthic habitat, and are designated in (A) by adjacent colored dots. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green in (A). Source–sink dynamics and local retention

Dispersal distance was measured via the distm role in the R package ‘geosphere’, which calculates distance between geographical points via the Haversine formula (Hijmans, 2016). This distance, measured between spawn and settlement locations, was used to cipher dispersal kernels to examine and compare species-specific distributions. They likewise measured local retention, or the percentage of successful settlers from a site that were retained at that site (i.e., settlers at site A that originated from site A/total successful settlers that originated from site A). To appraise the role of specific sites around Moloka‘i, they likewise calculated a source–sink index for each species (Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014; Wren et al., 2016). This index defines sites as either a source, in which a site’s successful export to other sites is greater than its import, or a sink, in which import from other sites is greater than successful export. It is calculated by dividing the inequity between number of successfully exported and imported larvae by the sum of every successfully exported and imported larvae. A value <0 indicates that a site acts as a net sink, while a value >0 indicates that a site acts as a net source. While they measured successful dispersal to adjacent islands, they did not spawn larvae from them, and therefore these islands picture exogenous sinks. For this reason, settlement to other islands was not included in source–sink index calculations.

We likewise calculated settlement proportion between different regions for each species (Calabrese & Fagan, 2004). They calculated the forward settlement proportion, i.e., the proportion of settlers from a specific settlement site (s) originating from an observed source site (o), by scaling the number of successful settlers from site o settling at site s to every successful settlers originating from site o. Forward proportion can exist represented as Pso = Sos∕∑So. They likewise calculated rearward settlement proportion, or the proportion of settlers from a specific source site (o) observed at settlement site (s), by scaling the number of settlers observed at site s originating from site o to every settlers observed at site s. The rearward proportion can exist represented as Pos = Sos∕∑Ss.

Graph-theoretic analysis

To quantify connections between sites, they applied graph theory to population connectivity (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Graph theoretic analysis is highly scalable and can exist used to examine fine-scale networks between reef sites up to broad-scale analyses between islands or archipelagos, mapping to both local and regional management needs. It likewise allows for both network- and site-specific metrics, enabling the comparison of connectivity between species and habitat sites as well as highlighting potential multi-generational dispersal corridors. Graph theory likewise provides a powerful implement for spatial visualization, allowing for rapid, intuitive communication of connectivity results to researchers, managers, and the public alike. This type of analysis can exist used to model pairwise relationships between spatial data points by breaking down individual-based output into a series of nodes (habitat sites) and edges (directed connections between habitat sites). They then used these nodes and edges to examine the relative import of each site and dispersal pathway to the greater pattern of connectivity around Moloka‘i, as well as differences in connectivity patterns between species (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). They used the R package ‘igraph’ to examine several measures of within-island connectivity (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). Edge density, or the proportion of realized edges out of every workable edges, is a multi-site measure of connectivity. Areas with a higher edge density own more direct connections between habitat sites, and thus are more strongly connected. They measured edge density along and between the north, south, east, and west coasts of Moloka‘i to examine workable population structure and degree of exchange among the marine resources of local communities.

The distribution of shortest path length is likewise informative for comparing overall connectivity. In graph theory, a shortest path is the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. For example, two sites that exchange larvae in either direction are connected by a shortest path of one, whereas if they both participate larvae with an intermediate site but not with each other, they are connected by a shortest path of two. In a biological context, shortest path can correspond to number of generations needed for exchange: sites with a shortest path of two require two generations to originate a connection. indifferent shortest path, therefore, is a descriptive statistic to appraise connectivity of a network. If two sites are unconnected, it is workable to own infinite-length shortest paths; here, these eternal values were famous but not included in final analyses.

Networks can likewise exist broken in connected components (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). A weakly connected component (WCC) is a subgraph in which every nodes are not reachable by other nodes. A network split into multiple WCCs indicates separate populations that achieve not exchange any individuals, and a large number of WCCs indicates a low degree of island-wide connectivity. A strongly connected component (SCC) is a subgraph in which every nodes are directly connected and indicates a tall degree of connectivity. A region with many diminutive SCCs can betoken tall local connectivity but low island-wide connectivity. Furthermore, component analysis can identify crop nodes, or nodes that, if removed, wreck a network into multiple WCCs. Pinpointing these crop nodes can identify potential censorious sites for preserving a population’s connectivity, and could inform predictions about the impact of site loss (e.g., a large-scale coral bleaching event) on overall connectivity.

On a regional scale, it is censorious to note which sites are exporting larvae to, or importing larvae from, other sites. To this end, they examined in-degree and out-degree for each region. In-degree refers to the number of inward-directed edges to a specific node, or how many other sites provide larvae into site ‘A’. Out-degree refers to the number of outward-directed edges from a specific node, or how many sites receive larvae from site ‘A’. Habitat sites with a tall out-degree seed a large number of other sites, and betoken potentially censorious larval sources, while habitat sites with a low in-degree reckon on a limited number of larval sources and may therefore exist conditional on connections with these few other sites to maintain population size. Finally, betweenness centrality (BC) refers to the number of shortest paths that pass through a given node, and may therefore betoken connectivity pathways or ‘chokepoints’ that are censorious to overall connectivity on a multigenerational timescale. BC was weighted with the proportion of dispersal as described in the preceding section. They calculated in-degree, out-degree, and weighted betweenness centrality for each region in the network for each species.

As with the source–sink index, they did not include sites on islands other than Moloka‘i in their calculations of edge density, shortest paths, connected components, crop nodes, in- and out-degree, or betweenness centrality in order to focus on within-island patterns of connectivity.

Results Effects of biological parameters on fine-scale connectivity patterns

The species-specific parameters that were available to parameterize the dispersal models substantially influenced final output (Fig. 2). The proportion of successful settlers (either to Moloka‘i or to neighboring islands) varied widely by species, from 2% (Panulirus spp.) to 25% (Cellana spp.). Minimum pelagic duration and settlement success were negatively correlated (e.g., an estimated −0.79 Pearson correlation coefficient). Species modeled with batch spawning at a specific moon phase and/or time of day (Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis) displayed slightly higher settlement success than similar species modeled with constant spawning over specific months. On a smaller scale, they likewise examined indifferent site-scale local retention, comparing only retention to the spawning site versus other sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). Local retention was lowest for Caranx spp. (<1%) and highest for O. cyanea and P. sexfilis (8.1% and 10%, respectively).

Figure 2: Summary statistics for each species network. Summary statistics are displayed in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right. Heatmap colors are based on normalized values from 0–1 for each analysis. Successful settlement refers to the proportion of larvae settled out of the total number of larvae spawned. Local retention is measured as the proportion of larvae spawned from a site that settle at the selfsame site. Shortest path is measured as the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. Strongly connected sites refers to the proportion of sites in a network that belong to a strongly connected component. value dispersal distance is measured in kilometers from spawn site to settlement site.

We measured network-wide connectivity via distribution of shortest paths, or the minimum number of steps between a given two nodes in a network, only including sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). O. cyanea and P. sexfilis showed the smallest shortest paths overall, significance that on average, it would assume fewer generations for these species to demographically bridge any given pair of sites. Using maximum shortest path, it could assume these species three generations at most to connect sites. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, by comparison, could assume as many as five generations. Other medium- and long-dispersing species showed relatively equivalent shortest-path distributions, with trevally species showing the highest value path length and therefore the lowest island-scale connectivity.

The number and size of weakly-connected and strongly-connected components in a network is likewise an informative measure of connectivity (Fig. 2). No species in their study group was broken into multiple weakly-connected components; however, there were species-specific patterns of strongly connected sites. O. cyanea and P. sexfilis were the most strongly connected, with every sites in the network falling into a sole SCC. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina each had approximately 60% of sites included in a SCC, but both flaunt fragmentation with seven and six SCCs respectively, ranging in size from two to 22 sites. This SCC pattern suggests low global connectivity but tall local connectivity for these species. Medium and long dispersers showed larger connected components; 70% of parrotfish sites fell within two SCCs; 40% of P. porphyreus sites fell within two SCCs; 70% of C. strigosus sites, 55% of C. melampygus sites, and 40% of Panulirus sites fell within a sole SCC. In contrast, only 26% of C. ignoblis sites fell within a sole SCC. It is likewise censorious to note that the lower connectivity scores observed in long-dispersing species likely reflect a larger scale of connectivity. Species with a shorter PLD are highly connected at reef and island levels but may flaunt weaker connections between islands. Species with a longer PLD, such as trevally or spiny lobster, are likely more highly connected at inter-island scales which reflects the lower connectivity scores per island shown here.

Figure 3: Dispersal distance density kernels. Dispersal distance is combined across species by minimum pelagic larval duration (PLD) length in days (short, medium, or long). Most short dispersers settle near to home, while few long dispersers are retained at or near their spawning sites.

