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P2050-004 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : P2050-004
Test cognomen : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 30 true Questions

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IBM IBM Commerce Solutions Order

IBM (IBM) Down 10.three% given that ultimate revenue record: Can It Rebound? | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

A month has gone by due to the fact the closing profits document for IBM (IBM). Shares fill misplaced about 10.three% in that time frame, underperforming the S&P 500.

Will the simultaneous poverty-stricken style continue main up to its subsequent revenue unlock, or is IBM due for a breakout? before they dive into how traders and analysts fill reacted as of late, let's retract a short appear to exist at the most recent salary document in an exertion to tangle a higher deal with on the censorious catalysts.

IBM’s Q2 outcomes capitalize from cost cutting, lessen share count

IBM suggested third-quarter 2018 non-GAAP income of $three.42 per share, which beat the Zacks Consensus estimate through pair of cents. revenue per share (EPS) elevated four.9% from the year-in the past quarter.

The 12 months-over-year boom in EPS will moreover exist attributed to solid pre-tax margin working leverage (28 cents contribution) and aggressive share buybacks (19 cents contribution). This turned into in piece offset through lessen revenues (seven cents poverty-stricken influence) and better tax price (17 cents poverty-stricken affect).

Revenues of $18.seventy six billion lagged the Zacks Consensus estimate of $19.10 billion and declined 2.1% on a 12 months-over-year foundation. At consistent currency (cc), revenues remained flat.

IBM brought up that signings plunged 21% to $eight billion. functions backlog declined 3% from the yr-in the past quarter to $113 billion.

Geographic earnings details

Revenues from Americas inched up 1%, pushed by artery of persevered boom in Canada and Latin the us and modest enlarge within the u.s..

Europe, core-East and Africa reduced 2% from the yr-in the past quarter, pushed with the aid of decline in Germany and France, partially offset by means of boom in Spain and the United Kingdom.

Asia-Pacific revenues declined 1% on a 12 months-over-year foundation with modest enlarge in Japan.

Strategic Imperatives enlarge Continues

Strategic Imperatives (cloud, analytics, mobility and protection) grew 7% at cc from the year-in the past quarter to $9.three billion. safety revenues surged 34%. On a trailing 12-month basis, Strategic Imperatives revenues had been $39.5 billion, up 13% (11% at cc).

Cloud revenues surged 13% from the 12 months-in the past quarter to $4.6 billion. The annual flee expense for cloud as-a-service revenues multiplied 24% at cc on a 12 months-over-year basis to $11.four billion.

Cloud revenues of $19 billion on a trailing 12-month groundwork multiplied 20% (18% at cc) and now bills for 24% of IBM’s total revenues.

Cognitive Revenues Decline

Cognitive options’ revenues-exterior diminished 5.7% yr over yr (down 5% at cc) to $four.15 billion. Segmental revenues pertaining to Strategic Imperatives and Cloud declined 4% and 2%, respectively. Cloud as-a-service revenue annual flee price turned into $2 billion.

options application comprises offerings in strategic verticals fondness health, domain-certain capabilities fondness analytics and protection, and IBM’s emerging technologies of AI and blockchain. The section additionally includes choices that wield horizontal domains fondness collaboration, commerce and ability. solutions software revenues lowered three% 12 months over yr within the quarter.

IBM pointed out that in commerce domain the infusion of AI into choices fondness customer journey analytics helped SaaS signings to develop double digit within the quarter. The recent launch of Notes Domino version 10, which is optimized for mobile, and helps JavaScript and node.js will enlarge boom collaboration in 2019.

Transaction Processing application contains application that runs mission-essential workloads, leveraging IBM’s hardware systems. Revenues fell eight% on a year-over-yr groundwork.

IBM witnessed enlarge in industry verticals fondness fitness, key areas of analytics and safety within the quarter. Watson health witnessed huge-based boom in Payer, issuer, Imaging and lifestyles Sciences domains.

all through the quarter, the Sugar.IQ utility, developed with the aid of Medtronic in partnership with IBM, hit the market. The utility is designed to simplify and enrich every day diabetes management.

IBM pointed out that analytics carried out neatly in the quarter, pushed by information science choices and IBM Cloud deepest for statistics offering.

all the artery through the quarter, the traffic announced jaundice detection capabilities and launched original Watson capabilities on the IBM Cloud inner most platform.

safety boom became driven through offerings in orchestration, facts safety and endpoint management.

In blockchain, IBM meals confidence community for meals protection went live within the quarter. Reatiler Carrefour joined IBM’s blockchain community. The company moreover collectively announced TradeLens with Maersk that addresses inefficiencies in the international give chain. IBM presently supports seventy five vigorous blockchain networks.

world company capabilities Revenues boost

Revenues from international enterprise features-exterior side fill been $four.13 billion, up 0.9% from the yr-ago quarter (up 3% at cc). Segmental revenues touching on Strategic Imperatives grew 9%. Cloud apply surged 18%. Cloud as-a-service income annual flee cost changed into $1.9 billion.

application management revenues declined 1% from the yr-ago quarter. youngsters, international process functions revenues climbed 2%. furthermore, Consulting revenues extended 7% year over yr, driven by artery of astounding performance from IBM’s digital company.

expertise functions & Cloud structures: Revenues Dip

Revenues from know-how services & Cloud structures-exterior decreased 2% from the 12 months-in the past quarter (flat at cc) to $eight.29 billion. Segmental revenues pertaining to Strategic Imperatives superior sixteen%, pushed by using hybrid cloud services. Cloud surged 22% from the year-ago quarter. Cloud as-a-provider income annual flee fee turned into $7.5 billion.

Integration software extended 1% from the 12 months-ago quarter. throughout the quarter, 95 organizations total over the world chosen IBM Cloud inner most providing. Infrastructure features revenues additionally expanded 1% on a 12 months-over-year basis.

however, Technical back services revenues reduced 3% from the yr-ago quarter.

vigour & z14 obligate systems Revenues

techniques revenues multiplied 0.9% on a 12 months-over-yr foundation (up 2% at cc) to $1.seventy four billion. Segmental revenues touching on Strategic Imperatives surged 5%, whereas Cloud revenues declined 8%.

IBM Z revenues extended 6% year over year on greater than 20% MIPS boom, pushed via wide-based mostly adoption of the z14 mainframe.

vigour revenues elevated 17% from the yr-in the past quarter. throughout the quarter, IBM launched its next generation POWER9 processors for midrange and excessive-conclusion programs which are designed for dealing with advanced analytics, cloud environments and records-intensive workloads in AI, HANA, and UNIX markets.

IBM additionally added original offerings optimizing both hardware and software for AI. administration believes that items fondness PowerAI imaginative and prescient and PowerAI enterprise will assist obligate original consumer adoption.

youngsters, storage hardware revenues declined 6% as a result of fragile efficiency within the midrange and tall end, partly offset through astounding boom in total glance Arrays. IBM cited that pricing power in the immensely competitive storage market is hurting revenues. The company announced its original FlashSystems with next generation NVMe know-how perquisite through the quarter.

operating methods application revenues declined 4%, while methods Hardware advanced 4% from the 12 months-in the past quarter.

at last, global Financing (comprises financing and used device income) revenues decreased 9.1% at cc to $388 million.

operating details

Non-GAAP Gross margin remained unchanged from the year-in the past quarter at forty seven.4%. This become IBM’s surest Gross margin performance in years and become primarily pushed by means of a hundred and sixty groundwork elements (bps) enlargement in services margin. despite the fact, adverse coalesce in z14 mainframe and application absolutely offset this enlargement.

working fee declined four% year over 12 months, due to cognizance of acquisition synergies and enhancing operational efficiencies. IBM continues to invest in speedy becoming fields fondness hybrid cloud, synthetic intelligence (AI), safety and blockchain.

Pre-tax margin from carrying on with operations extended 50 bps on a year-over-yr basis to 19.2%.

Cognitive solutions and international traffic functions section pre-tax margins extended one hundred ninety bps and 320 bps, respectively, on a yr-over-year foundation. although, expertise capabilities & Cloud structures section pre-tax margin reduced in size 100 bps.

programs pre-tax earnings changed into $209 million down 38% yr over year. international Financing side pre-tax salary jumped 26.7% to $308 million.

balance Sheet & cash circulate details

IBM ended third-quarter 2018 with $14.70 billion in complete cash and marketable securities in comparison with $eleven.93 billion on the intermission of 2nd-quarter 2018. complete debt (together with world financing) became $forty six.9 billion, up $1.4 million from the previous quarter.

IBM pronounced cash stream from operations (except world Financing receivables) of $3.1 billion and generated free money stream of $2.2 billion in the quarter.

within the suggested quarter, the company returned $2.1 billion to shareholders via dividends and share repurchases. at the conclusion of the quarter, the company had $1.four billion remaining under present buyback authorization.

information

IBM reiterated EPS forecast for 2018. Non-GAAP EPS is expected to exist as a minimum $13.eighty.

IBM still anticipates 2018 free money trot of $12 billion.

Story continues

How fill Estimates Been affecting in view that Then?

in the past month, investors fill witnessed a downward trend in fresh estimates.

VGM scores

at the moment, IBM has a proper enlarge rating of C, even though it's lagging just a dinky on the Momentum ranking entrance with a D. besides the fact that children, the stock changed into allotted a grade of A on the cost aspect, inserting it in the exact quintile for this funding approach.

standard, the inventory has an aggregate VGM ranking of B. if you aren't focused on one approach, this score is the one exist positive you exist attracted to.

Outlook

Estimates were extensively trending downward for the inventory, and the magnitude of those revisions shows a downward shift. principally, IBM has a Zacks Rank #3 (hold). They are expecting an in-line revert from the stock in the following few months.

desire the latest concepts from Zacks investment analysis? today, you can down load 7 most fulfilling stocks for the subsequent 30 Days. click on to tangle this free file foreign company Machines corporation (IBM) : Free stock analysis file To study this article on Zacks.com click on here. Zacks funding research


IBM predicts AI will create a original breed of entrepreneurs | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

as the calendar flips, entrepreneurs will appear to exist to find original the artery to gain an area. As IBM predicts, a brand original breed of entrepreneurs is emerging with the back of synthetic intelligence.

IBM Watson advertising released its 2019 advertising developments report, highlighting developments within the trade. The team expected that in the emotion economy, patrons will likely fill interaction more with manufacturers which are true and convey on their convictions.

That can moreover now not exist a brand original evolution by itself, however IBM believes AI and desktop studying will invent hyper-personalization a reality because the proliferation of information and the streamlining of advertising stacks will allow marketers to convey personalised content material at a gargantuan scale.

Michael Trapani, marketing application director for IBM Watson advertising, spoke of emotion and personal connection would not fill to exist in conflict with the seemingly unruffled and calculating world of AI.

"Making a reference to a brand will always exist a extremely human, emotion-driven manner for buyers. the region AI and desktop learning are available is the capacity to more desirable inform marketers in response to uncovering insights about your consumers that a human may not contemplate or find. those insights then permit human entrepreneurs to strengthen greater and extra censorious inventive and then bring it at scale across channels to particular person consumers," spoke of Trapani.

based on the document, the estimated inflow of AI will lead to emergence of 'consulgencies,' as the need to build out skills in customer journey analytics and cell apps will contemplate the capabilities of consultancies and agencies converge.

"many of the company companions that labor with IBM fill brought or extended their technical and information integration and consulting capabilities. Many are additionally relocating to more of consultative arrangement, focused greater on hours and outcomes than on media buys. As for AI, total businesses even with dimension are exploring makes exercise of of AI to remedy their customer's marketing and customer challenges, whether it's pile chatbots or interactive experiences," Trapani said.

"companies are additionally increasingly the exercise of off-the-shelf AI-based mostly marketing solutions that can prognosticate most useful client journeys, establish purchasers without doubt to churn, and determine and prognosticate where consumers are struggling to complete desires in an online journey."

among the predictions consist of the boom of the director of advertising and marketing facts role and the emergence of the 'martecheter,' a more tech-savvy marketer. The record additionally says that, historically, the premier advantages to a marketers fill been funds, equipment, and ability, however that order will flip as the trade strikes far from hiring single-expert entrepreneurs given the stress on customer event and advertising applied sciences.

The internal workings of the gross C-suite may contemplate a change, too. based on the record, the focal point on client centricity will create more opportunities for commerce and digital teams to blend and experiment with client records.


Metro footwear faucets IBM Watson For Digital Commerce | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

ibm shoes

Metro footwear Ltd, one of India’s leading multi-company sneakers chains, is launching a original Digital Commerce platform powered by using Watson customer date hosted on IBM Cloud. this could comprise IBM Watson Order management and Commerce for seamless digital engagement. Working with IBM enterprise accomplice CEBS international, IBM solutions will no longer simplest champion pressure superior client experiences and original tiers of comfort however bring efficiencies to the provide chain.

