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922-104 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 6.0 Upgrades for Engineers

Test Code : 922-104
Test appellation : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 6.0 Upgrades for Engineers
Vendor appellation : Nortel
: 30 real Questions

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Nortel Nortel Communication Server 1000

Nortel Builds on its Unified Communications imaginative and prescient, solutions Portfolio | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Nortel

NYSE : NTTSX : NT

Nortel

March 05, 2007 09:02 ET

CEO Mike Zafirovski Outlines Nortel UC imaginative and prescient at VoiceCon 2007

ORLANDO, FLORIDA--(CCNMatthews - March 5, 2007) - At VoiceCon Spring 2007 this week, Nortel(1) (TSX:NT)(NYSE:NT) is outlining its imaginative and prescient for unified communications (UC) and unveiling modern solutions designed to supply organisations with primary and official methods to deliver voice, video and statistics over IP and permit superior unified communications.

Nortel President and CEO Mike Zafirovski may be a keynote speaker on Tuesday, and should focus on how unified communications options and converged functions are poised to transform commercial enterprise communications.

"Unified communications fundamentally alterations the way enterprises communicate, simplifying the deluge of communications with a single, seamless interface," observed Zafirovski. "Nortel and their partners are working to create a UC event that makes laborers more productive and responsive, with a wealthy communications adventure within the office or on the go."

Nortel's unified communications vision makes a speciality of featuring solutions that align to the company ambiance the commercial enterprise uses these days. These solutions enable clients to event streamlined communications within their industry application while leveraging their existing IT investments - really UC your method.

As portion of its increasing unified communications portfolio, Nortel is introducing a number of modern solutions that deliver a richer set of UC equipment whereas ensuring the resiliency of the communications network.

Nortel's cornerstone IP Telephony answer, the communique Server (CS) one thousand will carry modern capabilities and enhancements to extra reinforce this leading VoIP platform. a modern liberate of CS a thousand will provide more advantageous reliability and redundancy, enhanced community and voice appellation security and modern E911 capabilities, complete aimed at ensuring groups can trust on their community for crucial communications wants. through planned interoperability with Microsoft workplace Communications Server 2007, this modern free up will convey unified communications capabilities as portion of the creative Communications Alliance roadmap.

the modern CS a thousand architecture will lengthen its succor for open standards, with champion for an open operating gadget and genesis on industry off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware from IBM and different suppliers, to expand deployment flexibility and manageability of the community. giant simplification of the portfolio aspects and pricing bundles will beget it more convenient for partners and resellers to quote and sell. This modern liberate is deliberate for availability in 2Q07.

moreover today Nortel introduced the well-liked availability of a brand modern free up of the award-profitable Multimedia verbal exchange Server (MCS) 5100. This modern free up improves productiveness through providing users with tight integration of telephony and multimedia purposes within IBM Lotus Notes. It likewise features a brace of gigantic enhancements, including better and simplified collaboration capabilities that permit a replete latitude of voice, video, conferencing, e mail, IM and presence capabilities on the click on of a mouse, along with more advantageous mobility capabilities that give a wealthy communications adventure for mobile workers. the modern MCS 5100 release additionally introduces champion for modern SIP-based IP telephones enhancing usability and flexibility and improves the universal security, reliability, manageability and scalability of the core platform, which now operates on IBM servers with a Linux operating gadget.

Nortel is additionally introducing Unified Messaging (UM) 2000, a characteristic-wealthy, service-grade solution aiding as much as one million users that permits voicemail, fax and email to be accessed together through commonplace e-mail applications and integrates with Microsoft's energetic listing®. UM 2000 is standards-based in order that it will probably role in a multivendor voice community, and is centered to world organizations in addition to carriers that present their shoppers unified messaging solutions.

To succor agencies set up UC-optimized networks, Nortel is likewise unveiling converged statistics networking enhancements to its North American advertising and marketing campaigns, which construct on the a success IPT 1-2-3 crusade launched last year. These crusade enhancements encompass companion tools, concentrated claim generation activities, pre-engineered data programs, and optional capabilities that beget it more straightforward and greater competitively priced for approved channel partners to install a LAN that supports consumers' VoIP and UC needs.

These records programs and functions can be quoted starting in April 2007 and consist of alternatives to enable the entire deployment of power over Ethernet, VoIP-Optimized at ease Routing for WAN access, and WLAN for mobility and optional renovation, setting up and technical champion functions. Nortel's North American crusade likewise comprises advertising and incentive classes obtainable nowadays through authorized Nortel channel partners for organisations who are customizing their network for unified communications.

About Nortel

Nortel is a diagnosed chief in providing communications capabilities that beget the engage of industry Made elementary a verisimilitude for their customers. Their subsequent-generation applied sciences, for each carrier issuer and enterprise networks, succor multimedia and company-critical purposes. Nortel's technologies are designed to champion dispose of concomitant limitations to efficiency, quicken and efficiency through simplifying networks and connecting americans to the assistance they want, when they want it. Nortel does industry in additional than a hundred and fifty countries complete over the world. For extra guidance, quest advice from Nortel on the web at www.nortel.com. For the newest Nortel news, consult with www.nortel.com/news.