Minimum PLD was positively correlated with value dispersal distance (e.g., an estimated 0.88 Pearson correlation coefficient with minimum pelagic duration loge-transformed to linearize the relationship), and dispersal kernels differed between species that are short dispersers (3–25 days), medium dispersers (30–50 days), or long dispersers (140–270 days) (Fig. 3). Short dispersers travelled a value distance of 24.06 ± 31.33 km, medium dispersers travelled a value distance of 52.71 ± 40.37 km, and long dispersers travelled the farthest, at a value of 89.41 ± 41.43 km. However, regardless of PLD, there were essentially two peaks of value dispersal: a short-distance peak of <30 km, and a long-distance peak of roughly 50–125 km (Fig. 3). The short-distance peak largely represents larvae that settle back to Moloka‘i, while the long-distance peak largely represents settlement to other islands; the low point between them corresponds to deep-water channels between islands, i.e., unsuitable habitat for settlement. Median dispersal distance for short dispersers was substantially less than the value at 8.85 km, indicating that most of these larvae settled relatively near to their spawning sites, with rare long-distance dispersal events bringing up the average. Median distance for medium (54.22 km) and long (91.57 km) dispersers was closer to the mean, indicating more even distance distributions and thus a higher probability of long-distance dispersal for these species. Maximum dispersal distance varied between ∼150–180 km depending on species, except for the spiny lobster Panulirus spp., with a PLD of 270 d and a maximum dispersal distance of approximately 300 km.

Settlement to Moloka‘i and other islands in the archipelago

Different species showed different forward settlement proportion to adjacent islands (Fig. 4), although every species in the study group successfully settled back to Moloka‘i. P. meandrina showed the highest percentage of island-scale local retention (82%), while C. ignoblis showed the lowest (7%). An indifferent of 74% of larvae from short-dispersing species settled back to Moloka‘i, as compared to an indifferent of 41% of medium dispersers and 9% of long dispersers. A large proportion of larvae likewise settled to O‘ahu, with longer PLDs resulting in greater proportions, ranging from 14% of O. cyanea to 88% of C. ignoblis. Moloka‘i and O‘ahu were the most commonly settled islands by percentage. Overall, settlement from Moloka‘i to Lana‘i, Maui, Kaho‘olawe, and Hawai‘i was significantly lower. Larvae of every species settled to Lana‘i, and settlement to this island made up less than 5% of settled larvae across every species. Likewise, settlement to Maui made up less than 7% of settlement across species, with P. meandrina as the only species that had no successful paths from Moloka‘i to Maui. Settlement to Kaho‘olawe and Hawai‘i was less common, with the exception of Panulirus spp., which had 16% of every settled larvae on Hawai‘i.

Figure 4: Forward settlement from Moloka’i to other islands. Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from Moloka‘i by species, organized in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right.

We likewise examined coast-specific patterns of rearward settlement proportion to other islands, discarding connections with a very low proportion of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species settling to other islands). Averaged across species, 83% of larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i were spawned on the north shore of Moloka‘i, with 12% spawned on the west shore (Fig. S4). Spawning sites on the east and south shores contributed <5% of every larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i. The east and south shores of Moloka‘i had the highest indifferent percentage of larvae settling to Lana‘i from Moloka‘i, at 78% and 20% respectively, and to Kaho‘olawe from Moloka‘i at 63% and 34%. Of the species that settled to Maui from Moloka‘i, on indifferent most were spawned on the east (53%) or north (39%) shores, as were the species that settled to Hawai‘i Island from Moloka‘i (22% east, 76% north). These patterns betoken that multiple coasts of Moloka‘i own the potential to export larvae to neighboring islands.

Temporal settlement profiles likewise varied by species (Fig. 5). Species modeled with moon-phase spawning and relatively short settlement windows (Cellana spp. and C. ignoblis) were characterized by discrete settlement pulses, whereas other species showed settlement over a broader period of time. Some species likewise showed distinctive patterns of settlement to other islands; their model suggests specific windows when long-distance dispersal is possible, as well as times of year when local retention is maximized (Fig. 5).

Figure 5: Species-specific temporal recruitment patterns. Proportion densities of settlement to specific islands from Moloka‘i based on day of year settled, by species. Rare dispersal events (e.g., Maui or Lana‘i for Cellana spp.) issue as narrow spikes, while broad distributions generally betoken more common settlement pathways. Regional patterns of connectivity in Moloka‘i coastal waters

Within Moloka‘i, their model predicts that coast-specific population structure is likely; averaged across every species, 84% of individuals settled back to the selfsame coast on which they were spawned rather than a different coast on Moloka‘i. Excluding connections with a very low proportion of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species that settled to Moloka‘i), they establish that the proportion of coast-scale local retention was generally higher than dispersal to another coast, with the exception of the west coast (Fig. 6A). The north and south coasts had a tall degree of local retention in every species except for the long-dispersing Panulirus spp., and the east coast likewise had tall local retention overall. Between coasts, a tall proportion of larvae that spawned on the west coast settled on the north coast, and a lesser amount of larvae were exchanged from the east to south and from the north to east. With a few species-specific exceptions, larval exchange between other coasts of Moloka‘i was negligible.

Figure 6: Coast-by-coast patterns of connectivity on Moloka‘i. (A) indifferent rearward settlement proportion by species per pair of coastlines, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by every settled larvae at site s. Directional coastline pairs (Spawn > Settlement) are ordered from left to right by increasing median settlement proportion. (B) Heatmap of edge density for coast-specific networks by species. Density is calculated by the number of every realized paths out of total workable paths, disregarding directionality.

We likewise calculated edge density, including every connections between coasts on Moloka‘i regardless of settlement proportion (Fig. 6B). The eastern coast was particularly well-connected, with an edge density between 0.14 and 0.44, depending on the species. The southern shore showed tall edge density for short and medium dispersers (0.16–0.39) but low for long dispersers (<0.005). The north shore likewise showed relatively tall edge density (0.20 on average), although these values were smaller for long dispersers. The west coast showed very low edge density, with the exceptions of O. cyanea (0.37) and P. sexfilis (0.13). Virtually every networks that included two coasts showed lower edge density. One exception was the east/south shore network, which had an edge density of 0.10–0.65 except for Cellana spp. Across species, edge density between the south and west coasts was 0.12 on average, and between the east and west coasts was 0.04 on average. Edge density between north and south coasts was particularly low for every species (<0.05), a divide that was especially discrete in Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, which showed zero realized connections between these coasts. Although northern and southern populations are potentially weakly connected by sites along the eastern ( P. meandrina) or western (Cellana spp.) shores, their model predicts very little, if any, demographic connectivity.

To explore patterns of connectivity on a finer scale, they pooled sites into regions (as defined in Fig. 1) in order to resolve relationships between these regions. Arranging model output into node-edge networks clarified pathways and regions of note, and revealed several patterns which did not result simple predictions based on PLD (Fig. 7). Cellana spp. and P. meandrina showed the most fragmentation, with several SCCs and low connectivity between coasts. Connectivity was highest in O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, which had a sole SCC containing every regions. Medium and long dispersers generally showed fewer strongly connected regions on the south shore than the north shore, with the exception of C. strigosus. P. porphyreus showed more strongly connected regions east of Kalaupapa but lower connectivity on the western half of the island.

Figure 7: Moloka’i connectivity networks by species. Graph-theoretic networks between regions around Moloka’i by species arranged in order of minimum pelagic larval duration. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Node size reflects betweenness centrality of each region, scaled per species for visibility. Node color reflects out-degree of each region; yellow nodes own a low out-degree, red nodes own a medium out-degree, and black nodes own a tall out-degree. Red edges are connections in a strongly connected component, while gray edges are not fraction of a strongly connected component (although may quiet picture substantial connections). Edge thickness represents log-transformed proportion of dispersal along that edge.

Region-level networks showed both species-specific and species-wide patterns of connectivity (Fig. 8). With a few exceptions, sites along the eastern coast—notably, Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor—showed relatively tall betweenness centrality, and may therefore act as multigenerational pathways between north-shore and south-shore populations. In Cellana spp., Leinapapio Point and Mokio Point had the highest BC, while in high-connectivity O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the west coast had tall BC scores. P. meandrina and C. strigosus showed several regions along the south shore with tall BC. For Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, regions in the northeast had the highest out-degree, and therefore seeded the greatest number of other sites with larvae (Fig. 8). Correspondingly, regions in the northwest (and southwest in the case of P. meandrina) showed the highest in-degree. For O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the western and southern coasts showed the highest out-degree. For most species, both out-degree and in-degree were generally highest on the northern and eastern coasts, suggesting higher connectivity in these areas.

Figure 8: Region-level summary statistics across every species. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the number of paths that pass through a certain region; a tall score suggests potentially censorious multi-generation connectivity pathways. In-degree and out-degree refer to the amount of a node’s incoming and outgoing connections. Betweenness centrality, in-degree, and out-degree own every been normalized to values between 0 to 1 per species. Local retention is measured as the proportion of larvae that settled back to their spawn site out of every larvae spawned at that site. Source-sink index is a measure of net export or import; negative values (blue) betoken a net larval sink, while positive values (red) betoken a net larval source. White indicates that a site is neither a stalwart source nor sink. Gray values for Cellana spp. denote a want of suitable habitat sites in that particular region.

