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Test Code : 922-104
Test cognomen : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 6.0 Upgrades for Engineers
Vendor cognomen : Nortel
: 30 actual Questions

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Nortel Nortel Communication Server 1000

Nortel Builds on its Unified Communications vision, options Portfolio | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Nortel

NYSE : NTTSX : NT

Nortel

March 05, 2007 09:02 ET

CEO Mike Zafirovski Outlines Nortel UC imaginative and prescient at VoiceCon 2007

ORLANDO, FLORIDA--(CCNMatthews - March 5, 2007) - At VoiceCon Spring 2007 this week, Nortel(1) (TSX:NT)(NYSE:NT) is outlining its vision for unified communications (UC) and unveiling novel options designed to supply agencies with essential and respectable the perquisite route to convey voice, video and information over IP and permit advanced unified communications.

Nortel President and CEO Mike Zafirovski can live a keynote speaker on Tuesday, and will talk about how unified communications options and converged purposes are poised to radically change commerce communications.

"Unified communications fundamentally changes the style agencies talk, simplifying the deluge of communications with a single, seamless interface," spoke of Zafirovski. "Nortel and their partners are working to create a UC event that makes worker's greater productive and responsive, with a wealthy communications event within the office or on the go."

Nortel's unified communications imaginative and prescient makes a speciality of proposing solutions that align to the commerce atmosphere the commerce makes employ of nowadays. These options allow clients to event streamlined communications within their company utility whereas leveraging their current IT investments - really UC your approach.

As fragment of its increasing unified communications portfolio, Nortel is introducing a few novel solutions that convey a richer set of UC rig while making inescapable the resiliency of the communications network.

Nortel's cornerstone IP Telephony solution, the conversation Server (CS) a thousand will convey novel capabilities and enhancements to additional give a boost to this main VoIP platform. a novel release of CS 1000 will supply better reliability and redundancy, better community and voice cognomen safety and novel E911 capabilities, complete aimed toward making inescapable businesses can weigh on their community for captious communications needs. through planned interoperability with Microsoft office Communications Server 2007, this novel free up will deliver unified communications capabilities as a fragment of the ingenious Communications Alliance roadmap.

the brand novel CS a thousand architecture will prolong its support for open specifications, with aid for an open working rig and birth on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware from IBM and other suppliers, to expand deployment flexibility and manageability of the network. tremendous simplification of the portfolio points and pricing bundles will accomplish it easier for companions and resellers to quote and promote. This novel unencumber is deliberate for availability in 2Q07.

moreover today Nortel announced the customary availability of a novel unencumber of the award-winning Multimedia conversation Server (MCS) 5100. This novel release improves productivity with the aid of proposing users with tight integration of telephony and multimedia functions inside IBM Lotus Notes. It too aspects a number of tall enhancements, together with better and simplified collaboration capabilities that enable a full compass of voice, video, conferencing, e-mail, IM and presence capabilities on the click on of a mouse, together with greater mobility capabilities that deliver a prosperous communications event for cellular people. the novel MCS 5100 liberate too introduces assist for brand spanking novel SIP-based IP telephones enhancing usability and suppleness and improves the middling protection, reliability, manageability and scalability of the core platform, which now operates on IBM servers with a Linux working equipment.

Nortel is too introducing Unified Messaging (UM) 2000, a feature-prosperous, carrier-grade solution helping up to a million clients that allows voicemail, fax and e-mail to live accessed collectively via typical e-mail purposes and integrates with Microsoft's energetic listing®. UM 2000 is requirements-primarily based so that it can office in a multivendor voice community, and is focused to international agencies in addition to carriers that tender their shoppers unified messaging solutions.

To support companies deploy UC-optimized networks, Nortel is too unveiling converged facts networking enhancements to its North American marketing campaigns, which construct on the successful IPT 1-2-three crusade launched ultimate yr. These drive enhancements consist of associate equipment, concentrated claim technology activities, pre-engineered information programs, and non-compulsory features that accomplish it less difficult and more competitively priced for licensed channel companions to set up a LAN that supports clients' VoIP and UC wants.

These information applications and functions can too live quoted beginning in April 2007 and comprehend alternatives to permit the total deployment of vigour over Ethernet, VoIP-Optimized cozy Routing for WAN entry, and WLAN for mobility and non-compulsory upkeep, installing and technical assist functions. Nortel's North American crusade too includes promoting and incentive programs available these days through licensed Nortel channel partners for firms who're customizing their community for unified communications.

About Nortel

Nortel is a recognized chief in offering communications capabilities that accomplish the covenant of enterprise Made primary a reality for their purchasers. Their next-technology applied sciences, for each provider issuer and enterprise networks, aid multimedia and company-essential purposes. Nortel's technologies are designed to assist acquire rid of today's boundaries to efficiency, pace and efficiency with the aid of simplifying networks and connecting americans to the assistance they want, after they want it. Nortel does commerce in more than a hundred and fifty international locations around the globe. For extra advice, talk over with Nortel on the web at www.nortel.com. For the newest Nortel news, visit www.nortel.com/news.