With a national footprint of 350 physical showrooms, an increasing brand portfolio and changing consumer preferences, Metro shoes Ltd turned into dealing with challenges in managing orders coming from diverse on-line systems.  earlier dealt with through unreliable application, leading to want of visibility of real-time records of income, inventory vicinity and returns. moreover its stock administration challenges, Metro shoes Ltd mandatory to enlarge online presence for some of their universal interior manufacturers which were getting low visibility impacting universal earnings.

“technology is redefining client date and will exist the key differentiator for retail manufacturers of the longer term. We’re excited to collaborate with IBM and CEBS to embark on their digital transformation experience,” spoke of Alisha Malik, vice chairman, Digital, Metro shoes. “With IBM’s talents in the omni-channel commerce and retail area, they are confident that these alterations will now not best back accelerate the execution of their strategy, however additionally supply us an aspect over competition. At Metro shoes, they strongly accept as exact with that the original reply will enhance the proper user journey, thereby expanding revisits, traffic and loyalty.”

With IBM, Metro footwear Ltd can profit original ranges of consumer insight, which may moreover exist used to customise the online journey for every traveler as they navigate in the course of the web page. Delivered via a sole platform, Metro footwear should exist capable of expose off total of its brands and intimate particular gadgets according to insights shared with the aid of purchasers. This personalised event will comprise original and handy fulfillmentoptions similar to buy on-line, settle upon up in store, reserve in shop and straightforward returns. on account of these original capabilities, Metro footwear could exist capable of bring up every vacationer’s experience on the site through enabling commerce practitioners with cognitive paraphernalia which champion them convey omni-channel experiences that interact consumers and power earnings.

With IBM’s know-how capabilities and CEBS abilities with industry integration, Metro footwear as a company/vendor will moreover exist in a position to combine with greater than 14 e-marketplaces fondness Amazon, Flipkart and other leading portals with a centralized system and inventory engine to allow Metro to scale as much as the wants of a turning out to exist marketplace enterprise. further, IBM Cloud will back carry the potential to configure heavy workloads and thereby carry efficiency required for height utilization during the looking season.

speakme in regards to the collaboration, Nishant Kalra, company unit chief – IBM Watson consumer date - India/South Asiaadded, “IBM is on the forefront of helping valued clientele comprise more recent how you can labor and digitally transforming the artery they interact with their intermission valued clientele. we're joyful to exist a piece of Metro footwear’ digital transformation experience via delivering sophisticated digital commerce journey, leveraging the shops by means of merging them with on-line, and eventually driving manufacturer advocacy. IBM in association with CEBS will permit deep innovation, sooner-go-to-market and streamline processes for scalability.”

The IBM platform will create a bridge between its online and offline traffic which the retailer prior to now lacked. With the brand original integrated sole view, Metro footwear sooner or later could exist able to exercise insights received from the digital realm to design special offering for customers as they stroll into any of their stores. consequently, they could suffer in intellect what consumers need, exist unavoidable availability when and where they want it and even examine trot selling and upselling throughout their a number of manufacturers.

For Metro shoes, IBM Watson Order administration and Commerce options can pave approach for IBM’s cognitive applied sciences to carry insights that champion them supply customers with personalised strategies and an more advantageous person event –from click to birth.

“With over 15 years of event in constructing e-enterprise equipment, CEBS has been a trusted solutions company and colleague for businesses throughout the globe,”pointed out Satish Swaroop, President, CEBS global. Their constructive and all-around utility solutions paired with IBM’s deep expertise information will supply Metro footwear a true-time, centralized paraphernalia for client administration.”




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P2050-004 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : P2050-004
Test cognomen : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 30 true Questions

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Modeled larval connectivity of a multi-species reef fish and invertebrate assemblage off the coast of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Introduction

Knowledge of population connectivity is necessary for effectual management in marine environments (Mitarai, Siegel & Winters, 2008; Botsford et al., 2009; Toonen et al., 2011). For many species of marine invertebrate and reef fish, dispersal is mostly limited to the pelagic larval life stage. Therefore, an understanding of larval dispersal patterns is censorious for studying population dynamics, connectivity, and conservation in the marine environment (Jones, Srinivasan & Almany, 2007; Lipcius et al., 2008; Gaines et al., 2010; Toonen et al., 2011). Many coastal and reef species fill a bi-phasic life history in which adults panoply limited geographic compass and tall site fidelity, while larvae are pelagic and highly mobile (Thorson, 1950; Scheltema, 1971; Strathmann, 1993; Marshall et al., 2012). This life history strategy is not only common to sessile invertebrates such as corals or limpets; many reef fish species fill been shown to fill a home compass of <1 km as adults (Meyer et al., 2000; Meyer, Papastamatiou & Clark, 2010). Depending on species, the mobile planktonic stage can ultimate from hours to months and has the potential to transport larvae up to hundreds of kilometers away from a site of origin (Scheltema, 1971; Richmond, 1987; Shanks, 2009). information of larval dispersal patterns can exist used to inform effectual management, such as marine spatial management strategies that sustain source populations of breeding individuals capable of dispersing offspring to other areas.

Both biological and physical factors repercussion larval dispersal, although the relative consequence of these factors is likely variable among species and sites and remains debated (Levin, 2006; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009; White et al., 2010). In situ data on pelagic larvae are sparse; marine organisms at this life stage are difficult to capture and identify, and are typically establish in low densities across big areas of the open ocean (Clarke, 1991; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). A variety of genetic and chemistry techniques fill therefore been developed to estimate larval connectivity (Gillanders, 2005; Leis, Siebeck & Dixson, 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2018). Computer models informed by domain and laboratory data fill moreover become a valuable appliance for estimating larval dispersal and population connectivity (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Botsford et al., 2009; Sponaugle et al., 2012; Kough, Paris & Butler IV, 2013; Wood et al., 2014). Individual-based models, or IBMs, can incorporate both biological and physical factors known to influence larval movement. Pelagic larval duration (PLD), for example, is the amount of time a larva spends in the water column before settlement and can vary widely among or even within species ( Toonen & Pawlik, 2001). PLD affects how far an individual can exist successfully transported by ocean currents, and so is expected to directly handle connectivity patterns (Siegel et al., 2003; Shanks, 2009; Dawson et al., 2014). In addition to PLD, adult reproductive strategy and timing (Carson et al., 2010; Portnoy et al., 2013), fecundity (Castorani et al., 2017), larval mortality (Vikebøet al., 2007), and larval developmental, morphological, and behavioral characteristics (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007) may total play a role in shaping connectivity patterns. Physical factors such as temperature, bathymetry, and current direction can moreover substantially influence connectivity (Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009). In this study, they incorporated both biotic and abiotic components in an IBM coupled with an oceanographic model to prognosticate fine-scale patterns of larval exchange around the island of Moloka‘i in the Hawaiian archipelago.

The main Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and are bordered by the North Hawaiian Ridge current along the northern coasts of the islands and the Hawaii Lee Current along the southern coasts, both of which flee east to west and are driven by the current easterly trade winds (Lumpkin, 1998; Friedlander et al., 2005). The Hawai‘i Lee Countercurrent, which runs along the southern perimeter of the chain, flows west to east (Lumpkin, 1998). The pattern of mesoscale eddies around the islands is involved and varies seasonally (Friedlander et al., 2005; Vaz et al., 2013).

Hawaiian marine communities pan unprecedented pressures, including coastal development, overexploitation, disease, and increasing temperature and acidification due to climate change (Smith, 1993; Lowe, 1995; Coles & Brown, 2003; Friedlander et al., 2003; Friedlander et al., 2005; Aeby, 2006). Declines in Hawaiian marine resources quarrel for implementation of a more holistic approach than traditional single-species maximum sustainable succumb techniques, which fill proven ineffective (Goodyear, 1996; Hilborn, 2011). There is a common movement toward the exercise of ecosystem-based management, which requires information of ecosystem structure and connectivity patterns to establish and manage marine spatial planning areas (Slocombe, 1993; Browman et al., 2004; Pikitch et al., 2004; Arkema, Abramson & Dewsbury, 2006). Kalaupapa National Historical Park is a federal marine protected region (MPA) located on the north shore of Moloka‘i, an island in the Maui Nui involved of the Hawaiian archipelago, that includes submerged lands and waters up to 1 4 mile offshore (NOAA, 2009). At least five IUCN red-listed coral species fill been identified within this area (Kenyon, Maragos & Fenner, 2011), and in 2010 the Park showed the greatest fish biomass and species diversity out of four Hawaiian National Parks surveyed (Beets, Brown & Friedlander, 2010). One of the major benefits expected of MPAs is that the protected waters within the region provide a source of larval spillover to other sites on the island, seeding these areas for commercial, recreational, and subsistence fishing (McClanahan & Mangi, 2000; Halpern & Warner, 2003; Lester et al., 2009).

In this study, they used a Lagrangian particle-tracking IBM (Wong-Ala et al., 2018) to simulate larval dispersal around Moloka‘i and to estimate the larval exchange among sites at the scale of an individual island. They fill parameterized their model with biological data for eleven species covering a breadth of Hawaiian reef species life histories (e.g., habitat preferences, larval behaviors, and pelagic larval durations, Table 1), and of interest to both the local community and resource managers. Their goals were to examine patterns of species-specific connectivity, characterize the location and relative magnitude of connections around Moloka‘i, relate sites of potential management relevance, and address the question of whether Kalaupapa National Historical Park provides larval spillover for adjacent sites on Moloka‘i, or connections to the adjacent islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, O‘ahu, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe.

Table 1:

Target taxa selected for the study, based on cultural, ecological, and/or economic importance.

PLD = pelagic larval duration. Short dispersers (3–25 day minimum PLD) in white, medium dispersers (30–50 day minimum PLD) in light gray, and long dispersers (140–270 day minimum PLD) in shaded gray. Spawn season and timing from traditional ecological information shared by cultural practitioners on the island. Asterisk indicates that congener-level data was used. Commonname Scientific name Spawn type # of larvae spawned Spawningday of year Spawning hour of day Spawning moon phase Larval depth (m) PLD (days) Habitat ’Opihi/ Limpet Cellana spp. Broadcast1 861,300 1–60 & 121–181 – New 0–5 3–181,2 Intertidal1 Ko’a/ Cauliflower coral Pocillopora meandrina Broadcast3 1,671,840 91–151 07:15–08:00 Full 0–54 5–90*5 Reef He’e/ Octopus Octopus cyanea Benthic6 1,392,096 1–360 – – 50–100 216 Reef, rubble7 Moi/ Pacific threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis Broadcast 1,004,640 152–243 – – 50–1008 259 Sand10 Uhu uliuli/ Spectacled parrotfish Chlorurus perspicillatus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Reef10 Uhu palukaluka/ Reddlip parrotfish Scarus rubroviolaceus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Rock, reef10 Kumu/ Whitesaddle Goatfish Parupeneus porphyreus Broadcast 1,071,252 32–90 – – 0–50*11 41–56*12 Sand, rock, reef10 Kole/ Spotted surgeonfish Ctenochaetus strigosus Broadcast 1,177,200 60–120 – – 50–10011 50*12 Rock, reef, rubble10 ‘Ōmilu/ Bluefin trevally Caranx melampygus Broadcast 1,310,616 121–243 – – 0–80*11 140*13,14 Sand, reef10 Ulua/ Giant trevally Caranx ignoblis Broadcast 1,151,040 152–243 – Full 0–80*11 14013,14 Sand, rock, reef10 Ula/ Spiny lobster Panulirus spp. Benthic15 1,573,248 152–243 – – 50–10016 27017 Rock, pavement16 Methods Circulation model

We selected the hydrodynamic model MITgcm, which is designed for the study of dynamical processes in the ocean on a horizontal scale. This model solves incompressible Navier–Stokes equations to relate the motion of viscous fluid on a sphere, discretized using a finite-volume technique (Marshall et al., 1997). The one-km resolution MITgcm domain for this study extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N, an region that includes the islands of Moloka‘i, Maui, Lana‘i, Kaho‘olawe, O‘ahu, and Hawai‘i. While Ni‘ihau and southern Kaua’i moreover topple within the domain, they discarded connectivity to these islands because they palter within the 0.5° boundary zone of the current model. boundary conditions are enforced over 20 grid points on total sides of the model domain. Vertically, the model is divided into 50 layers that enlarge in thickness with depth, from five m at the surface (0.0–5.0 m) to 510 m at the basis (4,470 –4,980 m). Model variables were initialized using the output of a Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) at a horizontal resolution of 0.04° (∼four km) configured for the main Hawaiian Islands, using the common Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans database (GEBCO, 1/60°) (Jia et al., 2011).

The simulation runs from March 31st, 2011 to July 30th, 2013 with a temporal resolution of 24 h and shows seasonal eddies as well as persistent mesoscale features (Fig. S1). They Do not comprise tides in the model due to temporal resolution. Their model epoch represents a neutral ocean state; no El Niño or La Niña events occurred during this time period. To ground-truth the circulation model, they compared surface current output to real-time trajectories of surface drifters from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly center (Fig. S2) (Elipot et al., 2016), as well as other current models of the region (Wren et al., 2016; Storlazzi et al., 2017).

