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MOS-EXP exam Dumps Source : Microsoft transcend 2002 Core
Test Code : MOS-EXP
Test appellation : Microsoft transcend 2002 Core
Vendor appellation : Microsoft
: 84 existent Questions
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Microsoft Microsoft transcend 2002 Core
Microsoft workplace. Microsoft Excel. each productiveness tools are so embedded in the cloth of world commerce that in spite of the fact that innovative unique apps blew Microsoft’s proverbial doors off day after today, it will doubtless nonetheless grasp years for that upstart to fully overtake and usurp the entrenched common.
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Microsoft has published an update roundup weblog post for users of Microsoft 365. The company particulars every single of the changes made to the subscription service throughout February. added to the kit during the month had been a brace of unique protection features, groups integrations, and plenty extra.
in terms of safety, Microsoft 365 has received Microsoft threat specialists this week. The role is designed to “proactively hunt and prioritize threats”. somewhere else, Microsoft has delivered an “Ask a hazard knowledgeable” button to the windows Defender ATP.
groups is a commodious fragment of the Microsoft 365 bundle this present day, and in February some healthcare integrations were introduced. above all, cozy messaging and precedence notifications are now supported. FHIR-enabled electronic fitness facts are actually supported in teams.
Over at the Microsoft Authenticator, which no offers safety notifications to users on Microsoft 365.
In its weblog, Microsoft besides recapped its launch of a unique office software. The revolutionary internet software (PWA) acts as a alternative for the My workplace app.
At its core the brand unique PWA is workplace.com in app kind. This means the individual workplace apps relish observe, PowerPoint, transcend don't look to be here. besides the fact that children, those apps may besides be launched from inside the hub.
in its place, the app works as a vital hub for workplace apps. here that you can espy issues relish contacts, recent files, and more across observe, Excel, PowerPoint, OneDrive, Outlook, groups, Yammer and different apps.
“businesses can additionally grasp potential of the capacity to integrate third-birthday celebration apps, enable clients to search for files and people across the corporation, and customize the event with their own branding.”
Octavio Avila-Cardet at Microsoft.
identify: Octavio Avila-Cardet
homeland: Guantanamo, Cuba
what's your principal? desktop science
where did you intern? What did you Do there? I interned for Microsoft as a application engineer. I worked in the core features offshoot the district interior tools and software that could be used by using other Microsoft employees are developed. My team became answerable for constructing a data reporting software to allow teams to role information reporting on transcend using their records. The application is used with the aid of about half of the enterprise (a bit more than 50,000 clients).
How did you acquire your internship? I got my internship by attending a profession just at FIU in Fall 2017, hosted by way of FIU’s profession and skill construction office. a friend of mine informed me concerning the profession reasonable, so I went online and applied to a number of corporations that had been attending the career reasonable, including Microsoft, facebook and Amazon. Some days later, I bought an e mail to Do an in-grownup interview at FIU’s Engineering core. Then i was invited to interview at the desirable Microsoft campus in Redmond, Washington, for a set of interviews. A month later, I received the present to intern at Microsoft. i used to be shocked, however excited!
What counsel Do you beget got for those birth the internship method? acquire any internship event that you could acquire even if it’s not your dream enterprise. youngsters, Do are trying to acquire an internship near to what you are looking to travail on after college. Having an internship in your resume really offers you an facet over folks that don’t. The summer earlier than Microsoft, I had a different internship at SAIC (Science applications international industry enterprise), which is a armed forces contractor it truly is akin to Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin.
What tasks did you travail on? i was assigned to boost a web-based mostly consumer interface to enable unique teams to onboard quicker since the pilot technique of onboarding every now and then would grasp months. With my interface, it might only grasp 20 minutes. It turned into a really big challenge and although I finished most of it, it is silent under additional evolution by means of my crew. I’m excited to espy how it has stepped forward on account that I completed my internship.
How did your internship unite again to your coursework? Some foundational concepts I realized in my information structures classification beget been essential, specifically learning a way to assess how productive your algorithm is. This allowed me to identify areas of my code that mandatory optimizing. The basic programming expertise you be trained in school helps you learn unique programming languages and tools quicker seeing that the core concepts are familiar. What school offers you is the self-discipline to be taught unique and tough ideas rapid and basic abilities of programming to acquire you going. although, it’s crucial to Do a lot of self-teaching right through faculty to be updated and Do internships every time which you can.
Avila-Cardet and his pals hiking Mount Teneriffe discovered in the condition of Washington.