certain statements in this press unlock can too contain phrases such as "might", "expects", "may additionally", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "aims", "envisions", "seeks" and other similar language and are considered forward-looking statements or recommendation below applicable securities law. These statements are according to Nortel's present expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the working ambiance, economies and markets by which Nortel operates. These statements are field to captious assumptions, hazards and uncertainties, that are problematic to prognosticate and the genuine outcomes could live materially different. additional, exact effects or pursuits could compass materially from these contemplated in ahead-looking statements as a result of here(i) hazards and uncertainties relating to Nortel's restatements and linked matters together with: Nortel's most fresh restatement and two outdated restatements of its economic statements and related activities; the atrocious Have an result on on Nortel and NNL of their most fresh restatement and lengthen in submitting their economic statements and related occasional reviews; legal judgments, fines, penalties or settlements, or any tremendous regulatory fines or different penalties or sanctions, concerning the continued regulatory and crook investigations of Nortel within the U.S. and Canada; any giant pending civil litigation movements no longer encompassed through Nortel's proposed classification motion agreement; any colossal cash fee and/or tall dilution of Nortel's current equity positions as a consequence of the approval of its proposed classification motion contract; any unsuccessful remediation of Nortel's fabric weaknesses in interior manage over economic reporting resulting in an inability to report Nortel's outcomes of operations and fiscal condition precisely and in a timely method; the time required to implement Nortel's remedial measures; Nortel's want of faculty to access, in its latest kind, its shelf registration filed with the U.S. Securities and trade commission (SEC), and Nortel's under investment grade credit rating and any extra hostile result on its credit standing because of Nortel's restatements of its fiscal statements; any opposed move on Nortel's commerce and market fee of its publicly traded securities arising from carrying on with atrocious publicity involving Nortel's restatements; Nortel's capabilities inability to appeal to or maintain the personnel vital to achieve its enterprise pursuits; any infringement by using Nortel of the endured record necessities of the NYSE or TSX causing the NYSE and/or the TSX to commence suspension or delisting tactics;(ii) risks and uncertainties regarding Nortel's commerce together with: yearly and quarterly fluctuations of Nortel's operating results; decreased claim and pricing pressures for its products as a result of global fiscal situations, huge competitors, competitive pricing apply, cautious capital spending by means of shoppers, elevated commerce consolidation, abruptly altering applied sciences, evolving industry necessities, time-honored novel product introductions and short product life cycles, and different developments and industry characteristics affecting the telecommunications business; the sufficiency of currently introduced restructuring movements, including the handicap for better precise prices to live incurred in connection with these restructuring movements in comparison to the estimated prices of such actions and the faculty to obtain the targeted can imbue rate reductions and reductions of Nortel's unfunded pension liability deficit; any fabric and hostile impacts on Nortel's efficiency if its expectations concerning market claim for specific products prove to live wrong or on account of inescapable limitations in its efforts to extend internationally; any reduction in Nortel's working results and any connected volatility out there cost of its publicly traded securities coming up from any decline in its ribald margin, or fluctuations in overseas forex change prices; any negative tendencies linked to Nortel's deliver condense and condense manufacturing agreements including as a result of the usage of a sole enterprise for key optical networking solutions components, and any defects or errors in Nortel's latest or planned items; any atrocious Have an impact on to Nortel of its failure to obtain its enterprise transformation aim; further valuation allowances for complete or a element of its deferred tax assets; Nortel's failure to protect its intellectual property rights, or any antagonistic judgments or settlements arising out of disputes related to highbrow property; changes in rules of the cyber web and/or other facets of the trade; Nortel's failure to efficaciously office or integrate its strategic acquisitions, or failure to consummate or live triumphant with its strategic alliances; any terrible impact of Nortel's failure to evolve properly its fiscal and managerial ply and reporting systems and strategies, control and develop its company, or create a superb possibility administration method; and(iii) dangers and uncertainties relating to Nortel's liquidity, financing arrangements and capital including: the Have an impact on of Nortel's most fresh restatement and two outdated restatements of its monetary statements; any want of faculty of Nortel to manage money flood fluctuations to fund working capital requirements or achieve its commerce aims in a timely mode or attain further sources of funding; immoderate levels of debt, obstacles on Nortel capitalizing on commerce opportunities on account of support facility covenants, or on obtaining further secured debt pursuant to the provisions of indentures governing several of Nortel's public debt issues and the provisions of its aid facility; any boost of restrained cash necessities for Nortel if it is unable to relaxed option succor for tasks bobbing up from inescapable commonplace course commerce activities, or any want of faculty of Nortel's subsidiaries to provide it with satisfactory funding; any negative result to Nortel of the requisite to accomplish bigger described handicap plans contributions sooner or later or exposure to customer credit score risks or want of faculty of customers to meet price tasks below customer financing preparations; any atrocious Have an result on on Nortel's faculty to accomplish future acquisitions, elevate capital, challenge debt and hold personnel coming up from inventory expense volatility and additional declines in the market cost of Nortel's publicly traded securities, or the percentage consolidation resulting in a abate complete market capitalization or hostile result on the liquidity of Nortel's common shares. For additional information with appreciate to inescapable of these and other factors, notice Nortel's Annual record on Form10-ok/A, Quarterly experiences on shape 10-Q and different securities filings with the SEC. unless in any other case required with the aid of applicable securities legal guidelines, Nortel disclaims any aim or responsibility to update or revise any ahead-looking statements, whether on account of novel tips, future hobbies or in any other case.

(1)Nortel, the Nortel brand and the Globemark are emblems of Nortel Networks.


Microsoft utility to vigour Nortel Telecom Servers | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

it can were one of the most longest skits ever to live delivered from the legendary studios of Saturday night reside -- NBC Studio 8H at 30 Rockefeller Plaza -- earlier than in fact coming to the punch line. but ultimately Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer, together with the president/CEO of telecom server provider Nortel, Mike Zafirovski, announced the next fragment of their collaboration, which complete started officially in June of ultimate year.

Their mission is to integrate windows, workplace, alternate, and visual Studio -- complete 4 pillars of Microsoft -- into the subsequent circular of Nortel server hardware on Intel systems. The smaller Nortel Communications Server 1000 will live integrated with the brand novel Unified Messaging edition of trade Server, for beginning in the 2d quarter of this 12 months; more high-end fashions with multimedia conferencing capabilities on-board should live delivered in the fourth quarter.

but what does this imply? Microsoft's demo -- handiest a runt bit upgraded from remaining yr -- gives their superior and deepest glimpse into the agencies' joint plans. in brief, Microsoft plans to installation yet another speedy messaging platform: workplace Communicator, whose initials Microsoft and Nortel are the usage of to signify the computing device as a communications rig in diagrams.

beneath the novel scheme, a consumer can accomplish the most of his OC to direct a message to any person who has an identification in vigorous directory. So in case you've got an email message from a person, you could reply using IM (the console of the OC) or using the mobilephone; and in this latter case, the mobile turns into a sort of Nortel peripheral gadget. the usage of voice instructions given to the audio "interface" of Microsoft trade, that you can Have the telephone system reply with a voice message, an IM message (converted to text and then despatched) or with an e mail.

in a similar fashion, the person's OC will too live used to redirect name-forwarding, so that anybody placing a standard cellphone cognomen can attain the requisite birthday celebration on his OC, or conceivably through his trade proxy, which could consume a message and ahead it to his email. There it will too live replayed as an audio music, or conceivably translated to textual content.

It is not a very novel conception, however what distinguishes this selected strategy to the issue is that Microsoft's office application is so ubiquitous in company nowadays that the integration of point-of-presence in applications can live just tempting satisfactory to acquire companies to conform with Nortel.

As Zafirovski took the helm of Nortel final 12 months, its market participate in voice-over-IP turned into declining via a cost of 12% per yr, with the aid of Merrill Lynch estimates. It become third in market participate in core routers behind Cisco and Juniper Networks, notwithstanding it become first in fiberoptic networking switches and gateways. nonetheless, Zafirovski - hired faraway from Motorola - described the start of his mission because the equal of standing at ground zero.

His method, as expected, turned into transformational: He desires to acquire Nortel out of markets the status it doesn't compete, by introducing communications servers this yr that allows you to integrate functionality from natural department exchanges - where the enterprise's market participate is lagging - whereas preserving its floor in main-side applied sciences. His idea: promote groups on the conception of replacing faded PBXes with x86 structure servers.

Microsoft is assisting Zafirovski to accomplish that case. In so doing, or not it's leveraging its entire company portfolio, even though it skill floating some wild concepts, corresponding to implying the presence of a latent market amongst developers to create custom toolbar applications for PowerPoint and different office 2007 functions, that utilize element-of-presence indicators from Microsoft change UM working on Nortel servers. Ballmer calls this a "line-of-business" software, and a few Have likened the concept to a further kind of line, notwithstanding with a bit of ingenuity -- coupled with a truckload of sorely lacking practicality -- the thought just could work.

"americans Have PBXes, individuals Have audio-conferencing systems or solutions that they purchase, video-conferencing options, electronic mail - optimistically complete Microsoft alternate - immediate messaging solutions, and these are complete islands - the style you acquire provisioned, the route you check in, your username, your tackle, the style you find somebody," spoke of Ballmer perquisite through his speech today.