Several species-wide hotspots of local retention emerged, particularly East Kalaupapa Peninsula/Leinaopapio Point, the northeast point of Moloka‘i, and the middle of the south shore. Some species likewise showed some degree of local retention west of Kalaupapa Peninsula. While local retention was observed in the long-dispersing Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., this amount was essentially negligible. In terms of source–sink dynamics, Ki‘oko‘o, Pu‘ukaoku Point, and West Kalaupapa Peninsula, every on the north shore, were the only sites that consistently acted as a net source, exporting more larvae than they import (Fig. 8). Kaunakakai Harbor, Lono Harbor, and Mokio Point acted as net sinks across every species. Puko‘o, Pauwalu Harbor, and Cape Halawa were either weak net sources or neither sources nor sinks, which corresponds to the tall levels of local retention observed at these sites. Pala‘au and Mo‘omomi acted as either weak sinks or sources for short dispersers and as sources for long dispersers.

Only four networks showed regional cut-nodes, or nodes that, if removed, wreck a network into multiple weakly-connected components (Fig. S5). Cellana spp. showed two cut-nodes: Mokio Point in northwest Moloka‘i and La‘au Point in southwest Moloka‘i, which if removed isolated diminutive Bay and Lono Harbor, respectively. C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus showed a similar pattern in regards to Mokio Point; removal of this node isolated diminutive Bay in this species as well. In C. ignoblis, loss of Pauwalu Harbor isolated Lono Harbor, and loss of Pala‘au isolated Ilio Point on the northern coast. Finally, in Panulirus spp., loss of Leinaopapio Point isolated Papuhaku Beach, since Leinapapio Point was the only larval source from Moloka‘i for Papuhaku Beach in this species.

Figure 9: Connectivity matrix for larvae spawned on Kalaupapa Peninsula. Includes larvae settled on Molokaí (regions below horizontal black line) and those settled on other islands (regions above horizontal black line), spawned from either the east (E) or west (W) coast of Kalaupapa. Heatmap colors picture rearward proportion, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by every settled larvae at site s. White squares betoken no dispersal along this path. The role of Kalaupapa Peninsula in inter- and intra-island connectivity

Our model suggests that Kalaupapa National Historical Park may play a role in inter-island connectivity, especially in terms of long-distance dispersal. Out of every regions on Moloka‘i, East Kalaupapa Peninsula was the sole largest exporter of larvae to Hawai‘i Island, accounting for 19% of every larvae transported from Moloka‘i to this island; West Kalaupapa Peninsula accounted for another 10%. The park likewise contributed 22% of every larvae exported from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, and successfully exported a smaller percentage of larvae to Maui, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe (Fig. 9). Kalaupapa was not marked as a cut-node for any species, significance that replete population breaks are not predicted in the case of habitat or population loss in this area. Nevertheless, in their model Kalaupapa exported larvae to multiple regions along the north shore in every species, as well as regions along the east, south, and/or west shores in most species networks (Figs. 9 and 10). The park may play a particularly censorious role for long-dispersing species; settlement from Kalaupapa made up 18%–29% of every successful settlement in Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., despite making up only 12% of spawning sites included in the model. In C. strigosus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus, Kalaupapa showed a particularly tall out-degree, or number of outgoing connections to other regions, and West Kalaupapa was likewise one of the few regions on Moloka‘i that acted as a net larval source across every species (Fig. 8). Their study has likewise demonstrated that different regions of a marine protected area can potentially perform different roles, even in a diminutive MPA such as Kalaupapa. Across species, the east coast of Kalaupapa showed a significantly higher betweenness centrality than the west (p = 0.028), while the west coast of Kalauapapa showed a significantly higher source–sink index than the east (p = 2.63e−9).

Figure 10: Larval spillover from Kalaupapa National Historical Park. Site-level dispersal to sites around Moloka‘i from sites in the Kalaupapa National Historical Park protected area, by species. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Edge color reflects proportion of dispersal along that edge; red indicates higher proportion while yellow indicates lower proportion. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green. Discussion Effects of biological and physical parameters on connectivity

We incorporated the distribution of suitable habitat, variable reproduction, variable PLD, and ontogenetic changes in swimming talent and empirical plumb distributions of larvae into their model to enlarge biological realism, and assess how such traits impact predictions of larval dispersal. The Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM provides a highly resilient model framework that can easily exist modified to incorporate either additional species-specific data or entirely original biological traits. In this study, they included specific spawning seasons for every species, as well as spawning by moon phase for Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis because such data was available for these species. It proved difficult to obtain the necessary biological information to parameterize the model, but as more data about life history and larval behavior become available, such information can exist easily added for these species and others. Some potential additions to future iterations of the model might include density of reproductive-age adults within each habitat patch, temperature-dependent pelagic larval duration (Houde, 1989), ontogenetic-dependent behavioral changes such as orientation and diel plumb migration (Fiksen et al., 2007; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007), pre-competency period, and larval habitat preferences as such information becomes available.

In this study, they own demonstrated that patterns of fine-scale connectivity around Moloka‘i are largely species-specific and can vary with life history traits, even in species with identical pelagic larval duration. For example, the parrotfish S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus flaunt greater connectivity along the northern coast, while the goatfish P. porphyreus shows higher connectivity along the eastern half of the island. These species own similar PLD windows, but vary in dispersal depth and spawning season. Spawning season and timing altered patterns of inter-island dispersal (Fig. 5) as well as overall settlement success, which was slightly higher in species that spawned by moon phase (Fig. 2). While maximum PLD did issue play a role in the probability of rare long-distance dispersal, minimum PLD appears to exist the main driver of indifferent dispersal distance (Fig. 2). Overall, species with a shorter minimum PLD had higher settlement success, shorter value dispersal distance, higher local retention, and higher local connectivity as measured by the amount and size of strongly connected components.

The interaction of biological and oceanographic factors likewise influenced connectivity patterns. Because mesoscale current patterns can vary substantially over the course of the year, the timing of spawning for certain species may exist censorious for estimating settlement (Wren et al., 2016; Wong-Ala et al., 2018). Intermittent ocean processes may influence the probability of local retention versus long-distance dispersal; a large proportion of larvae settled to O‘ahu, which is significantly surprising given that in order to settle from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, larvae must cross the Kaiwi Channel (approx. 40 km). However, the intermittent presence of mesoscale gyres may act as a stabilizing pathway across the channel, sweeping larvae up either the windward or leeward coast of O‘ahu depending on spawning site. Likewise, in their model long-distance dispersal to Hawai‘i Island was workable at certain times of the year due to a gyre to the north of Maui; larvae were transported from Kalaupapa to this gyre, where they were carried to the northeast shore of Hawai‘i (Fig. S6). preparatory analysis likewise suggests that distribution of larval depth influenced edge directionality and size of connected components (Fig. 7); surface currents are variable and primarily wind-driven, giving positively-buoyant larvae different patterns of dispersal than species that disperse deeper in the water column (Fig. S7).

Model limitations and future perspectives

Our findings own several caveats. Because fine-scale density estimates are not available for their species of interest around Moloka’i, they assumed that fecundity is equivalent at every sites. This simplification may lead us to under- or over-estimate the energy of connections between sites. want of adequate data likewise necessitated estimation or extrapolation from congener information for larval traits such as larval dispersal depth and PLD. Since it is difficult if not impossible to identify larvae to the species flat without genetic analysis, they used genus-level larval distribution data (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996), or lacking that, an appraise of 50–100 m as a depth layer that is generally more enriched with larvae (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). They likewise estimated PLD in several cases using congener-level data (see Table 1). While specificity is ideal for making informed management decisions about a certain species, past sensitivity analysis has shown that variation in PLD length does not greatly impact patterns of dispersal in species with a PLD of >40 days (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016).

Although their MITgcm current model shows annual consistency, it only spans two and a half years chosen as neutral status ‘average’ ocean conditions. It does not span any El Niño or La Niña (ENSO) events, which cause wide-scale sea-surface temperature anomalies and may therefore affect patterns of connectivity during these years. El Niño can own a particularly stalwart impact on coral reproduction, since the warm currents associated with these events can lead to ascetic temperature stress (Glynn & D’Croz, 1990; Wood et al., 2016). While there has been limited study to date on the effects of ENSO on fine-scale connectivity, previous toil has demonstrated increased variability during these events. For example, Wood et al. (2016) showed a subside in eastward Pacific dispersal during El Niño years, but an enlarge in westward dispersal, and Treml et al. (2008) showed unique connections in the West Pacific as well as an enlarge in connectivity during El Niño. While these effects are difficult to predict, especially at such a diminutive scale, additional model years would enlarge assurance in long-term connectivity estimations. Additionally, with a temporal resolution of 24 h, they could not adequately address the role of tides on dispersal, and therefore did not include them in the MITgcm. Storlazzi et al. (2017) showed that tidal forces did affect larval dispersal in Maui Nui, underlining the import of including both fine-scale, short-duration models and coarser-scale, long-duration models in final management decisions.