What became the best issue about your internship or that came about right through your internship? The Intern Signature event! every single the company’s 2,000 interns accumulate in a huge park to play video games, consume and watch a reside concert. The artist had been kept a furtive every single over the internship, so this is where they at ultimate acquire to determine who it became. every person had their personal guesses, but no person knew for inescapable who it changed into going to be. Moments earlier than the leading artist regarded, one intern standing at the back of me turned into joking that Pitbull changed into going to be the singer. I laughed and didn’t grasp it seriously. i used to be like, “There is no manner. Pitbull? Out of every single people…”. well, which you can imagine my amaze when Mr. worldwide himself came out singing “Don’t cease the birthday party”.
What did you relish most about your event? The americans that I met. That’s basically what made it brilliant. I made loads of friends and loads of us would at every single times exit collectively to explore the city, to party, and to head climbing as well. additionally, the manner i used to be challenged on diverse fronts. i was challenged on my capacity to be trained and bring quickly and on my skill to satisfy unique individuals. I favored that i used to be pushed outside of my comfort zone each day.
What did you learn about your self? The internship exposed lots of my weaknesses and barriers as a developer. I realized that I requisite to spend greater time within the planning and design section before poignant on with the implementation. I besides realized that I’m a brief learner. I needed to gain lore of loads of unique tools and employ them redress away and that i became capable of manage that.
Avila-Cardet with his colleagues at Microsoft.
How did you expand your professional community? Microsoft offers a program called the Intern Networking application that you can resolve to opt-in as an intern. the style it really works is that a week you obtain an electronic mail introducing you to a full-time worker from Microsoft working in a special team within the business. Then, you contact mentioned worker and you organize to beget lunch with them. There, you can acquire to grasp them, exact them about what they do, and exact them for suggestions. I did that program and talked to more than a dozen full-time personnel from groups reminiscent of windows, office, and Azure and even other interns from faculties akin to MIT.
How did it champion you demonstrate your self within the “precise-world?” speaking with authorities, demonstrating application for my team each two weeks, and difficult myself beget every single made me a far better professional in normal. I proved to myself, and to the realm, that i can dangle my ground even when i am absolutely outdoor my consolation zone, which i was at Microsoft. One second the district I definitely felt validated changed into at the very discontinue where I had to demo my closing product to the better usathat beget been my supervisor, my supervisor’s boss and his colleague. They appreciated the product and that they were already discussing how lots money and resources they had been going to district money into it commandeer in entrance of me. one in every single them observed to me, “The proven fact that they are even having this discussion at every single is a safe token that you just did a superb job.”
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Microsoft transcend 2002 Core
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This chapter from Professional transcend Development: The Definitive pilot to Developing Applications Using Microsoft Excel, VBA, and .NET, 2nd Edition<</em> introduces VB.NET along with the .NET Framework, shows how you can automate transcend with VB.NET, and finally covers ADO.NET, which is used to connect to and retrieve data from various data sources.
This chapter is from the bespeak
In 2002, Microsoft released the first version of its evolution suite Visual Studio.NET (VS.NET) together with the .NET Framework. Since then, Microsoft has released unique versions of the Framework and evolution suite in quick succession. Microsoft has strongly indicated that .NET is the flagship evolution platform now and for the foreseeable future.
Visual Basic.NET (VB.NET) is fragment of VS.NET, and despite its similarity in the appellation with Classic VB (VB6), the two beget diminutive in common. VB.NET is the successor to Classic VB and as such it provides the capacity to create more technically modern solutions, a big group of unique and updated controls, and a unique advanced IDE. poignant from Classic VB to VB.NET is a non-trivial process, primarily because VB.NET is based on a unique and completely different technology platform.
Excel developers besides face the situation where applications created with the unique .NET technology requisite to communicate with applications based on the older COM technology, for example, VB.NET applications communicating with Excel. Because transcend is a COM-based application it cannot communicate directly with code written in .NET.All .NET code that communicates with transcend must cross the .NET COM boundary. This is necessary to withhold in intelligence because it is a challenge to manage and can beget significant performance implications.
In the first fragment of this chapter, VB.NET is introduced along with the .NET Framework. The second fragment of this chapter focuses on how they can automate transcend with VB.NET. Finally they cover ADO.NET, which is used to connect to and retrieve data from various data sources. ADO.NET is the successor to classic ADO on the .NET platform.
To provide a better understanding of VB.NET, they develop a practical solution, the PETRAS Report Tool.NET. This solution is a fully functional Windows Forms based reporting tool. It retrieves data from the PETRAS SQL Server database and uses transcend templates to present the reports.