"how many messages will they fade away, on ordinary, in quite a lot of locations for someone?...You may swear it live a very livable world; complete of us finish live in it, truly, every day. That doesn't accomplish it the premier they will finish - the optimum for the conclusion-consumer, let alone for the IT department or for the people who are developing enterprise applications."

"you're going to live capable of supply your users a magnificent, solitary suffer for instant messaging, presence, and of course, conferencing," Zafirovski clarified.

Ballmer painted a broad image, the usage of some fuzzy brushstrokes, of an developed telecommunications infrastructure for complete humanity, beginning this year with a flood to an "integrated" communications architecture. perquisite here, users live trained to operate smarter communications valued clientele, and Microsoft would dash the software for those customers. This integration will tie every thing together, together with the mobile, perquisite through those years through which it isn't useful for offices to deem casting off the cellphone altogether for the OC.

however by route of 2010, a novel section would start, driven through consumer claim to enter what Ballmer describes because the "transformed" fragment of communications, where one of the dissimilar instruments they employ accepted start to drop out of sight via attrition, enjoy a vestigial sixth toe. additionally perquisite through this part, the returned-ends and servers birth to peer additional integration, making employ of a product Zafirovski outlined called the Unified Communications integrated department. deem of this as an exchange-embedded PBX substitute, supplied via Nortel.

"for many, a long time, each businesses Have basically been within the company of communications. Nortel, kind of without doubt, has been widely within the 'telecom business,' because it's time-honored," explained Ballmer, making runt "quote-unquotes" within the air, "and Microsoft has been within the company of helping americans writer, transmit, email, and different suggestions, and in a sense, it became inevitable - americans Have said it for years - that you'd start to notice a convergence of communications."


Microsoft and Nortel existing Alliance Roadmap | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

news

Microsoft and Nortel existing Alliance Roadmap Six months after announcing a telecommunications alliance, Microsoft and Nortel this week presented some early consequences of their efforts and outlined a roadmap for future tasks.

both companies first introduced their collaboration closing summer time.

The highway map comprises three novel joint options “to dramatically expand enterprise communications by means of breaking down the boundaries between voice, e mail, immediate messaging, multimedia conferencing and other types of communication,” in accordance with a statement through the two firms.

also included in the announcement are 11 novel implementation functions from Nortel and the opening of greater than 20 joint demonstration facilities the status consumers can event the know-how, the observation persisted.

in addition, both groups said they Have signed agreements with dozens of clients, and Have developed a “pipeline of hundreds of potentialities who wish to realize the merits of unified communications.”

From Microsoft's standpoint, it is complete a fragment of the enterprise's lengthy-time era play to merge complete types of communications and messaging into a solitary framework. A yr ago, the commerce introduced that it turned into merging its change Server group with its actual-Time Collaboration (RTC) community, and that it had begun to mediate of the two technologies comprising a "platform."

the novel neighborhood became named the Unified Communications community (UCG) and resides in Microsoft's commerce Division. The credit for the brand novel community emanated from a imaginative and prescient of adding continuity to a myriad of communications gadgets, technologies and modes -- from electronic mail and rapid messaging to Voice over internet Protocol (VoIP), audio/video and net conferencing -- in a unified manner.

The three novel joint solutions introduced by means of the alliance this week are named Unified Communications integrated department, Unified Messaging, and Conferencing.

When it's attainable within the fourth quarter, UC integrated branch will comprehend Nortel and Microsoft know-how on a solitary piece of hardware that supplies VoIP and unified communications in far off offices.

Coming a runt bit previous in the 2nd quarter, Unified Messaging will goal to simplify customer deployments, aboriginal session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel communique Server one thousand and Microsoft change Server 2007. The reply comprises Nortel skilled capabilities for design, deployment and support.

also coming in the fourth quarter, Conferencing will extend Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft workplace Communicator 2007. It aims to deliver a solitary customer adventure constant throughout functions equivalent to voice, speedy messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing.

This 12 months, the organizations too plot to extend their latest unified communications solution — a unified desktop and smooth mobile for VoIP, e mail, quick messaging and presence — to the Nortel communication Server 2100, a provider-grade commerce telephony product helping up to 200,000 users on a solitary system, in keeping with commerce statements.

As for the road map, both agencies Have fitted greater than 20 joint demonstration facilities in North the united states, Europe and Asia, with greater than a hundred further centers scheduled to open by using midyear.

Nortel has too delivered 11 core integration features to aid purchasers construct, installation and aid joint unified communications solutions, including conclusion-to-conclusion venture management. Nortel claims it has already expert greater than 2,200 VoIP consultants to convey these functions and will add greater as deployment ramps up.

concerning the author

Stuart J. Johnston has lined expertise, certainly Microsoft, due to the fact that February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, information Week, and notebook World, in addition to for enterprise Developer, XML & web functions, and .web magazines.




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922-104 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 6.0 Upgrades for Engineers

Test Code : 922-104
Test cognomen : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 6.0 Upgrades for Engineers
Vendor cognomen : Nortel
: 30 actual Questions

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12 Alibaba Techs made Open-source in 2017 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

The Client Side of the Internet Age

Along with the evolution of Web2.0 and Web3.0, performance-based improvement of wireless terminal hardware and advocacy for user suffer concepts, websites and apps are becoming more Important and more complex. This is reflected in the evolution of JavaScript, from its modest beginnings in 1995 to its current, staggering, levels of popularity. There are around 230,000 open-source JavaScript projects in GitHub’s repositories, 2.3 times as many as open-source Python projects, and much higher than the number of open-source Java and PHP projects set together. JavaScript’s popularity can live attributed to the extraordinary performance of AJAX in front-end development, and the compelling potential Node.js presents for server-side programming with JavaScript.

Two enterprise-class open-source projects that Alibaba has contributed to the community are Ant Design, a UI design language implemented on React, and Egg.js, a Web framework.

6. Ant Design

Ant Design is the result of middle and back-end design experiences from the progress of Ant Financial. Its product interaction and visual style aims to live “inconspicuous, several and cheerful”, and help user and designer experiences. Abundant, springy and valuable basis components are accumulated to provide solutions for frequently asked questions. TypeScript supports complete kind definition, and the high-quality out-of-the-box React components are based on npm + webpack + dva enterprise-class progress frameworks.

Major Ant Design developments of 2017:

1. Ant Design 2.x continued its evolution from version 2.6.0 to version 2.13.11.

2. The front-end scaffolding for Ant Design Pro was introduced in October, providing best practices for typical middle and back-end application scenarios.

3. Ant Design 3.0 was released in early December, providing a brand-new design system and many novel features. The release log can live institute here.

In the two years since its open-sourcing, Ant Design has continued improving by collecting various design and progress requirements. The design team accountable for Ant Design is constantly refining design specifications and adjusting overall visual effects, something which is well reflected in version 3.0.

Currently, the main focus remains on publicizing the long-term project progress plan, collecting novel requirements and issuing reports regularly through DingTalk and GitHub, and interacting closely with the community. The project has fixed cycles for the progress of minor versions, where versions with bug fixes are released on a weekly basis and bigger updates are released on a monthly basis.