We likewise confine their model’s scope geographically. Their goal was to determine whether they could resolve predictive patterns at this scale apropos to management. Interpretation of connectivity output can exist biased by spatial resolution of the ocean model, since intricate coastal processes can exist smoothed and therefore impact larval trajectories. To confine this bias, they focused mainly on coastal and regional connectivity on scales greater than the current resolution. They likewise used the finest-scale current products available for their study area, and their results flaunt common agreement with similar studies of the region that utilize a coarser resolution (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016) and a finer resolution (Storlazzi et al., 2017). Also, while scholarship of island-scale connectivity is censorious for local management, it does disregard potential connections from other islands. In their calculations of edge density, betweenness centrality and source-sink index, they included only settlement to Moloka‘i, discarding exogenous sinks that would warp their analysis. Likewise, they cannot foretell the proportion of larvae settling to other islands that originated from Moloka‘i, or the proportion of larvae on Moloka‘i that originated from other islands.

It is likewise censorious to note scale in relation to measures of connectivity; they anticipate that long-dispersing species such as Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp. will flaunt much higher measures of connectivity when measured across the total archipelago as opposed to a sole island. The cut-nodes observed in these species may not actually wreck up populations on a large scale due to this inter-island connectivity. Nevertheless, cut-nodes in species with short- and medium-length PLD may indeed ticket censorious habitat locations, especially in terms of providing links between two otherwise disconnected coasts. It may exist that for certain species or certain regions, stock replenishment relies on larval import from other islands, underscoring the import of MPA selection for population maintenance in the archipelago as a whole.

Implications for management

Clearly, there is no sole management approach that encompasses the breadth of life history and behavior differences that impact patterns of larval dispersal and connectivity (Toonen et al., 2011; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). The spatial, temporal, and species-specific variability suggested by their model stresses the necessity for multi-scale management, specifically tailored to local and regional connectivity patterns and the suite of target species. Even on such a diminutive scale, different regions around the island of Moloka‘i can play very different roles in the greater pattern of connectivity (Fig. 8); sites along the west coast, for example, showed fewer ingoing and outgoing connections than sites on the north coast, and therefore may exist more at risk of isolation. Seasonal variation should likewise exist taken into account, as mesoscale current patterns (and resulting connectivity patterns) vary over the course of a year. Their model suggests species-specific temporal patterns of settlement (Fig. 5); even in the year-round spawner O. cyanea, local retention to Moloka‘i as well as settlement to O‘ahu was maximized in spring and early summer, while settlement to other islands mostly occurred in late summer and fall.

Regions that flaunt similar network dynamics may benefit from similar management strategies. Areas that act as larval sources either by proportion of larvae (high source–sink index) or number of sites (high out-degree) should receive management consideration. On Moloka‘i, across every species in their study, these sources fell mostly on the northern and eastern coasts. Maintenance of these areas is especially censorious for downstream areas that depend on upstream populations for a source of larvae, such as those with a low source–sink index, low in-degree, and/or low local retention. Across species, regions with the highest betweenness centrality scores fell mainly in the northeast (Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor). These areas should receive consideration as potentially censorious intergenerational pathways, particularly as a means of connecting north-coast and south-coast populations, which showed a want of connectivity both in total number of connections (edge density) and proportion of larvae. Both of these connectivity measures were included because edge density includes every connections, even those with a very diminutive proportion of larvae, and may therefore include rare dispersal events that are of limited relevance to managers. Additionally, edge density comparisons between networks should exist viewed with the caveat that these networks achieve not necessarily own the selfsame number of nodes. Nevertheless, both edge density and proportion flaunt very similar patterns, and include both demographically-relevant common connections as well as rare connections that could influence genetic connectivity.

Management that seeks to establish a resilient network of spatially managed areas should likewise consider the preservation of both weakly-connected and strongly-connected components, as removal of key cut-nodes (Fig. S5) breaks up a network. Sites within a SCC own more direct connections and therefore may exist more resilient to local population loss. permeate should exist taken to preserve breeding populations at larval sources, connectivity pathways, and cut-nodes within a SCC, since without these key sites the network can fragment into multiple independent SCCs instead of a sole stable network. This rehearse may exist especially censorious for species for which they appraise multiple diminutive SCCs, such as Cellana spp. or P. meandrina.

Kalaupapa Peninsula emerged as an censorious site in Moloka‘i population connectivity, acting as a larval source for other regions around the island. The Park seeded areas along the north shore in every species, and likewise exported larvae to sites along the east and west shores in every species except P. meandrina and Cellana spp. Additionally, it was a larval source for sites along the south shore in the fishes C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus as well as Panulirus spp. Western Kalaupapa Peninsula was one of only three regions included in the analysis (the others being Ki‘oko‘o and Pu‘ukaoku Point, likewise on the north shore) that acted as a net larval source across every species. Eastern Kalaupapa Peninsula was particularly highly connected, and was fraction of a strongly connected component in every species. The Park likewise emerged as a potential point of connection to adjacent islands, particularly to O‘ahu and Hawai‘i. Expanding the spatial scale of their model will further elucidate Kalaupapa’s role in the greater pattern of inter-island connectivity.

In addition to biophysical modeling, genetic analyses can exist used to identify persistent population structure of relevance to managers (Cowen et al., 2000; Casey, Jardim & Martinsohn, 2016). Their finding that exchange among islands is generally low in species with a short- to medium-length PLD agrees with population genetic analyses of marine species in the Hawaiian Islands (Bird et al., 2007; Rivera et al., 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Concepcion, Baums & Toonen, 2014). On a finer scale, they foretell some flat of shoreline-specific population structure for most species included in the study (Fig. 6). Unfortunately, genetic analyses to date own been performed over too broad a scale to effectively compare to these fine-scale connectivity predictions around Moloka‘i or even among locations on adjacent islands. These model results justify such diminutive scale genetic analyses because there are species, such as the coral P. meandrina, for which the model predicts lucid separation of north-shore and south-shore populations which should exist simple to test using genetic data. To validate these model predictions with this technique, more fine-scale population genetic analyses are needed.

Conclusions

The maintenance of demographically connected populations is censorious for conservation. In this study, they contribute to the growing cadaver of toil in biophysical connectivity modeling, focusing on a region and suite of species that are of relevance to resource managers. Furthermore, they demonstrate the value of quantifying fine-scale relationships between habitat sites via graph-theoretic methods. Multispecies network analysis revealed persistent patterns that can succor define region-wide practices, as well as species-specific connectivity that merits more individual consideration. They demonstrate that connectivity is influenced not only by PLD, but likewise by other life-history traits such as spawning season, moon-phase spawning, and ontogenetic changes in larval depth. tall local retention of larvae with a short- or medium-length PLD is consistent with population genetic studies of the area. They likewise identify regions of management importance, including West Kalaupapa Peninsula, which acts as a consistent larval source across species; East Kalaupapa Peninsula, which is a strongly connected region in every species network, and Pauwalu Harbor/Cape Halawa, which may act as censorious multigenerational pathways. Connectivity is only one piece of the confound of MPA effectiveness, which must likewise account for reproductive population size, long-term persistence, and post-settlement survival (Burgess et al., 2014). That being said, their study provides a quantitative roadmap of potential demographic connectivity, and thus presents an efficacious implement for estimating current and future patterns of dispersal around Kalaupapa Peninsula and around Moloka‘i as a whole.

Supplemental Information Current patterns in the model domain.

Current direction and velocity is displayed at a depth of 55 m below sea surface on (A) March 31st, 2011, (B) June 30th, 2011, (C) September 30th, 2011, and (D) December 31st, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, tall velocity). Domain extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N. The island of Moloka‘i is highlighted in red.

Subset of validation drifter paths.

Drifter paths in black and corresponding model paths are colored by drifter ID. every drifter information was extracted from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly focus (Elipot et al., 2016). Drifters were included if they fell within the model domain spatially and temporally, and were tested by releasing 1,000 particles on the remedy day where they entered the model domain, at the uppermost depth layer of their oceanographic model (0–5 m).

Selected larval depth distributions.

Modeled plumb larval distributions for Caranx spp. (left), S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus (middle), and P. porphyreus (right), using data from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton plumb distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy 1996).

Coast-specific rearward settlement patterns by island

Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from sites on each coast of Moloka‘i, averaged across every species that successfully settled to that island.

Regional cut-nodes for four species networks

Mokio Point and La‘au Point were cut-nodes for Cellana spp., Mokio Point was a cut-node for C. perspicillatus and S. rubroviolaceus, Pauwalu Harbor and Pala‘au were cut-nodes for C. ignoblis, and Leinaopapio Point was a cut-node for Panulirus spp.

Selected dispersal pathways for Panulirus spp. larvae

500 randomly sampled dispersal pathways for lobster larvae (Panulirus spp.) that successfully settled to Hawai‘i Island after being spawned off the coast of Moloka‘i. Red tracks betoken settlement earlier in the year (February–March), while black tracks betoken settlement later in the year (April–May). Most larvae are transported to the northeast coast of Hawai‘i via a gyre to the north of Maui, while a smaller proportion are transported through Maui Nui.

Eddy differences by depth layer.

Differences in eddy pattern and energy in surface layers (A, 2.5 m) vs. abysmal layers (B, 55 m) on March 31, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, tall velocity). While large gyres remain consistent at different depths, smaller features vary along this gradient. For example, the currents around Kaho‘olawe, the diminutive gyre off the eastern coast of O‘ahu, and currents to the north of Maui every vary in direction and/or velocity.


