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C2020-011 exam Dumps Source : IBM SPSS Statistics flat 1 v2
Test Code : C2020-011
Test name : IBM SPSS Statistics flat 1 v2
Vendor name : IBM
: 55 actual Questions
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IBM IBM SPSS Statistics Level
The IBM Hybrid Cloud group is back at it with yet one other win for design. I’m excited to proclaim that their design team has been awarded the 2018 red Dot: communique Design Award for IBM SPSS facts within the Interface Design class. This award is a continuation of the design achievements they breathe pleased considered this previous year, including the A’Design Awards, IF Design Awards, and others. i'm extremely joyful to view the challenging drudgery of their designers and IBM Design continue to shine and build a change in enterprise utility.
First developed within the 1990’s, the purple Dot Award has been the revered overseas seal of brilliant design fine. Designers, businesses, and groups from forty five distinctive nations took half during this yr’s competitors, totaling over 8,600 entries that underwent a 24 member jury.
“All folks that progress throughout the difficult adjudication manner to garner a pink Dot breathe pleased each intent to breathe proud of themselves, because the jury can provide their award simplest to creations of extravagant design quality. This makes me the entire greater delighted to congratulate the laureates in actual fact on their hard-earned success.” — Professor Dr. Peter Zec, founder and CEO of the crimson Dot Award
Receiving this award become enormously intriguing for their crew and they are honored to breathe among the winners. here is a tremendous success for their designers who worked on this product, and they faced a captivating and difficult event in engaged on this product.
what is IBM SPSS?
IBM SPSS records is a powerful facts analysis tool that is one of the most common data purposes. for the understanding that its inception in 1968, SPSS data has been revamped and redeveloped diverse times. Now the design crew at IBM has taken on the assignment of growing a completely fresh user journey.
during this latest remodel of IBM SPSS data, they implemented design thinking concepts through working intently with their users and making bound this modernized version of SPSS facts aligns with their needs. Their most desirable purpose was to create an impressive device that is not handiest easy and intuitive to build consume of, however that their clients can breathe pleased fun with.
Our group and Design method
The IBM SPSS design crew is a component of the IBM Design Studios in Boeblingen, Germany. The group consists of a various community, with many participants originating from diverse international locations and cultures. Some participants of the group had some heritage with data while others had been working in this box for the first time.
Following the principles of IBM Design thinking (observe > reflect > Make), their team applied a remodel that brings a far better headquarters of attention on clients for SPSS information. The design crew conducted intensive research on the person groundwork of SPSS records so as to survey how the software can more suitable meet their wants. The existing consumer groundwork levels from much less skilled users comparable to college students to greater expert clients such as records scientists or industry specialists. A key insight from the group’s research turned into that much less experienced users had been intimidated both by the math drudgery and the complexity of the utility.
the original designs focused on simplifying workflows, reducing the overall complexity of the UI and interactions, and featuring beginners a simple on-boarding to statistics and to the product. an additional crucial role in the redesign turned into a training bespeak led by a personality named Simon, who serves as an in-utility ebook, helping amateur clients abide in mind different services and obtain their desires quicker.
The crew faced some pleasing challenges in redesigning a made from such complexity, and one that has additionally been round for so decades. a tremendous success of the designers turned into making the product purchasable and tasty to original users devoid of alienating decade-long, experienced users.
a glance Into the Future
The preview version of their original IBM SPSS statistics suffer was released in March 2018, and made accessible to the universal public as a ordeal on the IBM esteem conference is Las Vegas, and on account that June 26 , the original UI is commonly purchasable to All SPSS statistics subscribers. This preview is barely the initial step, providing the most used statistical analyses, and fundamental capabilities for facts training, for presentation and for reporting effects. Over here months the team might breathe working so as to add more elements and capabilities with a purpose to meet adventure needs of All of their person agencies.
no longer just Updating — Redesigning
i'm so extremely joyful to survey yet another Hybrid Cloud design crew acquire a global award for his or her work. IBM SPSS information is yet a different illustration of how design is making an immense change within the success of their items. As they continue to consume design to create greater relatable and efficacious items, they are able to provide their clients the experiences that they exigency and wish. I’m thrilled and proud to solemnize the divergence that their design group is making on the planet of industry software, and that i can’t wait to view how they proceed to repercussion the lives of their users.
Design supervisor: Caroline legislation
Design Leads: Dirk Willuhn and Eva Cochet-Weinandt
Design crew: Christian Fritsche, Dimitri Hoffmann, Jaehee (Chloe) Lee, Oleksandr Sabov, Stephan Feger
thanks to these contributing designers: Katrin Ellice Heintze, Leila Johannesen, Marion Bruells, Phil Brucker, Robin Auer, Sammy Schuckert, Stefan Schwarz
Design interns: Mengzhu Deng, Nathalie Mader, Ting-Hao (Howard) Huang, Vanessa Ng
Our annual license for IBM SPSS facts has been renewed, and All licenses bought between these days and can 1, 2015 will expire on July 31, 2015.
if you purchased a license between may additionally 1, 2014 and these days, you breathe pleased been despatched renewal authorization codes by course of electronic mail that may breathe used to lengthen the expiration date of your utility.