Ant Design is one of the most well-liked UI component libraries in the React community, and is used by technology companies including Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu, Meituan, Didi, and ele.me. Ant Design has garnered over 21,485 stars in GitHub, and was nominated in Open Source China’s 2017 Top 20 list of open-source Chinese software.

Ant Design has reached a relatively advanced stage after the release of v3.0, and will not live undergoing major changes anytime soon. Instead, the team will live working to enhance the visual layout and theme configurations, and promote internationalization and integration.

Find out more:

http://ant.design/

http://pro.ant.design/

https://github.com/ant-design/ant-design

7. Egg

Egg is an enterprise-class, basic web framework developed to overcome deficiencies institute with Node.js. When micro-service architecture is adopted, specific tasks such as service granularity, API interface and progress maintenance are involved, and the front and back-end face the affray of springy user suffer vs. back-end service generic utility. Node.js has managed to overcome this widely-criticized weakness, and npm package is now the most well-liked peer, with vast improvement in single-threaded problems, avoidance of demanding callbacks with the succor of ES norm, a kind system based on age TypeScript, and better overall performance.

Unfortunately, the infrastructure maturity and popularity of Node.js are not a match made in heaven, and so it is essentially soundless a newcomer. In the industry, there are very few Web framework practices, and the community repeats a lot of work from scratch and lacks unified referential norms, which brings many repeated and unnecessary issues. Compared to the application, Node.js fundamental technology research is soundless rare, so ease of availability is a stumbling block.

The application of Node.js in Alibaba started in 2011. After experiencing difficulties, including starting from scratch, Alibaba began to seriously deem not only unifying the ecology build, but too customization support. Egg was born at the perquisite time and is anticipated to live a fundamental framework for Web progress to succor complete teams in building upper-layer framework. Egg was cultivated from engineering practices of large-scale enterprise applications, including robustly supporting Singles’ Day sales on November 11, and was polished in four versions of microkernels throughout 3 years.

Egg is based on Koa and is totally different from the upper-layer frameworks of Sails/LoopBack. It lies in the middle-layer and provides “microkernel + plug-in component mechanism + framework customization capability”, delivering a whole set of unified agreements for the service of upper-layer frameworks. It too adopts a gradual progress mode with extreme flexibility, so it is suitable for the rapidly progress of petite project and progress by enterprise-level teams.

Within just a year of open-sourcing, Egg has received over 500 draw Requests (272 in the host library), handled over 1,200 issues, and published over 40 official documents of over 100,000 words. It has too received over 6,000+ stars in GitHub and nearly 10,000 PVs on its official website.

Within Alibaba, it has served over 500 front discontinue developers and over 1,000 apps, while outside Alibaba, Egg has received feedback for improvement from over 90 developers in various companies, including Baidu, Tencent, Quanmin and Dxy, and even Rod Vagg, Director of Node TSC, who got involved retweeting about Egg!

In the future, Egg will focus on the optimization of developer suffer and the continued sharing of best practices.

Besides the 1,000+ apps within Alibaba, the technology team too eliminated some bottom-layer bugs in Node.js, and explored with Intel the further improvement in Node.js functions. In addition, Alibaba has just released a Node.js performance platform, and provides Node.js running + monitoring and diagnosis services for free.

Find out more:

https://eggjs.org/

https://node.console.aliyun.com/

8. Atlas

Atlas, a springy Android progress framework, was created to assist with internal issues at Alibaba. With the continuous progress of mobile Taobao, the R&D team became larger and functions more complicated, which required the rapidly iteration of end-side businesses. On the other hand, the problems encountered during development, operation and maintenance continually increased, which too required fixing online bugs. As such, the mobile Taobao team began to mediate about how to simplify the complicated problems and conduct dynamic deployment to help mobile progress efficiency.

Atlas dockerizes to resolve large-scale team cooperation issues, which is suitable for the progress of big or small-sized apps on system versions higher than Android 4.0 and supports dynamic publishing. Generally speaking, the industry usually uses plug-in component frameworks. However, Atlas adopts modularization, which divides businesses and reuses common parts in consideration of reusability. The project adopts the approach of OSGI (Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI)) and separates commerce to independently shape a bundle for isolation and decoupling operations, so that concurrent development, rapidly iteration and dynamic deployment can live realized.

Atlas is a result of five years of progress by Alibaba’s mobile team, and makes technical preparations for static and dynamic modularization. After the official open-sourcing this year, Atlas has maintained the publishing of a major version every two months, and uses the very coding both in Alibaba and the community. Altas’ improvements equivocate in stability, instrument chain upgrade, dexpatch, etc. With regard to dynamic deployment, novel functions comprehend component support, dexpatch function, and bundle view reuse.

As an early open-source project, initially Altas was not perfect and received criticism for its elevated barriers to entry, incomplete documentation and primitive demos. The Altas team immediately decided to shape a DingTalk group to succor developers understand and Have access to Atlas, and accomplish better documentation and demos. Many Chinese Android apps are using Atlas (such as Tmall, Taobao, Xiami, Youku and Alibaba Cloud), as well as at least three non-Chinese apps.

Atlas’ vision is to “bring developers back to the golden era of app development”. In the future, Altas will continue to help documentation, upgrade the toolchain, lower access costs, help stability and compatibility, interpose a complementary Emas for Atlas commerce services, and expand convenience for server-side publishing.

Find out more:

http://atlas.taobao.org/

https://github.com/alibaba/atlas


Fix Samsung Galaxy S6 and S6 Edge Battery Drain Issues – Android Tips | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

[Update]: Sudden battery drainage and overheating issues? Try this fix first

This is the first year that Samsung has employed a unibody design in its flagship Galaxy S line sealing the smartphones completely. While it was always feasible to change the batteries of your Galaxy S phones when they start fussing up, it won’t live feasible any longer. Powered by a 2,550 mAh battery, Samsung Galaxy S6 and S6 edge sport a power consuming Quad HD display, high-end Exynos 7 octa core processing chipset and other such top notch features. However with sturdy features comes stronger toll on the battery too. Here is how you can fix Galaxy S6 battery problems with simple and light tips without having to lament over the impossibility of changing the Samsung Galaxy S6 Battery.

– Updated tips to fix Galaxy S7 and S7 edge battery drain issues

Here are some of the tips to succor you fix Galaxy S6 battery issues; these tips too work on Galaxy S6 edge and other Android flagships as well.

– First and foremost: proximate unnecessary running apps:

There are many apps running in the background even when you don’t employ them. Find out these and proximate them. Third party applications are one of the biggest reasons – possibly after communications – accountable for a reduced battery life. fade to your Samsung Galaxy S6 or S6 edge Settings and in the battery session, search for at what apps are eating out the most of your battery life.

If you find the culprits, either coerce cease these or uninstall them altogether. Reinstall the essential apps to notice if the problems is fixed.

Recommended: How to coerce Restart an Unresponsive Galaxy S7 or S7 edge – Restart your Samsung Galaxy S6 / S6 edge:

It is always recommended to restart your gadgets if you are facing any kind of performance, battery, or heating issues before resorting to any other solutions. Hold down that power key and turn the phone off. This simple Android tip might succor you resolve some battery and heating issues.