Avoid Bothersome Garbage Collection Pauses | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Many engineers complain that the non-deterministic behavior of the garbage collector prevents them from utilizing the Java environment for mission-critical applications, especially distributed message-driven displays (GUIs) where user responsiveness is critical. They coincide that garbage collection does occur at the worst times: for example, when a user clicks a mouse or a original message enters the system requiring immediate processing. These events must exist handled without the leisurely of in-progress garbage collection. How achieve they obviate these garbage collection pauses that tamper with the responsiveness of an application ("bothersome pauses")?

We own discovered a very efficacious technique to obviate bothersome garbage collection pauses and build responsive Java applications. This technique or pattern is especially efficacious for a distributive message-driven display system with soft real-time constraints. This article details this pattern in three simple steps and provides evidence of the effectiveness of the technique.

Pattern to Control Garbage Collection PausesThe Java environment provides so many benefits to the software community - platform independence, industry momentum, a plethora of resources (online tutorials, code, interest groups, etc.), object-oriented utilities and interfaces (collections, network I/O, vibrate display, etc.) that can exist plugged in and out - that once you own experienced working with Java it's arduous to travel back to traditional languages. Unfortunately, in some mission-critical applications, fondness message-driven GUIs that must exist very responsive to user events, the requirements constrain you to assume that step backward. There's no elbowroom for multiple second garbage collection pauses. (The garbage collector collects every the "unreachable" references in an application so the space consumed by them can exist reused. It's a low-priority thread that usually only takes priority over other threads when the VM is running out of memory.) achieve they really own to lose every the benefits of Java? First, let's consider the requirements.

A system engineer should consider imposing requirements for garbage collection fondness the following list taken from a telecom industry example (see References).1.  GC sequential overhead on a system may not exist more than 10% to ensure scalability and optimal utilize of system resources for maximum throughput.2.  Any sole GC suspension during the entire application bustle may exist no more than 200ms to meet the latency requirements as set by the protocol between the client and the server, and to ensure generous response times by the server.

Armed with these requirements, the system engineer has defined the worst-case behavior in a manner that can exist tested.

The next question is: How achieve they meet these requirements? Alka Gupta and Michael Doyle originate excellent suggestions in their article (see References). Their approach is to tune the parameters on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). They assume a slightly different approach that leaves the utilize of parameter definitions as defined by the JVM to exist used as a final tuning technique.

Why not expose the garbage collector what and when to collect?

In other words, control garbage collection via the software architecture. originate the job of the garbage collector easy! This technique can exist described as a multiple step pattern. The first step of the pattern is described below as "Nullify Objects." The second step involves forcing garbage collection to occur as delineated in "Forcing Garbage Collection." The final step involves either placing persistent data out of the compass of the collector or into a data pool so that an application will continue to perform well in the long run.

Step 1: Nullify ObjectsMemory leaks strike dread into the hearts of programmers! Not only achieve they abase performance, they eventually terminate the application. Yet reminiscence leaks prove very subtle and difficult to debug. The JVM performs garbage collection in the background, freeing the coder from such details, but traps quiet exist. The biggest danger is placing an object into a collection and forgetting to remove it. The reminiscence used by that object will never exist reclaimed.

A programmer can obviate this type of reminiscence leak by setting the object reference and every underlying object references ("deep" objects) to null when the object is no longer needed. Setting an object reference to "null" tells the garbage collector that at least this one reference to the object is no longer needed. Once every references to an object are cleared, the garbage collector is free to reclaim that space. Giving the collector such "hints" makes its job easier and faster. Moreover, a smaller reminiscence footprint likewise makes an application bustle faster.

Knowing when to set an object reference to null requires a complete understanding of the problem space. For instance, if the remote receiver allocates the reminiscence space for a message, the leisure of the application must know when to release the space back for reuse. Study the domain. Once an object or "subobject" is no longer needed, expose the garbage collector.

Thus, the first step of the pattern is to set objects to null once you're certain they're no longer needed. They muster this step "nullify" and include it in the definition of the classes of frequently used objects.

The following code snippet shows a routine that "nullifies" a track object. The class members that consist of primitives only (contain no additional class objects) are set to null directly, as in lines 3-5. The class members that hold class objects provide their own nullify routine as in line 9.

1 public void nullify () {23 this.threatId = null ;4 this.elPosition = null ;5 this.kinematics = null ;67 if (this.iff != null)8 {9 this.iff.nullify();10 this.iff = null ;11 }12 }

The track nullify is called from the thread that has completed processing the message. In other words, once the message has been stored or processed, that thread tells the JVM it no longer needs that object. Also, if the object was placed in some Collection (like an ArrayList), it's removed from the Collection and set to null.

By setting objects to null in this manner, the garbage collector and thus the JVM can bustle more efficiently. Train yourself to program with "nullify" methods and their invocation in mind.

Step 2: "Force" Garbage CollectionThe second step of the pattern is to control when garbage collection occurs. The garbage collector, GC, runs as Java priority 1 (the lowest priority). The virtual machine, VM, runs at Java priority 10 (the highest priority). Most books recommend against the usage of Java priority 1 and 10 for assigning priorities to Java applications. In most cases, the GC runs during idle times, generally when the VM is waiting for user input or when the VM has bustle out of memory. In the latter case, the GC interrupts high-priority processing in the application.

Some programmers fondness to utilize the "-Xincgc" directive on the Java command line. This tells the JVM to perform garbage collection in increments when it desires. Again, the timing of the garbage collection may exist inopportune. Instead, they intimate that the garbage collector perform a replete garbage collection as soon as it can in either or both of two ways:1.  Request garbage collection to betide as soon as possible: This routine proves useful when the programmer knows he or she has a "break" to garbage collect. For example, after a large image is loaded into reminiscence and scaled, the reminiscence footprint is large. Forcing a garbage collection to occur at that point is wise. Another generous area may exist after a large message has been processed in the application and is no longer needed.2.  Schedule garbage collection to occur at a fixed rate: This routine is optimal when the programmer does not own a specific second when he knows his application can halt shortly and garbage collect. Normally, most applications are written in this manner.

Listing 1 introduces a class named "BetterControlOfGC". It's a utility class that provides the methods described earlier. There are two public methods: "suggestGCNow()" and "scheduleRegularGC(milliseconds)" that respectively correspond to the steps described earlier. Line 7 suggests to the VM to garbage collect the unreachable objects as soon as possible. The documentation makes it lucid that the garbage collection may not occur instantaneously, but experience has shown that it will exist performed as soon as the VM is able to accomplish the task. Invoking the routine on line 25 causes garbage collection to occur at a fixed rate as determined by the parameter to the method.

In scheduling the GC to occur at a fixed rate, a garbage collection stimulator task, GCStimulatorTask, is utilized. The code extends the "java.util.timer" thread in line 10. No original thread is created; the processing runs on the sole timer thread available beginning with the Java 1.3 environment. Similarly, to hold the processing lean, the GC stimulator follows the Singleton pattern as shown by lines 18-23 and line 27. There can exist only one stimulator per application, where an application is any code running on an instance of the JVM.

We intimate that you set the interval at which the garbage collector runs from a Java property file. Thus you can tune the application without having to recompile the code. Write some simple code to read a property file that's either a parameter on the command line or a resource bundle in the class path. site the command parameter "-verbose:gc" on your executable command line and measure the time it takes to garbage collect. Tune this number until you achieve the results you want. If the budget allows, experiment with other virtual machines and/or hardware.

Step 3: Store Persistent Objects into Persistent Data Areas or Store Long-Lived Objects in PoolsUsing persistent data areas is purely optional. It supports the underlying premise of this article. In order to bind the disruption of the garbage collector in your application, originate its job easy. If you know that an object or collection of objects would live for the duration of your application, let the collector know. It would exist nice if the Java environment provided some sort of flag that could exist placed on objects upon their creation to expose the garbage collector "-keep out". However, there is currently no such means. (The Real-Time Specification for Java describes an area of reminiscence called "Immortal Memory" where objects live for the duration of the application and garbage collection should not run.) You may try using a database; however, this may leisurely down your application even more. Another solution currently under the Java Community Process is JSR 107. JCache provides a standard set of APIs and semantics that allow a programmer to cache frequently used data objects for the local JVM or across JVMs. This API is quiet under review and may not exist available yet. However, they believe it holds much pledge for the Java developer community. hold this avenue open and in intuition for future architectures. What can they achieve now?

The pooling of objects is not original to real-time programmers. The concept is to create every your expected data objects before you initiate processing, then every your data can exist placed into structures without the expense of instance creation during processing time. This has the edge of keeping your reminiscence footprint stable. It has the handicap of requiring a "deep copy" routine to exist written to store the data into the pool. (If you simply set an object to another, you're changing the object reference and not reusing the selfsame space.) The nanosecond expense of the abysmal copy is far less than that of the object instance creation.

If the data pooling technique is combined with the proper utilize of the "nullify" technique, garbage collection becomes optimized. The reasons are fairly straightforward:1.  Since the object is set to null immediately after the abysmal copy, it lives only in the green generation portion of the memory. It does not progress into the older generations of reminiscence and thus takes less of the garbage collector's cycle time.2.  Since the object is nullified immediately and no other reference to it exists in some other collection object in the application, the job of the garbage collector is easier. In other words, the garbage collector does not own to hold track of an object that exists in a collection.