IBM is not renewing edition 19 this 12 months, and any one the usage of that version (or earlier) will should improve to a more recent version. IBM SPSS facts licenses can breathe found for purchase via OIT for $75 per laptop per yr.
The Ministry of Justice is the usage of predictive analytics expertise from SPSS, an IBM company, to assess the probability of prisoners re-offending on their liberate and to subsequently aid enhance public protection.
some of the UK's largest government departments with greater than ninety five,000 personnel and a cost sweep of GBP9.2 billion, the Ministry of Justice is the consume of predictive analytics to check the facts held within its wrongdoer evaluation device (OASys). moreover, the analysis is assisting the Ministry of Justice multiply treatment ambitions for prisoners All over their sentence to cleave back the random they're going to confide crimes upon their liberate.
The OASys system is used across approximately 140 prisons and All probation areas in England and Wales and facts tips from over 3.4 million prisoner assessments. This comprises information on individual perpetrator circumstances akin to lodging, training, relationships, fiscal administration and earnings, subculture and associates, drug and alcohol misuse, emotional well-being, behaviour and attitudes.
These facts are being used for quantitative evaluation that could determine patterns inside the facts. The resulting intelligence types the basis for more desirable measurements of perpetrator possibility and need. each the OASys Violence Predictor and OASys time-honored Re-offending Predictor breathe pleased helped to greatly improve predictions about re-offending. in the case of violent crime, the prediction about re-offending has more advantageous from sixty eight per cent to 74 per cent while the prediction about re-offending when it comes to established offences more advantageous from 76 per cent to 80 per cent.With Predictive expertise from IBM SPSS, the Ministry of Justice is analysing hidden tendencies and patterns inside the facts. as an example: the technology helps establish whether offenders with specific issues akin to drug and alcohol misuse are more likely to re-offend than other prisoners.
"With just about 4 million information on file it without problems would not breathe workable to trawl via this data manually in an try to identify these factors that may besides intend a prisoner is probably going to reoffend," spoke of a spokesperson from the Ministry of Justice. "SPSS' expertise gives us constructive insight into offender records assisting us prognosticate who can besides re-offend and enabling us to advise on preventative measures, such as applicable courses addressing perpetrator behaviour before a prisoner's liberate date."
"the manner the Ministry of Justice is the usage of their technology showcases the high-level capabilities of their application in featuring analytical predictions upon which actions can besides breathe taken ," defined Ian Warner, Public Sector advisor at SPSS, an IBM company. "with the aid of deciding upon trends and patterns hidden within the records, SPSS is helping the Ministry of Justice prognosticate re-offending costs and elect steps to satisfy govt ambitions to enrich public safety via cutting back the danger to the typical public and drudgery in opposition t a wiser executive.
"present day industry leaders should chase past intuition to insight, from gut suppose to information - as it is now viable to view key patterns in significant quantities of records, to extract essential insights and movement to a original stage of intelligence," Warner referred to. "IBM SPSS predictive analytics is assisting executive organizations everywhere to seriously change the manner they operate through making smarter decisions and improve subject provider."
the original predictive analytics device is powered by course of IBM SPSS statistics software, IBM SPSS Modeler facts mining workbench and IBM SPSS textual content Analytics utility.
The synchronous announcements are partake of IBM's ongoing headquarters of attention on assisting consumers consume their suggestions as a strategic asset through enterprise Analytics and Optimisation. IBM lately created a original enterprise Analytics & Optimisation capabilities employer, with 4,000 consultants who can befriend customers arise and working with profound analytics capabilities and made invested more than $12 Billion in biological growth an innovation to additional construct its analytics portfolio.
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The point of the current study was to investigate the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of the SED-GIH question using activPAL3 micro as the criterion measure. The main findings were a moderate correlation (r = 0.31, CI = 0.20–0.41) and a needy agreement (weighted Kappa 0.12, CI = 0.05–0.18) between SED-GIH and activPAL derived sitting time (activPAL-SIT). Significant differences in activPAL-SIT existed between individuals in the different categorical respond options of SED-GIH. The reliability of SED-GIH was excellent (ICC = 0.86, CI = 0.79–0.90) with a substantial agreement (weighted Kappa 0.77, CI = 0.68–0.86).
