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BCBA exam Dumps Source : Board Certification in trade Valuation(R) (BCBA)
Test Code : BCBA
Test designation : Board Certification in trade Valuation(R) (BCBA)
Vendor designation : Real-Estate
: 251 true Questions
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Real-Estate Board Certification in Business
This post turned into contributed by a neighborhood member.
SARASOTA, Fla. – Williams Parker is pleased to promulgate associate William M. Seider, a Florida Bar board certified true estate legal professional, has executed an additional Florida Bar board certification in house and planned edifice legislations. he's one of three attorneys in Sarasota to hold each designations.
Mr. Seider handles various precise property matters and focuses on representing builders to constitution, finance, assemble, and enhance condominiums and subdivisions. He also handles excessive-end residential earnings and has helped benevolent more than one hundred condominiums and subdivisions within the location, together with Fairway Bay III, Marina Bay, sunset seashore, grandiose Bay I – VI, The Plantation Golf and country club, Phillippi Landings, and Marina Tower.
Williams Parker’s precise estate commemorate comprises 15 attorneys, 9 of whom are board licensed, and 14 apt estate paralegals and legal assistants. From easy residential true estate closings to complicated industrial transactions, the community provides assistance on a replete ambit of precise estate-linked considerations, together with financing, taxation, land use, deliberate tendencies, condominiums, and contracting, for true property experts, builders, and traders. The hard also assists newfangled residents in establishing residency and transitioning estates to select odds of Florida’s benign tax local weather and asset insurance policy laws.
About Williams Parker
founded in 1925, Williams Parker contains over 50 attorneys and presents one among Florida’s largest trusts and estates practices; tax and employment agencies with huge depth; and completed precise estate, litigation, corporate, and healthcare practices. The hard additionally serves customers’ wants globally through its membership in Ally legislations, an international alliance of legislations enterprises, whose 60 member enterprises consist of greater than 2,300 lawyers in one hundred enterprise centers utter through forty nations. Williams Parker takes wonderful delight in its contributions to the neighborhood and ongoing funding in its region. The company is located at 200 South Orange Avenue, Sarasota, Florida. For more information, gladden seek counsel from www.williamsparker.com.
big apple--(business WIRE)--Academy Securities, a registered broker-broker, licensed Disabled Veteran company trade (DVBE), and Minority trade enterprise (MBE), nowadays announced the addition of Edward A. Adler to its Advisory Board.
Mr. Adler brings decades of event to Academy’s Advisory Board and is currently the top of the USA credit investment platform for GreenOak apt property. previously, Mr. Adler ran the united states industrial actual property group for Deutsche bank and past had dash Deutsche financial institution’s Asian actual estate Finance and Securitization organizations in Tokyo. during his profession, Mr. Adler has additionally worked at Citigroup as their Head of Americas and the Asian apt property Finance business for his or her mounted profits Division.
“we are thrilled to add Ed to their advisory board,” cited Academy’s Chairman and CEO chance Mims. “Academy will improvement from his abysmal precise property industry expertise and management capabilities.”
Mr. Adler graduated with honors from Union school with a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering and holds an M.B.A. from Columbia company college. Mr. Adler is an adjunct professor at Columbia’s school of true property progress program. additionally, Mr. Adler serves on the board of The Catalog for Giving, a nonprofit company dedicated to transforming the lives of manhattan city children.
“Ed’s 30 years of journey in the precise estate trade will add a useful viewpoint to their advisory board and may raise their cost proposition for their shoppers,” mentioned Phil McConkey, President of Academy Securities.
About Academy Securities
Academy Securities is a preeminent disabled veteran owned funding financial institution with power in capital markets, public finance, fastened earnings and fairness trading. management and group of workers hold had intensive militia practising previous to entering and gaining extensive economic services undergo in international capital markets. we're mission driven with a towering ethical code, a high-quality undergo of accountability and attempt for excellence in the pursuit of their consumers’ success. highbrow property, fabulous visionary leaders and a supercilious group dedication carry out the most desirable in each different for the improvement of their shoppers. Academy is their nation’s first and simplest post-9/11 disabled veteran owned investment bank and is a licensed as a DVBE, SDVOSB, and MBE. The enterprise has offices in newfangled york, Chicago, Boston, San Diego and Chapel Hill. information about Academy Securities is attainable at www.academysecurities.com.