When using data pools, it's wise to utilize the parameters "-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=0 -XX:SurvivorRatio=128" on the command line. These expose the JVM to gallop objects on the first sweep from the original generation to the old. It commands the JVM to utilize the concurrent ticket sweep algorithm on the weak generation that proves more efficient since it works "concurrently" for a multi-processor platform. For sole processor machines, try the "-Xincgc" option. We've seen those long garbage collector pauses, which occur after hours of execution, evanesce using this technique and these parameters. Performing well in the long bustle is the telling benefit of this final step.

Performance ResultsTypically, most engineers want proof before changing their approach to designing and coding. Why not? Since we're now suggesting that even Java programmers should exist concerned about resource allocation, it better exist worth it! Once upon a time, assembly language and C programmers spent time tweaking reminiscence and register usage to better performance. This step was necessary. Now, as higher-level object-oriented programmers they may disdain this thought. This pattern has dared to imply that such considerations, although not as low flat as registers and reminiscence addresses (instead at the object level), are quiet necessary for high-performance coding. Can it exist true?

The underlying premise is that if you know how your engine works, you can drive it better to obtain optimal performance and endurance. This is as telling for my 1985 300TD (Mercedes, five cylinder, turbo diesel station wagon) with 265,000 miles as for my Java code running on a HotSpot VM. For instance, knowing that a diesel's optimal performance is when the engine is warm since it relies on compression for power, I let my car warm up before I "push it." Similarly, I don't overload the vehicle with the tons of stuff I could site in the tailgate. HotSpot fits the analogy. Performance improves after the VM "warms up" and compiles the HotSpot code into the autochthonous language. I likewise hold my reminiscence footprint gaunt and light. The comparison breaks down after awhile, but the basic truth does not change. You can utilize a system the best when you understand how it works.

Our challenge to you is to assume statistics before and after implementing this pattern on just a diminutive portion of your code. gratify recognize that the gain will exist best exemplified when your application is scaled upward. In other words, the heavier the load on the system, the better the results.

The following statistics were taken after the pattern was applied. They are charted as:1.  Limited nullify routine invocation is used where only the incoming messages are not "nullified." (The residue of the application from which the statistics were taken was left intact with a very gaunt reminiscence usage.) There is no forced garbage collection.2.  Nullify routine invocation and forced garbage collection is utilized.

The test environment is a Microsoft Windows 2000 X86 Family 15 Model 2 Stepping 4 Genuine Intel ~1794MHz laptop running the BEA WebLogic Server 7.0 with Service Pack 7.1 with a physical reminiscence size of 523,704KB. The Java Message Server (JMS server), a track generator, and a tactical display are every running on the selfsame laptop over the local developer network (MAGIC). The server makes no optimizations, even though each application resides locally. The JVMs are treated as if they were distributed across the network. They're running on the J2SE 1.4.1 release.

The test target application is a Java vibrate Tactical display with replete panning, zooming, and track-hooking capabilities. It receives bundles of tracks via the Java Message Service that are displayed at their proper location on the given image. Each track is approximately 88 bytes and the overall container size is about 70 bytes. This byte measurement does not include every the additional class information that's likewise sent during serialization. The container is the message that holds an array of tracks that contains information such as time and number of tracks. For their tests, the tracks are sent at a 1Hz rate. Twenty sets of data are captured.

To illustrate the test environment, a screen capture of a 5,000 track load (4,999 tracks plus the ship) is shown in figure 1. The background shows tracks rendered with the Military standard 2525B symbology over an image of the Middle East. The diminutive window titled "Track Generator Desktop" is a minimized window showing the parameters of the test set through the track generator application. Notice that 45 messages had been sent at the time of the screen capture. Directly beneath this window sits the Windows chore Manager. Note that the CPU utilization is at 83%. At first this doesn't seem that bad. But at that rate, there isn't much elbowroom for the user to initiate zooming, panning, hooking tracks, and so on. The final command window to the right is that of the tactical display application. The parameter "-verbose:gc" is placed on the Java command line (java -verbose:gc myMainApplication.class). The VM is performing the listed garbage collection at its own rate, not by command of the application.

The final test of 10,000 tracks performed extremely poorly. The system does not scale; the CPU is pegged. At this point most engineers may jeer at Java again. Let's assume another gape after implementing the pattern.

After implementation, where the nullify methods are invoked properly and garbage collection is requested at a periodic interval (2Hz), theatrical improvements are realized. The final test of 10,000 tracks proves that the processor quiet has plenty of elbowroom to achieve more work. In other words, the pattern scales very well.

Performance SummaryThe pattern to succor control garbage collection pauses most definitely improves the overall performance of the application. Notice how well the pattern scales under the heavier track loads in the performance bar chart in figure 2. The darker middle bar shows the processor utilization at each flat of the message (track) load. As the message traffic increases, the processor utilization grows more slowly than without the pattern. The final light-colored bar shows the improved performance. The main energy of the pattern is how well it scales under cumbersome message loads.

There is another subtle energy to the pattern. This one is difficult to measure since it requires very long-lived tests. If Step 3 is faithfully followed, those horribly long garbage collection pauses that occur after hours of running disappear. This is a key benefit to the pattern since most of their applications are designed to bustle "forever."

We're confident that many other Java applications would benefit from implementing this very simple pattern.

The steps to control garbage collection pauses are:1.  Set every objects that are no longer in utilize to null and originate certain they're not left within some collection. "Nullify" objects.2.  constrain garbage collection to occur both:

  • After some major memory-intense operation (e.g., scaling an image)
  • At a periodic rate that provides the best performance for your application3.  save long-lived data in a persistent data area if feasible or in a pool of data and utilize the preempt garbage collector algorithm.

    By following these three simple steps, you'll avoid those bothersome garbage collection pauses and delight in every the benefits of the Java environment. It's time the Java environment was fully utilized in mission-critical display systems.

    References

  • Gupta, A., and Doyle, M. "Turbo-Charging the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine, v1.4.x to better the Performance and Scalability of Application Servers": http://developer.java.sun.com/developer/ technicalArticles/Programming/turbo/
  • JSR 1, Real-Time Specification for Java: http://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=1
  • Java HotSpot VM options: http://java.sun.com/docs/hotspot/VMOptions.html
  • Java Specification Request for JCache: http://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=107

  • PCI DSS questions answered: Solutions to tough PCI problems | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    During their recent virtual seminar, PCI DSS 2.0: Why the latest update matters to you, experts Ed Moyle and Diana...

    Kelley of SecurityCurve were unable to reply every of the PCI DSS questions they received during their live question-and-answer session. SearchSecurity.com has asked them to give brief responses to each of the unanswered questions, and we've published those questions and responses below to succor you resolve your unique PCI problems.

    For additional information about the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, visit SearchSecurity.com's PCI DSS resources page.

  • Where can they find information about PCI DSS compliance that is focused on those of us who are "Mom & Pop" shops?Since most diminutive organizations drop into the self-assessment category, a powerful resource is the Security Standards Council SAQ (Self-Assessment Questionnaire) section. Specifically these documents:

    SAQ main page

    PCI DSS SAQ instructions and guidelines

    SAQ: How it every fits together

    SAQ A-D and Guidelines

  • It seems the necessity of PCI compliance hasn't fully penetrated the Asian markets. achieve you own any suggestions on how to achieve compliance for companies who achieve industry in Asia, where adjusting to PCI standards aren't a priority?Companies should exist compliant regardless of where the payment information is stored, processed or transmitted. Even if processors in a particular locale aren't as focused on the standard, the companies (merchants/retailers) with operations in those locales should implement the selfsame controls as they achieve in other areas of the globe.

  • If card data is entered via the virtual terminal of a third-party on a desktop PC where wireless is not enabled, achieve I necessity wireless scans?All wireless networks within the CDE (cardholder data environment) necessity to exist scanned pursuant to the PCI DSS wireless guidelines provided by the Council. If audit and test findings substantiate there is no wireless on the virtual terminal and there is no wireless within the CDE, additional scans are not required (for example, note that the wireless scanning requirement is not addressed in SAQ C-VT specific to virtual terminal-only environments). Note, however, that if you utilize other devices beyond just the virtual terminal to store/process/transmit cardholder data (such as a PoS on your network), you will own to scan.

  • Is there a standard for isolating non-compliant custom systems that achieve not own a newer PCI-compliant version available? Let's assume this would exist a software package without encryption in its database.There are two standards for payment software – the PA DSS for commercial software and the PCI DSS for commercial software with significant customization and custom software. If the custom software is saving PANs in an unencrypted format, it is non-compliant with PCI DSS. The best options are to halt saving the PANs and utilize an alternative -- fondness masking, tokens or other unique identifier -- or find a course to encrypt the PAN data before it enters the database. If this is not possible, create a document explaining why, list compensating controls (such as increased monitoring and access control) and save in site a road map for mitigating or eliminating the problem. Although the compensating controls/road map will not value a fully compliant RoC or SAQ, it does flaunt generous faith on the fraction of the company to toil towards correcting the problem.