definite statements during this press unlock can likewise contain words equivalent to "could", "expects", "may also", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "targets", "envisions", "seeks" and different identical language and are regarded ahead-looking statements or assistance below apropos securities legislation. These statements are according to Nortel's current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the operating atmosphere, economies and markets during which Nortel operates. These statements are matter to vital assumptions, dangers and uncertainties, which might be difficult to call and the precise outcome may be materially distinct. additional, actual effects or movements could vary materially from these pondered in ahead-looking statements on account of birthright here(i) risks and uncertainties regarding Nortel's restatements and related concerns including: Nortel's most recent restatement and two outdated restatements of its financial statements and connected pursuits; the terrible own an impact on on Nortel and NNL of their most fresh restatement and delay in filing their economic statements and related periodic stories; legal judgments, fines, penalties or settlements, or any mammoth regulatory fines or different penalties or sanctions, concerning the ongoing regulatory and criminal investigations of Nortel within the U.S. and Canada; any colossal pending civil litigation actions not encompassed through Nortel's proposed classification action agreement; any immense cash fee and/or significant dilution of Nortel's existing equity positions as a result of the approval of its proposed class action settlement; any unsuccessful remediation of Nortel's cloth weaknesses in inner control over economic reporting resulting in an want of ability to record Nortel's results of operations and financial situation precisely and in a timely method; the time required to build in force Nortel's remedial measures; Nortel's inability to access, in its existing form, its shelf registration filed with the united states Securities and trade commission (SEC), and Nortel's under investment grade credit rating and any extra opposed outcome on its credit standing as a result of Nortel's restatements of its economic statements; any antagonistic own an outcome on on Nortel's industry and market cost of its publicly traded securities bobbing up from carrying on with nasty publicity related to Nortel's restatements; Nortel's abilities inability to entice or maintain the personnel quintessential to obtain its enterprise aims; any trespass with the aid of Nortel of the endured list requirements of the NYSE or TSX inflicting the NYSE and/or the TSX to start suspension or delisting procedures;(ii) hazards and uncertainties concerning Nortel's enterprise together with: each year and quarterly fluctuations of Nortel's operating consequences; reduced claim and pricing pressures for its items as a result of international economic conditions, massive competition, aggressive pricing observe, cautious capital spending with the aid of purchasers, improved industry consolidation, abruptly changing technologies, evolving industry requirements, universal modern product introductions and short product lifestyles cycles, and other trends and industry qualities affecting the telecommunications trade; the sufficiency of lately announced restructuring actions, including the expertise for higher specific fees to be incurred in connection with these restructuring moves in comparison to the estimated expenses of such movements and the potential to achieve the targeted saturate rate reductions and discounts of Nortel's unfunded pension liability deficit; any cloth and adverse influences on Nortel's performance if its expectations regarding market claim for particular items prove to be incorrect or because of certain limitations in its efforts to extend internationally; any discount in Nortel's working results and any connected volatility out there expense of its publicly traded securities bobbing up from any decline in its grievous margin, or fluctuations in alien forex exchange quotes; any nasty trends associated with Nortel's give compress and compress manufacturing agreements together with because of the consume of a sole company for key optical networking solutions components, and any defects or oversight in Nortel's latest or planned items; any nasty own an impact on to Nortel of its failure to obtain its enterprise transformation objective; extra valuation allowances for complete or a portion of its deferred tax property; Nortel's failure to tender protection to its highbrow property rights, or any adverse judgments or settlements coming up out of disputes involving intellectual property; adjustments in rules of the cyber web and/or other facets of the business; Nortel's failure to effectively operate or combine its strategic acquisitions, or failure to consummate or be successful with its strategic alliances; any nasty impact of Nortel's failure to conform adequately its economic and managerial manage and reporting programs and processes, exploit and develop its business, or create a remarkable casual management approach; and(iii) risks and uncertainties regarding Nortel's liquidity, financing preparations and capital including: the impact of Nortel's most recent restatement and two previous restatements of its financial statements; any inability of Nortel to control money circulation fluctuations to fund working capital requirements or achieve its company targets in a well timed manner or gain extra sources of funding; extravagant stages of debt, barriers on Nortel capitalizing on company alternatives as a result of succor facility covenants, or on acquiring further secured debt pursuant to the provisions of indentures governing certain of Nortel's public debt considerations and the provisions of its succor facility; any enhance of constrained cash necessities for Nortel if it is unable to comfy election champion for tasks coming up from certain regular route enterprise activities, or any want of ability of Nortel's subsidiaries to give it with satisfactory funding; any nasty impact to Nortel of the should beget greater described odds plans contributions in the future or publicity to customer credit hazards or inability of shoppers to meet expense duties beneath customer financing arrangements; any terrible influence on Nortel's potential to beget future acquisitions, heave capital, matter debt and maintain personnel coming up from stock fee volatility and extra declines available in the market rate of Nortel's publicly traded securities, or the harmony consolidation resulting in a lower complete market capitalization or adversarial outcome on the liquidity of Nortel's common shares. For more information with respect to certain of these and different factors, espy Nortel's Annual document on Form10-ok/A, Quarterly experiences on kind 10-Q and other securities filings with the SEC. until in any other case required by means of apropos securities legal guidelines, Nortel disclaims any end or responsibility to replace or revise any forward-searching statements, even if because of modern counsel, future routine or otherwise.

(1)Nortel, the Nortel logo and the Globemark are emblems of Nortel Networks.


Nortel Fleshes Out Unified Communications imaginative and prescient | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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Microsoft application to power Nortel Telecom Servers | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

it will probably were one of the vital longest skits ever to be delivered from the legendary studios of Saturday evening are live -- NBC Studio 8H at 30 Rockefeller Plaza -- before in reality coming to the punch line. but at last Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer, together with the president/CEO of telecom server provider Nortel, Mike Zafirovski, introduced the next portion of their collaboration, which began officially in June of ultimate year.

Their mission is to combine windows, office, trade, and visual Studio -- complete 4 pillars of Microsoft -- into the subsequent circular of Nortel server hardware on Intel structures. The smaller Nortel Communications Server a thousand will be built-in with the modern Unified Messaging edition of exchange Server, for delivery within the second quarter of this 12 months; extra high-conclusion fashions with multimedia conferencing capabilities on-board might be delivered within the fourth quarter.

but what does this mean? Microsoft's demo -- only slightly upgraded from ultimate year -- gives their best and deepest glimpse into the organizations' joint plans. in short, Microsoft plans to install yet one more quick messaging platform: office Communicator, whose initials Microsoft and Nortel are using to symbolize the pc as a communications machine in diagrams.

below the brand modern scheme, a person can beget the most of his OC to direct a message to anyone who has an identity in energetic directory. So in case you've bought an email message from a person, that you may reply the usage of IM (the console of the OC) or using the telephone; and in this latter case, the mobile turns into a sort of Nortel peripheral equipment. using voice commands given to the audio "interface" of Microsoft exchange, that you can own the phone gadget reply with a voice message, an IM message (converted to text after which sent) or with an email.

similarly, the user's OC may likewise be used to redirect name-forwarding, so that any individual inserting a traditional phone appellation can gain the requisite birthday party on his OC, or conceivably through his exchange proxy, that could acquire a message and ahead it to his e-mail. There it can likewise be replayed as an audio music, or conceivably translated to textual content.

It is not a particularly modern theory, however what distinguishes this specific approach to the issue is that Microsoft's workplace application is so ubiquitous in company these days that the combination of factor-of-presence in functions may be just tempting ample to win agencies to accept as proper with Nortel.

As Zafirovski took the helm of Nortel remaining year, its market share in voice-over-IP was declining by means of a rate of 12% per yr, through Merrill Lynch estimates. It become a removed third in market share in core routers behind Cisco and Juniper Networks, even though it changed into first in fiberoptic networking switches and gateways. nevertheless, Zafirovski - hired far from Motorola - described the start of his mission as the equal of standing at ground zero.

