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CPIM exam Dumps Source : Certified in Production and Inventory(R) Management
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: 588 existent Questions
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Certified in Production and Inventory(R) Management
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Current perspectives of sustainable forest management and timber certification
Hooi Chiew Thang 1
One of the major challenges in forest management is the sustainability of the resource itself, while the challenge for the conservation of biological diversity is not to `halt deforestation' but to secure a minimum set of strategically located primary forests in representative areas having high diversity and endemism. In addition to this, mechanisms and methodologies for valuation of the many diverse goods and services that the forest provides, especially those that are not readily traded in the marketplace, need to live further developed.
During the terminal two decades timber certification has not had a significant impact on the loss of tropical forests. In addition, timber certification is expensive and consumers in Europe and the United States of America are not willing to pay more for certified products.
Although timber certification is expected to promote economic and convivial equity, many little farmers and producers often find it too costly and are unable to access the capital, information and markets that certification is meant to offer. Furthermore, government involvement in timber certification is necessary as many of the timber certification schemes are yet to live self-financing and forest lands in many developing countries are owned by governments.
Timber certification's efficiency in promoting sustainable forest management is still theme to considerable debate at international level. At best, it has created greater awareness among forest managers and the many stakeholders on the need to equipoise protection and conservation of forest resources with economic uses.
There is furthermore a need for a set of internationally agreed criteria and indicators for assessing sustainable forest management practices and timber certification, or at the very least, an international framework for their mutual recognition. Further research in the employ of criteria and indicators for assessing sustainable forest management and in certification is furthermore necessary, including the link between these and actual improvements in sustainable forest management.
Sustainable forest management (SFM) is a topical issue, not just for resource managers but furthermore for people from total walks of life. This is not surprising, as SFM has been identified as essential to achieving sustainable development and as a means to eradicate poverty, reduce deforestation and the loss of biological diversity, arrest land and resource degradation, enhance food security, and multiply access to safe drinking water and affordable energy.
It was not until the late 1970s that the necessity to conserve and manage the world's forests was recognized in the overall context of protecting the global environment. By the latter half of the 1990s, demands were made for criteria and indicators to live used to assess the level of forest sustainability and through timber certification.
Sustainable forest management
Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992, the major challenges facing SFM involve the need to reduce deforestation and forest degradation through ensuring the sustainability of forest resources, to protect and conserve biological diversity and ensure the sustainable employ of the genetic resources, and to enhance the plenary valuation of forest goods and services.
Although everyone agrees that sustainability of the forest resource is of paramount importance to satisfy the needs of the present and future generations, it is not always lucid what this means in terms of forest management at the bailiwick level. Clarifying this issue through the application of criteria and indicators of sustainability is a little but significant step towards achieving SFM. This, together with management prescriptions and performance standards would create a sound basis for assessing SFM at the operational level and provide a link to voluntary timber certification.
The current international debate on criteria and indicators has furthermore convinced many of the environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) that were totally opposed to harvesting the natural forest just a few years ago that environmental and convenience values of forest can live maintained when timber is harvested. Similarly, forestry services, industries and forest owners gain recognized that it is necessary and reasonable to modify and adjust forest harvesting practices to accommodate the need for environmental conservation. The significant question is: `what obstacles remain, and how can they live overcome?'
In this context, the traditional system of sustained-yield management, which is based on the concept of an equilibrium between growth and harvest that can live sustained in perpetuity, will gain to live replaced by a novel paradigm of multi-resource forest management, which involves the simultaneous production of forest goods and services, and is compatible with the need to preserve the forest ecosystem and the environment.
A strong case has furthermore been made for the further refinement of reduced-impact logging (RIL) technologies for application in the extensive areas of the tropics where timber production is still a viable option, as it has often been said that the construction of forest roads during timber-harvesting operations constitutes a major fragment of the total environmental degradation.
However, in many developing countries, forest roads that are properly designed, constructed according to environmentally sound engineering practices and well maintained often shape fragment of the planned network of public roads that would provide convenient low-cost access to forest products, especially in pastoral areas, as well as serve the needs for forest management, conservation and protection. The revenue generated from the harvested forest products, notably industrial timber, would provide the much needed resources to enhance SFM in the long term. Thus, the challenge is to construct forest roads that minimize adverse environmental impacts and safeguard the productivity of the site, especially during forest harvesting.