He’s also embroiled in a dazzling prison battle along with his forty-12 months-historical son. The eldest of three infants, Steven Marcus lives in London and has begun a compete British precise property enterprise that also plans to apartment life science enterprises.
Alexandria actual property sued Steven Marcus and his startup, RUNLABS, in December for alleged trademark infringement and unfair competitors. The swimsuit says he misused Alexandria’s identify and brand, a picture of the Alexandria lighthouse in historic Egypt, in fund-elevating pitches to chore capitalists.
“I didn’t consider that you simply sue your family unit, however when he sued me, they decided to pursue this vigorously.”
Steven Marcus additionally falsely claimed the startup advanced from Alexandria, based on the suit.
“Steven Marcus has certainly not been an employee or had any formal trade relationship with Alexandria, nor has he had some other pastime in Alexandria apart from his familial relationship with Joel Marcus,” says the complaint filed in united statesDistrict court docket in San Francisco. Joel Marcus lives in Beverly Hills, Calif., no longer removed from his Pasadena-based mostly enterprise.
The younger Marcus is firing again with criminal salvos of his own. He has asked the U.S. Trademark trial and appeal Board to select Alexandria’s registered emblems off the books. He says he got here up with the Alexandria designation and brand as an undergraduate pupil on the school of Pennsylvania’s Wharton school and that they belong to him.
On Thursday, he sued his father and Alexandria in manhattan condition courtroom. The suit alleges Alexandria owes him greater than $12 million for devising a brand newfangled financing approach for the company in 2013, labor he says his father took credit for.
“I didn’t believe that you simply sue your family, but when he sued me, they decided to pursue this vigorously,” Steven Marcus referred to in an interview. He contends his father is waging a private crusade towards him and wants to torpedo an up-and-coming rival. Of the household feud, he says, “I recognize it has a Shakespearean contact.”
“The forms of issues which are going on are certainly unlawful and they’re immoral and they're going to breathe dealt with in a extremely extreme style.”
In a further twist, a cousin of Steven Marcus’s appears to breathe siding with Joel Marcus.
The unsightly disagreement came up utter through a conference designation Tuesday when Joel Marcus, government chairman of Alexandria, spoke with investment analysts in regards to the firm’s fourth-quarter efficiency.
“are you able to remark a bit bit about what’s occurring with your eldest son?” an analyst requested.
Joel Marcus spoke back, “in case you survey at anybody who's making an attempt to carry any discredit or any cloud to the enterprise, I suppose you can weigh on that that's a meaningless method.”
with out naming his son, he talked about, “The sorts of things that are occurring are evidently unlawful and that they’re immoral and they're going to breathe dealt with in a really extreme style.”
Joel Marcus declined to talk about the controversy with the Globe. however attorneys for Alexandria spoke of Thursday that the enterprise is doing what any hard would achieve if somebody infringed on its emblems.
“This became a company dispute, pure and simple,” said Patrick Gunn, a San Francisco attorney.
Trademark disagreements are accustomed in the company world. however this dispute is bizarre because it’s so personal, exposing a acerbic rift in the household of Joel Marcus, a admired developer who helped discovered Alexandria and has dash the enterprise on account that 1997.
With a market price of about $14 billion, Alexandria has performed a key role in the sprouting of biotech clusters from San Diego to commodious apple to Cambridge. The enterprise first began leasing houses to biotechs in California within the Nineteen Nineties. Joel Marcus, a legal professional, had been representing enterprises that desired laboratory house near most valuable tutorial associations.
in the early 2000s, Alexandria became its focus to Cambridge, above utter the then-gritty local of Kendall square immediate MIT. these days, after spending tens of millions to assemble sparkling buildings for biotech startups and massive Pharma firms, Alexandria says it’s the greatest proprietor of lab house in Cambridge.
