Buy your textbooks here

Free 922-090 Text Books of Killexams.com | study guide | Braindumps | Study Guides | Textbook

Pass4sure Real exam Questions and Answers of 922-090 cert that you anytime anticipated that would pass 922-090 certification are outfitted here with practice questions - VCE and examcollection - study guide - Study Guides | Textbook

Pass4sure 922-090 dumps | Killexams.com 922-090 existent questions | https://www.textbookw.com/


Killexams.com 922-090 Dumps and existent Questions

100% existent Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with lofty Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



922-090 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design

Test Code : 922-090
Test cognomen : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design
Vendor cognomen : Nortel
: 30 existent Questions

Great source of remarkable dumps, accurate answers.
way to 922-090 exam dump, I ultimately were given my 922-090 Certification. I failed this examination the first time round, and knew that this time, it changed into now or by no means. I nevertheless used the respectable e book, however saved practicing with killexams.com, and it helped. remaining time, I failed with the aid of a tiny margin, literally lacking some factors, but this time I had a solid skip rating. killexams.com centered exactly what youll collect at the examination. In my case, I felt they hold been giving to tons attention to various questions, to the factor of asking inappropriate stuff, but fortuitously i was organized! project executed.


it's far really notable to hold 922-090 existent test question fiscal institution.
Every topic and location, each scenario, killexams.com 922-090 substances hold been first-rate assist for me whilst getting equipped for this examination and actually doing it! I used to live apprehensive, but going back to this 922-090 and questioning that I understand the total lot due to the fact the 922-090 examination modified into very spotless after the killexams.com stuff, I were given an terrific discontinue close result. Now, doing the subsequent degree of Nortel certifications.


found an existent source for actual 922-090 examination questions.
killexams.com is really good. This exam isnt facile at all, but I got the top score. 100%. The 922-090 preparation pack includes the 922-090 existent exam questions, the latest updates and more. So you learn what you really need to know and accomplish not dissipate your time on unnecessary things that just divert your attention from what really needs to live learnt. I used their 922-090 testing engine a lot, so I felt very confident on the exam day. Now I am very contented that I decided to purchase this 922-090 pack, remarkable investment in my career, I furthermore assign my score on my resume and Linkedin profile, this is a remarkable reputation booster.


it's far unbelieveable, but 922-090 dumps are availabe perquisite here.
My convoke is Suman Kumar. I hold were given 89.25% in 922-090 examination after youve got your test materials. Thank youfor offering this configuration of profitable seize a Look at fabric because the reasons to the answers are excellent. Thank you killexams.Com for the high-quality question fiscal institution. The best exertion approximately this question monetary organization is the detailed answers. It allows me to apprehend the concept and mathematical calculations.


Weekend Study is enough to pass 922-090 exam with I got.
Killexams.Com is an redress indicator for a college students and users capability to travail and keep for the 922-090 exam. It is an accurate indication of their ability, in particular with assessments taken shortly before commencing their educational keep for the 922-090 examination. Killexams.Com gives a trustworthy updated. The 922-090 checks supply an intensive image of candidates potential and skills.


What is needed to pass 922-090 exam?
Surpassed the 922-090 examination with 99% marks. Super! Considering simplest 15 days steering time. every bit of credit rating is going to the query & avow by pass of manner of killexams. Its high-quality cloth made training so spotless that I ought toeven recognize the hard subjects secure. Thanks loads, killexams.Com for offering us such an spotless and effective observeguide. Want your crew retain on developing greater of such courses for different IT certification assessments.


top notch source of high-quality actual test questions, redress solutions.
I had taken the 922-090 arrangement from the killexams.Com as that turned into a median diploma for the readiness which had in the close given the exceptional degree of the planning to set off the ninety % scores in the 922-090 checktests. I without a doubt extremely joyful inside the device I were given issues the matters emptied the exciting technique and thru the helpof the equal; I had at lengthy ultimate got the detail out and about. It had made my association a ton of much less tough and with the assist of the killexams.Com I hold been organized to expand properly inside the existence.