The TASST framework was developed to gain an overview of tools used for assessing sedentary behaviour, and categorized them into four domains: ilk of assessment, recall period, temporal unit and assessment period. According to TASST, SED-GIH is defined as a single detail direct measure of sitting, for an unanchored recall epoch with a temporal unit of a day, and an non-defined assessment epoch (taxon 1.1.1/2.4/3.1/4.5) . The moderate correlation between sitting time measured objectively with activPAL and sitting time measured subjectively using the SED-GIH question is in line with other questionnaires. IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, (TASST taxon 1.1.1/2.2/3.1/4.3) contains three specific sitting items, which breathe pleased been validated using activPAL. For sitting time during weekdays, including transportation, correlation was low (r = 0.16, ICC = 0.15) and non-significant (p = 0.2) between the two methods. Here, IPAQ underestimated sitting time by 2.2 h per day . PAST (Past-day Adults Sedentary Time, TASST taxon 18.104.22.168/2.1/3.1/4.5) and PAST-U (modified version of PAST, TASST taxon 22.214.171.124/2.1/3.1/4.5) asks participants to report their time spent sitting or lying during the previous day. When using activPAL (version 3) as criterion measure, the validity for PAST was assessed to breathe r = 0.57 , and PAST-U ICC = 0.64 . When Busschaert and co-workers tested the validity of three different questionnaires measuring context-specific sedentary behaviour (TASST taxon 126.96.36.199/2.2/3.1/4.3, 188.8.131.52/NA/NA/NA, 184.108.40.206/2.4/3.1/4.3) they found weak to acceptable validity for adults (r = 0.06–0.52) and older adults (r = 0.38–0.50) . This implies that the SED-GIH has stronger associations with objective sitting than other single detail questionnaires, such as IPAQ, when compared to direct measurement. However, these associations are not as stalwart as the time-specified PAST and PAST-U, which collect information on sitting during the previous day only.
Participants who estimated their sitting as ≤3 h using SED-GIH, All underestimated their sitting time as compared to activPAL-SIT (see Table 3). Furthermore, participants who estimated their sitting as ≥13 h almost All overestimated their sitting time. These results are in line with comparisons between PAST and activPAL (version 3) derived sitting times. PAST underestimated sitting times at low levels of sitting, and overestimated sitting time at elevated levels of sitting . However, a Bland Altman between IPAQ and activPAL indicated that IPAQ underestimated sitting time by up to 2.2 h per day (during a total week including transportation) , and both PAST-U and the three different questionnaires measuring context-specific sedentary behaviour overestimated sedentary time, with activPAL as the criterion measure [21, 22]. Dall and colleagues concluded that most sitting questionnaires underestimate sitting time by 2–4 h per day. single detail questionnaires are more likely to underestimate sitting time, while questionnaires assessing sitting during a sum of sedentary behaviours using a composite of several items minister to overestimate sitting time. Questionnaires assessing sitting during a sum of sedentary behaviours over an unanchored or longer epoch of time minister to report larger underestimations . According to this study, the reasons for sitting time underestimations by the SED-GIH question can breathe explained by it being based on a single-item question during an unanchored epoch of time.
The original seven SED-GIH respond categories were collapsed into five, since there were very few participants choosing “Virtually All day” or “Never”. The object of including All seven answering options was that “Virtually All day” and “Never” might breathe easier to relate to instead of < 1 h and > 15 h. They besides provide the respond options with some anchorage. When the five categories were analysed, the intend values (displayed in Table 1) of sitting time measured with activPAL did not vary much between the categorical respond options of SED-GIH (varying from 8.7 to 10.3 h per day, intend 9.7 h per day). Thus, the objectively measured average sitting time per day had a narrow distribution, even though the participants subjectively estimated their sitting time with SED-GIH in a wider range. However, the accuracy of SED-GIH changed when only two categories were used (more or less than 10 h of sitting per day). The majority of the participants who rated themselves as sitting for 10 h or more, actually sat for more than 10 h (56.3%). The low sensitivity and specificity of SED-GIH indicates that it would not breathe useful for identifying hazardous sitters (≥ 10 h per day). Objective measurements may breathe more useful in detecting sedentary behaviour, possibly in combination with PAST or similar questionnaires. More research is thus needed to develop questionnaires assessing sedentary behaviour and provide better outcomes together with objective methods.
Test-retest reliability of SED-GIH was excellent (ICC = 0.86, CI = 0.79–0.90), which is better than other reliability tested questionnaires. PAST had just to worthy reliability (ICC = 0.50), and three different questionnaires measuring context-specific sedentary behaviour had worthy reliability for adults (ICC = 0.73–0.77) and older adults (ICC = 0.68–0.80) [20, 22]. However, SED-GIH is a single detail questionnaire, whereas PAST and the three different questionnaires measuring context-specific sedentary consist of several questions, which can affect test-retest reliability. With a tool consisting of a single detail question, it might breathe easier to respond the selfsame question twice compared to tools consisting of several questions. Thus, SED-GIH has worthy repeatability and generates trustworthy answers among older adults. However, it is not known whether SED-GIH can detect changes of sedentary behaviour over time, such as before and after a behavioural change intervention period. This domain needs further research.