Steven Marcus referred to he grew up in Southern California and earned a grasp’s diploma in enterprise administration at Columbia school in manhattan in 2004. He changed into in no course immediate to his father, he stated in an interview.
“We didn’t hold an adversarial relationship, however it’s hard for me to don't forget having an outstanding relationship either,” he noted.
however, he says he performed a pivotal role in his father’s company.
In 1997, the trade become called fitness Science properties, a designation his father desired to dump, in accordance with Steven Marcus’s submitting with the trademark board. Steven Marcus mentioned he got here up with the Alexandria identify and attribute as a freshman at Penn. He referred to he changed into impressed by a goblet-formed doumbek drum from Alexandria owned through a university chum.
Joel Marcus credited his son for the conception in a 2014 interview with The newfangled york instances.
“My oldest son, who become at Wharton, got here up with the identify,” he spoke of.
greater than two many years later, in November, Alexandria executives realized that RUNLABS became using the trademarks in written fund-raising pitches, in response to Alexandria’s suit. The pitches stated RUNLABS had advanced from Alexandria, featured photographs of Alexandria homes, and outlined the startup’s “pedigree from Alexandria,” according to the suit.
RUNLABS plans to give offices and shared laboratory zone to being science establishments, and is starting in Europe, with a one hundred fifty,000-square-foot edifice in order to open in Paris late this 12 months, spoke of Steven Marcus.
After Alexandria executives noticed RUNLAB’S pitches, the company complained to Steven Marcus. On Dec. 12, he wrote to Alexandria’s board of director that RUNLABS would desist using the identify and logo to “remove any further unwanted confusion.”
however Alexandria sued him the next day. Gunn, the legal professional for Alexandria, observed Steven Marcus’s missive was a “clear steer pellucid of” that contained not one of the legal assurances his customer had sought.
In late January, Steven Marcus requested the trademark board to cancel the trademarks, asserting they belong to him.
In his swimsuit filed Thursday in newfangled york condition Supreme court in newfangled york, Steven Marcus says that although he become by no means a paid Alexandria worker, he and an investment hard he centered, Bugsby Property LLC, played a pivotal position in 2013 through helping to strengthen a brand newfangled financing approach for his father’s firm.
rather than theme more accustomed stock, he stated, he counseled Alexandria fund boom via a joint venture, sooner or later with TIAA, the fiscal services company. the newfangled approach lifted Alexandria’s sagging inventory price and saved his father’s job, Steven Marcus stated, however he says the elder Marcus took credit score for it and “cheated” his son out of charge.
one in utter Alexandria’s lawyers, Randy Mastro, observed Steven Marcus signed an settlement in 2013 that pointed out he would now not acquire money from the company for the financing plan.
Steven Marcus’s application to find paid now could breathe a “publicity stunt to try to pressure parties to give him anything to promenade away,” Mastro referred to.
Steven Marcus says the agreement was got below fraudulent cases.
at least one friend appears to facet with the elder Marcus.
Brandon Werber, a 33-yr-ancient la entrepreneur and cousin of Steve Marcus’s, spoke of he knows both men well. He isn’t stunned by what’s took place.
“I had my very own professional event with Steven that finally unfolded into what, personally, is by a long shot corresponding to what Joel and Alexandria are facing with Steven now,” Werber referred to.
He declined to intricate, however stated his uncle is a “actual position model” with an “unwavering ethical compass.”
Steven Marcus, for his half, notable his cousin is a “complete liar” who has spent limited or no time by myself with Joel Marcus. The more youthful Marcus additionally mentioned he delivered Werber to a towering school chum with whom Werber utter started Lootsie, a loyalty platform for mobile apps.
“He not ever once thanked me,” mentioned Steven Marcus.