VB.NET, ADO.NET, and the .NET Framework are book-length topics in their own right; what they examine here and in the two following chapters merely scratches the surface. At the discontinue of this chapter you find some recommended books and online resources that provide additional detail on these subjects.
The .NET Framework is the core of .NET. Before they can develop or eschew any .NET-based solutions, the Framework must be installed and available. The Framework provides the foundation for every single .NET software development. The .NET Framework is besides answerable for interoperability between .NET solutions and COM servers and components. This topic is covered later in the chapter. For the purposes of their discussion, they can mediate of the .NET Framework architecture as consisting of two major parts:
A huge collection of basis class libraries and interfaces—This collection contains every single the class libraries and interfaces required for .NET solutions. Namespaces are used to organize these class libraries and interfaces into a hierarchical structure. The namespaces are usually organized by function, and each namespace usually has several child namespaces. Namespaces create it simple to access and employ different classes and simplify protest references. They debate namespaces in more detail when presenting VB.NET later in this chapter.
Common Language Runtime (CLR)—This is the engine of the .NET Framework, and it is answerable for every single .NET basis services. It controls and monitors every single activities of .NET applications, including remembrance management, thread management, structured exception handling (SEH), garbage collection, and security. It besides provides a common data type system (CTS) that defines every single .NET data types.
The rapid evolution of the .NET Framework is reflected in the big number of versions available. Different Framework versions can coexist on one computer, and multiple versions of the Framework can be eschew side-by-side simultaneously on the same computer. However, an application can only employ one version of the .NET Framework at any one time. The Framework version that becomes dynamic is determined by which version is required by the .NET-based program that is loaded first. A generic recommendation is to only beget one version of the Framework installed on a target computer.
Because there are several different Framework versions in common employ and they may not be able to control the version available on the computers they target, they requisite to apply the same strategy to the .NET Framework as they Do when targeting multiple transcend versions: Develop against the lowest Framework version they plot to target. Of course there will besides be situations that decree the Framework version they requisite to target, such as corporate clients who beget standardized on a specific version.
As of this writing, the two most common Framework versions are 2.0 and 3.0. Both versions can be used on Windows XP, and version 3.0 is included with Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. Visual Studio 2008 (VS 2008) includes both of these Framework versions as well as version 3.5. By providing every single current Framework versions, VS 2008 makes it simple to select the most commandeer version to employ when pile their solutions. Versions 3.0 and 3.5 of the .NET Framework are backward compatible in a similar manner as the latest versions of the transcend protest libraries.
The .NET Framework can eschew on every single versions of Windows from Windows 98 forward, but to develop .NET-based solutions they requisite to beget Windows 2000 or later. If they plot to target Windows XP or earlier they requisite to create certain the desired version of the .NET Framework is installed on the target computer, because these Windows versions Do not embrace the Framework preinstalled. every single versions of the Framework are available for download from the Microsoft Web site and can be redistributed easily. To avoid confusion, they only employ version 2.0 of the .NET Framework in this chapter and the next.
No result found, try unique keyword!In addition, while SurveyMonkey is silent posting net losses, Qualtrics has managed to shatter even (impressive when they deem that Qualtrics was founded in 2002 ... Microsoft transcend (MSFT) spreadsheets ...
Enlarge / How could Peter quick-witted ditch every single this for the minimalism of MacOS? He loves the color purple far too much to Do that, right?
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Ten years ago around this very time—April through June 2008—our intrepid Microsoft guru Peter quick-witted evidently had an identity crisis. Could this lifelong PC user really beget been pushed to the brink? Was he considering a switch to... Mac OS?!? While their staff hopefully enjoys a less stressful Memorial Day this year, throughout the weekend we're resurfacing this three fragment train that doubles as an existential operating system quandary circa 2008. fragment two ran on May 4, 2008, and it appears unedited below.
Last time, I described how Apple turned its failure to develop a modern OS into a worthy success. The purchase of NeXT gave Apple a buzzword-compliant OS with a wholesome ecosystem of high-quality third-party applications. Meanwhile, Microsoft was lumbering along with Windows XP. Although technically sound, it was shot through with the decisions made more than a decade earlier for 16-bit Windows.
In 2001, when XP was released, this was not such a commodious deal. The first two or three versions of Mac OS X were troublesome, to articulate the least. Performance was weak, there were stability issues, and version 10.0 arguably wasn't even feature complete. It wasn't until early 2002 that Apple even made Mac OS X the default OS on unique Macs; for the first few months of its life, XP was up against "Classic" Mac OS 9.