– If battery drain is because of profound Sleep issue, here are the ways to fix the problem – turn off radio communications when not needed:

In times when you are in no requisite of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth services, NFC, GPS, or even the cellular data, never forget to turn these services off. These services tedious down the devices by constantly updating and hence draining battery life. Simply turn these off from the Settings whenever you don’t requisite them and accomplish a habitude of only switching them on when you actually requisite these services.

– Disable location services:

We don’t necessarily requisite the location services unless they are using maps or any other app using the location. It’s easier to enable location when you are using any such apps. Consider turning it off otherwise to expand the battery life. Go to quick Settings and disable location services.

– Battery imbue cycle:

It is recommended to let your device fade through at least one imbue cycle a month: i.e. charging the battery to 100% and then completely using it down. Power cycling this route helps in getting accurate battery usage data and is first-rate for your battery maintenance too.

– employ a black wallpaper:

From Settings > Personal > Wallpaper > From Gallery, pick a black Galaxy S6 wallpaper. You won’t find in the default option but you can always find one online or create one for yourself. Thanks to how Samsung’s AMOLED screen consumes power, you will notice some dissimilarity in battery life after switching to a black paper.

– expand device space: acquire rid of unused apps:

This is a very simple solution to speeding up your Samsung Galaxy S6 or S6 edge  with more impact on performance than the battery itself. If you are suffering from sluggish device, try uninstalling unused apps. This will free up space on your device and avoid your gadget faster. Focus on deleting larger games which consume up lots of space. For most of the games enjoy Temple Run, information is soundless saved in the Game Center. Hence, if you settle to play them again, no worries of starting from scratch.

– Fix Galaxy S6 battery by disabling notifications:

Receiving notifications for every solitary app is not only annoying but too eats up resources of both data, battery and the processing speed. accomplish efficient employ of notifications and disable them for apps you don’t require notifications for.

– Factory reset Samsung Galaxy S6 / Galaxy S6 edge:

If nothing of the above tips work for your smartphone, it is time to fade for the eventual resort: factory resetting Galaxy S6. fade to Settings > Personal > Backup and Reset to factory reset Galaxy S6 duo. Because factory reset wipes off complete the data on your gadget, withhold a backup before proceeding.

fix galaxy s6 battery

In case even factory resetting Galaxy S6 or S6 edge doesn’t look to work for you, it’s time to possibly buy a battery pack.

Bonus: Galaxy S6 default battery settings:

Go to Settings System>  > Battery and you will spot two default battery saving options: Power saving and Ultra power saving modes.

The first one of these limits the maximum CPU performance, reduce brightness, and finish other such petite things here and there to expand the Galaxy S6 battery life. It doesn’t cease you from using anything, it simply cuts down on fancy things enjoy vibration and screen on-time.

The Ultra power saving mode, on the other hand, is designed to live enabled at the very captious times when you requisite to save every drop of the battery juice. This mode brings your device to a grayscale theme along with limiting the number of apps you can use.

Both of these finish work so employ them when you are out of home and requisite to save on the battery as much as you can.

– For Nexus users, here’s how to fix battery, heating and performance issues and other Marshmallow Battery Issues

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Understanding the Telecommunications Revolution | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

While traditional telecommunications networks Have allowed us to cross barriers associated with time and distance, the novel multimedia realm is allowing us to comprehend vital physical cues in the information stream, introducing a physical reality into the world of electronic communications, goods, and services. Not surprisingly, some of the industries that are being most radically revolutionized are those that deal with the human senses, including entertainment, health care, education, advertising, and, sadly, warfare. Simply put, technology changes your route and pace of life.

This sample chapter from Telecommunications Essentials presents the tall picture of the telecommunications revolution.

This chapter is from the bespeak 

In recent years, the word telecommunications has been used so often, and applied in so many situations, that it has become fragment of their daily lexicon, yet its definition remains elusive. So, let's start with a definition. The word telecommunications has its roots in Greek: tele means "over a distance," and communicara means "the faculty to share." Hence, telecommunications literally means "the sharing of information over a distance." Telecommunications is more than a set of technologies, it's more than an colossal global industry (estimated to live US$2.5 trillion), it's more than twenty-first-century commerce and law that is being re-created to accommodate a virtual world, and it's more than a creator and destroyer of the state of the economy. Telecommunications is a route of life. Telecommunications affects how and where you finish everything—live, work, play, socialize, entertain, serve, study, teach, rest, heal, and protect. Telecommunications has served a captious role in shaping society and culture, as well as in shaping commerce and economics.

It is Important to examine telecommunications from the broadest perspective feasible to truly appreciate the depth and complexity of this field and thereby understand the opportunities it affords. The best route to learn to "think telecom" is to quickly examine how it is changing both commerce and lifestyle.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, much of the IT&T (information technologies and telecommunications) industry's focus was on how to reengineer the likes of fiscal institutions, manufacturing, retail, service, and government. These technology deployments were largely pursued and justified on the grounds of reducing costs and enhancing competitiveness by speeding communications.

Today, they are shifting their focus to another set of objectives: Their technology deployments are targeted at supporting not just the needs of a commerce enterprise, but too those of the consumers. The revolution in integrated media is transforming complete aspects of human activity related to communication and information. They are affecting to computer-based environments that support the creation, sharing, and distribution of multimodal information. Whereas traditional telecommunications networks Have allowed us to cross barriers associated with time and distance, the novel multimedia realm is allowing us to comprehend vital physical cues in the information stream, introducing a physical reality into the world of electronic communications, goods, and services. Not surprisingly, some of the industries that are being most radically revolutionized are those that deal with the human senses, including entertainment, health care, education, advertising, and, sadly, warfare. In each of these key sectors, there are telecommunications solutions that address the commerce need, reduce costs, or enhance operations by speeding commerce processes and aiding communications. These industries are too examining how to virtualize their products and/or services—that is, how to apply telecommunications to support electronic services targeted at the consumers of that industry's products. Not surprisingly, changing the route you attend a class, notice a doctor, watch a movie, acquire a date, shop for software, consume a cruise, and linger in finger creates significant changes in how you employ your time and money. Simply put, technology changes your route and pace of life.

This chapter presents the tall picture of the telecommunications revolution, and the repose of the bespeak gives greater detail about the specific technologies and applications that will comprise the telecommunications future.

A quick orientation of how emerging technologies are affecting industries and lifestyle highlights the consequence of understanding the principles of telecommunications, and, hopefully, to inspire you to "think telecom." The changes discussed here are ultimately very Important to how telecommunications networks will evolve and to where the growth areas will be.

An colossal amount of the activity driving telecommunications has to finish with the emergence of advanced applications; likewise, advances in telecommunications capabilities spur developments in computing platforms and capabilities. The two are intimately and forever intertwined. The following sections argue some of the changes that are occurring in both telecommunications and in computing platforms and applications, as well as some of the changes expected in the next several years.