Limitations to the current study breathe pleased been observed in the methods and the processing of the data. Participants may breathe pleased become more conscious about their habits regarding sitting time when they answered the web questionnaire prior to the objective measures, which may breathe pleased affected their sitting habits during the week of measurement with activPAL. Additionally, the measurement epoch between answering SED-GIH and wearing the activPAL varied (mean 16 days ±14 days), which may breathe pleased affected the agreement. One repercussion on internal validity is the accuracy of the participants’ dedication to fill in the diary log correctly, which can affect the all dataset. In the validity study, participants were employees with an office-based job, which is not representative of a universal population. SED-GIH should breathe validated in other contexts and with different populations. In the reliability partake of the current study, All participants were elderly. This may breathe pleased an upshot on the results since some elderly persons can breathe pleased reduced remembrance role compared to younger adults.
SED-GIH may breathe useful as a tool when identifying sitting time as a determinant for health risks on a population level, but would not in itself breathe sufficiently informative for screening for unhealthy sitting habits in primary care. More studies performed on a broader population are needed.
Quality of life has been defined by the World Health Organization property of Life Group as “an individual’s perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value system in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns” (World Health Organization Quality of Life Group, 1995, p. 1405). property of life in community-dwelling older people predicts the adverse outcomes of institutionalization and premature death, even after controlling for disability and frailty (Bilotta et al., 2011). To champion independent live in older people, both health keeping and sociable keeping professionals may exigency to carry out preventive interventions focused on aspects related to property of life, with the point of delaying institutionalization and avoiding premature death. Determining the influence of disability on property of life in older people is significant to developing early detection of problems and conducting preventive interventions.
In addition to lower property of life, disability is a pertinent health outcome for older persons. There are several ways of defining disability. The most widely used is: experiencing hardship in carrying out activities that are essential to independent live - difficulties in performing activities of daily live (ADL), and/or instrumental activities of daily live (IADL) (Tas et al., 2007a; Tas et al., 2007b). ADL functions are essential for an individual’s self- keeping (e.g., wash and dry your all body and find on and off the toilet), whereas IADL functions are more concerned with self-reliant functioning in a given environment (e.g., prepare dinner and upshot the shopping). ADL disability represents a more strict and later profile of disability than IADL disability (Hardy et al., 2005; Wong et al., 2010), resulting in a lower proportion of persons with ADL disability than IADL disability (Akosile et al., 2018; Chatterji et al., 2015).
Disability is associated with increased health keeping utilization and related costs (Fried et al., 2004), and premature death (Manton, 1988; Mor et al., 1994; Walter et al., 2001). In addition, disability is associated with impaired property of life in older people (Akosile et al., 2018; Den Ouden et al., 2013; Gureje et al., 2006; Soósová, 2016). However, the “disability paradox” (Albrecht & Devlieger, 1999) suggests that persons with strict impairments may nevertheless report elevated property of life (Watson, 2002), although this paradox seems to dissolve when contextual factors (i.e., personal and environmental situation) are considered (Fellinghauer et al., 2012). Disability has a dynamic nature, so persons can chase in and out of disability, with transitions between states of disability (Hardy et al., 2005; Nikolova et al., 2011; Van Houwelingen et al., 2014). Transitions to greater disability were more common than improvements in disability in people aged ≥85 years (Van Houwelingen et al., 2014). In particular, people with more than one inveterate disease, depressive symptoms, and cognitive impairment had the highest risk of deteriorating; however, a small number of very mature people are able to improve in their disability status (Van Houwelingen et al., 2014).
The point of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the influence of both ADL and IADL disability on property of life, incorporating a physical and a mental dimension, in people aged 75 years and older. In contrast to previous research (Akosile et al., 2018; Den Ouden et al., 2013; Gureje et al., 2006; Soósová, 2016) the main focus here is on the associations between ADL and IADL items and property of life. Items are more concrete than the types of disability (ADL, IADL) and thereby provide health keeping professionals (e.g., nurses, universal practitioners, physiotherapists) and professionals working in the sociable domain (e.g., social workers, domestic help) specific targets to enhance property of life in older people. To enhance property of life of older people, it is pertinent to know which items of ADL and IADL are associated with lower property of life because the interventions will breathe carried out by different professionals. For example, if an older person can no longer wash and undress themselves, a district nurse can provide champion (e.g., in the Netherlands) and if an older person has difficulties performing household activities then domestic befriend can provide the necessary support.
Study population and data collection
The Senioren Barometer is a web-based questionnaire used to assess the view of a panel of Dutch older people (aged 50 years and older) about different aspects of life. This questionnaire has been used in previous studies (Gobbens, Luijkx & Van Assen, 2013; Gobbens, Van Assen & Schalk, 2014).
In the epoch from December 2009 to January 2010 1,492 respondents completed at least partake of the questionnaire, of whom 1,031 filled out the section on background characteristics, property of life, and disability. Because disability is associated with greater age (Tas et al., 2007a; Tas et al., 2007b) the author selected only people aged 75 years and older (n = 377). As described in previous studies using the Senioren Barometer, older people can volunteer, and participation is always without obligation. The sample was invited to participate in the study in different ways and through multiple sources. First, people could indicate through the website (http://www.seniorenbarometer.nl) that they wanted to complete the questionnaire. Second, organizations for older people in the Netherlands were approached and asked to issue an announcement of the study on their websites so that their members who were interested could register. Third, a major source of participants was persons who attended computer training courses for older persons given by a great training and educational institute in the Netherlands.