From Win32 to Cocoa: A Windows user’s would-be conversion to Mac OS X
But OS X didn't stand still. Apple released a train of updates in quick succession, strengthening the platform with unique features relish Core Audio, Core Image, Core Data, and Quartz Extreme, and providing high-quality applications that exploited these abilities. every single this time, XP itself stood still. The core Windows platform didn't change between 2001 and late 2006.
Although XP itself was essentially unchanged, Microsoft did try to produce a modern, appealing platform for future development. That platform was, of course, .NET, and observant readers will beget noticed that I didn't mention it in fragment one. This was no accident, as the whole .NET sage deserved a more thorough examination.
Microsoft attempts modernity
In 2002, Microsoft released the .NET Framework. The .NET Framework was brand spanking new. It was designed and implemented from the ground up. It could beget been antiseptic and consistent and orthogonal and with a limpid design and powerful concepts. It could beget been a way out of the quagmire that is Win32. It could beget provided salvation—an environment free of 16-bit legacy decisions, with powerful APIs on a par with what Apple had developed.
Enlarge / The .NET Framework stack
It was certainly promoted as such. .NET was pushed as the future, the way every single Windows evolution would occur in the future. The plans became quite aggressive; in the OS that was to succeed Windows XP, unique functionality would be accessed not through Win32 but through .NET, acceptation that any developer wanting to exploit the latest and greatest OS features would beget to venture into this dauntless unique world.
So .NET could beget been a step into the 21st century. It could beget been, but it wasn't. Technically, .NET was fine. The virtual machine infrastructure was pretty sound, the performance was reasonable, and C# was an adequate (if not exactly ground-breaking) language. But the library—the .NET "API" used for such diverse tasks as writing files, reading data from databases, sending information over a network, parsing XML, or creating a GUI—the library is another sage altogether.
The library is extremely bad. It is simplistic and adamant and in many ways quite limited. See, .NET has a commodious problem: its target audience. .NET was meant to be a unified platform that every single developers would use—after all, if unique OS features required .NET, a broad cross-section of developers would employ it. The problem is that not every single developers are created equal. By looking at the different kinds of developers out there, they can understand why .NET is the way it is. What follows is not an exhaustive taxonomy of every single the unearthly and wonderful breeds of programmer, but rather a rugged taxonomy of some of the key species.
Our favorite kind of infirm crusade swag.
A developer taxonomy
At one level, you beget people who are basically industry analysts; they're using Access or transcend or VB6 to write data analyzing/number crunching applications. These things are hugely necessary in the industry world, totally unexciting to anyone else, and the people writing them aren't really "programmers." I mean, they are, in the sense that they're writing programs, but they're not especially interested in programming or anything relish that. They don't really keeping about the property of the libraries and tools they're using; they just want something simple enough that they can pick it up without too much difficulty. They'll never write the best code or the best programs in the world; they won't be elegant or well-structured or pretty to perceive at. But they'll work. Historically, as I said, these are the kind of people who Access is made for. Access is a worthy tool, quite unparalleled. Sure, it's a lousy database engine with a hideous programming language, but the power it gives these people is immense. So Access and VB6 and transcend macros are where it's at for these guys.
At the next level, you beget the journeyman developers. Now these people aren't "business" people—they are proper programmers. But it's just a job, and they'll attend to stick with what they know rather than try to Do something better. They might be a bit more discerning about their tools than the industry types, but they're not going to fade out of their way to pick up unique skills and learn unique things. They might employ VB6 or Java or C# or whatever; it doesn't really matter to them, as they'll employ whatever offers them the best employment opportunities at any given moment. Their code will probably perceive more or less the same no matter what. They're not going to learn the idioms of whatever specific language they're using, because there's no need, so it's just not for them.
A key feature of these developers is that, most of the time, they're writing "enterprise" software. This isn't software that will sit on a shelf in a store for someone to buy; it's custom applications to assist with some industry process or other. verity be told, it probably won't beget to perceive very nice or travail very well; it just has to acquire the job done. With "enterprise" software, you can often acquire away with a clunky program, because the people who are using it beget every single been trained on what to do. If doing X makes the application crash, that's okay—they can just be taught not to Do X any more.
In spite of the often mediocre property of the software these people write, they're a group that's immensely necessary to Microsoft. These programs are a key fragment of the platform lock-in that Microsoft craves. If a company has some business-critical custom application written in Visual Basic 6, that company isn't going to roll out Linux to its desktops; it's trapped on Windows.