His approach, as anticipated, changed into transformational: He desires to win Nortel out of markets where it doesn't compete, by way of introducing communications servers this yr which will integrate functionality from average department exchanges - the set the business's market share is lagging - whereas maintaining its floor in leading-part applied sciences. His conception: sell businesses on the thought of changing ancient PBXes with x86 architecture servers.

Microsoft is assisting Zafirovski to beget that case. In so doing, it be leveraging its total brand portfolio, however it means floating some wild ideas, akin to implying the presence of a quiescent market among developers to create customized toolbar purposes for PowerPoint and other office 2007 purposes, that beget the most of factor-of-presence indicators from Microsoft exchange UM working on Nortel servers. Ballmer calls this a "line-of-enterprise" software, and a few own likened the concept to yet another sort of line, although with a bit of ingenuity -- coupled with a truckload of sorely lacking practicality -- the theory just may work.

"individuals own PBXes, americans own audio-conferencing programs or options that they purchase, video-conferencing solutions, e-mail - expectantly complete Microsoft trade - quick messaging solutions, and these are complete islands - the manner you win provisioned, the style you check in, your username, your handle, the style you locate someone," referred to Ballmer complete over his speech these days.

"what number of messages will they leave, on regular, in various areas for someone?...You might express it's a very livable world; they complete finish reside in it, truly, each day. That does not beget it the most useful they can finish - the surest for the conclusion-person, let alone for the IT offshoot or for the people who're setting up industry functions."

"you might be going to be able to provide your users a magnificent, unique event for swiftly messaging, presence, and of course, conferencing," Zafirovski clarified.

Ballmer painted a broad graphic, the usage of some fuzzy brushstrokes, of an developed telecommunications infrastructure for complete humanity, genesis this yr with a ride to an "built-in" communications architecture. birthright here, clients study to operate smarter communications shoppers, and Microsoft would energy the application for these consumers. This integration will tie every dinky thing collectively, including the cellphone, complete through those years in which it is rarely purposeful for places of drudgery to reckon casting off the mobile altogether for the OC.

however with the aid of 2010, a brand modern section would begin, pushed by user claim to enter what Ballmer describes because the "converted" angle of communications, the set one of the vital multiple contraptions they consume regularly occurring delivery to drop out of sight through attrition, devotion a vestigial sixth toe. additionally during this part, the lower back-ends and servers birth to survey further integration, using a product Zafirovski outlined called the Unified Communications integrated branch. reflect of this as an exchange-embedded PBX alternative, supplied by means of Nortel.

"for a lot of, many years, each companies own in reality been in the industry of communications. Nortel, quite most likely, has been commonly in the 'telecom business,' because it's prevalent," defined Ballmer, making dinky "quote-unquotes" in the air, "and Microsoft has been within the company of assisting people writer, transmit, electronic mail, and different guidance, and in a sense, it become inevitable - americans own mentioned it for years - that you simply'd birth to survey a convergence of communications."




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922-104 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 6.0 Upgrades for Engineers

Test Code : 922-104
Test appellation : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 6.0 Upgrades for Engineers
Vendor appellation : Nortel
: 30 real Questions

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I recognize the struggles made in growing the examination simulator. its far superb. i exceeded my 922-104 exam especially with questions and answers supplied with the aid of killexams.com crew


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I got this percent. And surpassed the 922-104 examination with 97% marks after 10 days. Im highly fulfilled via the result. There may be awesome stuff for accomplice stage confirmations, yet regarding the expert degree, I reflect this is the main sturdy course of action for satisfactory stuff, in particular with the examination simulator that gives you a hazard to workout with the appearance and revel in of a real examination. That is a completely considerable mind sell off, actual own a survey at guide. That is elusive for lowering aspect exams.


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In order to survey at and prepare for my 922-104 acquire a survey at, I used killexams.Com QA and examination simulator. complete way to this extraordinarily remarkable Killexams.Com. Thank you for supporting me in clearing my 922-104 check.


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The fine ingredient about your question bank is the explanations provided with the solutions. It helps to recognize the matter conceptually. I had subscribed for the 922-104 query bank and had long past via it three-4 times. inside the exam, I attempted complete the questions under 40 minutes and scored ninety marks. thanks for making it light for us. Hearty way tokillexams.com team, with the succor of your model questions.


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Microsoft Announcements at drop Internet World 98 parade Commitment to Web Leadership | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

NEW YORK, October 7, 1998 — This week at drop Internet World 98, Microsoft highlighted plans to beget the Internet an even more responsible and useful tool. Microsoft showed its continuing commitment to customers by promoting an Internet privacy campaign, outlining different Web-centric options within the Office 2000 family of suites, and co-hosting a workshop on intranets. Developers will profit from Microsoft’s modern version of Visual J++, a progress system for Java, and the company’s plans to consume the open WebDAV gauge in future products.

At noon on Wednesday, Microsoft along with TRUSTe and seven other leading Internet companies will advertise a major online educational crusade to address Internet privacy, called “The Privacy Partnership.” TRUSTe, a nonprofit organization dedicated to edifice consumer trust in the Internet, heads the coalition, which includes America Online Inc., Excite Inc., Infoseek Corp., Lycos Inc., Yahoo! Inc., Snap Online! and Netscape Communications Corp.

Also on Wednesday, Microsoft outlined different packaging offerings within the Office 2000 family, including a modern high-end suite called Office 2000 Premium that will embrace the FrontPage 2000 Web site creation and management utensil and the PhotoDraw 2000 industry graphics software. Also, the company unveiled a modern Web site to succor customers pick the birthright suite for their needs.

Microsoft will team up with Compaq Computer Corp. to host Site Server workshops at drop Internet World 98, October 7-9. Each 30-minute, hands-on session teaches attendees how Microsoft’s Site Server 3.0 can be used to create robust intranet sites using features such as Web publishing, search and information delivery. There will be 28 sessions that are expected to gain almost 1,000 attendees. These workshops follow on the heels of the well-liked Intranet University sessions held at the 1998 Spring N+I conference.

On Wednesday, Microsoft announced many of its future products will consume an open specification that provides interoperability between server-based documents. WebDAV (Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning) allows people to read and write documents over the Web regardless of their authoring tools, platforms, or types of Web servers. The WebDAV specification is a set of extensions to HTTP 1.1 developed in cooperation with the Internet Engineering task force (IETF) that includes vendors and universities. Future Microsoft products that will utilize WebDAV embrace Internet Explorer, Office, FrontPage, the Windows NT Server operating system and the BackOffice family.