Medical ethics approval was not necessary as particular treatments or interventions were not offered or withheld from respondents. The integrity of respondents was not encroached upon as a consequence of participating in the study, which is the main criterion in medical-ethical procedures in the Netherlands (Central Committee on Research inv. Human Subjects, 2010). Informed consent in relation to detailing the study and maintaining confidentiality was observed.
Quality of life
The author used the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) for measuring property of life (Ware Jr, Kosinski & Keller, 1996). The SF-12 is a shorter version of the SF-36 (Ware Jr & Sherbourne, 1992) that uses only 12 questions. The SF-12 is developed to replicate the SF-36 with the point to minimalize respondent burden. The 12 items are used to derive two summary property of life measures, the physical dimension (six items) and the mental dimension (six items); their scores sweep from 0 to 100. Higher scores refer to better property of life. Several studies breathe pleased reported the validity and reliability of the SF-12 as a measure of property of life in the universal population, including older people (Bentur & King, 2010; Cernin et al., 2010; Jakobsson et al., 2012; Kim et al., 2014; Kontodimopoulos et al., 2007). In the present study, the (unstandardized) Cronbach’s alpha was .82 for the physical dimension and .73 for the mental dimension; an adequate value of the Cronbach’s alpha is between .70 and .90 (Cortina, 1993).
The author used the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS) for assessing disability (Kempen & Suurmeijer, 1990). The GARS is a self-report questionnaire consisting of two subscales. The first subscale measures ADL (11 items) and the second subscale relates to IADL (seven items). Each detail has four response options: (1) able to execute the activity without any difficulty, (2) able to execute the activity with some difficulty, (3) able to execute the activity with mighty difficulty, and (4) unable to execute the activity independently. A distinction can then breathe made in two categories, complete independence and dependency (more or less). The disability total score ranges from 18 (no disability) to 72 (maximum disability). Following Ormel et al. (2002) the cut-point of 29 has been chosen for the disabled group because this cut-point corresponds with the 85th percentile of the GARS in a great sample of older people (Kempen et al., 1996b). The scores for the ADL and IADL subscales sweep from 11 to 44 and 7 to 28, respectively, with higher scores indicating greater disability; cut-points for these subscales upshot not exist. The GARS has shown worthy psychometric properties for assessing disability in older people (Kempen et al., 1996a). In this study, the (unstandardized) Cronbach’s alpha’s for ADL and IADL disability were .82 and .80, respectively, representing adequate values (Cortina, 1993)
Background characteristics: sociodemographic and multimorbidity
The sociodemographic background characteristics considered were age, sex, marital status, education level, and net household income. survey Table 1 for a particular description of the respond categories. Multimorbidity was assessed by asking the respondents, “Do you breathe pleased two or more diseases and/or inveterate disorders?” (yes/no).
First, the author determined the characteristics of the sample using descriptive statistics. Second, the property of life dimensions (physical, mental) scores for non-disabled and disabled participants were compared using student’s t–tests assuming unequal population variances. upshot size was assessed with Cohen’s d, assuming equal population variances; .2, .5, .8 corresponding to small, medium, great upshot size, respectively (Cohen, 1988). Correlations of ADL and IADL disability with the physical and the mental dimensions of the SF-12 were besides examined. According to Cohen, correlations were considered as small, medium, or great with coefficients of .1, .3, or .5, respectively (Cohen, 1988).
Participant characteristics (N = 377).
Age, intend ± SD, range
79.8 ± 3.7, 75–95
Sex, % of men
Married or cohabiting
Living apart together
Polytechnics and higher vocational training
€999 - or less
€5,000 or more
Multimorbidity, % yes
ADL disability, intend ± SD, range
13.6 ± 3.8,11–33
Get in and out of bed
Stand up from sitting in a chair
Wash your countenance and hands
Wash and dry your all body
Get on and off the toilet
Get around in the house (if necessary, with a cane)
Go up and down the stairs
Walk outdoors (if necessary, with a cane)
Take keeping of your feet and toenails
IADL disability, intend ± SD, range
11.2 ± 4.5, 7–28
Prepare breakfast or lunch
Do “light” household activities
Do “heavy” household activities
Wash and iron your clothes
Make the beds
Do the shopping
Physical dimension of property of life, intend ± SD, range
66.9 ± 25.6, 0–100
Mental dimension of property of life, intend ± SD, range
74.5 ± 18.7, 10–100
Before carrying out regression analyses some sociodemographic variables were coded for analysis. As in a previous study, the author created dummies for sex (“1” woman, “0” man), marital status (“1” married or cohabiting, “0” rest) and multimorbidity (“1” yes, “0” no), and linear effects of age and flat of education were incorporated into the analyses (Gobbens, Luijkx & Van Assen, 2013). Bivariate associations between one background variable or disability detail on the one hand and one property of life dimension (physical, mental) on the other hand were tested using regression analyses. Subsequently, the author examined the effects of each variable (background variables, disability items) on the physical and mental dimensions in four multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for All the other variables in the model. The simplest model only assessed the effects of All background variables together. One model besides included All 11 ADL disability items, whereas another model besides included the seven IADL items together with the background variables. The most tangled model included All 24 items. The fitting (explained variance) of All four models was tested (R2) and compared (delta R2). Power analyses using GPower 3.1.0 (Faul et al., 2007) showed that the sequential linear regression analyses on 377 participants had a power of at least 80% to detect an upshot of Cohen’s f2 = .056 which is a small to medium upshot size (Cohen, 1988).