At the final level, you beget the conscientious developers. These are people who keeping about what they're doing. They might be writing industry apps somewhere (although they probably loathe it, unless they are on a team of like-minded individuals) but, probably more likely, they're writing programs in their own time. They want to learn about what's collected and new; they want to Do the right thing on their platforms; they want to learn unique techniques and better solutions to existing problems. They might be using unusual evolution platforms, or they might be using C++, but they'll be writing safe code that's commandeer to their tools. They'll heed UI guidelines (and only shatter them when appropriate); they'll employ unique features that the platform has to offer; they'll push things to the limit. In a safe way, of course.
In the pre-.NET world, this wasn't really a commodious problem. The first group used transcend macros and Access; the second group used Visual Basic 6, and the ultimate group could employ C++ or whatever beret-wearing funky scripting language was à la mode at the time. This every single worked out fine, because one of the few nice things about Win32 is that it was designed for C. C is in many ways a very simple language, and it's besides a ubiquitous language. As a consequence of this, pretty much every other programming language created in the ultimate brace of decades can, one way or another, muster C APIs.
".NET could beget been a step into the 21st century. It could beget been, but it wasn't."
.NET isn't relish that. Although .NET can muster C APIs (just relish everything else can), the existent objective is for every single programming to reside in the .NET world. .NET is meant to be the entire platform, with every single the different languages that people employ animate inside the .NET environment. This is why .NET has APIs for tasks relish reading and writing files; in the .NET world you're not meant to employ Win32 to Do these things, you're meant to employ .NET's facilities for doing them. It's silent possible to employ different languages with .NET (in fact, it's easier than it was in the pre-.NET days). Just now, the different languages every single employ the common set of .NET APIs for drawing windows on screen, or saving files, or querying databases, and so on.
Because everything now has to live "within" the .NET world, .NET has to be every single things to every single people. Well actually, that's not true. It's trying to be safe enough for the first and second kind of programmer. The third type—well, just ignore them. They're too demanding anyway. They're the ones who keeping about their tools and acquire upset when an API is badly designed. They're the ones who notice the inconsistencies and omissions and gripe about them.
The .NET library is simple to the point of being totally dumbed down; it's probably okay for the first and second groups, not least because they don't know any better, but for the ease it's an exercise in frustration. This frustration is exacerbated when it's compared to .NET's commodious competitor, Java. Java is no panacea; it too is aiming roughly at the middle kind of developer, which is understandable, as they're the most numerous. But Java's much more high-minded. It's much stronger on concepts, making it easier to learn. Sun doesn't acquire it right the whole time, but the people behind Java beget clearly made something of an effort.
One practical manifestation of this is that .NET reflects a lot of the evil decisions made in Win32. For example, .NET provides an API named Windows Forms for writing GUIs. Windows Forms is based heavily on the Win32 GUI APIs; the same GUI APIs that owe their design to Win16. To properly write Windows Forms programs, you requisite to know how Win32 works, because there are concepts from Win32 that create their presence felt in Windows Forms. In Win32, every window is related to a specific thread. There can be multiple windows that belong to a thread, but every window is owned by exactly one thread. Almost every action that updates a window in some way—moving it on-screen, changing some text, animating some graphics, anything relish that—has to be performed within the thread that owns the window.
This restriction in itself is not entirely uncommon. There are very few truly multithreaded GUI APIs, because it tends to create programs more complicated for no existent benefit. The problem lies in how .NET makes developers handle this restriction. There's a way to test whether an update to a window needs to be sent to the thread that actually owns the window or not, along with a mechanism for sending the update to the window's thread. Except this way doesn't always work. Under some situations, it can exhibit you that you're using the redress thread already even if you're not. If the program then carries on and tries to execute the update, it may succeed or it may hang or crash the application. The reason for this unhelpful conduct is the way Windows Forms depends so heavily on Win32.
These diminutive issues are abundant. The .NET library does work. It more or less has every single the main pieces you need, but it's replete of areas where you beget to deal, directly or indirectly, with the obsolescent mediocrity of Win32. On their own, no fragment of these issues would be a show-stopper, but they every single add up. It's a death of a thousand cuts. There are so many places where the Win32 underpinnings "shine through" and taint what should beget been a brand-new platform.
What about Win64?
If Win32 was a mess and .NET didn't fix it, the other opening MS could beget had was to fix it for Win64, the 64-bit Windows API. Porting a program to Win64 requires a recompile at the very least, and it can often require code changes to avoid doing things that are safe for 32-bit processors but not for their 64-bit brethren. Because of this necessary recompile, one would mediate that MS could surely beget tidied things up a bit. Maybe not radically overhauled, but tidied up.