In the coming years, much more attention will gain to live paid to the importance of non-wood forest products as they are crucial for the pastoral economy of many developing countries in meeting subsistence and cultural needs, as well as in providing gainful employment and supplementing income. stress should furthermore live accorded to watershed management in order to enhance food production in high-yield areas, and to the review of current management practices so as to minimize the destructive nature and extent of wildfires on forests, which gain adverse impacts on biological diversity, age-class distribution and sustainability.
Recent surveys on a global basis imply that the current rate of species loss is high. One assay has concluded that the continuation of current deforestation rates in tropical forest will lead to the loss of approximately 25% of the world's plant species in the next 20 years (IUCN et al., 1990). While depending on the assumptions used, it may eradicate between 5 and 15% of species by the year 2020 (WRI, 1989). As such, the rapid loss of biological diversity of tropical forest has become the theme of increasing national and international concern.
Hence, conservation of biological diversity in forest ecosystems requires some difficult decisions from policy-makers. Choices will gain to live made to prioritize one habitat or species over another. In some cases, long-term conservation strategies may furthermore gain to involve the rehabilitation and the setting aside of primary forests. Mangroves and coastal forest ecosystems should furthermore live given special attention as they are of major importance in the functioning of significant life processes.
The challenge for biological conservation, therefore, is not to `halt deforestation' but to secure a minimum set of strategically located primary forests in representative areas with high diversity and endemism. The areas surrounding the biological reserves should furthermore live simultaneously managed to meet convivial and economic goals. Similarly, in production forests, it is pertinent to identify `keystone' species or other components of special ecological value for protection and conservation.
Currently, many ecologists and economists believe that the world's forests gain not been fully valued in economic terms. In this context, current economic valuation of forest resources, based on the monetary costs of extraction and distribution, has often resulted in inadequate incentives for sustainable resource use, which in whirl induce over-consumption of forest products and environmental degradation. Hence, the system of incentives and penalties will gain to live re-examined and reoriented to reflect the plenary costs of forest goods and services, including environmental costs. The internalization of environmental costs will dispel the assumption that the environment is a free commodity.
There is, therefore, a need to further develop mechanisms and methodologies for valuation of the many diverse goods and services that the forest provides, especially those that are not readily traded in the markets. Some of these involve watershed protection, carbon sequestration and the conservation of biological diversity. The plenary valuation of forest goods and services would submit surpluses for countries to invest in and achieve SFM.
Timber certification was proposed by ENGOs in the early 1980s as a means to address the destruction and loss of tropical forests. With continued pressure from ENGOs and growing competition among forest products and from non-wood substitutes, the focus on timber certification has expanded to furthermore cover non-tropical forests and timber and timber products.
In January 2002, only an estimated 109 million ha or 2.8% of the world's forests gain been certified through international or regional schemes such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) or the Pan-European Forest Certification Council (PEFC), as well as national schemes, for instance those of Finland, Sweden, Norway, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brazil (ITTO, 2002). However, almost 92% of total certified forests worldwide are located in temperate, industrialized countries that are already well managed or nearly so, as they gain the financial and technological means as well as the capacity, to implement sound management practices. This is not the case in developing countries in the tropics, which only account for about 8% of certified forests.
Strengths and weaknesses
It is envisaged that through timber certification consumers would live able to discriminate between timbers emanating from sustainably managed sources and those derived from destructive or `unsustainable' sources. In theory, this would gain the odds of providing timber producers with an incentive to better forest management practices, comply with agreed standards, gain certification and sell products at a premium price, assuming that consumers are prepared to pay a higher price for a `green' product (Counsell and Loraas, 2002). This could furthermore enable them to multiply or at least protect their market partake and avoid market restrictions on their products.
Recent estimates on global forest cover by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2001) indicate that between 1990 and 2000, the annual loss of natural forests in the tropics, where most of the deforestation is occurring, was 15.2 million ha. Although this design was lower than the 15.5 million ha recorded for the era 1980-1990, it is evident that there was no significant reduction in the loss of tropical forests, despite some changes in definitions, methodology and updated inventory information used in the different assessments. Hence, timber certification has not had an impact on the loss of tropical forests in the terminal two decades.
In general, most timber certification schemes partake a considerable degree of commonality between them. Although the grouping of indicators within individual criteria may differ from one scheme to another, the criteria agreed upon are conceptually very similar, covering policy, legal and institutional frameworks, extent of forest resources, forest health and condition, biological diversity, protective and productive functions, and the socio-economic benefits of forests. However, due to the heterogeneity of local conditions, threshold values and other performance standards required in timber certification schemes carry out differ and are best developed through a participatory process, taking into account existing standards in the country or region.