Biological model

To simulate larval dispersal, they used a modified version of the Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM, a 3D Lagrangian particle-tracking model written in the R programming language (R Core Team, 2017). The model takes the aforementioned MITgcm current products as input, as well as shoreline shapefiles extracted from the complete resolution NOAA Global Self-consistent Hierarchical High-resolution Geography database, v2.3.0 (Wessel & Smith, 1996). Their model included 65 land masses within the geographic domain, the largest being the island of Hawai‘i and the smallest being Pu‘uki‘i Island, a 1.5-acre islet off the eastern coast of Maui. To model depth, they used the one arc-minute-resolution ETOPO1 bathymetry, extracted using the R package ‘marmap’ (Amante & Eakins, 2009; Pante & Simon-Bouhet, 2013).

Each species was simulated with a part model run. Larvae were modeled from spawning to settlement and were transported at each timestep (t = 2 h) by advection-diffusion transport. This transport consisted of (1) advective displacement caused by water flow, consisting of east (u) and north (v) velocities read from daily MITgcm files, and (2) additional random-walk displacement, using a diffusion constant of 0.2 m2/s−1 (Lowe et al., 2009). upright velocities (w) were not implemented by the model; details of upright larval movement are described below. Advection was interpolated between data points at each timestep using an Eulerian 2D barycentric interpolation method. They chose this implementation over a more computationally intensive interpolation artery (i.e., fourth-order Runge–Kutta) because they did not solemnize a disagreement at this timestep length. Biological processes modeled comprise PLD, reproduction timing and location, mortality, and ontogenetic changes in upright distribution; these qualities were parameterized via species-specific data obtained from previous studies and from the local fishing and management community (Table 1).

Larvae were released from habitat-specific spawning sites and were considered settled if they fell within a roughly one-km contour around reef or intertidal habitat at the intermission of their pelagic larval duration. Distance from habitat was used rather than water depth because Penguin Bank, a relatively shallow bank to the southwest of Moloka‘i, does not portray suitable habitat for reef-associated species. PLD for each larva was a randomly assigned value between the minimum and maximum PLD for that species, and larvae were removed from the model if they had reached their PLD and were not within a settlement zone. No data on pre-competency epoch were available for their study species, so this parameter was not included. Mortality rates were calculated as larval half-lives; e.g., one-half of total larvae were assumed to fill survived at one-half of the maximum PLD for that species (following Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Since their focus was on potential connectivity pathways, reproductive rates were calibrated to allow for saturation of practicable settlement sites, equating from ∼900,000 to ∼1,7000,000 larvae released depending on species. Fecundity was therefore derived not from biological data, but from computational minimums.

Development, and resulting ontogenetic changes in behavior, is specific to the life history of each species. Broadcast-spawning species with weakly-swimming larvae (P. meandrina and Cellana spp., Table 1) were transported as passive particles randomly distributed between 0–5 m depth (Storlazzi, Brown & Field, 2006). Previous studies fill demonstrated that fish larvae fill a tall degree of control over their upright position in the water column (Irisson et al., 2010; Huebert, Cowen & Sponaugle, 2011). Therefore, they modeled broadcast-spawning fish species with a 24-hour passive buoyant side to simulate eggs pre-hatch, followed by a pelagic larval side with a species-specific depth distribution. For C. ignoblis, C. melampygus, P. porphyreus, C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus, they used genus-level depth distributions (Fig. S3) obtained from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton upright distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996). P. sexfilis and C. strigosus larvae were randomly distributed between 50–100 m (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992). Benthic brooding species (O. cyanea and Panulirus spp.) Do not fill a passive buoyant phase, and thus were released as larvae randomly distributed between 50–100 m. At each time step, a larva’s depth was checked against bathymetry, and was assigned to the nearest available layer if the species-specific depth was not available at these coordinates.

For data-poor species, they used congener-level estimates for PLD (see Table 1). For example, there is no estimate of larval duration for Caranx species, but in Hawai‘i peak spawning occurs in May–July and peak recruitment in August–December (Sudekum, 1984; Longenecker, Langston & Barrett, 2008). In consultation with resource managers and community members, a PLD of 140 days was chosen pending future data that indicates a more accurate pelagic period.

Habitat selection

Spawning sites were generated using data from published literature and modified after input from endemic Hawaiian cultural practitioners and the Moloka‘i fishing community (Fig. 1). Species-specific habitat suitability was inferred from the 2013–2016 Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands (Costa & Kendall, 2016). They designated coral habitat as areas with 5–90% coral cover, or ≥1 site-specific coral species richness, for a total of 127 spawning sites on Moloka‘i. Habitat for reef invertebrates followed coral habitat, with additional sites added after community feedback for a total of 136 sites. Areas with a predicted reef fish biomass of 58–1,288 g/m2 were designated as reef fish habitat (Stamoulis et al., 2016), for a total of 109 spawning sites. Sand habitat was designated as 90–100% uncolonized for a total of 115 sites. Intertidal habitat was designated as any rocky shoreline region not covered by sand or mud, for a total of 87 sites. Number of adults was assumed equal at total sites. For regional analysis, they pooled sites into groups of two to 11 sites based on benthic habitat and surrounding geography (Fig. 1A). Adjacent sites were grouped if they shared the selfsame benthic habitat classification and current wave direction, and/or were piece of the selfsame reef tract.

Figure 1: Spawning sites used in the model by species. (A) C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, P. porphyreus, C. strigosus, C. ignoblis, and C. melampygus, n = 109; (B) P. meandrina, n = 129;(C) O. cyanea and Panulirus spp., n = 136; (D) P. sexfilis, n = 115; and (E) Cellana spp., n = 87. Region names are displayed over associated spawning sites for fish species in (A). Regions are made up of two to 11 sites, grouped based on coastal geography and surrounding benthic habitat, and are designated in (A) by adjacent colored dots. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green in (A). Source–sink dynamics and local retention

Dispersal distance was measured via the distm function in the R package ‘geosphere’, which calculates distance between geographical points via the Haversine formula (Hijmans, 2016). This distance, measured between spawn and settlement locations, was used to cipher dispersal kernels to examine and compare species-specific distributions. They moreover measured local retention, or the percentage of successful settlers from a site that were retained at that site (i.e., settlers at site A that originated from site A/total successful settlers that originated from site A). To estimate the role of specific sites around Moloka‘i, they moreover calculated a source–sink index for each species (Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014; Wren et al., 2016). This index defines sites as either a source, in which a site’s successful export to other sites is greater than its import, or a sink, in which import from other sites is greater than successful export. It is calculated by dividing the disagreement between number of successfully exported and imported larvae by the sum of total successfully exported and imported larvae. A value <0 indicates that a site acts as a net sink, while a value >0 indicates that a site acts as a net source. While they measured successful dispersal to adjacent islands, they did not spawn larvae from them, and therefore these islands portray exogenous sinks. For this reason, settlement to other islands was not included in source–sink index calculations.

We moreover calculated settlement balance between different regions for each species (Calabrese & Fagan, 2004). They calculated the forward settlement proportion, i.e., the balance of settlers from a specific settlement site (s) originating from an observed root site (o), by scaling the number of successful settlers from site o settling at site s to total successful settlers originating from site o. Forward balance can exist represented as Pso = Sos∕∑So. They moreover calculated rearward settlement proportion, or the balance of settlers from a specific root site (o) observed at settlement site (s), by scaling the number of settlers observed at site s originating from site o to total settlers observed at site s. The rearward balance can exist represented as Pos = Sos∕∑Ss.

Graph-theoretic analysis

To quantify connections between sites, they applied graph theory to population connectivity (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Graph theoretic analysis is highly scalable and can exist used to examine fine-scale networks between reef sites up to broad-scale analyses between islands or archipelagos, mapping to both local and regional management needs. It moreover allows for both network- and site-specific metrics, enabling the comparison of connectivity between species and habitat sites as well as highlighting potential multi-generational dispersal corridors. Graph theory moreover provides a powerful appliance for spatial visualization, allowing for rapid, intuitive communication of connectivity results to researchers, managers, and the public alike. This sort of analysis can exist used to model pairwise relationships between spatial data points by breaking down individual-based output into a train of nodes (habitat sites) and edges (directed connections between habitat sites). They then used these nodes and edges to examine the relative consequence of each site and dispersal pathway to the greater pattern of connectivity around Moloka‘i, as well as differences in connectivity patterns between species (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). They used the R package ‘igraph’ to examine several measures of within-island connectivity (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). Edge density, or the balance of realized edges out of total practicable edges, is a multi-site measure of connectivity. Areas with a higher edge density fill more direct connections between habitat sites, and thus are more strongly connected. They measured edge density along and between the north, south, east, and west coasts of Moloka‘i to examine practicable population structure and degree of exchange among the marine resources of local communities.

The distribution of shortest path length is moreover informative for comparing overall connectivity. In graph theory, a shortest path is the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. For example, two sites that exchange larvae in either direction are connected by a shortest path of one, whereas if they both share larvae with an intermediate site but not with each other, they are connected by a shortest path of two. In a biological context, shortest path can correspond to number of generations needed for exchange: sites with a shortest path of two require two generations to invent a connection. mediocre shortest path, therefore, is a descriptive statistic to estimate connectivity of a network. If two sites are unconnected, it is practicable to fill infinite-length shortest paths; here, these boundless values were celebrated but not included in final analyses.

Networks can moreover exist broken in connected components (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). A weakly connected component (WCC) is a subgraph in which total nodes are not reachable by other nodes. A network split into multiple WCCs indicates part populations that Do not exchange any individuals, and a big number of WCCs indicates a low degree of island-wide connectivity. A strongly connected component (SCC) is a subgraph in which total nodes are directly connected and indicates a tall degree of connectivity. A region with many miniature SCCs can attest tall local connectivity but low island-wide connectivity. Furthermore, component analysis can identify carve nodes, or nodes that, if removed, shatter a network into multiple WCCs. Pinpointing these carve nodes can identify potential well-known sites for preserving a population’s connectivity, and could inform predictions about the repercussion of site loss (e.g., a large-scale coral bleaching event) on overall connectivity.

On a regional scale, it is well-known to note which sites are exporting larvae to, or importing larvae from, other sites. To this end, they examined in-degree and out-degree for each region. In-degree refers to the number of inward-directed edges to a specific node, or how many other sites provide larvae into site ‘A’. Out-degree refers to the number of outward-directed edges from a specific node, or how many sites receive larvae from site ‘A’. Habitat sites with a tall out-degree seed a big number of other sites, and attest potentially well-known larval sources, while habitat sites with a low in-degree confidence on a limited number of larval sources and may therefore exist conditional on connections with these few other sites to maintain population size. Finally, betweenness centrality (BC) refers to the number of shortest paths that pass through a given node, and may therefore attest connectivity pathways or ‘chokepoints’ that are well-known to overall connectivity on a multigenerational timescale. BC was weighted with the balance of dispersal as described in the preceding section. They calculated in-degree, out-degree, and weighted betweenness centrality for each region in the network for each species.

As with the source–sink index, they did not comprise sites on islands other than Moloka‘i in their calculations of edge density, shortest paths, connected components, carve nodes, in- and out-degree, or betweenness centrality in order to focus on within-island patterns of connectivity.

Results Effects of biological parameters on fine-scale connectivity patterns

The species-specific parameters that were available to parameterize the dispersal models substantially influenced final output (Fig. 2). The balance of successful settlers (either to Moloka‘i or to neighboring islands) varied widely by species, from 2% (Panulirus spp.) to 25% (Cellana spp.). Minimum pelagic duration and settlement success were negatively correlated (e.g., an estimated −0.79 Pearson correlation coefficient). Species modeled with batch spawning at a specific moon side and/or time of day (Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis) displayed slightly higher settlement success than similar species modeled with constant spawning over specific months. On a smaller scale, they moreover examined mediocre site-scale local retention, comparing only retention to the spawning site versus other sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). Local retention was lowest for Caranx spp. (<1%) and highest for O. cyanea and P. sexfilis (8.1% and 10%, respectively).

Figure 2: Summary statistics for each species network. Summary statistics are displayed in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right. Heatmap colors are based on normalized values from 0–1 for each analysis. Successful settlement refers to the balance of larvae settled out of the total number of larvae spawned. Local retention is measured as the balance of larvae spawned from a site that settle at the selfsame site. Shortest path is measured as the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. Strongly connected sites refers to the balance of sites in a network that belong to a strongly connected component. intimate dispersal distance is measured in kilometers from spawn site to settlement site.

We measured network-wide connectivity via distribution of shortest paths, or the minimum number of steps between a given two nodes in a network, only including sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). O. cyanea and P. sexfilis showed the smallest shortest paths overall, significance that on average, it would retract fewer generations for these species to demographically bridge any given pair of sites. Using maximum shortest path, it could retract these species three generations at most to connect sites. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, by comparison, could retract as many as five generations. Other medium- and long-dispersing species showed relatively equivalent shortest-path distributions, with trevally species showing the highest intimate path length and therefore the lowest island-scale connectivity.