For example, there's a role called OpenFile. OpenFile was a Win16 function. It opens files, obviously enough. In Win32 it was deprecated—kept in, to allow 16-bit apps to be ported to Win32 more easily, but deprecated every single the same. In Win32 it has always been deprecated. The documentation for OpenFile says, "Note: Only employ this role with 16-bit versions of Windows. For newer applications, employ the CreateFile function." But in spite of that, Win64 silent has OpenFile. No one should be using it, but it's silent there.
Another example; Win32 has a role for getting the size of a file. File sizes on Windows are limited to 2^64 bytes, and so they requisite a 64-bit integer to be expressed easily. But the API muster to acquire the size of a file doesn't give you a 64-bit value. Instead, it gives you a pair of 32-bit values that beget to be combined in a particular way. For 32-bit Windows, that's sort of understandable; 32-bit Windows is, well, 32-bit, so you might not expect to be able to employ 64-bit integers. But if you employ the same API in 64-bit Windows, it silent gives you the pair of numbers, rather than just a nice simple 64-bit number. While this made some kind of sense on 32-bit Windows, it makes no sense at every single on 64-bit Windows, since 64-bit Windows can, by definition, employ 64-bit numbers.
And of course, developers can cope with this. no fragment of this clunkiness is fatal. Taken in isolation, every one of the problems with Win32 and .NET could be tolerated. But together, they greatly diminish the appeal of the platform. It just makes writing safe programs harder than it should be and learning the API harder than it requisite be.
Problems for Microsoft
So Windows is just a cataclysm to write programs for. It's miserable. It's quite nice if you want to employ the same techniques you scholarly 15 years ago and not bother to change how you do, well, anything, but for anyone else it's every single pain. I thought before that Microsoft cared about people relish me. But it doesn't. And it makes programming on Windows painful. Microsoft is worthy at backwards compatibility—you can grasp really infirm programs and compile and eschew them on a brand unique Windows—but terrible at design and terrible at providing a safe experience.
"None of this clunkiness is fatal. Taken in isolation, every one of the problems with Win32 and .NET could be tolerated. But together, they greatly diminish the appeal of the platform."
And it's not just third parties who suffer. It causes grief for Microsoft, too. The code isn't just incompatible and horrible on the outside; it's that way on the inside, too. There's a lot of software for Windows, a lot of business-critical software, that's not maintained any more. And that software is usually buggy. It passes evil parameters to API calls, uses remembrance that it has released, assumes that files live in particular hardcoded locations, every single sorts of things that it shouldn't do. If the OS changes underneath—to prohibit the reuse of freed memory, to more aggressively validate parameters, to stick more closely to the documentation without making extra assumptions or causing special side-effects—then these programs break.
So Windows has every single sorts of bits of code which are there to provide compatibility with these broken applications. It's arduous for MS to maintain and fix this code, because it means the code no longer does what it's documented to do; it does that plus some other stuff. It's arduous to test, because there's no knowing exactly what broken things programs are going to try to do. And it makes things more expensive; Microsoft has all sorts of special behaviours it needs to preserve. This means that not only can it not create the API better—it can't even easily create the API's implementation better. It's every single too fragile.
This gives tower to particularly dense things relish the appellation of the "system" folder, where every single the Windows libraries and programs are kept. In 16-bit Windows, it was called system. In 32-bit Windows, it was called system32. In 64-bit Windows it's called, er, system32 again. Because although there's an API muster that programs can create to find out the appellation of the folder, there are enough programs that don't bother using it and just blindly assume that it's called system32 (even when compiled as 64-bit) that it was better for backwards compatibility to leave it, even though it's chock replete of 64-bit files.
32-bit files in spin fade into a directory named syswow64. Right, it has 64 in the name, because it contains 32-bit libraries. create sense? Only in Redmond. every single these abnormal behaviors and clumsy APIs that they've built up over the years beget just been plonked wholesale into 64-bit Windows. There's no eschew from them.
If MS wasn't going to provide nice antiseptic APIs for every single the infirm stuff, there was at least some hope that they'd create an attractive and high-quality OS to succeed the (extremely successful) Windows XP. This is, after all, the other fragment of the OS X equation. Apple has district together a safe platform to develop on and then gone to actually create the most of what its operating system has to offer, by producing towering property applications that depend on the unique features that Mac OS X provides.
Third-party applications very much look to supervene suit. There might not be as much third-party software for Mac OS X as there is for Windows (a pleasing operating environment can only Do so much to mitigate a 3 percent market share), but the property of the applications is a worthy deal better. Third-party developers on Mac OS X strive to create applications that travail in a way that's consistent with the OS itself, with first-party applications, and even with each other.