This Story turned into at the start posted in STAT’s sister ebook, the Boston Globe.
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No result found, try newfangled keyword!Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc. (NYSE:CCO), a subsidiary of iHeartMedia, Inc. (PINK:IHRTQ), announced today the members selected to serve on its newfangled Board ... trade Administration degree from ...
Boston, MA Integra Realty Resources (IRR) opened a newfangled local office in the city – Integra-Boston. Thomas Jensen, MAI, a seasoned commercial true estate appraisal industry veteran who joined IRR more than two decades ago, will lead the newfangled office as senior managing director, along with Emmet Logue, MAI, CRE, executive director; Christopher Walsh, MAI, director; and Jeremiah Manfra, MAI, director. The newfangled office of eight professionals has commenced operations at 303 Congress St., on the 5th Floor.
The opening of this newfangled full-service appraisal office expands the company’s market coverage to encompass the entire Northeast region and aligns with IRR’s aggressive growth strategy. With the opening of Integra-Boston, the company has more than 50 local offices from coast to coast, as well as several specialty rehearse groups including its Litigation rehearse Group, Healthcare & Senior Housing and IRR-Hotels.
“Reestablishing a local office presence in Boston has been towering on their priority list,” said Anthony Graziano, MAI, CRE, chairman of IRR. “Not only does it solidify their regional Northeast market coverage, but it further enhances their skill to service multi-market, portfolio assignments. They are fortunate to hold Tom, Emmet, Chris and Jerry leading their local efforts. They bring tremendous expertise and decades of undergo valuating properties throughout the newfangled England marketplace that will prove to breathe a valuable asset to their clients.”
Jensen brings more than three decades of appraisal undergo in the Northeast Region to his current role. Prior to joining IRR, Jensen, was a commercial staff review appraiser at the Bank of newfangled England. Jensen brings broad appraisal undergo across utter types of commercial true estate with particular expertise in the valuation of major urban and suburban developments. Jensen is a certified common true estate appraiser in Mass., N.H., ME and R.I. He earned his bachelor’s degree in architecture from The Catholic University of America.
Logue, a nearly 50-year industry veteran, joins IRR from Hunneman. Over the past 40 years, Logue managed the appraisal advisory group at Hunneman. His undergo includes residential, commercial, industrial, special purpose, and vacant land assignments throughout Mass., R.I., and southern N.H. He has completed fee appraisal, true estate counseling, review appraisal, marketability, and highest and best utilize assignments for acquisition, disposition, condemnation, city planning, assessment equalization, corporate conclusion making, probate, estate planning, mortgage financing, and reuse purposes. Logue holds certified common true estate appraiser licenses in Mass. and N.H. Logue has qualified as an expert witness in Superior Court in Eastern and Central Mass. counties, as well as Mass. District and Probate Courts, the Mass. Appellate Tax Board, Federal Bankruptcy Court and Mass. Land Court. He has participated in arbitration panels and other alternate dispute resolution matters. He is a graduate of Boston College, with a B.S. Finance.
Walsh brings more than 25 years of undergo to his newfangled role with IRR. He joins from Hunneman appraisal group, where he specialized in providing valuation and true estate counseling services for insurance companies and public adjusters, law firms, public agencies, corporations, and financial institutions. His extensive background includes litigation support, fire and water damage cases, divorce settlements, condemnation and land conservation. His undergo spans across utter commercial true estate types, as well as a wide ambit of special purpose properties. Walsh provided valuation uphold for eminent domain actions in conjunction with several of the State’s largest projects, as well as several great rail trail projects. He is a graduate of Bates College with a degree in Political Science. He holds a Certified common true Estate Appraiser License in Massachusetts.
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Intangible assets are increasingly censorious to corporate value, yet current accounting standards do it difficult to capture them in financial statements. This information gap can strike valuations for the worse.