Concerns gain been expressed that timber certification may give consumers the imprint that unlabelled products, including those that gain yet to live assessed, gain been produced in an environmentally unsustainable way. It should furthermore live famous that the total locality of well managed forests is not only limited to areas that gain been certified. Many uncertified forests, including those managed for timber production, may furthermore live under SFM practices. In fact, if incentives to subscribe to timber certification were strong enough, importing countries would not gain to resort to unilateral actions discriminating against imports of timber from unsustainable sources.
In addition, timber certification is expensive, as a study conducted in Malaysia has shown. The initial costs required to better forest harvesting operations, as compared to current practices, would multiply by US$65.05 or 62.5% per ha (Ahmad Fauzi et al., 2002), while the expected long-term gains from reduced post-harvesting activities gain yet to live proven. In this connection, the success of timber certification introduced on a voluntary basis will depend on whether consumers are willing to pay more (`green premium') for timber products produced from sustainably managed sources.
However, according to Solberg (Solberg, 2003), consumers in Europe are not very willing to pay more for forest products emanating from certified forests. This is furthermore honest for the United States of America where 81% of companies that own and manage forest lands and 70% of companies that manufacture and sell certified products, but play no role in the management of forest lands, are sceptical that any premium will emerge (Auld, Cashore and Newsom, 2003). Hence, increased production costs may not live readily passed to the consumer without a reduction in consumption, although there are some market segments where willingness to pay a price premium could live observed and live exploited by the trade.
A number of forest owners and firms are currently undertaking timber certification or taking a phased approach to certification, especially in developing countries, as a pass of demonstrating the character of their forest management and to consolidate their competitive edge, reputation and the appearance of `good citizenship' in an increasingly uncertain global marketplace, even if it means sacrificing some of their autonomy (Sasser, 2003).
As timber certification is an instrument used to authenticate the achievement of certain predetermined performance standards of forest management in a given forest locality at a given point in time, the granting of certificates is in reality based on the expectation that management activities that ensure that the forest is sustainably managed would live undertaken throughout the rotation of the forest stand, which may not live the case. At the extreme, forest owners could harvest total the certified forests and sell every piece of the timber and lose the certificate after the money has been earned and the certificate is no longer needed. Hence, government policies and legislation gain to live in locality and enforced to ensure that forest owners are committed to long-term forest sustainability.
Government involvement is furthermore necessitated by the financial requirements of timber certification schemes, because most of these schemes are yet to live self-financing and in many developing countries forest lands are owned by governments. Besides, governments are held accountable for the maintenance and well-being of their people, while timber certification institutions are not.
The current proliferation of timber certification schemes may create problems for timber-producing countries, especially those that are export-oriented. Criteria and indicators based on the environmental conditions and needs of the importing country may live environmentally inappropriate, given the local conditions in the country of production. Furthermore, timber certification schemes using different sets of criteria and indicators to define and assess SFM gain exacerbated the need for a set of internationally agreed criteria and indicators for assessing SFM practices at the forest management unit level, taking into account the different levels of socio-economic development of countries and their existing cultural and traditional values, or at the very least, an international framework for their mutual recognition (Thang, 2003).
Although timber certification is expected to promote economic and convivial equity, and in particular corporate convivial responsibility, by including governance by convivial and indigenous people's groups, as well as trade unions in forest management decision-making, at the selfsame time timber certification appears to labor against that goal. The little farmers and producers often find certification too costly, and they are unable to access the capital, information and the markets that certification is meant to offer. Many poorer countries are furthermore finding this discriminatory.
Vested corporate interest in ensuring successful outcomes from timber certification may furthermore result in certification institutions granting certificates to firms that gain yet to fully achieve the required performance standards for SFM. However, the capacity to manipulate the certification institutions and to employ that certification institution to award the certificate will depend on how much power a firm has and whether it can distinguish itself from its competitors in the marketplace. Similarly, certification institutions gain a vested interest in sustaining and expanding their businesses and because of competition among them, some are actively discrediting their competitors and even depart as far as to guarantee certification ex ante in order to obtain timber certification contracts (de Camino and Alfaro, 1998).
Certification schemes should further emphasize the convivial aspect of production, such as unbiased wages and decent working conditions, the production and sustainability of non-wood forest products, and the certification of carbon sequestered by forests to live traded, for instance under the antiseptic development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
There is no `magic bullet' of universally applicable forest management practices that can live uniformly applied to ensure forest sustainability, as the definition of sustainable may vary with time and space as society's demands for forest goods and services change. Optimizing the various values to live derived from forests requires the conventional management unit to live managed in the context of the broader landscape. This remains one of the most significant challenges for forest managers today in their quest to attain SFM.