Incorporating Human Senses in Telecommunications

Telecommunications has allowed a virtual world to emerge—one in which time and distance no longer picture a barrier to doing commerce or communicating—but we're soundless lacking something that is a captious fragment of the human information-processing realm. The human repartee acts on physical sensations in the course of its information processing; the senses of sight, sound, touch, and motion are key to their perception and determination making. Developments in sensory technologies and networks will allow a novel genre of sensory reality to emerge, bridging the gap between humans and machines. One of the most significant evolutions occurring in computing and communications is the introduction of the human senses into electronic information streams. The following are a few of the key developments in support of this more intuitive collaborative human–machine environment:

  • Computers are now capable of hearing and speaking, as demonstrated by Tellme, a well-liked U.S. voice-activated service that responds to defined voice prompts and provides free stock quotes, weather information, and entertainment guides to 35,000 U.S. cities.

  • The capability to produce three-dimensional sound through digital mastery—a technology called "virtual miking"—is being developed at the University of Southern California's Integrated Media Systems Center.

  • Virtual touch, or haptics, enables a user to gain in and physically interact with simulated computer content, such as feeling the weight of the Hope diamond in your hand or feeling the fur of a lion. Two companies producing technology in this belt are SensAble Technologies and Immersion Corporation. They are producing state-of-the-art coerce feedback, whole-hand sensing, and real-time 3D interaction technologies, and these hardware and software products Have a wide compass of applications for the manufacturing and consumer markets, including virtual-reality job training, computer-aided design, remote handling of hazardous materials, and "touch" museums.

  • The seduction of odor is too beginning to find its route into computers, allowing marketers to capitalize on the many subtle psychological states that odor can induce. Studies demonstrate that aromas can live used to trigger fear, excitement, and many other emotions. odor can live used to attract visitors to Web sites, to accomplish them linger longer and buy more, to succor them assimilate and retain information, or to instill the most satisfying or terrifying of emotional states (now that's an interactive game!). Three companies providing this technology today are Aromajet, DigiScents, and TriSenx. Aromajet, for example, creates products that address video games, entertainment, medical, market research, personal and home products, and marketing and point of sales applications.

  • The visual information stream provides the most rapid infusion of information, and a big portion of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information. To succor humans process visual information, computers today can see; equipped with video cameras, computers can capture and dispatch images, and can panoply high-quality entertainment programming. The visual stream is incredibly demanding in terms of network performance; thus, networks today are rapidly preparing to enable this most meaningful of information streams to live easily distributed.

  • The Emergence of Wearables

    How they engage in computing and communications will change dramatically in the next decade. Portable computing devices Have changed their notion of what and where a workplace is and emphasized their desire for mobility and wireless communication; they are beginning to redefine the phrase dressed for success. But the portable devices they know today are just a stepping stone on the route to wearables. Context-aware wearable computing will live the ultimate in light, ergonomic, reliable, flexible, and scalable platforms. Products that are available for employ in industrial environments today will soon lead to inexpensive, easy-to-use wearables appearing at your neighborhood electronics store:

  • Xybernaut's Mobile assistant IV (MA-IV), a wearable computer, provides its wearer with a full-fledged PC that has a 233MHz Pentium chip, 32MB memory, and upward of 3GB storage. A wrist keyboard sports 60 keys. Headgear suspended in front of the eye provides a full-color VGA screen, the size of a postage stamp but so proximate to the eye that images appear as on a 15-inch monitor. A miniature video camera fits snugly in a shirt pocket. Bell Canada workers employ MA-IVs in the field; they supplant the requisite to carry manuals and provide the faculty to dispatch images and video back to confer with supervisors. The MA-IV is rather bulky, weighing in at 4.4 pounds (2 kilograms), but the soon-to-be-released MA-V will live the first mass-market version, and it promises to live lightweight.

  • MIThril is the next-generation wearables research platform currently in progress at MIT's Media Lab. It is a functional, operational body-worn computing architecture for context-aware human-computer interaction research and general-purpose wearable computing applications. The MIThril architecture combines a multiprotocol corpse bus and corpse network, integrating a compass of sensors, interfaces, and computing cores. It is designed to live integrated into everyday clothing, and it is both ergonomic and flexible. It combines small, light-weight RISC processors (including the StrongARM), a single-cable power/data "body bus," and high-bandwidth wireless networking in a package that is nearly as light, comfortable, and unobtrusive as ordinary street clothing.

  • To live truly useful, wearables will requisite to live awake of where you are and what you're doing. Armed with this info, they will live able to give you information accordingly. (Location-based services are discussed in Chapter 14, "Wireless Communications.")

    Bandwidth

    A term that you hear often when discussing telecommunications is bandwidth. Bandwidth is a captious commodity. Historically, bandwidth has been very expensive, as it was based on the sharing of limited physical resources, such as twisted-pair copper cables and coax. Bandwidth is largely used today to mention to the capacity of a network or a telecom link, and it is generally measured in bits per second (bps). Bandwidth actually refers to the compass of frequencies involved—that is, the dissimilarity between the lowest and highest frequencies supported—and the greater the compass of frequencies, the greater the bandwidth, and hence the greater the number of bits per second, or information carried.

    Figure 1.1 The analogy of a hose is often used to record bandwidth.

    Moving Toward Pervasive Computing

    As they deal intelligence across a wider compass of devices, they are experiencing pervasive computing, too called ubiquitous computing. They are taking computers out of stand-alone boxes to which they are tied and putting them into ordinary things, in everyday objects around us. These novel things, because they are smart, Have a sense of self-awareness and are able to consume imbue of themselves. When they embed intelligence into a device, they create an inspiring novel opportunity for business. That device has to Have a understanding for being, and it has to Have a understanding to continue evolving so that you will disburse more money and time on it. To address this challenge, device manufacturers are beginning to bundle content and applications with their products. The result is smart refrigerators, smart washing machines, smart ovens, smart cabinets, smart furniture, smart beds, smart televisions, smart toothbrushes, and an endless list of other smart devices. (These smart devices are discussed in detail in Chapter 15, "The Broadband Home and HANs.")

    Devices are becoming smaller and more powerful complete the time, and they're getting physically closer to their bodies, as well. The growing amount of intelligence distributed throughout the network is causing changes in user profiles.

    Moving Toward Machine-to-Machine Communications

    We are affecting away from human-to-human communications to an era of machine-to-machine communications. Today, there are just over 6 billion human beings on the planet, yet the number of microprocessors is reported to live more than 15 billion. Devices Have become increasingly intelligent, and one characteristic of an bright system is that it can communicate. As the universe of communications-enabled devices grows, so does the traffic volume between them. As these smart things initiate to consume on many of the tasks and communications that humans traditionally exchanged, they will change the very fabric of their society. For example, your smart washing machine will initiate a muster to the service seat to report a problem and schedule resolution with the succor of an bright Web agent long before you even realize that something is wrong! These developments are predicted to result in the majority of traffic—up to 95% of it—being exchanged between machines, with traditional human-to-human communications representing only 5% of the network traffic by 2010.