These factors attend to reinforce each other. A safe API makes it easier to write high-quality applications. High-quality, first-party applications set the touchstone by which third-party apps are judged and ensure that users beget towering expectations of the software they run. This in spin means that there is much more competition among third parties to produce something that's worthy rather than merely acceptable. Regular updates to the OS withhold developers on the upgrade treadmill; they travail to create their applications appropriate in with the latest and greatest release, leveraging whatever unique bells and whistles it provides, further improving the software ecosystem.
In the early stages of Microsoft's evolution of a successor to Windows XP, it looked relish the software side of things might beget taken a leap forward. Win32 would silent be Win32, unfortunately, but the original XP successor (codenamed Longhorn) was going to provide a whole raft of functionality built using .NET. This would be coupled with radical changes in Explorer and the Windows shell to provide something much slicker and better-looking than XP offered. Early in the evolution of Longhorn, they saw demos of a unique kind of application; applications built using the unique Longhorn technology, with a consistent perceive and feel.
Except, as by now they every single know, Longhorn never made it. Some unique features were dropped completely, others were just scaled back, some were even ported to XP. Even when the underlying technology was kept, the good-looking, easy-to-write application evolution that was promoted never really materialized. Instead, what they got was Windows Vista.
Enlarge / Windows Vista's Start menu and its integrated Search box.
With the ambitious Longhorn plans sitting in the trash, Microsoft produced a much more evolutionary OS. It has some appealing unique technology under the hood, but unfortunately most of this is invisible to anyone using the system. What they Do espy is an uninspiring mess.
The appropriate and finish of Vista is astonishingly poor. With Vista's UI guidelines, Microsoft has tried to grasp some things that MacOS has been doing forever and interpolate them to Windows. For example, dialog boxes in Windows beget traditionally been poorly designed, because their buttons are given generic labels relish "Yes" and "No," or "OK" and "Cancel," which means the entire message has to be read and understood for the buttons to create sense. This is bad, because people generally don't read the message and just click a button at random.
For example, if you try to near Notepad without saving your document, Windows used to ask, "Do you want to redeem the changes?" with buttons marked "Yes," "No," and "Cancel." Yes, No, and Cancel value nothing on their own; you requisite to read the message to create sense of them. In Vista's Notepad, in keeping with the unique UI guidelines, although the dialogue box silent asks, "Do you want to redeem changes to Untitled?" the buttons are labeled "Save," "Don't save," and "Cancel." This is much better—the buttons now beget meaningful labels that articulate what they'll Do instead of generic text that could Do anything. It's only taken Microsoft 20 years to acquire this right, but finally now it's done so.
The UI guidelines certainly beget the right idea. But they then acquire ignored. They acquire ignored by Vista itself. They acquire ignored by Microsoft's flagship applications relish Office. They acquire ignored by third parties. The result is that the entire Windows Vista suffer feels mediocre. Pictures are worth a thousand words, they say, so let's grasp a perceive at Microsoft's flagship OS running its flagship software
Enlarge / O_o
Except for one application (Visual Studio 2005) those are every single the current versions of currently-supported Microsoft software released in the ultimate brace of years.
None of them—not a single one—works in the same way as any other. Only one of them (Notepad) uses the "native" built-in appearance (i.e. the one most easily available to third-party software). Many of them beget features in common—opening and saving files, typing words, editing properties—and yet someway they conspire to every single Do so differently. It is a total mess. These aren't just minor failures of consistency, either. The people answerable for these applications beget deliberately chosen to give the platform's touchstone perceive and feel the finger. That's evil enough for standalone applications; it's even worse when some of those applications are fragment of the platform itself.
There isn't even any kind of internal consistency. The Explorer Window and the IE window look, at first glance, to be similar; similar graphical style for the forward/back button, for example. But they're not. The spacing is different; the drop-down arrow in the IE window has more space around it than the counterpart in Explorer.
Even when the same nonstandard concept is used, it's done differently. Windows Live Messenger, Internet Explorer, and Windows Media Player every single beget a "hidden" menu bar. The menu bar is silent there, just not visible by default. And each one of them exposes its menu bar in a different way, doing essentially the same thing gratuitously differently. It might well be that getting rid of the menu bar is a safe idea—but there's no justification at every single for making them every single similar-but-different.
Taken alone, these are every single fairly minor things. district together, the interface is just completely shambolic. It looks amateurish. The quirks of each unique interface beget to be scholarly anew. This slap-dash approach to look-and-feel gives the impress of a platform that no one really cares about. That same contempt for norms and standards inflicts third-party applications. And, really, why shouldn't it? If Microsoft can't be bothered to create Windows applications that feel relish Windows applications, why should anyone else fade to the effort? And even if a developer does want to fade to the effort, what's he meant to grasp his cues from? Should he copy IE? WMP? Explorer? Notepad? Office? Visual Studio?