The efficiency of timber certification as an instrument to promote SFM is still theme to considerable debate at international level. At best, the application of timber certification in assessing SFM has created greater awareness among forest managers of their convivial responsibility to minimize the loss of biological diversity and to protect the environment.
Furthermore, the development of performance standards, including criteria and indicators and timber certification through multi-stakeholder dialogues, has enhanced understanding among the many interested parties who are concerned with the sustainability of forest resources, especially the ENGOs, on the need to equipoise protection and conservation with economic uses. SFM is not the sum of ecological, convivial and economic sustainability, but rather their product.
The current acceptance of timber certification by over 30 countries worldwide, which are working on or gain completed national certification standards or schemes, may gain more to carry out with their crave to maintain existing market shares or to multiply market access, especially to the importing countries in Western Europe and to a lesser extent the United States of America. However, some major timber markets gain yet to adopt any timber certification scheme, such as China, which is still involved in adapting internationally and regionally agreed criteria and indicators for assessing SFM practices.
The open, transparent and ever-improving process of using criteria and indicators in assessing SFM and timber certification will need further research into the long-term sustainability of the forest resources, as well as the link between this process and actual substantive improvements in sustainable management, because, in reality, timber certification institutions carry out not currently certify that a management unit is sustainable, but that the predetermined management standards gain been met.
Ahmad Fauzi, P., Salleh, M., Mohd Shahwahid, H.O., Abdul Rahim, N., Awang Noor, A.G. & Mohammad Farid, A.R. 2002. Cost of harvesting operations in compliance with ITTO guidelines for sustainable forest management - a model project for cost analysis to achieve sustainable forest management. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Auld, G., Cashore, B. & Newsom, D. 2003. Perspective on forest certification: a survey examining differences among the US forest sector's views of their certification alternatives. In L. Teeter, B. Cashore & D. Zhang, eds. Forest policy for private forestry: Global and regional challenges. Oxford, CABI Publishing.
Counsell, S. & Loraas, K.T. 2002. Trading in credibility: the myth and reality of the Forest Stewardship Council. London, Rainforest Foundation.
De Camino, R. & Alfaro, M. 1998. Certification in Latin American: suffer to date. A pastoral development Forestry Network Paper, Network Paper 23c, Summer 1998, London, Overseas development Institute.
FAO. 2001. condition of the World's Forests 2001. Rome.
ITTO. 2002. Forest certification: pending challenges for tropical timber. ITTO Technical chain No.19. Yokohama, International Tropical Timber Organization.
IUCN et al. 1990. Conserving the world's biodiversity. IUCN/WRI/CI/WWF - US/World Bank.
Sasser, E.N. 2003. Gaining leverage: NGO influence on certification institutions in the forest products sector. In L. Teeter, B. Cashore & D. Zhang, eds. Forest policy for private forestry: Global and regional challenges. Oxford, CABI Publishing.
Solberg, B. 2003. Policy developments affecting demand, supply and international trade of forest products: a European perspective. In L. Teeter, B. Cashore & D. Zhang, eds. Forest policy for private forestry: Global and regional challenges. Oxford, CABI Publishing.
Thang, H.C. 2003. Malaysia's suffer in applying criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management, including forest management certification. Paper presented at the International Conference on Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management - the Contribution of Criteria and Indicators to Sustainable Forest Management: the pass Forward. Guatemala City, Guatemala, 3-7 January, 2003.
WRI. 1989. Keeping options alive: the scientific basis for conserving biodiversity. Washington D.C., World Resources Institute.
1 Deputy Director-General of Forestry (Planning and Development), Forestry Department Headquarters, Peninsular Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Salahuddin, 50660 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. email@example.com
December 09, 2010 16:01 ET | Source: Plexus Corp.
NEENAH, Wis., Dec. 9, 2010 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Plexus Corp. (Nasdaq:PLXS) announced today that it has entered into an agreement to purchase land for the construction of a novel manufacturing facility in the Xiamen Xiangyu Free Trade Zone, adjacent to its current facility. This novel facility will operate under the existing management team and will add approximately 180,000 square feet of manufacturing capacity. Construction is expected to initiate in March 2011 with production to commence in the second half of calendar 2012. In addition, Plexus' current Xiamen, China manufacturing facility has received condition Food and Drug Administration, P.R. China (SFDA) certification to champion customers in the Medical industries. This certification allows Plexus to manufacture finished Class I and II medical devices for their customers that sell into China end-markets.