Start preparing these 922-090 questions answers and chillout.
I spent adequate time reading those materials and handed the 922-090 examination. The stuff is right, and at the identical time as these are brain dumps, which means these materials are constructed at the actual exam stuff, I dont understand people who try to whinge approximately the 922-090 questions being distinct. In my case, not every bit of questions had been 100% the same, however the topics and posh fashion hold been clearly correct. So, pals, in case you seize a Look at hard enough youll accomplish simply first-rate.


Get these s and visit holidays to assign together.
It changed into very encourging revel in with killexams.Com group. They informed me to attempt their 922-090 examination questions as soon asand neglect failing the 922-090 exam. First I hesitated to apply the fabric because I fearful of failing the 922-090 examination. But once I informed by my buddies that they used the examination simulator for thier 922-090 certification exam, i purchased the guidance percentage. It gyrate out to live very reasonably-priced. That changed into the number one time that I satisfied to expend killexams.Com education material after I got 100% marks in my 922-090 examination. I in fact understand you killexams.Com team.


Feeling vicissitude in passing 922-090 exam? you got to live kidding!
To inaugurate with I want to mention manner to you humans. Ive cleared 922-090 examination through subscribing to your test materials. So I wanted to percentage my success on your net web site. Thank you once more. Thank you very heaps to your tremendous help. Ive cleared my 922-090 with 90%.


Nortel Nortel Communication Server 1000

Nortel Builds on its Unified Communications vision, solutions Portfolio | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Nortel

NYSE : NTTSX : NT

Nortel

March 05, 2007 09:02 ET

CEO Mike Zafirovski Outlines Nortel UC imaginative and prescient at VoiceCon 2007

ORLANDO, FLORIDA--(CCNMatthews - March 5, 2007) - At VoiceCon Spring 2007 this week, Nortel(1) (TSX:NT)(NYSE:NT) is outlining its vision for unified communications (UC) and unveiling unique options designed to supply organisations with basic and authentic methods to bring voice, video and information over IP and enable advanced unified communications.

Nortel President and CEO Mike Zafirovski could live a keynote speaker on Tuesday, and should argue how unified communications options and converged purposes are poised to transform commerce communications.

"Unified communications fundamentally changes the pass firms speak, simplifying the deluge of communications with a single, seamless interface," referred to Zafirovski. "Nortel and their companions are working to create a UC event that makes workers greater productive and responsive, with a prosperous communications adventure within the workplace or on the go."

Nortel's unified communications vision specializes in featuring solutions that align to the company ambiance the commerce makes expend of today. These solutions enable clients to journey streamlined communications inside their commerce utility whereas leveraging their current IT investments - basically UC your approach.

As portion of its expanding unified communications portfolio, Nortel is introducing several unique options that carry a richer set of UC tools whereas making inescapable the resiliency of the communications network.

Nortel's cornerstone IP Telephony answer, the communique Server (CS) a thousand will convey unique capabilities and enhancements to additional strengthen this leading VoIP platform. a brand unique free up of CS one thousand will provide better reliability and redundancy, better network and voice convoke security and unique E911 capabilities, every bit of aimed at guaranteeing companies can count on their network for vital communications needs. through deliberate interoperability with Microsoft office Communications Server 2007, this unique unencumber will convey unified communications capabilities as portion of the creative Communications Alliance roadmap.

the unique CS 1000 structure will prolong its aid for open requirements, with assist for an open working gadget and birth on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware from IBM and different suppliers, to enrich deployment flexibility and manageability of the network. huge simplification of the portfolio facets and pricing bundles will compose it simpler for partners and resellers to cite and sell. This unique liberate is planned for availability in 2Q07.

additionally today Nortel introduced the regular availability of a unique unencumber of the award-profitable Multimedia communique Server (MCS) 5100. This unique unlock improves productivity with the aid of proposing users with tense integration of telephony and multimedia functions inside IBM Lotus Notes. It additionally points a number of tremendous enhancements, together with better and simplified collaboration capabilities that enable a complete latitude of voice, video, conferencing, e-mail, IM and presence capabilities at the click on of a mouse, together with more advantageous mobility capabilities that give a prosperous communications suffer for cellular laborers. the unique MCS 5100 free up additionally introduces assist for brand unique SIP-primarily based IP phones improving usability and suppleness and improves the normal security, reliability, manageability and scalability of the core platform, which now operates on IBM servers with a Linux operating gadget.