Data were processed using SPSS version 24.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). All reported p-values are two-tailed. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
See Table 1 for an overview of the descriptive statistics of the participant characteristics. The intend age of the participants was 79.8 (SD = 3.7), 69.2% were male, and 64.8% were married or cohabiting. The average scores on property of life for the physical and mental dimensions were 66.9 (SD 25.6) and 74.5 (SD 18.7), respectively. Using the cut-point of 29 on the GARS, 25.2% of the participants were totally disabled, including both the ADL and the IADL subscale. In addition, 54.6% and 67.4% of the participants had at least one ADL disability and IADL disability, respectively. Of the 11 ADL disability items, participants experienced the greatest dependency in relation to taking keeping of their feet and toenails (48.5%). Of the 7 IADL disability items, participants experienced the greatest dependency in relation to doing “heavy” household activities (56.2%). In general, it should breathe illustrious that the percentages of the IADL disability items are higher than the percentages of the ADL disability items; five IADL disability items scored higher than 20% versus two ADL disability items (see Table 1).
Differences between non-disabled and disabled participants on property of life
Table 2 presents the results of comparing disabled and non-disabled people on the physical and the mental dimensions of the SF-12. Disabled participants scored lower on both property of life dimensions (p-values < 0.001), with very great upshot sizes, d = 1.30 for the mental dimension and d = 1.82 for the physical dimension.
Comparison of property of life dimensions between disabled and non-disabled participants.
Non-disabled n = 279 M (SD)
Disabled n = 95 M (SD)
Effect size Cohen’s db
Physical dimension of property of life
t(144.95) = 14.29 < 0.001
d = 1.82
Mental dimension of property of life
t(128.05) = 9.31 < 0.001
d = 1.30
Correlations between disability and property of life
Table 3 shows the correlations between ADL disability, IADL disability, physical property of life, and mental property of life. Most correlations were stalwart (>5); only the correlation between ADL disability and mental property of life could breathe considered as medium (.483) (all p-values < 0.001).
Correlations between ADL disability, IADL disability, physical and mental dimensions of property of life.
Physical property of life
Mental property of life
Physical property of life
Regression analyses: effects of ADL and IADL disability items on property of life
Table 4 presents the results of the bivariate and sequential linear regression analyses on the physical and mental property of life dimensions of the SF-12. The table shows the effects of six background characteristics, 11 ADL disability items, and seven IADL items on the two dimensions of property of life (physical, mental). Columns 2–4 and 8–10 present the bivariate regressions. Being a man, younger age, married or cohabiting, higher education, higher income, and no multimorbidity were associated with higher scores on both the physical and mental dimensions. Of the 11 ADL disability items, All were associated with physical property of life and 10 were associated with mental property of life. The exception was the detail “feed yourself” (p = 0.058). All seven IADL disability items were associated with both property of life dimensions.
Effect of background characteristics, ADL and IADL disability items on the physical and mental dimensions of property of life.
Physical dimension of property of life
Mental dimension of property of life
Marital status (married)
ADL disability items
Get in and out of bed
Stand up from sitting in a chair
Wash your countenance and hands
Wash and dry your all body
Get on and off the toilet
Get around in the house (if necessary, with a cane)
Go up and down the stairs
Walk outdoors (if necessary, with a cane)
Take keeping of your feet and toenails
IADL disability items
Prepare breakfast or lunch
Do “light” household activities
Do “heavy” household activities
Wash and iron your clothes
Make the beds
Do the shopping
ΔR2 ADL and IADL
Columns 5–7 and 11–13 summarize the results of the sequential linear regression analyses. R2 total indicates that 71.4% and 44.4% of the physical and mental property of life dimensions were explained by All the predictors together, respectively. After controlling for the background variables (sociodemographic characteristics, multimorbidity), disability (ADL and IADL items together) explained 35.0% of physical property of life and 28.2% of mental property of life, with both p-values <0.001. The ADL disability items together explained 5.8% and 4.5% of the physical and mental dimension, with p-values <0.001 and 0.012, respectively, after controlling for All background characteristics and IADL disability items, representing a medium to great upshot size (f2 = .20) and a small to medium upshot size (f2 = .08), respectively. The IADL disability items together explained a significant partake of both property of life dimensions after controlling for background characteristics and ADL items, with increases in explained variance of 10.8% (physical; f2 = .38, great upshot size) and 13.5% (mental; f2 = .24, medium to great upshot size) (both p-values < 0.001).