Finally, on Tuesday Microsoft gave developers an improved utensil for edifice and deploying high-performance distributed solutions for Windows and the Web based on Java. Visual J++ 6.0 is offered in gauge and Professional editions at $109 and $549 respectively ($219 for the Professional Edition upgrade) or as portion of the Visual Studio 6.0 progress system. Additional information on Visual J++ 6.0 can be create on the Microsoft Visual J++ Web site at http://www.microsoft.com/visualj/ .


12 Alibaba Techs made Open-source in 2017 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

The Client Side of the Internet Age

Along with the evolution of Web2.0 and Web3.0, performance-based improvement of wireless terminal hardware and advocacy for user suffer concepts, websites and apps are becoming more essential and more complex. This is reflected in the evolution of JavaScript, from its modest beginnings in 1995 to its current, staggering, levels of popularity. There are around 230,000 open-source JavaScript projects in GitHub’s repositories, 2.3 times as many as open-source Python projects, and much higher than the number of open-source Java and PHP projects build together. JavaScript’s popularity can be attributed to the extraordinary performance of AJAX in front-end development, and the compelling potential Node.js presents for server-side programming with JavaScript.

Two enterprise-class open-source projects that Alibaba has contributed to the community are Ant Design, a UI design language implemented on React, and Egg.js, a Web framework.

6. Ant Design

Ant Design is the result of middle and back-end design experiences from the progress of Ant Financial. Its product interaction and visual style aims to be “inconspicuous, certain and cheerful”, and help user and designer experiences. Abundant, resilient and valuable base components are accumulated to provide solutions for frequently asked questions. TypeScript supports complete type definition, and the high-quality out-of-the-box React components are based on npm + webpack + dva enterprise-class progress frameworks.

Major Ant Design developments of 2017:

1. Ant Design 2.x continued its evolution from version 2.6.0 to version 2.13.11.

2. The front-end scaffolding for Ant Design Pro was introduced in October, providing best practices for typical middle and back-end application scenarios.

3. Ant Design 3.0 was released in early December, providing a brand-new design system and many modern features. The release log can be create here.

In the two years since its open-sourcing, Ant Design has continued improving by collecting various design and progress requirements. The design team responsible for Ant Design is constantly refining design specifications and adjusting overall visual effects, something which is well reflected in version 3.0.

Currently, the main focus remains on publicizing the long-term project progress plan, collecting modern requirements and issuing reports regularly through DingTalk and GitHub, and interacting closely with the community. The project has fixed cycles for the progress of minor versions, where versions with bug fixes are released on a weekly basis and bigger updates are released on a monthly basis.

Ant Design is one of the most well-liked UI component libraries in the React community, and is used by technology companies including Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu, Meituan, Didi, and ele.me. Ant Design has garnered over 21,485 stars in GitHub, and was nominated in Open Source China’s 2017 Top 20 list of open-source Chinese software.

Ant Design has reached a relatively advanced stage after the release of v3.0, and will not be undergoing major changes anytime soon. Instead, the team will be working to enhance the visual layout and theme configurations, and promote internationalization and integration.

Find out more:

http://ant.design/

http://pro.ant.design/

https://github.com/ant-design/ant-design

7. Egg

Egg is an enterprise-class, basic web framework developed to overcome deficiencies create with Node.js. When micro-service architecture is adopted, specific tasks such as service granularity, API interface and progress maintenance are involved, and the front and back-end pan the affray of resilient user suffer vs. back-end service common utility. Node.js has managed to overcome this widely-criticized weakness, and npm package is now the most well-liked peer, with vast improvement in single-threaded problems, avoidance of demanding callbacks with the succor of ES norm, a type system based on ripen TypeScript, and better overall performance.

Unfortunately, the infrastructure maturity and popularity of Node.js are not a match made in heaven, and so it is essentially silent a newcomer. In the industry, there are very few Web framework practices, and the community repeats a lot of drudgery from scratch and lacks unified referential norms, which brings many repeated and unnecessary issues. Compared to the application, Node.js fundamental technology research is silent rare, so ease of availability is a stumbling block.

The application of Node.js in Alibaba started in 2011. After experiencing difficulties, including starting from scratch, Alibaba began to seriously reckon not only unifying the ecology build, but likewise customization support. Egg was born at the birthright time and is anticipated to be a fundamental framework for Web progress to succor complete teams in edifice upper-layer framework. Egg was cultivated from engineering practices of large-scale enterprise applications, including robustly supporting Singles’ Day sales on November 11, and was polished in four versions of microkernels throughout 3 years.

Egg is based on Koa and is totally different from the upper-layer frameworks of Sails/LoopBack. It lies in the middle-layer and provides “microkernel + plug-in component mechanism + framework customization capability”, delivering a total set of unified agreements for the service of upper-layer frameworks. It likewise adopts a gradual progress fashion with extreme flexibility, so it is suitable for the swiftly progress of minuscule project and progress by enterprise-level teams.

Within just a year of open-sourcing, Egg has received over 500 haul Requests (272 in the host library), handled over 1,200 issues, and published over 40 official documents of over 100,000 words. It has likewise received over 6,000+ stars in GitHub and nearly 10,000 PVs on its official website.

Within Alibaba, it has served over 500 front End developers and over 1,000 apps, while outside Alibaba, Egg has received feedback for improvement from over 90 developers in various companies, including Baidu, Tencent, Quanmin and Dxy, and even Rod Vagg, Director of Node TSC, who got involved retweeting about Egg!

In the future, Egg will focus on the optimization of developer suffer and the continued sharing of best practices.

Besides the 1,000+ apps within Alibaba, the technology team likewise eliminated some bottom-layer bugs in Node.js, and explored with Intel the further improvement in Node.js functions. In addition, Alibaba has just released a Node.js performance platform, and provides Node.js running + monitoring and diagnosis services for free.

Find out more:

https://eggjs.org/

https://node.console.aliyun.com/

8. Atlas

Atlas, a resilient Android progress framework, was created to assist with internal issues at Alibaba. With the continuous progress of mobile Taobao, the R&D team became larger and functions more complicated, which required the swiftly iteration of end-side businesses. On the other hand, the problems encountered during development, operation and maintenance continually increased, which likewise required fixing online bugs. As such, the mobile Taobao team began to reflect about how to simplify the complicated problems and conduct dynamic deployment to help mobile progress efficiency.