To add insult to injury, it's wasteful. Explorer and IE may perceive similar, but they're different codebases. The code to give that kind of no-menu window with an address bar and a search box and this and that, it's not shared between the two. It might beget been at one time. But now it's not. So there's twice the evolution effort to create and maintain these applications. What could beget been done once now has to be done twice. And again for Word, and Outlook, and Visual Studio, and Visio, and Expression Blend. Each time I beget to learn a unique UI, some team at Microsoft had to write a unique UI and test a unique UI and maintain a unique UI. That's not a safe employ of their time, when they could beget done it once.
Mac OS X is by no means faultless in this regard, but it's nowhere near as bad. Applications relish the Finder and iTunes establish inescapable norms and conventions, and third-party applications Do a pretty safe job of following these (or adapting them to unique situations). There aren't OS X applications where the menu bar works totally differently. Apple hasn't produced a different UI style for each and every application. Sure, they Do beget more than one style—the "pro" apps (Aperture, FCP, etc.) employ a darker scheme than balanced apps—but there's silent an order of magnitude more consistency and coherence on OS X than on Windows. Apple cares about appearances and Apple provides stout GUI models to copy. The result? Third parties produce good-looking applications that travail relish the OS they eschew on. And accordingly, users exact that their applications conform to the overall perceive and feel of the platform.
The reason must be that no one in Microsoft actually gives a damn. Each group develops their own UI widgets in their own style and they simply don't keeping that it's a total mess. They don't keeping that I beget to learn unique ways of doing the same stint just because they couldn't be bothered to Do things the same way as other applications. I'm not saying, for example, that they shouldn't beget introduced the ribbon concept in Office 2007, because it seems to travail pretty well, and I can believe that it really is a better UI model. But they should beget taken stock of what they were doing and made it a system-wide UI device. unique widgets and UI models Do crop up from time to time, but they should be rare, and when they Do appear, Microsoft should create them generic so that everyone can employ them.
Microsoft's continuous and repetitive reinvention of the wheel again just makes the stint for third-party developers that much more unpleasant. Because even when a developer does want to create something that "fits in," and even when that developer has picked a specific application to appropriate in with, MS silent offers incompatible choices. grasp the Office 2007 ribbon as an example. The ribbon is pretty cool, and it's obvious that third parties will want to employ the ribbon themselves (even if it might not be the best appropriate for their application, but sadly there's not much that can be done about that). Unfortunately, the Office 2007 ribbon is fragment of Office 2007. It's not a fragment of Windows, it's instead built in to Office, and not usable for other software.
Recognizing the gap in functionality here, a third-party developer produced its own ribbon-like protest that developers could embed into their programs to gain a ribbon user interface. Microsoft in spin bought the third-party protest and is now distributing it to developers using the current version of Visual C++. Oh, yeah—it's only for C++ developers. No ribbon for .NET developers. So now MS has two ribbons; the Office code and unique one it bought in. That's frustrating enough—it would be better to Do the travail to district the Office 2007 ribbon into a nice diminutive library so the conduct would be identical—but it's tolerable.
Here's the bit that blows the mind: Microsoft is going to develop another ribbon, this time as fragment of Windows Seven. It won't be the Office one, and it won't be the Visual C++ one. It will be a unique one. And, oh, this one won't be .NET either. The confusion of UIs in Windows mirrors the confusion of evolution within Microsoft.
Enlarge / A confidential store front for many, just not (yet) Peter Bright.
What about me?
So where does that leave me? I want to write nice applications. I want to be able to concentrate on my own code rather than fighting the API the whole time. I want my applications to appropriate in with the OS and travail in a way that's consistent with first-party applications and even other third-party programs. I want this because I mediate it leads to better software; it means I can spend my time creating innovative and useful software that people Enjoy using. I really want to Do this, but you know what? On Windows it's just too damn hard.
Microsoft has had safe opportunities to Do something about this, but they beget been systematically squandered through a combination of ineptitude, mismanagement, and slavish adherence to backwards compatibility. The disillusionment I feel is incredible. I Enjoy writing programs, but I don't Enjoy writing for Windows. And while once it made sense to stick with Windows, it just doesn't any more. There's now an attractive alternative: Mac OS X.
This has been fragment two of a three-part series. In fragment three, I will perceive at just how Microsoft got into this condition and what it might Do to regain Windows' position as the best computing platform going.