Nortel is additionally introducing Unified Messaging (UM) 2000, a characteristic-prosperous, carrier-grade avow assisting as much as 1000000 clients that makes it practicable for voicemail, fax and e mail to live accessed together via unprejudiced email applications and integrates with Microsoft's energetic directory®. UM 2000 is requisites-based mostly in order that it might operate in a multivendor voice community, and is targeted to global agencies in addition to carriers that tender their consumers unified messaging solutions.

To aid agencies set up UC-optimized networks, Nortel is furthermore unveiling converged records networking enhancements to its North American marketing campaigns, which build on the successful IPT 1-2-three crusade launched closing yr. These campaign enhancements encompass accomplice equipment, focused claim generation actions, pre-engineered information applications, and optional functions that compose it less complicated and extra competitively priced for authorized channel partners to deploy a LAN that supports shoppers' VoIP and UC needs.

These information programs and features may furthermore live quoted starting in April 2007 and encompass options to enable the entire deployment of power over Ethernet, VoIP-Optimized relaxed Routing for WAN access, and WLAN for mobility and optional renovation, setting up and technical assist services. Nortel's North American crusade furthermore contains promoting and incentive courses accessible today through authorized Nortel channel companions for agencies who are customizing their community for unified communications.

About Nortel

Nortel is a recognized chief in offering communications capabilities that compose the swear of commerce Made basic a veracity for their purchasers. Their subsequent-technology applied sciences, for each service company and enterprise networks, assist multimedia and enterprise-crucial applications. Nortel's applied sciences are designed to assist dispose of modern-day obstacles to efficiency, hurry and performance via simplifying networks and connecting people to the counsel they want, after they want it. Nortel does commerce in more than 150 countries world wide. For more counsel, visit Nortel on the web at www.nortel.com. For the latest Nortel news, talk over with www.nortel.com/news.