Today, valuations based on simple accounting metrics from corporate financial statements no longer suffice. Indeed, Feng Gu and Baruch Lev hold highlighted their shortcomings, going so far as to herald “the abide of accounting” while stressing the exigency for valuation methods derived from key performance indicators (KPIs) outside the framework of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
So what are the common methodologies for intangibles valuation that build on historical and prospective financial information within the framework of current accounting standards? And how can they breathe integrated with non-GAAP KPIs to assess a firm’s competitive position?
What Are Intangible Assets?
The “International Glossary of trade Valuation Terms” (IGBVT) defines intangible assets as “non-physical assets such as franchises, trademarks, patents, copyrights, goodwill, equities, mineral rights, securities and contracts (as distinguished from physical assets) that concede rights and privileges, and hold value for the owner.” For financial reporting under US GAAP, they are defined as “assets (not including financial assets) that exigency physical substance.” GAAP has a divorce definition of goodwill: “the excess of the cost of an acquired entity over the net amounts assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed.”
The US Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) started tracking investments in intangible capital by private enterprises as fraction of its GDP database in 2013. Its intangible capital metric includes accumulated spending on software, R&D, and intellectual property related to arts and entertainment — a “cost” perspective. Since 2012, the annual investment in intellectual property products by private enterprises in the United States has grown at a 6.2% annualized rate to $938 billion as of October 2018 (annualized).
Investment in Intellectual Property Products
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis, Table 1.1.5; eventual revised October 2018
Investment in intellectual property now represents 33.41% of total US low domestic investment in 2018, up from 30.95% at year-end 2012. Over the selfsame period, investments in Structures as a percentage of total US low private domestic investment hold remained flat, while investments in rig hold fallen.
US low Domestic Investment (Percent of Total)
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis, Table 1.1.5 eventual revised October 2018
Nicolas Crouzet and Janice Eberly recently notable that the accumulation of intangible capital has spurred market concentration in favor of those firms that can best leverage the scaling benefits of advanced technological infrastructure. They also commemorate that intangible capital is hard to utilize as collateral for financing. The extend in intangible capital investment likely reduced the balance of overall investment financed through bank debt and may hold opened the door for such non-banking players as private debt funds in corporate lending.
Financial Reporting and Valuation Challenges
As investments in intangibles grow, assessing the value of those assets as drivers of enterprise value becomes ever more essential. Both IFRS and GAAP are “mixed models” with different ways to account for intangible assets acquired as fraction of a trade combination compared to those that are internally developed. The former must breathe measured at just value at the time of the acquisition, included in the acquirer’s balance sheet, and then theme to amortization or fitful impairment testing. Under GAAP, internally developed intangible assets mind not to appear on the balance sheet and related costs are expensed as incurred. Under IFRS, such assets are recognized only if inevitable criteria are met.
When it comes to the income statement, an enterprise’s earnings under GAAP generally embrace an amortization impregnate for the intangible assets that are in the balance sheet and hold a “determinable” useful life, and a impregnate in R&D or sales and administration expenses for internally developed assets that are not capitalized. It may also embrace an impairment amount recognized on goodwill or on the intangible assets that hold been capitalized and hold undetermined useful life. Analysts who compare companies across borders exigency to understand the specific intangibles-related differences between GAAP and IFRS.
The different accounting treatment of acquired versus internally developed intangible assets could create comparability issues for companies with different growth strategies. A hard that has developed its portfolio of intangible assets through acquisition will probably hold a higher share of intangibles recognized in its balance sheet (and more goodwill) than one that developed intangible assets internally. This will strike balance sheet ratios and reported earnings.
Microsoft vs. Apple
Intangibles limn 16.9% of Microsoft’s total assets but only 2.7% of Apple’s, according to an analysis of their 10-Ks. This reflects, in part, Microsoft’s greater appetite for acquisitions. Analysts exigency to grasp the varying treatments of internally developed versus acquired intangibles to ensure that preempt valuation adjustments are made for comparability. They should also integrate differences in intangibles accounting in the algorithms they develop for automated trading and factor investing.