Atlas dockerizes to solve large-scale team cooperation issues, which is suitable for the progress of big or small-sized apps on system versions higher than Android 4.0 and supports dynamic publishing. Generally speaking, the industry usually uses plug-in component frameworks. However, Atlas adopts modularization, which divides businesses and reuses common parts in consideration of reusability. The project adopts the approach of OSGI (Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI)) and separates industry to independently contour a bundle for isolation and decoupling operations, so that concurrent development, swiftly iteration and dynamic deployment can be realized.

Atlas is a result of five years of progress by Alibaba’s mobile team, and makes technical preparations for static and dynamic modularization. After the official open-sourcing this year, Atlas has maintained the publishing of a major version every two months, and uses the identical coding both in Alibaba and the community. Altas’ improvements equivocate in stability, utensil chain upgrade, dexpatch, etc. With esteem to dynamic deployment, modern functions embrace component support, dexpatch function, and bundle view reuse.

As an early open-source project, initially Altas was not perfect and received criticism for its tall barriers to entry, incomplete documentation and primitive demos. The Altas team immediately decided to contour a DingTalk group to succor developers understand and own access to Atlas, and beget better documentation and demos. Many Chinese Android apps are using Atlas (such as Tmall, Taobao, Xiami, Youku and Alibaba Cloud), as well as at least three non-Chinese apps.

Atlas’ vision is to “bring developers back to the golden era of app development”. In the future, Altas will continue to help documentation, upgrade the toolchain, lower access costs, help stability and compatibility, interject a complementary Emas for Atlas industry services, and expand convenience for server-side publishing.

Find out more:

http://atlas.taobao.org/

https://github.com/alibaba/atlas


Understanding the Telecommunications Revolution | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

While traditional telecommunications networks own allowed us to cross barriers associated with time and distance, the modern multimedia realm is allowing us to embrace vital physical cues in the information stream, introducing a physical reality into the world of electronic communications, goods, and services. Not surprisingly, some of the industries that are being most radically revolutionized are those that deal with the human senses, including entertainment, health care, education, advertising, and, sadly, warfare. Simply put, technology changes your way and pace of life.

This sample chapter from Telecommunications Essentials presents the stout picture of the telecommunications revolution.

This chapter is from the bespeak 

In recent years, the word telecommunications has been used so often, and applied in so many situations, that it has become portion of their daily lexicon, yet its definition remains elusive. So, let's start with a definition. The word telecommunications has its roots in Greek: tele means "over a distance," and communicara means "the ability to share." Hence, telecommunications literally means "the sharing of information over a distance." Telecommunications is more than a set of technologies, it's more than an gargantuan global industry (estimated to be US$2.5 trillion), it's more than twenty-first-century industry and law that is being re-created to accommodate a virtual world, and it's more than a creator and destroyer of the situation of the economy. Telecommunications is a way of life. Telecommunications affects how and where you finish everything—live, work, play, socialize, entertain, serve, study, teach, rest, heal, and protect. Telecommunications has served a captious role in shaping society and culture, as well as in shaping industry and economics.

It is essential to examine telecommunications from the broadest perspective practicable to truly prize the depth and complexity of this province and thereby understand the opportunities it affords. The best way to learn to "think telecom" is to quickly examine how it is changing both industry and lifestyle.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, much of the IT&T (information technologies and telecommunications) industry's focus was on how to reengineer the likes of financial institutions, manufacturing, retail, service, and government. These technology deployments were largely pursued and justified on the grounds of reducing costs and enhancing competitiveness by speeding communications.

Today, they are shifting their focus to another set of objectives: Their technology deployments are targeted at supporting not just the needs of a industry enterprise, but likewise those of the consumers. The revolution in integrated media is transforming complete aspects of human activity related to communication and information. They are poignant to computer-based environments that champion the creation, sharing, and distribution of multimodal information. Whereas traditional telecommunications networks own allowed us to cross barriers associated with time and distance, the modern multimedia realm is allowing us to embrace vital physical cues in the information stream, introducing a physical reality into the world of electronic communications, goods, and services. Not surprisingly, some of the industries that are being most radically revolutionized are those that deal with the human senses, including entertainment, health care, education, advertising, and, sadly, warfare. In each of these key sectors, there are telecommunications solutions that address the industry need, reduce costs, or enhance operations by speeding industry processes and aiding communications. These industries are likewise examining how to virtualize their products and/or services—that is, how to apply telecommunications to champion electronic services targeted at the consumers of that industry's products. Not surprisingly, changing the way you attend a class, espy a doctor, watch a movie, win a date, shop for software, acquire a cruise, and sojourn in palpate creates significant changes in how you consume your time and money. Simply put, technology changes your way and pace of life.

This chapter presents the stout picture of the telecommunications revolution, and the repose of the bespeak gives greater detail about the specific technologies and applications that will comprise the telecommunications future.

A quick orientation of how emerging technologies are affecting industries and lifestyle highlights the importance of understanding the principles of telecommunications, and, hopefully, to inspire you to "think telecom." The changes discussed here are ultimately very essential to how telecommunications networks will evolve and to where the growth areas will be.

An gargantuan amount of the activity driving telecommunications has to finish with the emergence of advanced applications; likewise, advances in telecommunications capabilities spur developments in computing platforms and capabilities. The two are intimately and forever intertwined. The following sections debate some of the changes that are occurring in both telecommunications and in computing platforms and applications, as well as some of the changes expected in the next several years.

Incorporating Human Senses in Telecommunications

Telecommunications has allowed a virtual world to emerge—one in which time and distance no longer portray a barrier to doing industry or communicating—but we're silent lacking something that is a captious portion of the human information-processing realm. The human mind acts on physical sensations in the course of its information processing; the senses of sight, sound, touch, and motion are key to their perception and determination making. Developments in sensory technologies and networks will allow a modern genre of sensory reality to emerge, bridging the gap between humans and machines. One of the most significant evolutions occurring in computing and communications is the introduction of the human senses into electronic information streams. The following are a few of the key developments in champion of this more intuitive collaborative human–machine environment:

  • Computers are now capable of hearing and speaking, as demonstrated by Tellme, a well-liked U.S. voice-activated service that responds to defined voice prompts and provides free stock quotes, weather information, and entertainment guides to 35,000 U.S. cities.

  • The capability to bear three-dimensional sound through digital mastery—a technology called "virtual miking"—is being developed at the University of Southern California's Integrated Media Systems Center.