In addition, Table 4 presents the effects of each of the background characteristics and individual ADL and IADL items on physical and mental property of life. The columns five and 11 expose the regression coefficients with corresponding gauge errors (columns six and 12) and p-values (columns seven and 13).
Before interpreting the effects of individual items after controlling for the other variables, the author checked for multicollinearity. As the variance inflation factors (VIF) for All items were smaller than 5, which is below the threshold of 10 (Yu, Jiang & Land, 2015), the author relied on his estimates as they are not strongly affected by multicollinearity.
Of the background variables, only multimorbidity was negatively associated with property of life, both physical and mental. null of the other background characteristics were associated with property of life, after controlling for All the other variables in the model.
Of the 11 ADL disability items only four were significantly associated with property of life. The ADL detail “stand up from sitting in a chair” was negatively associated with both dimensions (physical, mental). The ADL items “dress yourself”, “get in and out of bed”, and “go up and down the stairs” were only negatively associated with the physical dimension of property of life. Of the seven IADL disability items, three were associated with property of life. The two IADL items (do “heavy” household activities, upshot the shopping) were negatively associated with both the physical and mental dimensions of property of life and “prepare breakfast or lunch” was positively associated with the physical dimension. All upshot sizes (f2) of the individual ADL and IADL disability items on physical as well as mental property of life were <.15, representing small upshot sizes. Of All ADL disability items, “go up and down the stairs” and “stand up from sitting in a chair” had the largest upshot sizes on the physical and mental property of life dimensions, f2 = .042 and f2 = .016, respectively. Of All IADL disability items, the detail with the largest upshot sizes on the physical as well as the mental dimension of property of life was “do “heavy” household activities”, with f2 = .13 and .065, respectively.
In this study the author determined the associations between ADL and IADL disability items and property of life in a sample consisting of 377 Dutch people aged 75 years or older. The author used two validated questionnaires, the GARS for assessing disability and the SF-12 for assessing property of life, containing a physical and a mental dimension. To the best of my knowledge, the present study was the first using the GARS and the SF-12 to determine the associations between disability and property of life. In addition, no previous study paid attention to the predictive value of the individual ADL and IADL disability items on property of life.
The bivariate regression analyses showed that the following factors were associated with physical property of life as well as mental property of life: being a man, younger age, married or cohabiting, higher education, higher income, no multimorbidity, ten ADL disability items, and seven IADL disability items. The ADL disability detail “feed yourself” was not associated with the mental dimension. However, the sequential linear regression analyses revealed that only multimorbidity, ADL detail “stand up from sitting in a chair”, and IADL items “do ‘heavy’ household activities” and “do the shopping” were significantly associated with both property of life dimensions, after controlling for All the variables in the model.
The finding that multimorbidity is associated with lower property of life in older people is supported by previous studies in several countries using different measurement instruments (Brettschneider et al., 2013; Fortin et al., 2006; Garin et al., 2014; Gu et al., 2018). In Germany, property of life of multimorbid people aged 65 to 85, assessed with the EQ-5D and the EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) (Rabin & De Charro, 2001), decreased with an increasing import and severity of inveterate conditions (Brettschneider et al., 2013). In Canada, 238 people completed the SF-36 (Ware Jr & Sherbourne, 1992) for assessing property of life, and multimorbidity was measured by counting the number of inveterate diseases and with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) (Linn, Linn & Gurel, 1968); this study showed that the physical health dimension of property of life deteriorated more than the mental health dimension of property of life with increasing multimorbidity (Fortin et al., 2006). A study among Spanish people (≥50 years) besides demonstrated that the number of inveterate diseases was associated with lower property of life (Garin et al., 2014), assessed with the WHOQOL-AGE (Caballero et al., 2013). Finally, a longitudinal study conducted in China showed that distinct multimorbidity patterns had various impacts on different dimensions of property of life among community-dwelling older people (Gu et al., 2018). These findings are significant because multimorbidity is frequently present in older people; in the age group 75–84 years the prevalence is 71.7% (Abad-Diez et al., 2014). The author recommends more studies focusing on the repercussion of multimorbidity patterns on property of life in other countries. These studies should focus in particular on effects of combinations of common inveterate diseases on property of life, thereby providing direction to (preventive) interventions.