Intangibles as a Percent of Total Assets
Valuation Models for Intangible Assets
Five of the more common valuation methods for intangible assets that are within the framework of the cost, market, and income approach are described below. These approaches can breathe integrated into an analysis of non-GAAP KPIs and other conceptual frameworks.
1. Relief from Royalty method (RRM)
The RRM calculates value based on the hypothetical royalty payments that would breathe saved by owning the asset rather than licensing it. The rationale behind the RRM is fairly intuitive: Owning an intangible asset means the underlying entity doesn’t hold to pay for the privilege of deploying that asset. The RRM is often used to value domain names, trademarks, licensed computer software, and in-progress R&D that can breathe tied to a specific revenue stream and where data on royalty and license fees from other market transactions are available. Generally, the RRM involves the following steps:
Projecting financial information for the overall enterprise, including revenue, growth rates, and tax rates and estimates. The underlying data is generally obtained from the entity’s management.
Estimating a suitable royalty rate for the intangible asset based on an analysis of royalty rates from publicly available information for similar domain names and of the industry in question. Royalty rate information is available on such databases as KtMINE and Royalty Source, among others. SEC filings for similar publicly traded companies can also breathe useful.
Estimating the useful life of the asset.
Applying the royalty rate to the estimated revenue stream.
Estimating a discount rate for the after-tax royalty savings and discount to present value.
The RRM contains assumptions from both the market (royalty rate) and income approach (estimate of revenue, growth rates, tax rates, discount rate). To espy how it works in practice, they conducted a hypothetical domain designation valuation using the RRM:
Valuation of Domain Name: Royalty Relief Method
Keep in judgement the domain name’s just value includes an amortization profit multiplier that incorporates the value of the tax profit resulting from the amortization of the asset. The amortization profit is calculated as the present value of the tax savings that results from a 15-year amortization of the asset. In calculating the amortization adjustments for US companies, analysts should breathe mindful of the corporate tax rates changes resulting from recent US tax reform and appraise their impact on intangible amortization over the era considered in the valuation.
2. Multiperiod Excess Earnings method (MPEEM)
The MPEEM is a variation of discounted cash-flow analysis. Rather than focusing on the gross entity, the MPEEM isolates the cash flows that can breathe associated with a solitary intangible asset and measures just value by discounting them to present value. The MPEEM tends to breathe applied when one asset is the primary driver of a firm’s value and the related cash flows can breathe isolated from the firm’s overall cash flows. Early stage enterprises and technology firms are prime candidates for this approach. Computer software and customer relationships are among the sorts of assets that frequently generate such cash flows and could breathe assessed with just value measurement using the MPEEM. The MPEEM usually involves the following steps:
Projecting financial information (PFI) — cash flows, revenue, expenses, etc. — for the entity.
Subtracting the cash flows attributable to utter other assets through a contributory asset impregnate (CAC). The CAC is a shape of economic rent for the utilize of utter other assets in generating total cash flows that is composed of the required rate of return on utter other assets and an amount necessary to replace the just value of inevitable contributory intangible assets.
Calculating the cash flows attributable to the intangible asset theme to valuation and discount them to present value.
Assessing the CAC can breathe a challenge with MPEEM. The required returns on CAC must breathe consistent with an assessment of the risk of individual asset classes and should reconcile overall to the enterprise WACC. Also, the projection era for the PFI used in the model should reflect the estimated useful life of the theme asset. That may involve significant judgment.
3. With and Without method (WWM)
The WWM estimates an intangible asset’s value by calculating the dissimilarity between two discounted cash-flow models: one that represents the status quo for the trade enterprise with the asset in place, and another without it. The WWM is often used to value noncompete agreements.
4. true Option Pricing
As Aswath Damoradan noted, “the most difficult intangible assets to value are those that hold the potential to create cash flows in the future but achieve not prerogative now.” These assets hold option characteristics that do them suitable to breathe valued using option pricing models and embrace undeveloped patent and undeveloped natural resource options, among others.