  • Virtual touch, or haptics, enables a user to gain in and physically interact with simulated computer content, such as fervor the weight of the Hope diamond in your hand or fervor the fur of a lion. Two companies producing technology in this locality are SensAble Technologies and Immersion Corporation. They are producing state-of-the-art force feedback, whole-hand sensing, and real-time 3D interaction technologies, and these hardware and software products own a wide ambit of applications for the manufacturing and consumer markets, including virtual-reality job training, computer-aided design, remote handling of hazardous materials, and "touch" museums.

  • The seduction of aroma is likewise genesis to find its way into computers, allowing marketers to capitalize on the many subtle psychological states that aroma can induce. Studies parade that aromas can be used to trigger fear, excitement, and many other emotions. aroma can be used to attract visitors to Web sites, to beget them linger longer and buy more, to succor them assimilate and retain information, or to instill the most satisfying or terrifying of emotional states (now that's an interactive game!). Three companies providing this technology today are Aromajet, DigiScents, and TriSenx. Aromajet, for example, creates products that address video games, entertainment, medical, market research, personal and home products, and marketing and point of sales applications.

  • The visual information stream provides the most rapid infusion of information, and a big portion of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information. To succor humans process visual information, computers today can see; equipped with video cameras, computers can capture and ship images, and can parade high-quality entertainment programming. The visual stream is incredibly demanding in terms of network performance; thus, networks today are rapidly preparing to enable this most meaningful of information streams to be easily distributed.

  • The Emergence of Wearables

    How they engage in computing and communications will change dramatically in the next decade. Portable computing devices own changed their notion of what and where a workplace is and emphasized their wish for mobility and wireless communication; they are genesis to redefine the phrase dressed for success. But the portable devices they know today are just a stepping stone on the way to wearables. Context-aware wearable computing will be the ultimate in light, ergonomic, reliable, flexible, and scalable platforms. Products that are available for consume in industrial environments today will soon lead to inexpensive, easy-to-use wearables appearing at your neighborhood electronics store:

  • Xybernaut's Mobile lieutenant IV (MA-IV), a wearable computer, provides its wearer with a full-fledged PC that has a 233MHz Pentium chip, 32MB memory, and upward of 3GB storage. A wrist keyboard sports 60 keys. Headgear suspended in front of the eye provides a full-color VGA screen, the size of a postage stamp but so proximate to the eye that images appear as on a 15-inch monitor. A miniature video camera fits snugly in a shirt pocket. Bell Canada workers consume MA-IVs in the field; they replace the exigency to carry manuals and provide the ability to ship images and video back to confer with supervisors. The MA-IV is rather bulky, weighing in at 4.4 pounds (2 kilograms), but the soon-to-be-released MA-V will be the first mass-market version, and it promises to be lightweight.

  • MIThril is the next-generation wearables research platform currently in progress at MIT's Media Lab. It is a functional, operational body-worn computing architecture for context-aware human-computer interaction research and general-purpose wearable computing applications. The MIThril architecture combines a multiprotocol body bus and body network, integrating a ambit of sensors, interfaces, and computing cores. It is designed to be integrated into everyday clothing, and it is both ergonomic and flexible. It combines small, light-weight RISC processors (including the StrongARM), a single-cable power/data "body bus," and high-bandwidth wireless networking in a package that is nearly as light, comfortable, and unobtrusive as ordinary street clothing.

  • To be truly useful, wearables will exigency to be watchful of where you are and what you're doing. Armed with this info, they will be able to give you information accordingly. (Location-based services are discussed in Chapter 14, "Wireless Communications.")

    Bandwidth

    A term that you hear often when discussing telecommunications is bandwidth. Bandwidth is a captious commodity. Historically, bandwidth has been very expensive, as it was based on the sharing of limited physical resources, such as twisted-pair copper cables and coax. Bandwidth is largely used today to refer to the capacity of a network or a telecom link, and it is generally measured in bits per second (bps). Bandwidth actually refers to the ambit of frequencies involved—that is, the contrast between the lowest and highest frequencies supported—and the greater the ambit of frequencies, the greater the bandwidth, and hence the greater the number of bits per second, or information carried.

    Figure 1.1 The analogy of a hose is often used to record bandwidth.

    Moving Toward Pervasive Computing

    As they dispense intelligence across a wider ambit of devices, they are experiencing pervasive computing, likewise called ubiquitous computing. They are taking computers out of stand-alone boxes to which they are tied and putting them into ordinary things, in everyday objects around us. These modern things, because they are smart, own a sense of self-awareness and are able to acquire custody of themselves. When they embed intelligence into a device, they create an spicy modern chance for business. That device has to own a judgement for being, and it has to own a judgement to continue evolving so that you will expend more money and time on it. To address this challenge, device manufacturers are genesis to bundle content and applications with their products. The result is smart refrigerators, smart washing machines, smart ovens, smart cabinets, smart furniture, smart beds, smart televisions, smart toothbrushes, and an endless list of other smart devices. (These smart devices are discussed in detail in Chapter 15, "The Broadband Home and HANs.")

    Devices are becoming smaller and more powerful complete the time, and they're getting physically closer to their bodies, as well. The growing amount of intelligence distributed throughout the network is causing changes in user profiles.

    Moving Toward Machine-to-Machine Communications

    We are poignant away from human-to-human communications to an era of machine-to-machine communications. Today, there are just over 6 billion human beings on the planet, yet the number of microprocessors is reported to be more than 15 billion. Devices own become increasingly intelligent, and one characteristic of an quick-witted system is that it can communicate. As the universe of communications-enabled devices grows, so does the traffic volume between them. As these smart things open to acquire on many of the tasks and communications that humans traditionally exchanged, they will change the very fabric of their society. For example, your smart washing machine will initiate a summon to the service headquarters to report a problem and schedule resolution with the succor of an quick-witted Web agent long before you even realize that something is wrong! These developments are predicted to result in the majority of traffic—up to 95% of it—being exchanged between machines, with traditional human-to-human communications representing only 5% of the network traffic by 2010.

    Adapting to modern Traffic Patterns

    Sharing of information can occur in a number of ways—via smoke signals, by letters sent through the postal service, or as transmissions through electrical or optical media, for example. Before they win into the technical details of the technologies in the industry, it's essential to understand the driving forces behind computing and communications. You exigency to understand the impact these forces own on network traffic and therefore on network infrastructure. In today's environment, telecommunications embodies four main traffic types, each of which has different requirements in terms of network capacity, tolerance for delays—and particularly variations in the delay—in the network, and tolerance for potential congestion and therefore losses in the network:

  • Voice—Voice traffic has been tenacious in the developed world for years, and more subscriber lines are being deployed complete the time. However, some three billion people in the world haven't even used a basic telephone yet, so there is yet a huge market to be served. Voice communications are typically referred to as being narrowband, import that they don't require a big amount of network capacity. For voice services to be intelligible and light to use, delays must be kept to a minimum, however, so the delay factors in poignant information from Point A to Point B own to be tightly controlled in order to champion real-time voice streams. (Concepts such as delay, latency, and oversight control are discussed in Chapter 6, "Data Communications Basics.")