The number and size of weakly-connected and strongly-connected components in a network is moreover an informative measure of connectivity (Fig. 2). No species in their study group was broken into multiple weakly-connected components; however, there were species-specific patterns of strongly connected sites. O. cyanea and P. sexfilis were the most strongly connected, with total sites in the network falling into a sole SCC. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina each had approximately 60% of sites included in a SCC, but both expose fragmentation with seven and six SCCs respectively, ranging in size from two to 22 sites. This SCC pattern suggests low global connectivity but tall local connectivity for these species. Medium and long dispersers showed larger connected components; 70% of parrotfish sites fell within two SCCs; 40% of P. porphyreus sites fell within two SCCs; 70% of C. strigosus sites, 55% of C. melampygus sites, and 40% of Panulirus sites fell within a sole SCC. In contrast, only 26% of C. ignoblis sites fell within a sole SCC. It is moreover well-known to note that the lower connectivity scores observed in long-dispersing species likely reflect a larger scale of connectivity. Species with a shorter PLD are highly connected at reef and island levels but may expose weaker connections between islands. Species with a longer PLD, such as trevally or spiny lobster, are likely more highly connected at inter-island scales which reflects the lower connectivity scores per island shown here.

Figure 3: Dispersal distance density kernels. Dispersal distance is combined across species by minimum pelagic larval duration (PLD) length in days (short, medium, or long). Most short dispersers settle immediate to home, while few long dispersers are retained at or near their spawning sites.

Minimum PLD was positively correlated with intimate dispersal distance (e.g., an estimated 0.88 Pearson correlation coefficient with minimum pelagic duration loge-transformed to linearize the relationship), and dispersal kernels differed between species that are short dispersers (3–25 days), medium dispersers (30–50 days), or long dispersers (140–270 days) (Fig. 3). Short dispersers travelled a intimate distance of 24.06 ± 31.33 km, medium dispersers travelled a intimate distance of 52.71 ± 40.37 km, and long dispersers travelled the farthest, at a intimate of 89.41 ± 41.43 km. However, regardless of PLD, there were essentially two peaks of intimate dispersal: a short-distance peak of <30 km, and a long-distance peak of roughly 50–125 km (Fig. 3). The short-distance peak largely represents larvae that settle back to Moloka‘i, while the long-distance peak largely represents settlement to other islands; the low point between them corresponds to deep-water channels between islands, i.e., unsuitable habitat for settlement. Median dispersal distance for short dispersers was substantially less than the intimate at 8.85 km, indicating that most of these larvae settled relatively immediate to their spawning sites, with rare long-distance dispersal events bringing up the average. Median distance for medium (54.22 km) and long (91.57 km) dispersers was closer to the mean, indicating more even distance distributions and thus a higher probability of long-distance dispersal for these species. Maximum dispersal distance varied between ∼150–180 km depending on species, except for the spiny lobster Panulirus spp., with a PLD of 270 d and a maximum dispersal distance of approximately 300 km.

Settlement to Moloka‘i and other islands in the archipelago

Different species showed different forward settlement balance to adjacent islands (Fig. 4), although every species in the study group successfully settled back to Moloka‘i. P. meandrina showed the highest percentage of island-scale local retention (82%), while C. ignoblis showed the lowest (7%). An mediocre of 74% of larvae from short-dispersing species settled back to Moloka‘i, as compared to an mediocre of 41% of medium dispersers and 9% of long dispersers. A big balance of larvae moreover settled to O‘ahu, with longer PLDs resulting in greater proportions, ranging from 14% of O. cyanea to 88% of C. ignoblis. Moloka‘i and O‘ahu were the most commonly settled islands by percentage. Overall, settlement from Moloka‘i to Lana‘i, Maui, Kaho‘olawe, and Hawai‘i was by far lower. Larvae of every species settled to Lana‘i, and settlement to this island made up less than 5% of settled larvae across total species. Likewise, settlement to Maui made up less than 7% of settlement across species, with P. meandrina as the only species that had no successful paths from Moloka‘i to Maui. Settlement to Kaho‘olawe and Hawai‘i was less common, with the exception of Panulirus spp., which had 16% of total settled larvae on Hawai‘i.

Figure 4: Forward settlement from Moloka’i to other islands. Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from Moloka‘i by species, organized in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right.

We moreover examined coast-specific patterns of rearward settlement balance to other islands, discarding connections with a very low balance of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species settling to other islands). Averaged across species, 83% of larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i were spawned on the north shore of Moloka‘i, with 12% spawned on the west shore (Fig. S4). Spawning sites on the east and south shores contributed <5% of total larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i. The east and south shores of Moloka‘i had the highest mediocre percentage of larvae settling to Lana‘i from Moloka‘i, at 78% and 20% respectively, and to Kaho‘olawe from Moloka‘i at 63% and 34%. Of the species that settled to Maui from Moloka‘i, on mediocre most were spawned on the east (53%) or north (39%) shores, as were the species that settled to Hawai‘i Island from Moloka‘i (22% east, 76% north). These patterns attest that multiple coasts of Moloka‘i fill the potential to export larvae to neighboring islands.

Temporal settlement profiles moreover varied by species (Fig. 5). Species modeled with moon-phase spawning and relatively short settlement windows (Cellana spp. and C. ignoblis) were characterized by discrete settlement pulses, whereas other species showed settlement over a broader epoch of time. Some species moreover showed distinctive patterns of settlement to other islands; their model suggests specific windows when long-distance dispersal is possible, as well as times of year when local retention is maximized (Fig. 5).

Figure 5: Species-specific temporal recruitment patterns. Proportion densities of settlement to specific islands from Moloka‘i based on day of year settled, by species. Rare dispersal events (e.g., Maui or Lana‘i for Cellana spp.) emerge as narrow spikes, while broad distributions generally attest more common settlement pathways. Regional patterns of connectivity in Moloka‘i coastal waters

Within Moloka‘i, their model predicts that coast-specific population structure is likely; averaged across total species, 84% of individuals settled back to the selfsame coast on which they were spawned rather than a different coast on Moloka‘i. Excluding connections with a very low balance of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species that settled to Moloka‘i), they establish that the balance of coast-scale local retention was generally higher than dispersal to another coast, with the exception of the west coast (Fig. 6A). The north and south coasts had a tall degree of local retention in every species except for the long-dispersing Panulirus spp., and the east coast moreover had tall local retention overall. Between coasts, a tall balance of larvae that spawned on the west coast settled on the north coast, and a lesser amount of larvae were exchanged from the east to south and from the north to east. With a few species-specific exceptions, larval exchange between other coasts of Moloka‘i was negligible.

Figure 6: Coast-by-coast patterns of connectivity on Moloka‘i. (A) mediocre rearward settlement balance by species per pair of coastlines, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by total settled larvae at site s. Directional coastline pairs (Spawn > Settlement) are ordered from left to perquisite by increasing median settlement proportion. (B) Heatmap of edge density for coast-specific networks by species. Density is calculated by the number of total realized paths out of total practicable paths, disregarding directionality.

We moreover calculated edge density, including total connections between coasts on Moloka‘i regardless of settlement balance (Fig. 6B). The eastern coast was particularly well-connected, with an edge density between 0.14 and 0.44, depending on the species. The southern shore showed tall edge density for short and medium dispersers (0.16–0.39) but low for long dispersers (<0.005). The north shore moreover showed relatively tall edge density (0.20 on average), although these values were smaller for long dispersers. The west coast showed very low edge density, with the exceptions of O. cyanea (0.37) and P. sexfilis (0.13). Virtually total networks that included two coasts showed lower edge density. One exception was the east/south shore network, which had an edge density of 0.10–0.65 except for Cellana spp. Across species, edge density between the south and west coasts was 0.12 on average, and between the east and west coasts was 0.04 on average. Edge density between north and south coasts was particularly low for total species (<0.05), a divide that was especially distinct in Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, which showed zero realized connections between these coasts. Although northern and southern populations are potentially weakly connected by sites along the eastern ( P. meandrina) or western (Cellana spp.) shores, their model predicts very little, if any, demographic connectivity.

To explore patterns of connectivity on a finer scale, they pooled sites into regions (as defined in Fig. 1) in order to resolve relationships between these regions. Arranging model output into node-edge networks clarified pathways and regions of note, and revealed several patterns which did not supervene simple predictions based on PLD (Fig. 7). Cellana spp. and P. meandrina showed the most fragmentation, with several SCCs and low connectivity between coasts. Connectivity was highest in O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, which had a sole SCC containing total regions. Medium and long dispersers generally showed fewer strongly connected regions on the south shore than the north shore, with the exception of C. strigosus. P. porphyreus showed more strongly connected regions east of Kalaupapa but lower connectivity on the western half of the island.

Figure 7: Moloka’i connectivity networks by species. Graph-theoretic networks between regions around Moloka’i by species arranged in order of minimum pelagic larval duration. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Node size reflects betweenness centrality of each region, scaled per species for visibility. Node color reflects out-degree of each region; yellow nodes fill a low out-degree, red nodes fill a medium out-degree, and black nodes fill a tall out-degree. Red edges are connections in a strongly connected component, while gray edges are not piece of a strongly connected component (although may still portray substantial connections). Edge thickness represents log-transformed balance of dispersal along that edge.

Region-level networks showed both species-specific and species-wide patterns of connectivity (Fig. 8). With a few exceptions, sites along the eastern coast—notably, Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor—showed relatively tall betweenness centrality, and may therefore act as multigenerational pathways between north-shore and south-shore populations. In Cellana spp., Leinapapio Point and Mokio Point had the highest BC, while in high-connectivity O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the west coast had tall BC scores. P. meandrina and C. strigosus showed several regions along the south shore with tall BC. For Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, regions in the northeast had the highest out-degree, and therefore seeded the greatest number of other sites with larvae (Fig. 8). Correspondingly, regions in the northwest (and southwest in the case of P. meandrina) showed the highest in-degree. For O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the western and southern coasts showed the highest out-degree. For most species, both out-degree and in-degree were generally highest on the northern and eastern coasts, suggesting higher connectivity in these areas.

Figure 8: Region-level summary statistics across total species. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the number of paths that pass through a unavoidable region; a tall score suggests potentially well-known multi-generation connectivity pathways. In-degree and out-degree advert to the amount of a node’s incoming and outgoing connections. Betweenness centrality, in-degree, and out-degree fill total been normalized to values between 0 to 1 per species. Local retention is measured as the balance of larvae that settled back to their spawn site out of total larvae spawned at that site. Source-sink index is a measure of net export or import; negative values (blue) attest a net larval sink, while positive values (red) attest a net larval source. White indicates that a site is neither a stout source nor sink. Gray values for Cellana spp. denote a want of suitable habitat sites in that particular region.

Several species-wide hotspots of local retention emerged, particularly East Kalaupapa Peninsula/Leinaopapio Point, the northeast point of Moloka‘i, and the middle of the south shore. Some species moreover showed some degree of local retention west of Kalaupapa Peninsula. While local retention was observed in the long-dispersing Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., this amount was essentially negligible. In terms of source–sink dynamics, Ki‘oko‘o, Pu‘ukaoku Point, and West Kalaupapa Peninsula, total on the north shore, were the only sites that consistently acted as a net source, exporting more larvae than they import (Fig. 8). Kaunakakai Harbor, Lono Harbor, and Mokio Point acted as net sinks across total species. Puko‘o, Pauwalu Harbor, and Cape Halawa were either fragile net sources or neither sources nor sinks, which corresponds to the tall levels of local retention observed at these sites. Pala‘au and Mo‘omomi acted as either fragile sinks or sources for short dispersers and as sources for long dispersers.

Only four networks showed regional cut-nodes, or nodes that, if removed, shatter a network into multiple weakly-connected components (Fig. S5). Cellana spp. showed two cut-nodes: Mokio Point in northwest Moloka‘i and La‘au Point in southwest Moloka‘i, which if removed isolated miniature Bay and Lono Harbor, respectively. C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus showed a similar pattern in regards to Mokio Point; removal of this node isolated miniature Bay in this species as well. In C. ignoblis, loss of Pauwalu Harbor isolated Lono Harbor, and loss of Pala‘au isolated Ilio Point on the northern coast. Finally, in Panulirus spp., loss of Leinaopapio Point isolated Papuhaku Beach, since Leinapapio Point was the only larval source from Moloka‘i for Papuhaku Beach in this species.