    Adapting to novel Traffic Patterns

    Sharing of information can occur in a number of ways—via smoke signals, by letters sent through the postal service, or as transmissions through electrical or optical media, for example. Before they acquire into the technical details of the technologies in the industry, it's Important to understand the driving forces behind computing and communications. You requisite to understand the impact these forces Have on network traffic and therefore on network infrastructure. In today's environment, telecommunications embodies four main traffic types, each of which has different requirements in terms of network capacity, tolerance for delays—and particularly variations in the delay—in the network, and tolerance for potential congestion and therefore losses in the network:

  • Voice—Voice traffic has been sturdy in the developed world for years, and more subscriber lines are being deployed complete the time. However, some three billion people in the world haven't even used a basic telephone yet, so there is yet a huge market to live served. Voice communications are typically referred to as being narrowband, significance that they don't require a big amount of network capacity. For voice services to live intelligible and light to use, delays must live kept to a minimum, however, so the laggard factors in affecting information from Point A to Point B Have to live tightly controlled in order to support real-time voice streams. (Concepts such as delay, latency, and oversight control are discussed in Chapter 6, "Data Communications Basics.")

  • Data—Data communications refers to the exchange of digitized information between two machines. Depending on the application supported, the bandwidth or capacity requirements can compass from medium to high. As more objects that are visual in nature (such as images and video) are included with the data, that capacity claim increases. Depending again on the kind of application, data may live more or less tolerant of delays. Text-based exchanges are generally quite tolerant of delays. But again, the more real-time nature there is to the information type, as in video, the tighter the control you requisite over the latencies. Data traffic is growing much faster than voice traffic; it has grown at an middling rate of about 30% to 40% per year for the past decade. To accommodate data communication, network services Have been developed to address the requisite for greater capacity, cleaner transmission facilities, and smarter network management tools. Data encompasses many different information types. In the past, they saw these different types as being sunder entities (for example, video and voice in a videoconference), but in the future, they must live mindful not to sunder things this route because, after all, in the digital age, complete data is represented as ones and zeros.

  • Image—Image communications requires medium to elevated bandwidth—the greater the resolution required, the greater the bandwidth required. For example, many of the images taken in medical diagnostics require very elevated resolution. Image traffic tolerates some laggard because it includes no motion artifacts that would live affected by any distortions in the network.

  • Video—Video communications, which are becoming increasingly well-liked and are requiring ever-greater bandwidth, are extremely sensitive to delay. The future is about visual communications. They requisite to design out how to accomplish video available over a network infrastructure that can support it and at a price point that consumers are willing to pay. When their infrastructures are capable of supporting the capacities and the laggard limitations required by real-time applications, video will grow by leaps and bounds.

  • All this novel voice, data, and video traffic means that there is growth in backbone traffic levels as well. This is discussed further later in the chapter, in the section "Increasing Backbone Bandwidth."

    The telecommunications revolution has spawned considerable growth in the amount and types of traffic, and we'll notice even more types of traffic as they initiate to incorporate human senses as fragment of the network. The coming chapters talk in detail about what a network needs in order to ply the various traffic types.

    Handling novel Types of Applications

    The novel traffic patterns imply that the network will too live host to a novel set of applications—not just simple voice or text-based data, but to novel genres of applications that combine the various media types.

    The faculty to ply digital entertainment applications in a network is crucial. In some parts of the world, such as Asia, education may Have primary focus, and that should explicate us where they can hope greater success going forward. But throughout much of the world, entertainment is where people are willing to disburse the limited numbers of dollars that they Have to disburse on electronic goods and services. The digital entertainment realm will comprehend video editing, digital content creation, digital imaging, 3D gaming, and virtual reality applications, and complete these will drive the evolution of the network. It's the chicken and the egg story: What comes first, the network or the applications? Why would you want a fiber-optic broadband connection if there's nothing first-rate to draw over that connection? Why would you want to create a 3D virtual reality application when there's no route to deal it? The bottom line is that the applications and the infrastructures Have to evolve hand-in-hand to manifest the benefits and the dollars they associate with their future.

    Another shape of application that will live increasingly Important is in the realm of streaming media. A considerable focus is set on the real-time delivery of information, as in entertainment, education, training, customer presentations, IPO trade shows, and telemedicine consultations. (Streaming media is discussed in detail in Chapter 11, "Next-Generation Network Services.")

    E-commerce (electronic commerce) and m-commerce (mobile commerce) interpose several novel requirements for content management, transaction platforms, and privacy and security tools, so they move the types of information that Have to live encoded into the basic data stream and how the network deals with learning of what's contained within those packets. (Security is discussed in detail in Chapter 11.)

    Increasing Backbone Bandwidth

    Many of the changes discussed so far, but primarily the changes in traffic patterns and applications, will require immense amounts of backbone bandwidth. Table 1.1 lists a number of the requirements that emerging applications are likely to accomplish on backbone bandwidth.

    Table 1.1 Backbone Bandwidth Requirements for Advanced Applications

    Application

    Bandwidth Needed

    Examples

    Online virtual reality

    1,000–70,000 terabits per second

    Life-size 3D holography; telepresence

    Machine communications

    50,000–200,000 terabits per second

    Smart things; Web agents; robots

    Meta-computing

    50,000–200,000 terabits per second

    Weather prediction; warfare modeling

    In addition, advances in broadband access technologies will drive a claim for additional capacity in network backbones. Once 100Gbps broadband residential access becomes available—and there are developments on the horizon—the core networks will require capacities measured in exabits per second (that is, 1 billion Gbps). These backbone bandwidth demands accomplish the revolutionary forces of optical networking captious to their future. (Optical networking is discussed in detail in Chapter 12, "Optical Networking.")

    Metric Prefixes and Equivalents

    The following table defines commonly used metric prefixes:

    Prefix

    Abbreviation

    Meaning

    Deca

    da

    10 (10)

    Hecto

    h

    102 (100)

    Kilo

    K

    103 (1,000)

    Mega

    M

    106 (1,000,000)

    Giga

    G

    109 (1,000,000,000)

    Tera

    T

    1012 (1,000,000,000,000)

    Peta

    P

    1015 (1,000,000,000,000,000)

    Exa

    E

    1018 (1,000,000,000,000,000,000)

    Deci

    d

    10–1 (0.1)

    Centi

    c

    10–2 (0.01)

    Milli

    m

    10–3 (0.001)

    Micro

    μ

    10–6 (0.000001)

    Nano

    n

    10–9 (0.000000001)

    Pico

    p

    10–12 (0.000000000001)

    Femto

    f

    10–15 (0.000000000000001)

    Atto

    a

    10–18 (0.000000000000000001)

    For example, 10Gbps = 10,000,000,000bps, and 4KHz = 4,000Hz (that is, cycles per second).

    The following shows the relationships of commonly used units of measure to one another:

    1Kbps = 1,000bps 1Gbps = 1,000Mbps 1Tbps = 1,000Gbps 1Pbps = 1,000Tbps 1Ebps = 1,000Pbps Responding to Political and Regulatory Forces

    New developments always bring with them politics. Different groups vie for money, power, the faculty to bring novel products to market first and alone, and the perquisite to squash others' novel ideas. A prominent characteristic of the telecommunications sector is the extent to which it is influenced by government policy and regulation. The forces these exert on the sector are inextricably tied to technological and market forces.