Mr. YJ Lim, Regional President-Plexus Asia Pacific, commented, "This facility investment is the result of strong organic growth for Plexus in the Asia Pacific region and continues their strategy of investing in close proximity to current locations to leverage their strong operations teams. With the champion of their local supply chain partners, their manufacturing capabilities offer a significant odds for companies that are seeking mid-to-low volume, higher complexity Product Realization Value Stream Solutions in China."
Mr. Lim continued, "The SFDA certification in their Xiamen facility will allow us to further enhance their Medical service offerings to global customers seeking end-market fulfillment of medical products into China. We are excited about the opening this provides for us to expand their compass in the People's Republic of China, a growing medical device market."
The expanded Xiamen facility will continue to focus on the Medical, Industrial/Commercial and Wireline/Networking market sectors. Most recently the Plexus Xiamen facility was awarded the Xiamen Top 100 Enterprise and Top 10 revert on Capital Employed Enterprise by Xiamen Enterprise Association.
About Plexus Corp. – The Product Realization Company
Plexus (www.plexus.com) delivers optimized Product Realization solutions through a unique Product Realization Value Stream service model. This customer focused services model seamlessly integrates innovative product conceptualization, design, commercialization, manufacturing, fulfillment, and sustaining services to deliver comprehensive end-to-end solutions for customers in the North American, European and Asia-Pacific regions.
Plexus is the industry leader in servicing mid-to-low volume, higher complexity customer programs characterized by unique flexibility, technology, character and regulatory requirements. Award-winning customer service is provided to over 100 branded product companies in the Wireline/Networking, Wireless Infrastructure, Medical, Industrial/Commercial and Defense/Security/Aerospace market sectors.
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Safe Harbor and unbiased Disclosure Statement
The statements contained in this release which are guidance or which are not historical facts (such as statements in the future tense and statements including "believe," "expect," "intend," "plan," "anticipate," "goal," "target" and similar terms and concepts), including total discussions of periods which are not yet completed, are forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: the risk of customer delays, changes, cancellations or forecast inaccuracies in both ongoing and novel programs; the impecunious visibility of future orders, particularly in view of current economic conditions; the economic performance of the industries, sectors and customers they serve; the effects of the volume of revenue from certain sectors or programs on their margins in particular periods; our capacity to secure novel customers, maintain their current customer basis and deliver product on a timely basis; the risk that their revenue and/or profits associated with customers who are acquired by third parties will live negatively affected; the particular risks relative to novel customers, including their arrangements with The Coca-Cola Company, which risks involve customer and other delays, start-up costs, potential inability to execute, the establishment of preempt terms of agreements, and the want of a track record of order volume and timing; the risks of concentration of labor for certain customers; their capacity to manage successfully a complex industry model characterized by high customer and product mix, low volumes and demanding quality, regulatory, and other requirements; the risk that novel program wins and/or customer claim may not result in the expected revenue or profitability; the fact that customer orders may not lead to long-term relationships; the effects of the current constrained supply environment, which has led and may continue to lead to periods of shortages and delays in obtaining components based on the want of capacity at some of their suppliers to meet increased demand, or which may occasions customers to multiply forecasts and orders to secure raw material supply or result in their inability to secure raw materials required to complete product assemblies; raw materials and component cost fluctuations particularly due to sudden increases in customer demand; the risks associated with excess and obsolete inventory, including the risk that inventory purchased on behalf of their customers may not live consumed or otherwise paid for by customer resulting in an inventory write-off; the weakness of the global economy and the continuing instability of the global financial markets and banking system, including the potential inability of their customers or suppliers to access credit facilities; the consequence of changes in the pricing and margins of products; the consequence of start-up costs of novel programs and facilities, including their recent and planned expansions, such as their novel replacement facility in Oradea, Romania, and their plans to further expand in Penang, Malaysia and other locations; the risk of unanticipated costs, unpaid duties and penalties related to an ongoing audit of their import compliance by U.S. Customs and edge Protection; possible unexpected costs and operating disruption in transitioning programs; the potential consequence of world or local events or other events outside their control (such as drug cartel-related violence in Mexico, changes in oil prices, terrorism and war in the Middle East); the impact of increased competition; and other risks circumstantial in the Company's Securities and Exchange Commission filings (particularly in fragment I, item 1A of their annual report on shape 10-K for the fiscal year ended October 3, 2009).
Kristine Rhode, Corporate Communications Specialist