  • Data—Data communications refers to the exchange of digitized information between two machines. Depending on the application supported, the bandwidth or capacity requirements can ambit from medium to high. As more objects that are visual in nature (such as images and video) are included with the data, that capacity claim increases. Depending again on the type of application, data may be more or less tolerant of delays. Text-based exchanges are generally quite tolerant of delays. But again, the more real-time nature there is to the information type, as in video, the tighter the control you exigency over the latencies. Data traffic is growing much faster than voice traffic; it has grown at an average rate of about 30% to 40% per year for the past decade. To accommodate data communication, network services own been developed to address the exigency for greater capacity, cleaner transmission facilities, and smarter network management tools. Data encompasses many different information types. In the past, they saw these different types as being sever entities (for example, video and voice in a videoconference), but in the future, they must be heedful not to sever things this way because, after all, in the digital age, complete data is represented as ones and zeros.

  • Image—Image communications requires medium to tall bandwidth—the greater the resolution required, the greater the bandwidth required. For example, many of the images taken in medical diagnostics require very tall resolution. Image traffic tolerates some delay because it includes no motion artifacts that would be affected by any distortions in the network.

  • Video—Video communications, which are becoming increasingly well-liked and are requiring ever-greater bandwidth, are extremely sensitive to delay. The future is about visual communications. They exigency to design out how to beget video available over a network infrastructure that can champion it and at a expense point that consumers are willing to pay. When their infrastructures are capable of supporting the capacities and the delay limitations required by real-time applications, video will grow by leaps and bounds.

  • All this modern voice, data, and video traffic means that there is growth in backbone traffic levels as well. This is discussed further later in the chapter, in the section "Increasing Backbone Bandwidth."

    The telecommunications revolution has spawned remarkable growth in the amount and types of traffic, and we'll espy even more types of traffic as they open to incorporate human senses as portion of the network. The coming chapters talk in detail about what a network needs in order to exploit the various traffic types.

    Handling modern Types of Applications

    The modern traffic patterns imply that the network will likewise be host to a modern set of applications—not just simple voice or text-based data, but to modern genres of applications that combine the various media types.

    The ability to exploit digital entertainment applications in a network is crucial. In some parts of the world, such as Asia, education may own primary focus, and that should divulge us where they can hope greater success going forward. But throughout much of the world, entertainment is where people are willing to expend the limited numbers of dollars that they own to expend on electronic goods and services. The digital entertainment realm will embrace video editing, digital content creation, digital imaging, 3D gaming, and virtual reality applications, and complete these will drive the evolution of the network. It's the chicken and the egg story: What comes first, the network or the applications? Why would you want a fiber-optic broadband connection if there's nothing marvelous to draw over that connection? Why would you want to create a 3D virtual reality application when there's no way to dispense it? The bottom line is that the applications and the infrastructures own to evolve hand-in-hand to manifest the benefits and the dollars they associate with their future.

    Another contour of application that will be increasingly essential is in the realm of streaming media. A remarkable focus is build on the real-time delivery of information, as in entertainment, education, training, customer presentations, IPO trade shows, and telemedicine consultations. (Streaming media is discussed in detail in Chapter 11, "Next-Generation Network Services.")

    E-commerce (electronic commerce) and m-commerce (mobile commerce) interject several modern requirements for content management, transaction platforms, and privacy and security tools, so they influence the types of information that own to be encoded into the basic data stream and how the network deals with erudition of what's contained within those packets. (Security is discussed in detail in Chapter 11.)

    Increasing Backbone Bandwidth

    Many of the changes discussed so far, but primarily the changes in traffic patterns and applications, will require immense amounts of backbone bandwidth. Table 1.1 lists a number of the requirements that emerging applications are likely to beget on backbone bandwidth.

    Table 1.1 Backbone Bandwidth Requirements for Advanced Applications

    Application

    Bandwidth Needed

    Examples

    Online virtual reality

    1,000–70,000 terabits per second

    Life-size 3D holography; telepresence

    Machine communications

    50,000–200,000 terabits per second

    Smart things; Web agents; robots

    Meta-computing

    50,000–200,000 terabits per second

    Weather prediction; warfare modeling

    In addition, advances in broadband access technologies will drive a claim for additional capacity in network backbones. Once 100Gbps broadband residential access becomes available—and there are developments on the horizon—the core networks will require capacities measured in exabits per second (that is, 1 billion Gbps). These backbone bandwidth demands beget the revolutionary forces of optical networking captious to their future. (Optical networking is discussed in detail in Chapter 12, "Optical Networking.")

    Metric Prefixes and Equivalents

    The following table defines commonly used metric prefixes:

    Prefix

    Abbreviation

    Meaning

    Deca

    da

    10 (10)

    Hecto

    h

    102 (100)

    Kilo

    K

    103 (1,000)

    Mega

    M

    106 (1,000,000)

    Giga

    G

    109 (1,000,000,000)

    Tera

    T

    1012 (1,000,000,000,000)

    Peta

    P

    1015 (1,000,000,000,000,000)

    Exa

    E

    1018 (1,000,000,000,000,000,000)

    Deci

    d

    10–1 (0.1)

    Centi

    c

    10–2 (0.01)

    Milli

    m

    10–3 (0.001)

    Micro

    μ

    10–6 (0.000001)

    Nano

    n

    10–9 (0.000000001)

    Pico

    p

    10–12 (0.000000000001)

    Femto

    f

    10–15 (0.000000000000001)

    Atto

    a

    10–18 (0.000000000000000001)

    For example, 10Gbps = 10,000,000,000bps, and 4KHz = 4,000Hz (that is, cycles per second).

    The following shows the relationships of commonly used units of measure to one another:

    1Kbps = 1,000bps 1Gbps = 1,000Mbps 1Tbps = 1,000Gbps 1Pbps = 1,000Tbps 1Ebps = 1,000Pbps Responding to Political and Regulatory Forces

    New developments always bring with them politics. Different groups vie for money, power, the ability to bring modern products to market first and alone, and the birthright to squash others' modern ideas. A prominent characteristic of the telecommunications sector is the extent to which it is influenced by government policy and regulation. The forces these exert on the sector are inextricably tied to technological and market forces.