All ADL disability items combined explained a significant partake of the variance of both the physical dimension and the mental dimension of property of life. Another study showed that maintaining independence in ADL had a positive upshot on four domains of the WHOQOL-OLD (sensory abilities; autonomy; past, present, and future activities; sociable participation) (Power, Quinn & Schmidt, 2005), and one domain of the WHOQOL-BREF (physical health) (The WHOQOL Group, 1998; Soósová, 2016)). property of life, assessed with the WHOQOL-OLD (Power, Quinn & Schmidt, 2005) and the WHOQOL-BREF (The WHOQOL Group, 1998), were significantly associated with ADL disability in two samples of Nigerian older people aged 65 years and older (Akosile et al., 2018; Gureje et al., 2006). A Dutch study including a total of 537 middle-aged and older persons besides found that property of life, assessed with the SF-36 (Ware Jr & Sherbourne, 1992), was associated with ADL disability, measured with the Katz-questionnaire (Katz & Akpom, 1976; Den Ouden et al., 2013). In particular, health keeping professionals (e.g., district nurses, physiotherapists, universal practitioners, occupational therapists) should identify (potential) limitations in performing ADL at an early stage in order to maintain or multiply property of life in older people. Based on the present study, special attention is needed to address problems people breathe pleased when standing from sitting, because this activity is associated with lower physical and mental property of life.
All IADL disability items combined explained a larger partake of the variance of both the physical and the mental dimension of property of life compared with All ADL disability items together, 10.8% versus 5.8% and 13.5% versus 4.5%, respectively. Two studies referred to above besides found that IADL disability was associated with property of life (Akosile et al., 2018; Gureje et al., 2006). The finding that IADL disability items were more prevalent than ADL disability is supported by other studies (Akosile et al., 2018; Bleijenberg et al., 2017; Hu et al., 2012) and contributes to the evidence that IADL disability occurs earlier than ADL disability; probably because IADL is more tangled and appeals more to cognitive function. In Nigeria the prevalence figure of IADL disability was 39.3% versus ADL disability 32.5% (Akosile et al., 2018). Among Dutch older people, with an average age of 74.6 years, carrying out household tasks was the most frequent problem (44.8%), followed by travelling (26.9%), and grocery shopping (23.0%) (Bleijenberg et al., 2017). In particular, the first and the terminal detail are significant because the present study showed that these two items were associated with the physical as well as the mental dimension of property of life in older people. These findings breathe pleased not been available to date. Conducting interventions on problems that older people can suffer with performing massive household activities and shopping could befriend them attain a higher property of life. Domestic befriend may meet these needs or additionally reablement or restorative keeping services may breathe of benefit. These are short term services aimed at improving the independence of older people so they can hopefully proceed back to live independently without ongoing assistance.
The model including All the prediction variables explained a great partake of the variance in scores of the physical and mental dimensions of the SF-12, 71.4% and 44.4%, respectively. In a sample of community-dwelling older Dutch people (n = 8,928) it was shown that people experiencing disability, multimorbidity, and frailty scored lower on property of life compared with people experiencing individual conditions (Lutomski et al., 2014). It is workable that the explained variances in the scores of the property of life dimensions were besides greater if depression as a predictive variable was included in the model; a review, including 74 studies, found an association between depression and lower property of life in older people, independent of how property of life was assessed (Sivertsen et al., 2015).
This study has some limitations. First, the cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow strict cause–effect interpretations of the associations between the ADL and IADL disability items and property of life. A longitudinal study is recommended to establish such associations. Second, disability was assessed by the GARS, a self-report measure, that does not comprehend performance-based measures. A combination of both measures may breathe the best course to fully capture the picture of disability in ADL and IADL. However, in a sample of oldest mature (≥80 years) it was demonstrated that self-assessments for disability in ADL and IADL reliably reflect direct assessment in performance (Bravell, Zarit & Johansson, 2011). Third, the author used the Senioren Barometer for data collection. This is a web-based questionnaire, so access to Internet was necessary for participating in the present study; this may breathe pleased led to selection bias. In this context, it should breathe illustrious that in the study sample 69.2% were men, while in the Dutch population aged 75 years and older, only 37.9% are men, as established January 1, 2010 (Statistics Netherlands, 2017).
In this study the author showed that disability in ADL and IADL is negatively associated with property of life in older people. Therefore, it is significant for health keeping professionals to carry out interventions aimed at preventing and diminishing disability or its adverse outcomes, such as a lower property of life. Promising interventions are multidisciplinary and multifactorial in nature, should breathe preceded by an individualized assessment, and should involve case management and long-term supervene up (Daniëls et al., 2010). Lifestyle interventions targeting physical exercise, nutrition, and cognition expose to breathe efficacious against disability in ADL and IADL; in order to breathe actually effective, these interventions should breathe inexpensive, feasible, and easy to implement (Fougère et al., 2018). In line with the findings of the present study, it is recommended to first focus on the disability items that breathe pleased the greatest repercussion on property of life of older people (“stand up from sitting in a chair”, “do ‘heavy’ household activities” and “do the shopping”) to achieve the best outcome.
Raw data exported from the Seniorenbarometer 2009 applied for data analysis and preparation for Tables 1– 4