  • In terms of a policy strategy, should an enterprise's existing information security policies exist amended to include PCI requirements, or achieve the requirements necessity to exist addressed in PCI-specific policies?In most cases the CDE (cardholder data environment) under PCI is a very diminutive portion of the network and should exist clearly zoned off from the leisure of the corporate network activities. As a separate fraction of the network, a unique policy (or policy set) should apply for that zone. So PCI-specific policies should exist. However, parts of existing policy – for example stalwart password controls and reset – can exist re-used in the PCI-specific policies where applicable.

  • Regarding encryption in requirement 3, if the decryption key is not present in the cardholder environment, is the system out of the scope of PCI?In the FAQ section of the Council site it states: "Encrypted data may exist deemed out of scope if, and only if, it has been validated that the entity that possesses encrypted cardholder data does not own the means to decrypt it." So if the entity does not own the key, that data may exist deemed out of scope.

  • Does PCI require verification that there are no rogue wireless access points that may own connected to the POS network?Yes. From the Council's Wireless Guidance: "These are requirements that every organizations should own in site to protect their networks from attacks via rogue or unknown wireless access points (APs) and clients. They apply to organizations regardless of their utilize of wireless technology and regardless of whether the wireless technology is a fraction of the CDE or not." And, "The purpose of PCI DSS requirement 11.1 is to ensure an unauthorized or rogue wireless device introduced into an organization's network does not allow unmanaged and unsecured WLAN access to the CDE. The intent is to obviate an attacker from using rogue wireless devices to negatively impact the security of cardholder data. In order to combat rogue WLANs, it is acceptable to utilize a wireless analyzer or a preventative control such as a Wireless Intrusion Detection/Prevention System (IDS/IPS) as defined by the PCI DSS."

  • Where is cataclysm recovery and industry continuity planning covered in the PCI DSS requirements, or is it?Disaster recovery and BCP are not explicitly called out in the 2.0 version of PCI DSS; however, incident response planning is. "12.5.3 - Establish, document, and divide security incident response and escalation procedures to ensure timely and efficacious handling of every situations." likewise in the Penetration Testing supplement it states: "Perform testing in accordance with censorious company processes including change control, industry continuity, and cataclysm recovery." And, in the Application Reviews and Web Application Firewalls Clarified it states: "Adhere to every policies and procedures including change control, industry continuity, and cataclysm recovery."

  • Would you define "scope" as the geographical area of the PCI servers? Or would you define "scope" as the SAQ requirements? It seems at times they are used interchangeably.The scope of the audit surface is the cardholder data environment (CDE). The CDE is "The people, processes and technology that store, process or transmit cardholder data or sensitive authentication data, including any connected system components." So any system component in the CDE is in scope regardless of geographic location.

  • Shared accounts are prohibited according to PCI DSS as I understand it, but imagine if you own your network apparatus management outsourced and the firewalls and switches for the cardholder environment are managed by a third party or a service supplier. In this scenario, you would necessity two-factor authentication for administrative access to the CHE, but what if the service provider/supplier has several technicians and you are using RSA tokens? achieve you own to supply one authentication account and one RSA token per technician? Or is it necessary only to supply one account and one RSA token for the service provider/supplier? You're right that shared accounts are prohibited by PCI DSS; Requirement 8 states: "Assign a unique ID to each person with computer access." Strictly speaking, to exist compliant, a unique ID and two-factor token would necessity to exist assigned for each person remotely administering the firewalls and switches.

  • Can you speak to some of the feedback you own received from clients who own implemented a tokenization product, including some of the key areas to focus on when selecting a vendor?We've received positive feedback from companies that utilize tokenization in the CDE to reduce scope. One that they spoke to and own mentioned publicly is Helzberg Diamond Shops, Inc.. However, they caution that to exist completely effective, organizations necessity to likewise address scope reduction and zoning, document the tokenization implementation so it can exist reviewed during audit, and substantiate with your acquirer/processor that tokenization is acceptable. For vendor selection, the Council is working on tokenization guidance, but Visa Inc.has already issued its recommended guidance, Tokenization Best Practices.
  • Speaking from a university standpoint, they assume credit cards in many ways -- POS, Internet, MOTO – but they utilize only PA-DSS applications and they are hosted by a service provider, so they achieve not store any CHD. Their CHDE is really the PCs (and network) where the card data is entered or swiped. They own segmented every system components (PCs where CHD is entered or swiped) away from their regular network. It appears that many of the PA-DSS requirements are in reference to "stored" credit card data. Can you give me some counsel on how to determine how much of the requirements apply to us given that they achieve not store CHD? They own secured every components that own CHD entered and they are running PA-DSS-compliant applications.Sounds fondness you've done a lot of powerful scoping work. The PA-DSS applies to applications, but entities quiet necessity to exist PCI DSS compliant. Since your applications are already PA-DSS compliant, focus instead on what matters to your university, which is attesting to PCI DSS compliance. If your transactions levels qualify you for self-assessment review, the self-assessment guidelines (please espy question 1 for more information) and determine which one applies and complete that. In general, if you drop under multiple SAQs your acquirer/processer will want you to complete SAQ –D. However, to exist sure, check with your acquirer/processor to confirm.
  • Can you proffer counsel on what to gape for in an internal audit and reporting product for PCI DSS compliance?There are multiple audit and reporting implement types that can exist used in PCI DSS compliance. For example, a penetration testing system will revert reports on vulnerabilities and exposures in the CDE, while a patching system will revert reports on patch information, both of which apply. In many cases, when organizations judge about a meta-console for reporting, it is a log or event/information aggregation console that brings together multiple reporting components for utilize in PCI DSS compliance work. For any tool, gape for the talent to check for issues specific to PCI DSS (ex: password policy on servers and applications in the CDE) and report on these in a template that maps the finding to the specific requirement.

  • I own a question about PCI and the cloud. They are a PCI flat 1 merchant. They are thinking of poignant their data focus to cloud, Amazon to exist specific. They understand that Amazon is PCI flat 1 compliant. Is it really workable to exist a PCI-compliant flat 1 merchant in a cloud environment? achieve you own any guidance regarding PCI in a cloud environment?Amazon.com Inc. (Amazon Web Services – AWS) is, as of this writing, a PCI DSS Validated Service Provider. However, using AWS, or any Validated Service Provider, does not purge the necessity to entity using the service to exist PCI DSS compliant . As Amazon notes, "All merchants must manage their own PCI certification. For the portion of the PCI cardholder environment deployed in AWS, your QSA can reckon on their validated service provider status, but you will quiet exist required to fullfil every other PCI compliance and testing requirements that don't deal with the technology infrastructure, including how you manage the cardholder environment that you host with AWS." So while a cloud provider can exist third party validated as a PCI DSS provider, this doesn't value they're certified to PCI or that entities using the service are automatically certified.

    If you are going to host some or every of your CDE in the cloud, achieve so with a compliant provider. However, don't forget to annually check that the provider is remaining compliant with your CDE, as well as the parts of your CDE that are hosted in the cloud. Additionally, according to the PCI Security Standards, your RoC must "document the role of each service provider, clearly identifying which requirements apply to the assessed entity and which apply to the service provider." And:

    "12.8 – If cardholder data is shared with service providers, maintain and implement policies and procedures to manage service providers, to include the following:

    12.8.1 – Maintain a list of service providers.

    12.8.2 –Maintain a written agreement that includes an acknowledgement that the service providers are responsible for the security of cardholder data that the service providers possess.

    12.8.3 - Ensure there is an established process for engaging service providers including proper due diligence prior to engagement.

    12.8.4 - Maintain a program to monitor service providers' PCI DSS compliance status at least annually"

  • In exertion to ensure PCI compliance, they own a number of different products from different vendors, since there does not seem to exist one replete PCI compliance "solution." Is this by design? Is there any edge to having each requirement met by a different vendor's product?There are a number of components in PCI compliance and they encompass people, process and technology, and span both the physical and the logical. Also, every of the documentation related to policies and process. It would exist extremely difficult (arguably impossible) for a sole solution to achieve it all. The reality is that organizations utilize a number of different vendor solutions for the technical controls.

    Some vendors provide products that meet different controls. For example, a vendor with a log aggregation or SIEM implement that likewise sells antivirus/malware or patch management. The tremendous win is not necessarily to own every tools (or many tools) from the selfsame vendor, but to exist able to bring together reporting, logs, test and monitoring information in a centralized site to originate oversight and compliance monitoring more comprehensive and efficient.

  • How can companies deal with muster recordings in the muster focus when taking card payments by phone? Are there any mitigating factors?Because there is not a lot of muster focus guidance in the PCI DSS, the Council addressed muster focus issues in a special FAQ #5362. "The Council's position remains that if you can digitally query sensitive authentication data (SAD) contained within audio recordings - if heart-broken is easily accessible - then it must not exist stored."

    Though this is not hosted on the PCI Security standard Council Domain -- it is the official FAQ for the Council and can exist accessed directly by clicking in the FAQs link at the top of the official Council page.

    Also, gratify espy question below for additional information on storage rules regarding sensitive authentication data (SAD).