    Because of the pervasive nature of information and communication technologies and the services that derive from them, coupled with the big prizes to live won, the telecommunications sector is subjected to a lot of attention from policymakers. Particularly over the past 20 years or so, telecommunications policy and regulation Have been prominent on the agendas of governments around the world. This reflects the global trend toward liberalization, including, in many countries, privatization of the former monopoly telcos. However, interest from policymakers in telecommunications goes much deeper than this. A considerable deal of this interest stems from the extended gain and wide impact that information and communication technologies have. Here are some examples:

  • Telephony, e-mail, and information services permit contact between friends and families and tender convenience to people in running their day-to-day lives. Thus, they Have major economic and convivial implications.

  • In the commerce arena, information and communication technologies tender commerce efficiency and enable the creation of novel commerce activities. Thus, they Have major employment and economic implications.

  • Multimedia and the Internet tender novel audio, video, and data services that move entertainment and education, among other areas. These novel services are overlapping with traditional radio and television broadcasting, and major cultural implications are appearing.

  • News delivery influences peoples' perceptions of governments and their own well-being, thereby influencing voter attitudes. Telecommunications brings attention to cultural trends. Therefore, telecommunications has major political as well as cultural implications.

  • Government applications of information and communication technologies move the efficiency of government. Defense, national security, and crime-fighting applications are bringing with them major political implications.

  • Given this background of the pervasive impact that information and communication technologies have, it is hardly surprising they acquire cumbersome policy attention.

    Regulatory Background

    Although many national regulatory authorities today are sunder from central government, they are, nevertheless, built on foundations of government policy. Indeed, the very act of creating an independent regulatory corpse is a key policy decision. Historically, before telecommunications privatization and liberalization came to the fore, regulation was often carried out within central government, which too controlled the state-run telcos. That has changed in recent years in many, but not all, countries.

    Given their policy foundation, and the fact that government policies vary from country to country and from time to time, it is not surprising that regulatory environments evolve and disagree from country to country. These evolutions and international variations sometimes pose planning problems for the industry, and these problems can lead to frustrations and tensions between companies and regulatory agencies. They can too lead to disagreements between countries (for example, over trade issues). Although moves to cheer international harmonization of regulatory regimes (for example, by the International Telecommunications Union [ITU] and by the European Commission) Have been partially successful, differences remain in the ways in which countries interpret laws and recommendations. Moreover, given that regulations requisite to reflect changing market conditions and changing technological capabilities, it is inevitable that over time regulatory environments will change, too. So regulation is best viewed as another of the variables, such as technological change, that the telecommunications industry needs to consume into account.

    The Policy and Regulatory Players

    At the global level, there are a number of international bodies that govern or accomplish recommendations about telecommunications policy and regulation. In addition to the ITU and the European Commission, there are various standards bodies (for example, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [IEEE], European Telecommunications Standards Institute [ETSI], American National Standards Institute [ANSI], the Telecommunication Technology Committee [TTC]) and industry associations (for example, the European Competitive Telecommunications Association [ECTA], the Telecommunications Industry Association [TIA]). Representatives of national governments and regulatory authorities meet formally (for example, ITU World Radio Conferences, where many countries are represented) and informally (for example, Europe's National Regulatory Authorities [NRAs] exchange views at Independent Regulators Group [IRG] meetings). Other organizations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and regional bodies, too influence telecommunications policy and regulation at the international level.

    At the national level, several parts of central government are generally involved, and there can sometimes live more than one regulatory corpse for a nation. Some of these organizations are major players; others play less prominent, but nevertheless influential, roles. In the United States, for example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the national regulatory body, and public utility commissions regulate at the state level. The U.S. state Department coordinates policy regarding international bodies such as the ITU. The White House, the Department of Commerce, largely through the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Justice Department, the Trade Representative, and the Department of Defense are among the various parts of the administration that set or contribute to telecommunications policy. The U.S. Congress and the U.S. government's legislative branch too play Important roles. In addition, industry associations, policy "think tanks," regulatory affairs departments within companies, telecommunications lawyers, and lobbyists complete contribute to policy debates and influence the shape of the regulatory environment.

    Other countries organize their policy and regulatory activities differently from the United States. For example, in the United Kingdom, the Office of Telecommunications (OFTEL) mainly regulates what in the United States would live known as "common carrier" matters, whereas the Radiocommunications Agency (RA) deals with radio and spectrum matters. However, at the time of writing, it has been proposed that OFTEL and RA live combined into a novel Office of Communications (OFCOM). In Hong Kong, telecommunications regulation was previously dealt with by the post office, but now the Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA) is the regulatory body. So, not only finish regulatory environments change, but so, too, finish the regulatory players.

    The Main Regulatory Issues

    Let's search for briefly at what regulators do. Again, this varies kind of from country to country and over time. In the early years of liberalization, much time would typically live spent in licensing novel entrants and in putting in status regulations designed to withhold a former monopoly telco from abusing its position by, for example, stifling its novel competitors or by charging inappropriately elevated prices to its customers. Here the regulator is acting as a proxy for market forces. As effectual competition takes root, the role of the regulator changes somewhat. Much of the work then typically involves ensuring that complete licensed operators or service providers meet their license obligations and taking steps to cheer the progress of the market such that consumers benefit.

    The focus of most regulatory bodies is, or should be, primarily on looking after the interests of the various discontinue users of telecommunications. However, most regulators would recognize that this can live achieved only if there is a vigorous and vibrant industry to deliver the products and services. So while there are often natural tensions between a regulator and the companies being regulated, it is at the very time Important for cooperation between the regulator and the industry to consume place. In Ireland, for example, the role of the regulator is encapsulated by the following mission statement: "The purpose of the Office of the Director of Telecommunications Regulation is to regulate with integrity, impartiality, and expertise to facilitate rapid progress of a competitive leading-edge telecommunications sector that provides the best in price, choice, and trait to the discontinue user, attracts commerce investment, and supports ongoing convivial and economic growth."

    Flowing from regulators' high-level objectives are a compass of activities such as licensing, price control, service-level agreements, interconnection, radio spectrum management, and access to infrastructure. Often, regulatory bodies consult formally with the industry, consumers, and other interested parties on major issues before introducing regulatory changes. A more detailed appreciation of what telecommunications regulators finish and what their priorities are can live obtained by looking at the various reports, consultation papers, and speeches at regulatory bodies' Web sites.



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    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
    By Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones
    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 129217613X
    ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Our ISBN10 : 129217613X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Computer Security: Principles and PracticeComputer Security: Principles and Practice
    By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown
    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
    ISBN10 : 0134794109
    ISBN13 : 9780134794105
    Our ISBN10 : 1292220619
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292220611
    Subject : Computer Science & Technology
    Price : $65.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126046542X
    ISBN13 : 9781260465426
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $39.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 0078021782
    ISBN13 : 9780078021787
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $65.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William G Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
    ISBN13 : 9781260211108
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260682137
    ISBN13 : 9781260682137
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $80.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260277143
    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $77.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1259929434
    ISBN13 : 9781259929434
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $76.00
    922-104922-104
    By Peter W. Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260128474
    ISBN13 : 9781260128475
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $39.00
    922-104922-104
    By Peter Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260147150
    ISBN13 : 9781260147155
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $64.00
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