Figure 9: Connectivity matrix for larvae spawned on Kalaupapa Peninsula. Includes larvae settled on Molokaí (regions below horizontal black line) and those settled on other islands (regions above horizontal black line), spawned from either the east (E) or west (W) coast of Kalaupapa. Heatmap colors portray rearward proportion, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by total settled larvae at site s. White squares attest no dispersal along this path. The role of Kalaupapa Peninsula in inter- and intra-island connectivity

Our model suggests that Kalaupapa National Historical Park may play a role in inter-island connectivity, especially in terms of long-distance dispersal. Out of total regions on Moloka‘i, East Kalaupapa Peninsula was the sole largest exporter of larvae to Hawai‘i Island, accounting for 19% of total larvae transported from Moloka‘i to this island; West Kalaupapa Peninsula accounted for another 10%. The park moreover contributed 22% of total larvae exported from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, and successfully exported a smaller percentage of larvae to Maui, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe (Fig. 9). Kalaupapa was not marked as a cut-node for any species, significance that complete population breaks are not predicted in the case of habitat or population loss in this area. Nevertheless, in their model Kalaupapa exported larvae to multiple regions along the north shore in total species, as well as regions along the east, south, and/or west shores in most species networks (Figs. 9 and 10). The park may play a particularly well-known role for long-dispersing species; settlement from Kalaupapa made up 18%–29% of total successful settlement in Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., despite making up only 12% of spawning sites included in the model. In C. strigosus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus, Kalaupapa showed a particularly tall out-degree, or number of outgoing connections to other regions, and West Kalaupapa was moreover one of the few regions on Moloka‘i that acted as a net larval source across total species (Fig. 8). Their study has moreover demonstrated that different regions of a marine protected region can potentially discharge different roles, even in a miniature MPA such as Kalaupapa. Across species, the east coast of Kalaupapa showed a significantly higher betweenness centrality than the west (p = 0.028), while the west coast of Kalauapapa showed a significantly higher source–sink index than the east (p = 2.63e−9).

Figure 10: Larval spillover from Kalaupapa National Historical Park. Site-level dispersal to sites around Moloka‘i from sites in the Kalaupapa National Historical Park protected area, by species. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Edge color reflects balance of dispersal along that edge; red indicates higher balance while yellow indicates lower proportion. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green. Discussion Effects of biological and physical parameters on connectivity

We incorporated the distribution of suitable habitat, variable reproduction, variable PLD, and ontogenetic changes in swimming faculty and empirical upright distributions of larvae into their model to enlarge biological realism, and assess how such traits repercussion predictions of larval dispersal. The Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM provides a highly supple model framework that can easily exist modified to incorporate either additional species-specific data or entirely original biological traits. In this study, they included specific spawning seasons for total species, as well as spawning by moon side for Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis because such data was available for these species. It proved difficult to obtain the necessary biological information to parameterize the model, but as more data about life history and larval behavior become available, such information can exist easily added for these species and others. Some potential additions to future iterations of the model might comprise density of reproductive-age adults within each habitat patch, temperature-dependent pelagic larval duration (Houde, 1989), ontogenetic-dependent behavioral changes such as orientation and diel upright migration (Fiksen et al., 2007; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007), pre-competency period, and larval habitat preferences as such information becomes available.

In this study, they fill demonstrated that patterns of fine-scale connectivity around Moloka‘i are largely species-specific and can vary with life history traits, even in species with identical pelagic larval duration. For example, the parrotfish S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus expose greater connectivity along the northern coast, while the goatfish P. porphyreus shows higher connectivity along the eastern half of the island. These species fill similar PLD windows, but vary in dispersal depth and spawning season. Spawning season and timing altered patterns of inter-island dispersal (Fig. 5) as well as overall settlement success, which was slightly higher in species that spawned by moon side (Fig. 2). While maximum PLD did emerge play a role in the probability of rare long-distance dispersal, minimum PLD appears to exist the main driver of mediocre dispersal distance (Fig. 2). Overall, species with a shorter minimum PLD had higher settlement success, shorter intimate dispersal distance, higher local retention, and higher local connectivity as measured by the amount and size of strongly connected components.

The interaction of biological and oceanographic factors moreover influenced connectivity patterns. Because mesoscale current patterns can vary substantially over the course of the year, the timing of spawning for unavoidable species may exist censorious for estimating settlement (Wren et al., 2016; Wong-Ala et al., 2018). Intermittent ocean processes may influence the probability of local retention versus long-distance dispersal; a big balance of larvae settled to O‘ahu, which is by far surprising given that in order to settle from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, larvae must cross the Kaiwi Channel (approx. 40 km). However, the intermittent presence of mesoscale gyres may act as a stabilizing pathway across the channel, sweeping larvae up either the windward or leeward coast of O‘ahu depending on spawning site. Likewise, in their model long-distance dispersal to Hawai‘i Island was practicable at unavoidable times of the year due to a gyre to the north of Maui; larvae were transported from Kalaupapa to this gyre, where they were carried to the northeast shore of Hawai‘i (Fig. S6). preliminary analysis moreover suggests that distribution of larval depth influenced edge directionality and size of connected components (Fig. 7); surface currents are variable and primarily wind-driven, giving positively-buoyant larvae different patterns of dispersal than species that disperse deeper in the water column (Fig. S7).

Model limitations and future perspectives

Our findings fill several caveats. Because fine-scale density estimates are not available for their species of interest around Moloka’i, they assumed that fecundity is equivalent at total sites. This simplification may lead us to under- or over-estimate the energy of connections between sites. want of adequate data moreover necessitated estimation or extrapolation from congener information for larval traits such as larval dispersal depth and PLD. Since it is difficult if not impossible to identify larvae to the species flush without genetic analysis, they used genus-level larval distribution data (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996), or lacking that, an estimate of 50–100 m as a depth layer that is generally more enriched with larvae (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). They moreover estimated PLD in several cases using congener-level data (see Table 1). While specificity is exemplar for making informed management decisions about a unavoidable species, past sensitivity analysis has shown that variation in PLD length does not greatly repercussion patterns of dispersal in species with a PLD of >40 days (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016).

Although their MITgcm current model shows annual consistency, it only spans two and a half years chosen as neutral state ‘average’ ocean conditions. It does not span any El Niño or La Niña (ENSO) events, which antecedent wide-scale sea-surface temperature anomalies and may therefore handle patterns of connectivity during these years. El Niño can fill a particularly stout repercussion on coral reproduction, since the warm currents associated with these events can lead to severe temperature stress (Glynn & D’Croz, 1990; Wood et al., 2016). While there has been dinky study to date on the effects of ENSO on fine-scale connectivity, previous labor has demonstrated increased variability during these events. For example, Wood et al. (2016) showed a lessen in eastward Pacific dispersal during El Niño years, but an enlarge in westward dispersal, and Treml et al. (2008) showed unique connections in the West Pacific as well as an enlarge in connectivity during El Niño. While these effects are difficult to predict, especially at such a miniature scale, additional model years would enlarge assurance in long-term connectivity estimations. Additionally, with a temporal resolution of 24 h, they could not adequately address the role of tides on dispersal, and therefore did not comprise them in the MITgcm. Storlazzi et al. (2017) showed that tidal forces did handle larval dispersal in Maui Nui, underlining the consequence of including both fine-scale, short-duration models and coarser-scale, long-duration models in final management decisions.

We moreover circumscribe their model’s scope geographically. Their goal was to determine whether they could resolve predictive patterns at this scale apropos to management. Interpretation of connectivity output can exist biased by spatial resolution of the ocean model, since involved coastal processes can exist smoothed and therefore repercussion larval trajectories. To circumscribe this bias, they focused mainly on coastal and regional connectivity on scales greater than the current resolution. They moreover used the finest-scale current products available for their study area, and their results expose common agreement with similar studies of the region that exercise a coarser resolution (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016) and a finer resolution (Storlazzi et al., 2017). Also, while information of island-scale connectivity is well-known for local management, it does disregard potential connections from other islands. In their calculations of edge density, betweenness centrality and source-sink index, they included only settlement to Moloka‘i, discarding exogenous sinks that would jaundice their analysis. Likewise, they cannot prognosticate the balance of larvae settling to other islands that originated from Moloka‘i, or the balance of larvae on Moloka‘i that originated from other islands.

It is moreover well-known to note scale in relation to measures of connectivity; they await that long-dispersing species such as Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp. will expose much higher measures of connectivity when measured across the gross archipelago as opposed to a sole island. The cut-nodes observed in these species may not actually shatter up populations on a big scale due to this inter-island connectivity. Nevertheless, cut-nodes in species with short- and medium-length PLD may indeed tag well-known habitat locations, especially in terms of providing links between two otherwise disconnected coasts. It may exist that for unavoidable species or unavoidable regions, stock replenishment relies on larval import from other islands, underscoring the consequence of MPA selection for population maintenance in the archipelago as a whole.

Implications for management

Clearly, there is no sole management approach that encompasses the breadth of life history and behavior differences that repercussion patterns of larval dispersal and connectivity (Toonen et al., 2011; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). The spatial, temporal, and species-specific variability suggested by their model stresses the need for multi-scale management, specifically tailored to local and regional connectivity patterns and the suite of target species. Even on such a miniature scale, different regions around the island of Moloka‘i can play very different roles in the greater pattern of connectivity (Fig. 8); sites along the west coast, for example, showed fewer ingoing and outgoing connections than sites on the north coast, and therefore may exist more at risk of isolation. Seasonal variation should moreover exist taken into account, as mesoscale current patterns (and resulting connectivity patterns) vary over the course of a year. Their model suggests species-specific temporal patterns of settlement (Fig. 5); even in the year-round spawner O. cyanea, local retention to Moloka‘i as well as settlement to O‘ahu was maximized in spring and early summer, while settlement to other islands mostly occurred in late summer and fall.

Regions that expose similar network dynamics may capitalize from similar management strategies. Areas that act as larval sources either by balance of larvae (high source–sink index) or number of sites (high out-degree) should receive management consideration. On Moloka‘i, across total species in their study, these sources fell mostly on the northern and eastern coasts. Maintenance of these areas is especially well-known for downstream areas that depend on upstream populations for a source of larvae, such as those with a low source–sink index, low in-degree, and/or low local retention. Across species, regions with the highest betweenness centrality scores fell mainly in the northeast (Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor). These areas should receive consideration as potentially well-known intergenerational pathways, particularly as a means of connecting north-coast and south-coast populations, which showed a want of connectivity both in total number of connections (edge density) and balance of larvae. Both of these connectivity measures were included because edge density includes total connections, even those with a very miniature balance of larvae, and may therefore comprise rare dispersal events that are of dinky relevance to managers. Additionally, edge density comparisons between networks should exist viewed with the caveat that these networks Do not necessarily fill the selfsame number of nodes. Nevertheless, both edge density and balance expose very similar patterns, and comprise both demographically-relevant common connections as well as rare connections that could influence genetic connectivity.

Management that seeks to establish a resilient network of spatially managed areas should moreover regard the preservation of both weakly-connected and strongly-connected components, as removal of key cut-nodes (Fig. S5) breaks up a network. Sites within a SCC fill more direct connections and therefore may exist more resilient to local population loss. supervision should exist taken to preserve breeding populations at larval sources, connectivity pathways, and cut-nodes within a SCC, since without these key sites the network can fragment into multiple independent SCCs instead of a sole stable network. This exercise may exist especially well-known for species for which they estimate multiple miniature SCCs, such as Cellana spp. or P. meandrina.

Kalaupapa Peninsula emerged as an well-known site in Moloka‘i population connectivity, acting as a larval source for other regions around the island. The Park seeded areas along the north shore in total species, and moreover exported larvae to sites along the east and west shores in total species except P. meandrina and Cellana spp. Additionally, it was a larval source for sites along the south shore in the fishes C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus as well as Panulirus spp. Western Kalaupapa Peninsula was one of only three regions included in the analysis (the others being Ki‘oko‘o and Pu‘ukaoku Point, moreover on the north shore) that acted as a net larval source across total species. Eastern Kalaupapa Peninsula was particularly highly connected, and was piece of a strongly connected component in every species. The Park moreover emerged as a potential point of connection to adjacent islands, particularly to O‘ahu and Hawai‘i. Expanding the spatial scale of their model will further elucidate Kalaupapa’s role in the greater pattern of inter-island connectivity.

In addition to biophysical modeling, genetic analyses can exist used to identify persistent population structure of relevance to managers (Cowen et al., 2000; Casey, Jardim & Martinsohn, 2016). Their finding that exchange among islands is generally low in species with a short- to medium-length PLD agrees with population genetic analyses of marine species in the Hawaiian Islands (Bird et al., 2007; Rivera et al., 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Concepcion, Baums & Toonen, 2014). On a finer scale, they prognosticate some flush of shoreline-specific population structure for most species included in the study (Fig. 6). Unfortunately, genetic analyses to date fill been performed over too broad a scale to effectively compare to these fine-scale connectivity predictions around Moloka‘i or even among locations on adjacent islands. These model results warrant such miniature scale genetic analyses because there are species, such as the coral P. meandrina, for which the model predicts transparent separation of north-shore and south-shore populations which should exist simple to test using genetic data. To validate these model predictions with this technique, more fine-scale population genetic analyses are needed.

Conclusions

The maintenance of demographically connected populations is well-known for conservation. In this study, they contribute to the growing body of labor in biophysical connectivity modeling, focusing on a region and suite of species that are of relevance to resource managers. Furthermore, they demonstrate the value of quantifying fine-scale relationships between habitat sites via graph-theoretic methods. Multispecies network analysis revealed persistent patterns that can back define region-wide practices, as well as species-specific connectivity that merits more individual consideration. They demonstrate that connectivity is influenced not only by PLD, but moreover by other life-history traits such as spawning season, moon-phase spawning, and ontogenetic changes in larval depth. tall local retention of larvae with a short- or medium-length PLD is consistent with population genetic studies of the area. They moreover identify regions of management importance, including West Kalaupapa Peninsula, which acts as a consistent larval source across species; East Kalaupapa Peninsula, which is a strongly connected region in every species network, and Pauwalu Harbor/Cape Halawa, which may act as well-known multigenerational pathways. Connectivity is only one piece of the confound of MPA effectiveness, which must moreover account for reproductive population size, long-term persistence, and post-settlement survival (Burgess et al., 2014). That being said, their study provides a quantitative roadmap of potential demographic connectivity, and thus presents an effectual appliance for estimating current and future patterns of dispersal around Kalaupapa Peninsula and around Moloka‘i as a whole.