definite statements during this press unlock may comprise phrases similar to "may", "expects", "can also", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "pursuits", "envisions", "seeks" and different equivalent language and are regarded ahead-looking statements or suggestions beneath applicable securities legislation. These statements are in line with Nortel's latest expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections concerning the operating environment, economies and markets in which Nortel operates. These statements are area to vital assumptions, hazards and uncertainties, which are difficult to vaticinate and the actual influence could live materially diverse. further, exact results or movements may sweep materially from these pondered in ahead-searching statements as a result of perquisite here(i) hazards and uncertainties regarding Nortel's restatements and connected concerns together with: Nortel's most recent restatement and two previous restatements of its monetary statements and related events; the substandard impact on Nortel and NNL of their most recent restatement and prolong in submitting their monetary statements and linked periodic reviews; prison judgments, fines, penalties or settlements, or any giant regulatory fines or different penalties or sanctions, involving the ongoing regulatory and criminal investigations of Nortel within the U.S. and Canada; any big pending civil litigation moves not encompassed by Nortel's proposed classification motion agreement; any vast cash payment and/or huge dilution of Nortel's existing fairness positions due to the approval of its proposed nature action settlement; any unsuccessful remediation of Nortel's cloth weaknesses in inner manage over fiscal reporting leading to an inability to file Nortel's results of operations and fiscal circumstance precisely and in a well timed method; the time required to assign into effect Nortel's remedial measures; Nortel's inability to access, in its current kind, its shelf registration filed with the us Securities and exchange fee (SEC), and Nortel's below investment grade credit rating and any extra adverse effect on its credit rating as a result of Nortel's restatements of its fiscal statements; any adverse hold an effect on on Nortel's commerce and market cost of its publicly traded securities arising from carrying on with substandard publicity involving Nortel's restatements; Nortel's abilities need of talent to attract or hold the personnel essential to achieve its enterprise aims; any transgression via Nortel of the persevered record necessities of the NYSE or TSX inflicting the NYSE and/or the TSX to commence suspension or delisting strategies;(ii) hazards and uncertainties relating to Nortel's company together with: each year and quarterly fluctuations of Nortel's working effects; decreased claim and pricing pressures for its products because of world fiscal circumstances, immense competitors, competitive pricing practice, cautious capital spending by consumers, multiplied trade consolidation, impulsively altering technologies, evolving trade requirements, yardstick unique product introductions and brief product life cycles, and other traits and industry qualities affecting the telecommunications business; the sufficiency of lately introduced restructuring moves, including the competencies for higher actual charges to live incurred in reference to these restructuring movements in comparison to the estimated fees of such moves and the capability to obtain the centered can impregnate reductions and discount rates of Nortel's unfunded pension liability deficit; any material and adversarial influences on Nortel's performance if its expectations concerning market claim for particular products prove to live wrong or on account of inescapable limitations in its efforts to extend internationally; any reduction in Nortel's working consequences and any linked volatility available in the market cost of its publicly traded securities arising from any decline in its extreme margin, or fluctuations in exotic foreign money change prices; any terrible trends linked to Nortel's provide shrink and shrink manufacturing agreements together with on account of the expend of a sole organisation for key optical networking options components, and any defects or oversight in Nortel's current or deliberate products; any substandard handle to Nortel of its failure to obtain its enterprise transformation goal; additional valuation allowances for every bit of or a portion of its deferred tax property; Nortel's failure to give protection to its intellectual property rights, or any adverse judgments or settlements bobbing up out of disputes related to highbrow property; adjustments in rules of the cyber web and/or other points of the industry; Nortel's failure to effectively operate or integrate its strategic acquisitions, or failure to consummate or live triumphant with its strategic alliances; any negative effect of Nortel's failure to adapt correctly its fiscal and managerial ply and reporting programs and tactics, manage and grow its business, or create a superior risk administration strategy; and(iii) hazards and uncertainties relating to Nortel's liquidity, financing preparations and capital together with: the hold an effect on of Nortel's most fresh restatement and two outdated restatements of its monetary statements; any inability of Nortel to exploit money circulate fluctuations to fund working capital necessities or obtain its company aims in a well timed fashion or acquire extra sources of funding; exorbitant degrees of debt, barriers on Nortel capitalizing on enterprise opportunities as a result of assist facility covenants, or on acquiring further secured debt pursuant to the provisions of indentures governing inescapable of Nortel's public debt issues and the provisions of its assist facility; any raise of constrained money necessities for Nortel whether it is unable to at ease option support for duties coming up from lucid commonplace path company actions, or any need of talent of Nortel's subsidiaries to deliver it with enough funding; any terrible impact to Nortel of the should compose better defined odds plans contributions in the future or publicity to consumer credit score risks or need of talent of purchasers to fulfill impregnate obligations below client financing preparations; any poverty-stricken handle on Nortel's potential to compose future acquisitions, elevate capital, problem debt and continue personnel coming up from stock expense volatility and additional declines available in the market expense of Nortel's publicly traded securities, or the symmetry consolidation leading to a lower complete market capitalization or adversarial effect on the liquidity of Nortel's typical shares. For additional information with respect to inescapable of those and other components, behold Nortel's Annual record on Form10-k/A, Quarterly reports on benign 10-Q and different securities filings with the SEC. except otherwise required by means of applicable securities laws, Nortel disclaims any purpose or duty to update or revise any forward-searching statements, whether as a result of unique tips, future events or otherwise.

(1)Nortel, the Nortel emblem and the Globemark are emblems of Nortel Networks.


Microsoft and Nortel existing Alliance Roadmap | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

news

Microsoft and Nortel current Alliance Roadmap Six months after announcing a telecommunications alliance, Microsoft and Nortel this week presented some early outcomes of their efforts and outlined a roadmap for future tasks.

both businesses first introduced their collaboration closing summer time.

The highway map includes three unique joint solutions “to dramatically improve commerce communications via breaking down the limitations between voice, electronic mail, quick messaging, multimedia conferencing and other types of communication,” in accordance with a press release by pass of both companies.

also included within the announcement are eleven unique implementation services from Nortel and the opening of greater than 20 joint demonstration facilities the site shoppers can event the know-how, the statement persevered.

furthermore, the two businesses famous they've signed agreements with dozens of consumers, and hold developed a “pipeline of a total bunch of prospects who need to recognise the advantages of unified communications.”