    Because of the pervasive nature of information and communication technologies and the services that derive from them, coupled with the big prizes to be won, the telecommunications sector is subjected to a lot of attention from policymakers. Particularly over the past 20 years or so, telecommunications policy and regulation own been prominent on the agendas of governments around the world. This reflects the global trend toward liberalization, including, in many countries, privatization of the former monopoly telcos. However, interest from policymakers in telecommunications goes much deeper than this. A remarkable deal of this interest stems from the extended gain and wide impact that information and communication technologies have. Here are some examples:

  • Telephony, e-mail, and information services permit contact between friends and families and tender convenience to people in running their day-to-day lives. Thus, they own major economic and companionable implications.

  • In the industry arena, information and communication technologies tender industry efficiency and enable the creation of modern industry activities. Thus, they own major employment and economic implications.

  • Multimedia and the Internet tender modern audio, video, and data services that influence entertainment and education, among other areas. These modern services are overlapping with traditional radio and television broadcasting, and major cultural implications are appearing.

  • News delivery influences peoples' perceptions of governments and their own well-being, thereby influencing voter attitudes. Telecommunications brings attention to cultural trends. Therefore, telecommunications has major political as well as cultural implications.

  • Government applications of information and communication technologies influence the efficiency of government. Defense, national security, and crime-fighting applications are bringing with them major political implications.

  • Given this background of the pervasive impact that information and communication technologies have, it is hardly surprising they win massive policy attention.

    Regulatory Background

    Although many national regulatory authorities today are sever from central government, they are, nevertheless, built on foundations of government policy. Indeed, the very act of creating an independent regulatory body is a key policy decision. Historically, before telecommunications privatization and liberalization came to the fore, regulation was often carried out within central government, which likewise controlled the state-run telcos. That has changed in recent years in many, but not all, countries.

    Given their policy foundation, and the fact that government policies vary from country to country and from time to time, it is not surprising that regulatory environments evolve and vary from country to country. These evolutions and international variations sometimes pose planning problems for the industry, and these problems can lead to frustrations and tensions between companies and regulatory agencies. They can likewise lead to disagreements between countries (for example, over trade issues). Although moves to animate international harmonization of regulatory regimes (for example, by the International Telecommunications Union [ITU] and by the European Commission) own been partially successful, differences remain in the ways in which countries interpret laws and recommendations. Moreover, given that regulations exigency to reflect changing market conditions and changing technological capabilities, it is inevitable that over time regulatory environments will change, too. So regulation is best viewed as another of the variables, such as technological change, that the telecommunications industry needs to acquire into account.

    The Policy and Regulatory Players

    At the global level, there are a number of international bodies that govern or beget recommendations about telecommunications policy and regulation. In addition to the ITU and the European Commission, there are various standards bodies (for example, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [IEEE], European Telecommunications Standards Institute [ETSI], American National Standards Institute [ANSI], the Telecommunication Technology Committee [TTC]) and industry associations (for example, the European Competitive Telecommunications Association [ECTA], the Telecommunications Industry Association [TIA]). Representatives of national governments and regulatory authorities meet formally (for example, ITU World Radio Conferences, where many countries are represented) and informally (for example, Europe's National Regulatory Authorities [NRAs] exchange views at Independent Regulators Group [IRG] meetings). Other organizations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and regional bodies, likewise influence telecommunications policy and regulation at the international level.

    At the national level, several parts of central government are generally involved, and there can sometimes be more than one regulatory body for a nation. Some of these organizations are major players; others play less prominent, but nevertheless influential, roles. In the United States, for example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the national regulatory body, and public utility commissions regulate at the situation level. The U.S. situation Department coordinates policy regarding international bodies such as the ITU. The White House, the Department of Commerce, largely through the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Justice Department, the Trade Representative, and the Department of Defense are among the various parts of the administration that set or contribute to telecommunications policy. The U.S. Congress and the U.S. government's legislative offshoot likewise play essential roles. In addition, industry associations, policy "think tanks," regulatory affairs departments within companies, telecommunications lawyers, and lobbyists complete contribute to policy debates and influence the shape of the regulatory environment.

    Other countries organize their policy and regulatory activities differently from the United States. For example, in the United Kingdom, the Office of Telecommunications (OFTEL) mainly regulates what in the United States would be known as "common carrier" matters, whereas the Radiocommunications Agency (RA) deals with radio and spectrum matters. However, at the time of writing, it has been proposed that OFTEL and RA be combined into a modern Office of Communications (OFCOM). In Hong Kong, telecommunications regulation was previously dealt with by the post office, but now the Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA) is the regulatory body. So, not only finish regulatory environments change, but so, too, finish the regulatory players.

    The Main Regulatory Issues

    Let's survey briefly at what regulators do. Again, this varies rather from country to country and over time. In the early years of liberalization, much time would typically be spent in licensing modern entrants and in putting in set regulations designed to sustain a former monopoly telco from abusing its position by, for example, stifling its modern competitors or by charging inappropriately tall prices to its customers. Here the regulator is acting as a proxy for market forces. As efficacious competition takes root, the role of the regulator changes somewhat. Much of the drudgery then typically involves ensuring that complete licensed operators or service providers meet their license obligations and taking steps to animate the progress of the market such that consumers benefit.

    The focus of most regulatory bodies is, or should be, primarily on looking after the interests of the various End users of telecommunications. However, most regulators would recognize that this can be achieved only if there is a healthy and vibrant industry to deliver the products and services. So while there are often natural tensions between a regulator and the companies being regulated, it is at the identical time essential for cooperation between the regulator and the industry to acquire place. In Ireland, for example, the role of the regulator is encapsulated by the following mission statement: "The purpose of the Office of the Director of Telecommunications Regulation is to regulate with integrity, impartiality, and expertise to facilitate rapid progress of a competitive leading-edge telecommunications sector that provides the best in price, choice, and quality to the End user, attracts industry investment, and supports ongoing companionable and economic growth."

    Flowing from regulators' high-level objectives are a ambit of activities such as licensing, expense control, service-level agreements, interconnection, radio spectrum management, and access to infrastructure. Often, regulatory bodies consult formally with the industry, consumers, and other interested parties on major issues before introducing regulatory changes. A more particular appreciation of what telecommunications regulators finish and what their priorities are can be obtained by looking at the various reports, consultation papers, and speeches at regulatory bodies' Web sites.



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