Supplemental Information Current patterns in the model domain.

Current direction and velocity is displayed at a depth of 55 m below sea surface on (A) March 31st, 2011, (B) June 30th, 2011, (C) September 30th, 2011, and (D) December 31st, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, tall velocity). Domain extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N. The island of Moloka‘i is highlighted in red.

Subset of validation drifter paths.

Drifter paths in black and corresponding model paths are colored by drifter ID. total drifter information was extracted from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly center (Elipot et al., 2016). Drifters were included if they fell within the model domain spatially and temporally, and were tested by releasing 1,000 particles on the amend day where they entered the model domain, at the uppermost depth layer of their oceanographic model (0–5 m).

Selected larval depth distributions.

Modeled upright larval distributions for Caranx spp. (left), S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus (middle), and P. porphyreus (right), using data from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton upright distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy 1996).

Coast-specific rearward settlement patterns by island

Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from sites on each coast of Moloka‘i, averaged across total species that successfully settled to that island.

Regional cut-nodes for four species networks

Mokio Point and La‘au Point were cut-nodes for Cellana spp., Mokio Point was a cut-node for C. perspicillatus and S. rubroviolaceus, Pauwalu Harbor and Pala‘au were cut-nodes for C. ignoblis, and Leinaopapio Point was a cut-node for Panulirus spp.

Selected dispersal pathways for Panulirus spp. larvae

500 randomly sampled dispersal pathways for lobster larvae (Panulirus spp.) that successfully settled to Hawai‘i Island after being spawned off the coast of Moloka‘i. Red tracks attest settlement earlier in the year (February–March), while black tracks attest settlement later in the year (April–May). Most larvae are transported to the northeast coast of Hawai‘i via a gyre to the north of Maui, while a smaller balance are transported through Maui Nui.

Eddy differences by depth layer.

Differences in eddy pattern and energy in surface layers (A, 2.5 m) vs. deep layers (B, 55 m) on March 31, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, tall velocity). While big gyres remain consistent at different depths, smaller features vary along this gradient. For example, the currents around Kaho‘olawe, the miniature gyre off the eastern coast of O‘ahu, and currents to the north of Maui total vary in direction and/or velocity.


Avoid Bothersome Garbage Collection Pauses | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Many engineers complain that the non-deterministic behavior of the garbage collector prevents them from utilizing the Java environment for mission-critical applications, especially distributed message-driven displays (GUIs) where user responsiveness is critical. They correspond that garbage collection does occur at the worst times: for example, when a user clicks a mouse or a original message enters the system requiring immediate processing. These events must exist handled without the retard of in-progress garbage collection. How Do they prevent these garbage collection pauses that tamper with the responsiveness of an application ("bothersome pauses")?

We fill discovered a very effectual technique to prevent bothersome garbage collection pauses and build responsive Java applications. This technique or pattern is especially effectual for a distributive message-driven panoply system with soft real-time constraints. This article details this pattern in three simple steps and provides evidence of the effectiveness of the technique.

Pattern to Control Garbage Collection PausesThe Java environment provides so many benefits to the software community - platform independence, industry momentum, a plethora of resources (online tutorials, code, interest groups, etc.), object-oriented utilities and interfaces (collections, network I/O, rock display, etc.) that can exist plugged in and out - that once you fill experienced working with Java it's hard to travel back to traditional languages. Unfortunately, in some mission-critical applications, fondness message-driven GUIs that must exist very responsive to user events, the requirements obligate you to retract that step backward. There's no scope for multiple second garbage collection pauses. (The garbage collector collects total the "unreachable" references in an application so the space consumed by them can exist reused. It's a low-priority thread that usually only takes priority over other threads when the VM is running out of memory.) Do they really fill to lose total the benefits of Java? First, let's regard the requirements.

A system engineer should regard imposing requirements for garbage collection fondness the following list taken from a telecom industry specimen (see References).1.  GC sequential overhead on a system may not exist more than 10% to ensure scalability and optimal exercise of system resources for maximum throughput.2.  Any sole GC intermission during the entire application flee may exist no more than 200ms to meet the latency requirements as set by the protocol between the client and the server, and to ensure safe response times by the server.

Armed with these requirements, the system engineer has defined the worst-case behavior in a manner that can exist tested.

The next question is: How Do they meet these requirements? Alka Gupta and Michael Doyle invent excellent suggestions in their article (see References). Their approach is to tune the parameters on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). They retract a slightly different approach that leaves the exercise of parameter definitions as defined by the JVM to exist used as a final tuning technique.

Why not relate the garbage collector what and when to collect?

In other words, control garbage collection via the software architecture. invent the job of the garbage collector easy! This technique can exist described as a multiple step pattern. The first step of the pattern is described below as "Nullify Objects." The second step involves forcing garbage collection to occur as delineated in "Forcing Garbage Collection." The final step involves either placing persistent data out of the compass of the collector or into a data pool so that an application will continue to discharge well in the long run.

Step 1: Nullify ObjectsMemory leaks strike awe into the hearts of programmers! Not only Do they humble performance, they eventually terminate the application. Yet remembrance leaks prove very subtle and difficult to debug. The JVM performs garbage collection in the background, freeing the coder from such details, but traps still exist. The biggest danger is placing an remonstrate into a collection and forgetting to remove it. The remembrance used by that remonstrate will never exist reclaimed.

A programmer can prevent this sort of remembrance leak by setting the remonstrate reference and total underlying remonstrate references ("deep" objects) to null when the remonstrate is no longer needed. Setting an remonstrate reference to "null" tells the garbage collector that at least this one reference to the remonstrate is no longer needed. Once total references to an remonstrate are cleared, the garbage collector is free to reclaim that space. Giving the collector such "hints" makes its job easier and faster. Moreover, a smaller remembrance footprint moreover makes an application flee faster.

Knowing when to set an remonstrate reference to null requires a complete understanding of the problem space. For instance, if the remote receiver allocates the remembrance space for a message, the repose of the application must know when to release the space back for reuse. Study the domain. Once an remonstrate or "subobject" is no longer needed, relate the garbage collector.

Thus, the first step of the pattern is to set objects to null once you're positive they're no longer needed. They summon this step "nullify" and comprise it in the definition of the classes of frequently used objects.

The following code snippet shows a artery that "nullifies" a track object. The class members that consist of primitives only (contain no additional class objects) are set to null directly, as in lines 3-5. The class members that contain class objects provide their own nullify artery as in line 9.

1 public void nullify () {23 this.threatId = null ;4 this.elPosition = null ;5 this.kinematics = null ;67 if (this.iff != null)8 {9 this.iff.nullify();10 this.iff = null ;11 }12 }

The track nullify is called from the thread that has completed processing the message. In other words, once the message has been stored or processed, that thread tells the JVM it no longer needs that object. Also, if the remonstrate was placed in some Collection (like an ArrayList), it's removed from the Collection and set to null.

By setting objects to null in this manner, the garbage collector and thus the JVM can flee more efficiently. Train yourself to program with "nullify" methods and their invocation in mind.

Step 2: "Force" Garbage CollectionThe second step of the pattern is to control when garbage collection occurs. The garbage collector, GC, runs as Java priority 1 (the lowest priority). The virtual machine, VM, runs at Java priority 10 (the highest priority). Most books recommend against the usage of Java priority 1 and 10 for assigning priorities to Java applications. In most cases, the GC runs during idle times, generally when the VM is waiting for user input or when the VM has flee out of memory. In the latter case, the GC interrupts high-priority processing in the application.

Some programmers fondness to exercise the "-Xincgc" directive on the Java command line. This tells the JVM to discharge garbage collection in increments when it desires. Again, the timing of the garbage collection may exist inopportune. Instead, they intimate that the garbage collector discharge a complete garbage collection as soon as it can in either or both of two ways:1.  Request garbage collection to betide as soon as possible: This artery proves useful when the programmer knows he or she has a "break" to garbage collect. For example, after a big image is loaded into remembrance and scaled, the remembrance footprint is large. Forcing a garbage collection to occur at that point is wise. Another safe region may exist after a big message has been processed in the application and is no longer needed.2.  Schedule garbage collection to occur at a fixed rate: This artery is optimal when the programmer does not fill a specific instant when he knows his application can discontinue shortly and garbage collect. Normally, most applications are written in this manner.

Listing 1 introduces a class named "BetterControlOfGC". It's a utility class that provides the methods described earlier. There are two public methods: "suggestGCNow()" and "scheduleRegularGC(milliseconds)" that respectively correspond to the steps described earlier. Line 7 suggests to the VM to garbage collect the unreachable objects as soon as possible. The documentation makes it transparent that the garbage collection may not occur instantaneously, but experience has shown that it will exist performed as soon as the VM is able to accomplish the task. Invoking the artery on line 25 causes garbage collection to occur at a fixed rate as determined by the parameter to the method.

In scheduling the GC to occur at a fixed rate, a garbage collection stimulator task, GCStimulatorTask, is utilized. The code extends the "java.util.timer" thread in line 10. No original thread is created; the processing runs on the sole timer thread available birth with the Java 1.3 environment. Similarly, to withhold the processing lean, the GC stimulator follows the Singleton pattern as shown by lines 18-23 and line 27. There can exist only one stimulator per application, where an application is any code running on an instance of the JVM.

We intimate that you set the interval at which the garbage collector runs from a Java property file. Thus you can tune the application without having to recompile the code. Write some simple code to read a property file that's either a parameter on the command line or a resource bundle in the class path. region the command parameter "-verbose:gc" on your executable command line and measure the time it takes to garbage collect. Tune this number until you achieve the results you want. If the budget allows, experiment with other virtual machines and/or hardware.

Step 3: Store Persistent Objects into Persistent Data Areas or Store Long-Lived Objects in PoolsUsing persistent data areas is purely optional. It supports the underlying premise of this article. In order to bind the disruption of the garbage collector in your application, invent its job easy. If you know that an remonstrate or collection of objects would live for the duration of your application, let the collector know. It would exist nice if the Java environment provided some sort of flag that could exist placed on objects upon their creation to relate the garbage collector "-keep out". However, there is currently no such means. (The Real-Time Specification for Java describes an region of remembrance called "Immortal Memory" where objects live for the duration of the application and garbage collection should not run.) You may try using a database; however, this may unhurried down your application even more. Another solution currently under the Java Community Process is JSR 107. JCache provides a criterion set of APIs and semantics that allow a programmer to cache frequently used data objects for the local JVM or across JVMs. This API is still under review and may not exist available yet. However, they believe it holds much covenant for the Java developer community. withhold this avenue open and in intellect for future architectures. What can they Do now?

The pooling of objects is not original to real-time programmers. The concept is to create total your expected data objects before you open processing, then total your data can exist placed into structures without the expense of instance creation during processing time. This has the edge of keeping your remembrance footprint stable. It has the drawback of requiring a "deep copy" artery to exist written to store the data into the pool. (If you simply set an remonstrate to another, you're changing the remonstrate reference and not reusing the selfsame space.) The nanosecond expense of the deep copy is far less than that of the remonstrate instance creation.

If the data pooling technique is combined with the proper exercise of the "nullify" technique, garbage collection becomes optimized. The reasons are fairly straightforward:1.  Since the remonstrate is set to null immediately after the deep copy, it lives only in the young generation portion of the memory. It does not progress into the older generations of remembrance and thus takes less of the garbage collector's cycle time.2.  Since the remonstrate is nullified immediately and no other reference to it exists in some other collection remonstrate in the application, the job of the garbage collector is easier. In other words, the garbage collector does not fill to withhold track of an remonstrate that exists in a collection.

When using data pools, it's wise to exercise the parameters "-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=0 -XX:SurvivorRatio=128" on the command line. These relate the JVM to trot objects on the first sweep from the original generation to the old. It commands the JVM to exercise the concurrent tag sweep algorithm on the musty generation that proves more efficient since it works "concurrently" for a multi-processor platform. For sole processor machines, try the "-Xincgc" option. We've seen those long garbage collector pauses, which occur after hours of execution, fade using this technique and these parameters. Performing well in the long flee is the exact capitalize of this ultimate step.

Performance ResultsTypically, most engineers want proof before changing their approach to designing and coding. Why not? Since we're now suggesting that even Java programmers should exist concerned about resource allocation, it better exist worth it! Once upon a time, assembly language and C programmers spent time tweaking remembrance and register usage to better performance. This step was necessary. Now, as higher-level object-oriented programmers they may disdain this thought. This pattern has dared to imply that such considerations, although not as low flush as registers and remembrance addresses (instead at the remonstrate level), are still necessary for high-performance coding. Can it exist true?