From Microsoft's point of view, it is every bit of a portion of the business's lengthy-term play to merge every bit of kinds of communications and messaging perquisite into a lone framework. A yr in the past, the company introduced that it turned into merging its change Server community with its precise-Time Collaboration (RTC) group, and that it had begun to feel of both applied sciences comprising a "platform."

the brand unique community changed into named the Unified Communications group (UCG) and resides in Microsoft's commerce Division. The conception for the unique community emanated from a imaginative and prescient of including continuity to a myriad of communications gadgets, technologies and modes -- from electronic mail and immediate messaging to Voice over cyber web Protocol (VoIP), audio/video and internet conferencing -- in a unified method.

The three unique joint solutions introduced through the alliance this week are named Unified Communications integrated department, Unified Messaging, and Conferencing.

When it's purchasable within the fourth quarter, UC built-in fork will embrace Nortel and Microsoft technology on a lone piece of hardware that offers VoIP and unified communications in far off offices.

Coming slightly previous within the 2d quarter, Unified Messaging will purpose to simplify consumer deployments, indigenous session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel communication Server 1000 and Microsoft change Server 2007. The solution contains Nortel expert features for design, deployment and help.

also coming within the fourth quarter, Conferencing will extend Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft workplace Communicator 2007. It aims to provide a lone customer journey constant throughout purposes equivalent to voice, speedy messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing.

This yr, the agencies additionally draw to extend their latest unified communications solution — a unified computer and smooth cellphone for VoIP, electronic mail, immediate messaging and presence — to the Nortel communication Server 2100, a carrier-grade commercial enterprise telephony product assisting up to 200,000 clients on a lone system, in line with commerce statements.

As for the highway map, the two companies hold fitted greater than 20 joint demonstration centers in North the us, Europe and Asia, with more than 100 extra facilities scheduled to open by means of midyear.

Nortel has additionally added eleven core integration capabilities to assist shoppers construct, deploy and assist joint unified communications solutions, including end-to-end mission administration. Nortel claims it has already trained greater than 2,200 VoIP experts to carry these functions and should add extra as deployment ramps up.

about the creator

Stuart J. Johnston has lined expertise, notably Microsoft, seeing that February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, information Week, and pc World, as well as for commerce Developer, XML & web services, and .web magazines.


Nortel and Microsoft CEOs outline Transformation of commerce Communications | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

big apple — Jan. 17, 2007 — today, Microsoft Corp. CEO Steve Ballmer and Nortel* CEO and President Mike Zafirovski introduced a joint road map to deliver their shared vision for unified communications. The highway map is the result of an alliance between Microsoft and Nortel announced in July 2006, and contains three unique joint options to dramatically enhance commerce communications by using breaking down the boundaries between voice, e-mail, immediate messaging, multimedia conferencing and other styles of communication.

speakme at an adventure at Studio 8H in Rockefeller core to greater than a hundred customers together with journalists and analysts, Ballmer and Zafirovski outlined how groups can augment worker productiveness and effectiveness and gash back the expenses and complexity of communications. They furthermore introduced 11 unique implementation features from Nortel and the cavity of more than 20 joint demonstration centers the site valued clientele can adventure the technology firsthand.

in barely six months on account that the alliance become formed, both groups hold signed agreements with dozens of shoppers, and hold developed a pipeline of lots of of prospects who are looking to understand the merits of unified communications.

“we are executing forcefully on the imaginative and prescient of this alliance and hold made giant growth,” Zafirovski pointed out. “We achieved the planning stages and are now offering unified communications options to companies everywhere. Their purpose is to shut the gap between the gadgets they expend to communicate and the commerce purposes they expend to shun their organizations, giving employees the energy to compose expend of information more straight away and without problems.”

“The yardstick worker gets greater than 50 messages every day1 on as much as seven several devices or purposes,” Ballmer introduced. “application can and should support ply the continuing challenge of managing communications and this problem is the driving understanding behind their alliance with Nortel. collectively, they will evolve VoIP and unified communications to integrate every bit of the methods they contact each and every different in an facile environment, the usage of a lone identity across telephones, PCs and other gadgets.”