  • Our call-recording solution requires manual intervention to bleep out the CV2 number. Is this sufficient as a compensating control to meet the standard?

    If the CV2 (or any other sensitive authentication data/SAD) is not stored, this should meet the standard. Document how the manual process is implemented to ensure heart-broken is truly being deleted and not stored.

    Alternately, according to PCI Security Standards Council FAQ "If these recordings cannot exist data mined, storage of CAV2, CVC2, CVV2 or CID codes after authorization may exist permissible as long as preempt validation has been performed. This includes the physical and ratiocinative protections defined in PCI DSS that must quiet exist applied to these muster recording formats."

  • If you own backups of credit card data in a secure location, is that a violation? How can it exist mitigated?It's not a violation -- it is fraction of a requirement! Requirement 9.5 explicitly states: "Store media back-ups in a secure location, preferably an off-site facility, such as an alternate or back-up site, or a commercial storage facility. Review the location's security at least annually." bethink to originate certain the data was encrypted before it was backed up and that the personnel at the facility achieve not own the key to decrypt the data.

  • What are the rules for external scanning?External scanning is covered in Requirement 11.2.2 – "Perform quarterly external vulnerability scans via an Approved Scanning Vendor (ASV), approved by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC).

    Note: Quarterly external vulnerability scans must exist performed by an Approved Scanning Vendor (ASV), approved by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC). Scans conducted after network changes may exist performed by internal staff." 

    See the PCI Security standard for a list of ASVs

    Also helpful is the ASV Program Guide, and the ASV Client Feedback Form

  • PCI 2.0 lightly touches upon virtualization for the first time. Does this extend beyond virtual machine images to virtual appliances (e.g. utilize of virtual firewalls & virtual switches in hosted products)?Yes, according to the Scope of Assessment for Compliance it does extend to virtual appliances. "System components" in v2.0 include, "any virtualization components such as virtual machines, virtual switches/routers, virtual appliances, virtual applications/desktops, and hypervisors." likewise note that virtualization is mentioned in Requirement 2.2.1: Implement only one primary role per server, "Note: Where virtualization technologies are in use, implement only one primary role per virtual system component."

  • Is a system that is not holding the cardholder data, but only processing it (like a Web farm) a fraction of PCI audit requirements?Yes, if a system component stores, processes or transmits cardholder data or sensitive authentication data, it is fraction of the CDE and within scope of the PCI DSS audit. For additional guidance, refer to the Scope of Assessment for Compliance with PCI DSS requirements section of PCI DSS v2.0.

  • When achieve companies own to switch over to PCI 2.0?For the absolute final word on compliance deadlines, check with your acquirer or specific card brand. In general, however, v2.0 went into result on January 1, 2011 and there is a year to comply with the original standard. If you are in the middle of an assessment cycle that started in 2010 and the compliance assessment will exist completed before the halt of 2011, you can continue the process with v1.2.1. If you a starting a original assessment cycle in 2011, utilize v2.0.

  • If an organization has filled out the self assessment questionnaire (SAQ) and identified that it has not complied with the 12 DSS requirements, should the SAQ quiet exist submitted? Or should the organization wait until the 12 requirements own been satisfied?Before admitting defeat, espy if there is any course your organization can gain to exist compliant. Don't forget, if a non-compliant system or process is not essential, it could exist scoped out of the CDE and out of the compliance surface. likewise don't forget about compensating controls. The ideal is to exist fully compliant, but compensating controls provide a course for organizations to exist mitigating risks as they toil towards implementing better controls.

    According to the Compensating Controls Appendix B in SAQ D v2.0: "Compensating controls may exist considered for most PCI DSS requirements when an entity cannot meet a requirement explicitly as stated, due to legitimate technical or documented industry constraints, but has sufficiently mitigated the risk associated with the requirement through implementation of other, or compensating, controls." Also, there is a compensating control worksheet that needs to exist completed in Appendix C of the SAQ D v2.0.

    If de-scoping the non-compliant system and compensating controls are not options, then you will necessity to check the "Non-Compliant" box on the SAQ and save in a target date for compliance. In most cases, your acquirer/processor will want to espy this proof, and possibly question your organization to fill out the "Action Plan" fraction of the SAQ; however, check with your acquirer/processor to exist sure.

  • Let's talk about the mythical beast that is end-to-end encryption. Does it exist? More specifically, one of their audience members asked, "What if end-to-end encryption from the pin pad / card swipe POS is implemented? Does that assume everything out of PCI scope?"The Council is calling this P2PE for point-to-point encryption. significance turning the cardholder data into ciphertext (encrypting it) and then transmitting it, encrypted to a destination, for example, the payment processor. If the P2PE begins on swipe by cashier of the credit card at the PoS (point of sale) and continues every the course to the processor, it is not stored, and no one in the interim path has the keys to decrypt the data, then it could reduce the scope of the audit surface significantly. Caveats here are that everything will necessity to exist implemented correctly, validated and tested. However, note that the entity quiet must exist PCI DSS compliant – though compliance may exist greatly simplified. And, at this time, the PCI Security Standards Council quiet deems P2PE an emerging technology and is formalizing official guidance, training QSAs on how to evaluate apropos P2PE components, as well as considering creating a validated list of P2PE solutions. For more information on the status of P2PE, gratify read the Initial Roadmap: Point-to-Point Encryption Technology and PCI DSS Compliance program guide.

  • Under what circumstances can an internal audit certify a merchant as being PCI compliant?If the merchant qualifies for SAQ completion, internal audit can exist responsible for the assessment and attestation process. "Each payment card brand has defined specific requirements for compliance validation and reporting, such as provisions for performing self-assessments and when to engage a QSA."

    If the merchant must complete a RoC, it is workable to achieve the on-site assessment with an internal resource if the brand allows it. Check with your brand for specifics, Mastercard Inc., for example, has deemed that as of June 30, 2011, the "primary internal auditor staff engaged in validating PCI DSS compliance [must] attend PCI SSC ISA Training and pass the associated accreditation program annually."

  • What PCI and security implications achieve you anticipate arising with the original generation of contact-less cards, given that they are now being widely distributed?If the data can exist transmitted in a secure encrypted format over the RF from the contact-less card to a secure endpoint, the data should not exist exposed. However, if the data from the card is in clear-text over the air, sniffing attacks will exist a major concern. Also, key management and MiTMs may exist problems depending on specific technical implementations.

  • Are quarterly penetration tests quiet required for wireless access points that are using WPA-2?Yes, quarterly tests are required. Requirement 11.1 covers every known/unknown wireless access points regardless of protections on them. "11.1 - Test for the presence of wireless access points and detect unauthorized wireless access points on a quarterly basis." The intuition for this is that one of the intents of this requirement is to ensure there are no rogue devices in the CDE.

  • Does Citrix sessioning between payment apps and hosted sites provide sufficient encryption for PCI compliance?If the session is configured to transmit the data between the payment apps and the hosted site using an approved routine (ex: SSL/TLS ) then it should exist compliant for at least the transmission portion of the standard.

    Requirement 4.1 -- "Use stalwart cryptography and security protocols (for example, SSL/TLS, IPSEC, SSH, etc.) to safeguard sensitive cardholder data during transmission over open, public networks."

  • How much are organizations spending on PCI compliance? Can you provide a range both for one-time costs and annual maintenance?There are two sides to this coin: cost of the audit and cost of compliance overall.
  • Audit cost: According to a recent Ponemon survey on PCI DSS trends (.pdf), the indifferent cost of the audit itself is $225,000 for the largest (Tier 1) merchants, but the cost can range much higher or lower depending on complexity of the environment, size of the CDE, and other factors .

  • Overall cost of compliance: In 2008, Gartner conducted a survey of 50 merchants and establish that PCI costs had been increasing since 2006 (Gartner.com registration required) and cited costs averaging 2.7M for Tier 1 merchants, 1.1M for Tier 2, and 155k for Tier 3. Again, these are averages, so your particular case might exist different.
  • Requirement 2.2.1 mandates that censorious servers provide a single-purpose service. If I own a sole server hosting an e-commerce application with a Web server and database residing on a physical server, achieve I necessity to site the database on a separate server?Yes, in most cases. Requirement 2.2.1 – "Implement only one primary role per server to obviate functions that require different security levels from co-existing on the selfsame server." The intent of this requirement is to provide some protections if the underlying host, in this case the operation system running the database and e-commerce application is breached, causing one or both of the services to exist exposed to attack. VMs are now allowed, so the selfsame piece of hardware could exist used with a hypervisor to separate the two services across two VMs. Alternately, if there is a censorious industry need, such as performance, for both primary functions to exist on the selfsame server, consider if this justifies a compensating control by completing the compensating control worksheet (Appendix C of the PCI DSS).
  • About the author:Ed Moyle is currently a manager with CTG's Information Security Solutions practice, providing strategy, consulting, and solutions to clients worldwide as well as a founding confederate of SecurityCurve.

    Diana Kelley is a confederate with Amherst, N.H.-based consulting solid SecurityCurve. She formerly served as vice president and service director with research solid Burton Group. She has extensive experience creating secure network architectures and industry solutions for large corporations and delivering strategic, competitive scholarship to security software vendors.



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