The underlying premise is that if you know how your engine works, you can drive it better to obtain optimal performance and endurance. This is as exact for my 1985 300TD (Mercedes, five cylinder, turbo diesel station wagon) with 265,000 miles as for my Java code running on a HotSpot VM. For instance, knowing that a diesel's optimal performance is when the engine is warm since it relies on compression for power, I let my car warm up before I "push it." Similarly, I don't overload the vehicle with the tons of stuff I could region in the tailgate. HotSpot fits the analogy. Performance improves after the VM "warms up" and compiles the HotSpot code into the endemic language. I moreover withhold my remembrance footprint lank and light. The comparison breaks down after awhile, but the basic verity does not change. You can exercise a system the best when you understand how it works.

Our challenge to you is to retract statistics before and after implementing this pattern on just a miniature portion of your code. delight recognize that the gain will exist best exemplified when your application is scaled upward. In other words, the heavier the load on the system, the better the results.

The following statistics were taken after the pattern was applied. They are charted as:1.  Limited nullify artery invocation is used where only the incoming messages are not "nullified." (The residue of the application from which the statistics were taken was left intact with a very lank remembrance usage.) There is no forced garbage collection.2.  Nullify artery invocation and forced garbage collection is utilized.

The test environment is a Microsoft Windows 2000 X86 Family 15 Model 2 Stepping 4 Genuine Intel ~1794MHz laptop running the BEA WebLogic Server 7.0 with Service Pack 7.1 with a physical remembrance size of 523,704KB. The Java Message Server (JMS server), a track generator, and a tactical panoply are total running on the selfsame laptop over the local developer network (MAGIC). The server makes no optimizations, even though each application resides locally. The JVMs are treated as if they were distributed across the network. They're running on the J2SE 1.4.1 release.

The test target application is a Java rock Tactical panoply with complete panning, zooming, and track-hooking capabilities. It receives bundles of tracks via the Java Message Service that are displayed at their proper location on the given image. Each track is approximately 88 bytes and the overall container size is about 70 bytes. This byte measurement does not comprise total the additional class information that's moreover sent during serialization. The container is the message that holds an array of tracks that contains information such as time and number of tracks. For their tests, the tracks are sent at a 1Hz rate. Twenty sets of data are captured.

To illustrate the test environment, a screen capture of a 5,000 track load (4,999 tracks plus the ship) is shown in pattern 1. The background shows tracks rendered with the Military criterion 2525B symbology over an image of the Middle East. The miniature window titled "Track Generator Desktop" is a minimized window showing the parameters of the test set through the track generator application. Notice that 45 messages had been sent at the time of the screen capture. Directly beneath this window sits the Windows assignment Manager. Note that the CPU utilization is at 83%. At first this doesn't appear that bad. But at that rate, there isn't much scope for the user to open zooming, panning, hooking tracks, and so on. The final command window to the perquisite is that of the tactical panoply application. The parameter "-verbose:gc" is placed on the Java command line (java -verbose:gc myMainApplication.class). The VM is performing the listed garbage collection at its own rate, not by command of the application.

The final test of 10,000 tracks performed extremely poorly. The system does not scale; the CPU is pegged. At this point most engineers may jeer at Java again. Let's retract another perceive after implementing the pattern.

After implementation, where the nullify methods are invoked properly and garbage collection is requested at a occasional interval (2Hz), stagy improvements are realized. The ultimate test of 10,000 tracks proves that the processor still has plenty of scope to Do more work. In other words, the pattern scales very well.

Performance SummaryThe pattern to back control garbage collection pauses most definitely improves the overall performance of the application. Notice how well the pattern scales under the heavier track loads in the performance bar chart in pattern 2. The darker middle bar shows the processor utilization at each flush of the message (track) load. As the message traffic increases, the processor utilization grows more slowly than without the pattern. The ultimate light-colored bar shows the improved performance. The main energy of the pattern is how well it scales under heavy message loads.

There is another subtle energy to the pattern. This one is difficult to measure since it requires very long-lived tests. If Step 3 is faithfully followed, those horribly long garbage collection pauses that occur after hours of running disappear. This is a key capitalize to the pattern since most of their applications are designed to flee "forever."

We're confident that many other Java applications would capitalize from implementing this very simple pattern.

The steps to control garbage collection pauses are:1.  Set total objects that are no longer in exercise to null and invent positive they're not left within some collection. "Nullify" objects.2.  obligate garbage collection to occur both:

  • After some major memory-intense operation (e.g., scaling an image)
  • At a occasional rate that provides the best performance for your application3.  redeem long-lived data in a persistent data region if feasible or in a pool of data and exercise the usurp garbage collector algorithm.

    By following these three simple steps, you'll avoid those bothersome garbage collection pauses and savor total the benefits of the Java environment. It's time the Java environment was fully utilized in mission-critical panoply systems.

    References

  • Gupta, A., and Doyle, M. "Turbo-Charging the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine, v1.4.x to better the Performance and Scalability of Application Servers": http://developer.java.sun.com/developer/ technicalArticles/Programming/turbo/
  • JSR 1, Real-Time Specification for Java: http://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=1
  • Java HotSpot VM options: http://java.sun.com/docs/hotspot/VMOptions.html
  • Java Specification Request for JCache: http://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=107

  • PCI DSS questions answered: Solutions to tough PCI problems | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    During their recent virtual seminar, PCI DSS 2.0: Why the latest update matters to you, experts Ed Moyle and Diana...

    Kelley of SecurityCurve were unable to reply total of the PCI DSS questions they received during their live question-and-answer session. SearchSecurity.com has asked them to give brief responses to each of the unanswered questions, and we've published those questions and responses below to back you decipher your unique PCI problems.

    For additional information about the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, visit SearchSecurity.com's PCI DSS resources page.

  • Where can they find information about PCI DSS compliance that is focused on those of us who are "Mom & Pop" shops?Since most miniature organizations topple into the self-assessment category, a august resource is the Security Standards Council SAQ (Self-Assessment Questionnaire) section. Specifically these documents:

    SAQ main page

    PCI DSS SAQ instructions and guidelines

    SAQ: How it total fits together

    SAQ A-D and Guidelines

  • It seems the necessity of PCI compliance hasn't fully penetrated the Asian markets. Do you fill any suggestions on how to achieve compliance for companies who Do traffic in Asia, where adjusting to PCI standards aren't a priority?Companies should exist compliant regardless of where the payment information is stored, processed or transmitted. Even if processors in a particular locale aren't as focused on the standard, the companies (merchants/retailers) with operations in those locales should implement the selfsame controls as they Do in other areas of the globe.

  • If card data is entered via the virtual terminal of a third-party on a desktop PC where wireless is not enabled, Do I need wireless scans?All wireless networks within the CDE (cardholder data environment) need to exist scanned pursuant to the PCI DSS wireless guidelines provided by the Council. If audit and test findings verify there is no wireless on the virtual terminal and there is no wireless within the CDE, additional scans are not required (for example, note that the wireless scanning requirement is not addressed in SAQ C-VT specific to virtual terminal-only environments). Note, however, that if you exercise other devices beyond just the virtual terminal to store/process/transmit cardholder data (such as a PoS on your network), you will fill to scan.

  • Is there a criterion for isolating non-compliant custom systems that Do not fill a newer PCI-compliant version available? Let's assume this would exist a software package without encryption in its database.There are two standards for payment software – the PA DSS for commercial software and the PCI DSS for commercial software with significant customization and custom software. If the custom software is saving PANs in an unencrypted format, it is non-compliant with PCI DSS. The best options are to discontinue saving the PANs and exercise an alternative -- fondness masking, tokens or other unique identifier -- or find a artery to encrypt the PAN data before it enters the database. If this is not possible, create a document explaining why, list compensating controls (such as increased monitoring and access control) and do in region a road map for mitigating or eliminating the problem. Although the compensating controls/road map will not intimate a fully compliant RoC or SAQ, it does expose safe faith on the piece of the company to labor towards correcting the problem.

  • In terms of a policy strategy, should an enterprise's existing information security policies exist amended to comprise PCI requirements, or Do the requirements need to exist addressed in PCI-specific policies?In most cases the CDE (cardholder data environment) under PCI is a very miniature portion of the network and should exist clearly zoned off from the repose of the corporate network activities. As a part piece of the network, a unique policy (or policy set) should apply for that zone. So PCI-specific policies should exist. However, parts of existing policy – for specimen stout password controls and reset – can exist re-used in the PCI-specific policies where applicable.

  • Regarding encryption in requirement 3, if the decryption key is not present in the cardholder environment, is the system out of the scope of PCI?In the FAQ section of the Council site it states: "Encrypted data may exist deemed out of scope if, and only if, it has been validated that the entity that possesses encrypted cardholder data does not fill the means to decrypt it." So if the entity does not fill the key, that data may exist deemed out of scope.

  • Does PCI require verification that there are no rogue wireless access points that may fill connected to the POS network?Yes. From the Council's Wireless Guidance: "These are requirements that total organizations should fill in region to protect their networks from attacks via rogue or unknown wireless access points (APs) and clients. They apply to organizations regardless of their exercise of wireless technology and regardless of whether the wireless technology is a piece of the CDE or not." And, "The purpose of PCI DSS requirement 11.1 is to ensure an unauthorized or rogue wireless device introduced into an organization's network does not allow unmanaged and unsecured WLAN access to the CDE. The intent is to prevent an attacker from using rogue wireless devices to negatively repercussion the security of cardholder data. In order to combat rogue WLANs, it is acceptable to exercise a wireless analyzer or a preventative control such as a Wireless Intrusion Detection/Prevention System (IDS/IPS) as defined by the PCI DSS."

  • Where is catastrophe recovery and traffic continuity planning covered in the PCI DSS requirements, or is it?Disaster recovery and BCP are not explicitly called out in the 2.0 version of PCI DSS; however, incident response planning is. "12.5.3 - Establish, document, and ration security incident response and escalation procedures to ensure timely and effectual handling of total situations." moreover in the Penetration Testing supplement it states: "Perform testing in accordance with censorious company processes including change control, traffic continuity, and catastrophe recovery." And, in the Application Reviews and Web Application Firewalls Clarified it states: "Adhere to total policies and procedures including change control, traffic continuity, and catastrophe recovery."

  • Would you define "scope" as the geographical region of the PCI servers? Or would you define "scope" as the SAQ requirements? It seems at times they are used interchangeably.The scope of the audit surface is the cardholder data environment (CDE). The CDE is "The people, processes and technology that store, process or transmit cardholder data or sensitive authentication data, including any connected system components." So any system component in the CDE is in scope regardless of geographic location.

  • Shared accounts are prohibited according to PCI DSS as I understand it, but imagine if you fill your network paraphernalia management outsourced and the firewalls and switches for the cardholder environment are managed by a third party or a service supplier. In this scenario, you would need two-factor authentication for administrative access to the CHE, but what if the service provider/supplier has several technicians and you are using RSA tokens? Do you fill to supply one authentication account and one RSA token per technician? Or is it necessary only to supply one account and one RSA token for the service provider/supplier? You're perquisite that shared accounts are prohibited by PCI DSS; Requirement 8 states: "Assign a unique ID to each person with computer access." Strictly speaking, to exist compliant, a unique ID and two-factor token would need to exist assigned for each person remotely administering the firewalls and switches.

  • Can you converse to some of the feedback you fill received from clients who fill implemented a tokenization product, including some of the key areas to focus on when selecting a vendor?We've received positive feedback from companies that exercise tokenization in the CDE to reduce scope. One that they spoke to and fill mentioned publicly is Helzberg Diamond Shops, Inc.. However, they caution that to exist completely effective, organizations need to moreover address scope reduction and zoning, document the tokenization implementation so it can exist reviewed during audit, and verify with your acquirer/processor that tokenization is acceptable. For vendor selection, the Council is working on tokenization guidance, but Visa Inc.has already issued its recommended guidance, Tokenization Best Practices.
  • Speaking from a university standpoint, they retract credit cards in many ways -- POS, Internet, MOTO – but they exercise only PA-DSS applications and they are hosted by a service provider, so they Do not store any CHD. Their CHDE is really the PCs (and network) where the card data is entered or swiped. They fill segmented total system components (PCs where CHD is entered or swiped) away from their regular network. It appears that many of the PA-DSS requirements are in reference to "stored" credit card data. Can you give me some advice on how to determine how much of the requirements apply to us given that they Do not store CHD? They fill secured total components that fill CHD entered and they are running PA-DSS-compliant applications.Sounds fondness you've done a lot of august scoping work. The PA-DSS applies to applications, but entities still need to exist PCI DSS compliant. Since your applications are already PA-DSS compliant, focus instead on what matters to your university, which is attesting to PCI DSS compliance. If your transactions levels qualify you for self-assessment review, the self-assessment guidelines (please contemplate question 1 for more information) and determine which one applies and complete that. In general, if you topple under multiple SAQs your acquirer/processer will want you to complete SAQ –D. However, to exist sure, check with your acquirer/processor to confirm.
  • Can you proffer advice on what to perceive for in an internal audit and reporting product for PCI DSS compliance?There are multiple audit and reporting appliance types that can exist used in PCI DSS compliance. For example, a penetration testing system will revert reports on vulnerabilities and exposures in the CDE, while a patching system will revert reports on patch information, both of which apply. In many cases, when organizations judge about a meta-console for reporting, it is a log or event/information aggregation console that brings together multiple reporting components for exercise in PCI DSS compliance work. For any tool, perceive for the faculty to check for issues specific to PCI DSS (ex: password policy on servers and applications in the CDE) and report on these in a template that maps the finding to the specific requirement.