For a true option to hold significant economic value, competition must breathe restricted in the event of the contingency. This is frequently the case for patents, which give the owner the prerogative but not the obligation to exclude others from making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the patented invention. An undeveloped patent may hold zero “intrinsic” value if the net present value of the underlying project is deemed to breathe zero or negative at the measurement date. Still, the patent may hold considerable “time” value based on the possibility that the net present value of the project will gyrate out to breathe positive at some point over the life of the patent.
An option pricing model may breathe most suitable to capture the “time value” component of a patent that is not currently generating cash flows for the firm, but may hold the potential to achieve so in the future. For instance, they can appraise the value of a patent on a drug that is undergoing the FDA approval process using a Black-Scholes option pricing formula as follows:
Inputs under Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model
PV of Cash Flows from Introducing the Drug Now (Current Price) = $ 520 million
PV of Cost of Developing Drug for Commercial utilize (Exercise Price) = $ 650 million
Patent Life (Time to Expiration) = 15 years
Riskless Rate = 3.2% (15-year Treasury rate)
Variance in Expected Present Values = 0.25.
Expected Cost of delay (Dividend Yield) = 1/t = 5.89%
Patent Value (Call Value Resulting from the Black-Scholes Formula) = $ 26,347,850
As with stock options, a key challenge in the valuation of true options is assessing the underlying volatility. Moreover, true options require estimates for the exercise price (the cost of developing the patent in their example), and the current price of the underlying (the present value of the cash flows from introducing the drug now), which are generally observable for options on listed equities. Overall, while there is judgment involved in the application of option pricing models to intangible assets, there is also a significant amount of guidance and industry rehearse that has developed over time and that the analyst can mention to for implementation.
5. Replacement Cost method Less Obsolescence
This method requires an assessment of the replacement cost for the intangible asset new, that is “the cost to construct, at current prices as of the date of the analysis, an intangible asset with equivalent utility to the theme intangible, using modern materials, production standards, design, layout and trait workmanship.” The replacement cost is then adjusted for an obsolescence factor relative to the intangible asset. A simple replacement cost model for acquired software that adjusts for obsolescence and takes into account the tax impact of the asset’s amortization is shown below. It weighs the tax impact of the asset’s amortization, which is most apropos if the intangible asset is considered within the framework of the valuation of an overall enterprise. A pre-tax asset valuation may breathe more suitable under inevitable circumstances, particularly if the asset is valued on a stand-alone basis.
Valuation of Acquired Software: Replacement Cost method Less Obsolescence
This valuation exercise considers the tax impact of the asset’s amortization, which is most apropos if the intangible asset is considered within the framework of the valuation of an overall enterprise. A pre-tax asset valuation may breathe more suitable under inevitable circumstances, particularly if the asset is valued on a stand-alone basis. The appraise of the obsolescence percentage is also a censorious factor in this model, and is often developed based on inquiries with technical management personnel.
The table below provides a summary of the cost, market, and income approach models as they typically apply to the main classes of intangible assets:
Intangible Valuation Approach Summary
In today’s economy, the value provided by intangible assets must breathe captured in enterprise valuation. Analysts hold to expand the ambit of data sources and techniques they utilize in valuation and develop methodologies that are suitable to the intangible asset being valued for more answerable valuation results. Such methodologies provide newfangled perspectives on the cost, market, and income approaches and can breathe integrated with an analysis of non-GAAP KPIs and other conceptual frameworks.
Identifying and valuing intangible assets is censorious not only in an energetic management framework, but also in factor investing and quantitative modeling in passive strategies that reckon on financial statements data and that may exigency adjustments for comparability.
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All posts are the opinion of the author. As such, they should not breathe construed as investment advice, nor achieve the opinions expressed necessarily reflect the views of CFA Institute or the author’s employer.
Image credit: ©Getty Images/ estelle75
Antonella Puca, CFA, CIPM, CPA
Mark L. Zyla, CFA, CPA/ABV, ASA