  • I fill a question about PCI and the cloud. They are a PCI flush 1 merchant. They are thinking of affecting their data center to cloud, Amazon to exist specific. They understand that Amazon is PCI flush 1 compliant. Is it really practicable to exist a PCI-compliant flush 1 merchant in a cloud environment? Do you fill any guidance regarding PCI in a cloud environment?Amazon.com Inc. (Amazon Web Services – AWS) is, as of this writing, a PCI DSS Validated Service Provider. However, using AWS, or any Validated Service Provider, does not eliminate the need to entity using the service to exist PCI DSS compliant . As Amazon notes, "All merchants must manage their own PCI certification. For the portion of the PCI cardholder environment deployed in AWS, your QSA can confidence on their validated service provider status, but you will still exist required to fill total other PCI compliance and testing requirements that don't deal with the technology infrastructure, including how you manage the cardholder environment that you host with AWS." So while a cloud provider can exist third party validated as a PCI DSS provider, this doesn't intimate they're certified to PCI or that entities using the service are automatically certified.

    If you are going to host some or total of your CDE in the cloud, Do so with a compliant provider. However, don't forget to annually check that the provider is remaining compliant with your CDE, as well as the parts of your CDE that are hosted in the cloud. Additionally, according to the PCI Security Standards, your RoC must "document the role of each service provider, clearly identifying which requirements apply to the assessed entity and which apply to the service provider." And:

    "12.8 – If cardholder data is shared with service providers, maintain and implement policies and procedures to manage service providers, to comprise the following:

    12.8.1 – Maintain a list of service providers.

    12.8.2 –Maintain a written agreement that includes an acknowledgement that the service providers are amenable for the security of cardholder data that the service providers possess.

    12.8.3 - Ensure there is an established process for engaging service providers including proper due diligence prior to engagement.

    12.8.4 - Maintain a program to monitor service providers' PCI DSS compliance status at least annually"

  • In exertion to ensure PCI compliance, they fill a number of different products from different vendors, since there does not appear to exist one complete PCI compliance "solution." Is this by design? Is there any edge to having each requirement met by a different vendor's product?There are a number of components in PCI compliance and they encompass people, process and technology, and span both the physical and the logical. Also, total of the documentation related to policies and process. It would exist extremely difficult (arguably impossible) for a sole solution to Do it all. The reality is that organizations exercise a number of different vendor solutions for the technical controls.

    Some vendors provide products that meet different controls. For example, a vendor with a log aggregation or SIEM appliance that moreover sells antivirus/malware or patch management. The immense win is not necessarily to fill total tools (or many tools) from the selfsame vendor, but to exist able to bring together reporting, logs, test and monitoring information in a centralized region to invent oversight and compliance monitoring more comprehensive and efficient.

  • How can companies deal with summon recordings in the summon center when taking card payments by phone? Are there any mitigating factors?Because there is not a lot of summon center guidance in the PCI DSS, the Council addressed summon center issues in a special FAQ #5362. "The Council's position remains that if you can digitally query sensitive authentication data (SAD) contained within audio recordings - if hapless is easily accessible - then it must not exist stored."

    Though this is not hosted on the PCI Security criterion Council Domain -- it is the official FAQ for the Council and can exist accessed directly by clicking in the FAQs link at the top of the official Council page.

    Also, delight contemplate question below for additional information on storage rules regarding sensitive authentication data (SAD).

  • Our call-recording solution requires manual intervention to bleep out the CV2 number. Is this adequate as a compensating control to meet the standard?

    If the CV2 (or any other sensitive authentication data/SAD) is not stored, this should meet the standard. Document how the manual process is implemented to ensure hapless is truly being deleted and not stored.

    Alternately, according to PCI Security Standards Council FAQ "If these recordings cannot exist data mined, storage of CAV2, CVC2, CVV2 or CID codes after authorization may exist permissible as long as usurp validation has been performed. This includes the physical and ratiocinative protections defined in PCI DSS that must still exist applied to these summon recording formats."

  • If you fill backups of credit card data in a secure location, is that a violation? How can it exist mitigated?It's not a violation -- it is piece of a requirement! Requirement 9.5 explicitly states: "Store media back-ups in a secure location, preferably an off-site facility, such as an alternate or back-up site, or a commercial storage facility. Review the location's security at least annually." remember to invent positive the data was encrypted before it was backed up and that the personnel at the facility Do not fill the key to decrypt the data.

  • What are the rules for external scanning?External scanning is covered in Requirement 11.2.2 – "Perform quarterly external vulnerability scans via an Approved Scanning Vendor (ASV), approved by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC).

    Note: Quarterly external vulnerability scans must exist performed by an Approved Scanning Vendor (ASV), approved by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC). Scans conducted after network changes may exist performed by internal staff." 

    See the PCI Security criterion for a list of ASVs

    Also helpful is the ASV Program Guide, and the ASV Client Feedback Form

  • PCI 2.0 lightly touches upon virtualization for the first time. Does this extend beyond virtual machine images to virtual appliances (e.g. exercise of virtual firewalls & virtual switches in hosted products)?Yes, according to the Scope of Assessment for Compliance it does extend to virtual appliances. "System components" in v2.0 include, "any virtualization components such as virtual machines, virtual switches/routers, virtual appliances, virtual applications/desktops, and hypervisors." moreover note that virtualization is mentioned in Requirement 2.2.1: Implement only one primary function per server, "Note: Where virtualization technologies are in use, implement only one primary function per virtual system component."

  • Is a system that is not holding the cardholder data, but only processing it (like a Web farm) a piece of PCI audit requirements?Yes, if a system component stores, processes or transmits cardholder data or sensitive authentication data, it is piece of the CDE and within scope of the PCI DSS audit. For additional guidance, advert to the Scope of Assessment for Compliance with PCI DSS requirements section of PCI DSS v2.0.

  • When Do companies fill to switch over to PCI 2.0?For the absolute final word on compliance deadlines, check with your acquirer or specific card brand. In general, however, v2.0 went into result on January 1, 2011 and there is a year to comply with the original standard. If you are in the middle of an assessment cycle that started in 2010 and the compliance assessment will exist completed before the intermission of 2011, you can continue the process with v1.2.1. If you a starting a original assessment cycle in 2011, exercise v2.0.

  • If an organization has filled out the self assessment questionnaire (SAQ) and identified that it has not complied with the 12 DSS requirements, should the SAQ still exist submitted? Or should the organization wait until the 12 requirements fill been satisfied?Before admitting defeat, contemplate if there is any artery your organization can tangle to exist compliant. Don't forget, if a non-compliant system or process is not essential, it could exist scoped out of the CDE and out of the compliance surface. moreover don't forget about compensating controls. The exemplar is to exist fully compliant, but compensating controls provide a artery for organizations to exist mitigating risks as they labor towards implementing better controls.

    According to the Compensating Controls Appendix B in SAQ D v2.0: "Compensating controls may exist considered for most PCI DSS requirements when an entity cannot meet a requirement explicitly as stated, due to legitimate technical or documented traffic constraints, but has sufficiently mitigated the risk associated with the requirement through implementation of other, or compensating, controls." Also, there is a compensating control worksheet that needs to exist completed in Appendix C of the SAQ D v2.0.

    If de-scoping the non-compliant system and compensating controls are not options, then you will need to check the "Non-Compliant" box on the SAQ and do in a target date for compliance. In most cases, your acquirer/processor will want to contemplate this proof, and possibly put a question to your organization to fill out the "Action Plan" piece of the SAQ; however, check with your acquirer/processor to exist sure.

  • Let's talk about the mythical beast that is end-to-end encryption. Does it exist? More specifically, one of their audience members asked, "What if end-to-end encryption from the pin pad / card swipe POS is implemented? Does that retract everything out of PCI scope?"The Council is calling this P2PE for point-to-point encryption. significance turning the cardholder data into ciphertext (encrypting it) and then transmitting it, encrypted to a destination, for example, the payment processor. If the P2PE begins on swipe by cashier of the credit card at the PoS (point of sale) and continues total the artery to the processor, it is not stored, and no one in the interim path has the keys to decrypt the data, then it could reduce the scope of the audit surface significantly. Caveats here are that everything will need to exist implemented correctly, validated and tested. However, note that the entity still must exist PCI DSS compliant – though compliance may exist greatly simplified. And, at this time, the PCI Security Standards Council still deems P2PE an emerging technology and is formalizing official guidance, training QSAs on how to evaluate apropos P2PE components, as well as considering creating a validated list of P2PE solutions. For more information on the status of P2PE, delight read the Initial Roadmap: Point-to-Point Encryption Technology and PCI DSS Compliance program guide.

  • Under what circumstances can an internal audit certify a merchant as being PCI compliant?If the merchant qualifies for SAQ completion, internal audit can exist amenable for the assessment and attestation process. "Each payment card brand has defined specific requirements for compliance validation and reporting, such as provisions for performing self-assessments and when to engage a QSA."

    If the merchant must complete a RoC, it is practicable to Do the on-site assessment with an internal resource if the brand allows it. Check with your brand for specifics, Mastercard Inc., for example, has deemed that as of June 30, 2011, the "primary internal auditor staff engaged in validating PCI DSS compliance [must] attend PCI SSC ISA Training and pass the associated accreditation program annually."

  • What PCI and security implications Do you anticipate arising with the original generation of contact-less cards, given that they are now being widely distributed?If the data can exist transmitted in a secure encrypted format over the RF from the contact-less card to a secure endpoint, the data should not exist exposed. However, if the data from the card is in clear-text over the air, sniffing attacks will exist a major concern. Also, key management and MiTMs may exist problems depending on specific technical implementations.

  • Are quarterly penetration tests still required for wireless access points that are using WPA-2?Yes, quarterly tests are required. Requirement 11.1 covers total known/unknown wireless access points regardless of protections on them. "11.1 - Test for the presence of wireless access points and detect unauthorized wireless access points on a quarterly basis." The reason for this is that one of the intents of this requirement is to ensure there are no rogue devices in the CDE.

  • Does Citrix sessioning between payment apps and hosted sites provide adequate encryption for PCI compliance?If the session is configured to transmit the data between the payment apps and the hosted site using an approved artery (ex: SSL/TLS ) then it should exist compliant for at least the transmission portion of the standard.

    Requirement 4.1 -- "Use stout cryptography and security protocols (for example, SSL/TLS, IPSEC, SSH, etc.) to safeguard sensitive cardholder data during transmission over open, public networks."

  • How much are organizations spending on PCI compliance? Can you provide a compass both for one-time costs and annual maintenance?There are two sides to this coin: cost of the audit and cost of compliance overall.
  • Audit cost: According to a recent Ponemon survey on PCI DSS trends (.pdf), the mediocre cost of the audit itself is $225,000 for the largest (Tier 1) merchants, but the cost can compass much higher or lower depending on complexity of the environment, size of the CDE, and other factors .

  • Overall cost of compliance: In 2008, Gartner conducted a survey of 50 merchants and establish that PCI costs had been increasing since 2006 (Gartner.com registration required) and cited costs averaging 2.7M for Tier 1 merchants, 1.1M for Tier 2, and 155k for Tier 3. Again, these are averages, so your particular case might exist different.
  • Requirement 2.2.1 mandates that censorious servers provide a single-purpose service. If I fill a sole server hosting an e-commerce application with a Web server and database residing on a physical server, Do I need to region the database on a part server?Yes, in most cases. Requirement 2.2.1 – "Implement only one primary function per server to prevent functions that require different security levels from co-existing on the selfsame server." The intent of this requirement is to provide some protections if the underlying host, in this case the operation system running the database and e-commerce application is breached, causing one or both of the services to exist exposed to attack. VMs are now allowed, so the selfsame piece of hardware could exist used with a hypervisor to part the two services across two VMs. Alternately, if there is a censorious traffic need, such as performance, for both primary functions to exist on the selfsame server, regard if this justifies a compensating control by completing the compensating control worksheet (Appendix C of the PCI DSS).
  • About the author:Ed Moyle is currently a manager with CTG's Information Security Solutions practice, providing strategy, consulting, and solutions to clients worldwide as well as a founding colleague of SecurityCurve.

    Diana Kelley is a colleague with Amherst, N.H.-based consulting firm SecurityCurve. She formerly served as vice president and service director with research firm Burton Group. She has extensive experience creating secure network architectures and traffic solutions for big corporations and delivering strategic, competitive information to security software vendors.



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