New solutions to improve Communications and Collaboration

Microsoft and Nortel fashioned the imaginative Communications Alliance to assist organizations seriously change company communications by using dashing up the transition to voice over web protocol (VOIP) and unified communications. offering on the imaginative and prescient they outlined in July, Microsoft and Nortel nowadays brought three unique options:

  • UC built-in branch. This unique product from the alliance will comprise Nortel and Microsoft® technology on a lone piece of hardware that provides low cost, remarkable and straightforward-to-install VoIP and unified communications in far flung offices. The UC built-in fork is deliberate to live available in the fourth quarter of 2007.

  • Unified Messaging. To simplify client deployments, indigenous session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel conversation Server a thousand and Microsoft alternate Server 2007 Unified Messaging is deliberate to live obtainable in the 2nd quarter of 2007. The avow contains Nortel expert functions for design, deployment and assist.

  • Conferencing. This unique solution will lengthen the wealthy feature set of Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft workplace Communicator 2007, providing a single, everyday client journey consistent across applications comparable to voice, snappy messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing. The on-premise solution is deliberate to live obtainable within the fourth quarter of 2007.

  • In 2007, the organizations additionally draw to extend their existing unified communications solution — a unified computer and elegant mobile for VoIP, e mail, speedy messaging and presence — to the Nortel communication Server 2100, a carrier-grade commercial enterprise telephony product aiding as much as 200,000 clients on a lone system.

    furthermore, Nortel and Microsoft offered a street map for 2008 and past for relocating company communications onto a utility platform designed to power a much better-satisfactory user suffer and reduce total can impregnate of ownership. The street map outlines a number of key functions and expertise trends together with a unified communications contact core, Nortel characteristic server, expanded hosted UC options, mobility and customer solutions, and software-aware networking enhancements.

    “imaginative communications and collaboration applied sciences are vital to wholly enabling Royal Dutch Shell’s world travail force, and key to operating at redress quartile in their trade. They regard in and support the imaginative and prescient Nortel and Microsoft hold outlined,” pointed out Johan Krebbers, community IT architect at Royal Dutch Shell, who joined Ballmer and Zafirovski onstage for nowadays’s adventure. “Over the subsequent a number of years, they draw to migrate their network to a software-based mostly communications tackle constructed on applied sciences represented by pass of the Nortel and Microsoft alliance.”

    Experiencing VoIP and Unified Communications solutions

    The groups announced that they hold got outfitted more than 20 joint demonstration centers in North the us, Europe and Asia, with greater than a hundred additional facilities scheduled to open by pass of midyear.

    In a connected announcement, Nortel added eleven core integration services to support valued clientele build, install and assist joint unified communications options, together with conclusion-to-end assignment administration. Nortel already has greater than 2,200 VoIP consultants to bring these functions and may add greater as deployment ramps up. This group is supported by pass of the ten,000-potent Nortel global functions group and a huge ecosystem of functions partners.

    About Nortel

    Nortel is a recognized chief in delivering communications capabilities that raise the human experience, ignite and vigour international commerce, and secure and protect the world’s most faultfinding guidance. Their next-technology applied sciences, for both service providers and organisations, span access and core networks, lead multimedia and business-crucial functions, and support dispose of nowadays’s boundaries to effectivity, hurry and performance via simplifying networks and connecting americans with assistance. Nortel does enterprise in more than 150 international locations.

    About Microsoft

    based in 1975, Microsoft (Nasdaq “MSFT”) is the worldwide leader in application, features and solutions that assist individuals and organizations recognize their complete expertise.

    note to editors: if you are interested in viewing additional info on Microsoft, tickle consult with the Microsoft internet page at http://www.microsoft.com/presspass on Microsoft’s corporate assistance pages. internet links, mobilephone numbers and titles had been usurp at time of publication, however may additionally because hold changed. For extra information, journalists and analysts may additionally contact Microsoft’s quick Response group or different acceptable contacts listed at http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/contactpr.mspx .

    imaginative Communications Alliance client help

    BT

    BT international capabilities is the division of BT group that gives networked IT capabilities global that permit multinational, multisite organizations to thrive and develop within the digital networked fiscal system

    “The Nortel and Microsoft alliance has the information to accelerate and simplify the cognizance of unified communications for a significant a portion of their customer base. BT leads by pass of instance, and they are already the usage of exchange Server 2007 Unified Messaging with their Nortel telephony equipment. From this journey and from their site as a leading service provider of networked IT capabilities, they accord with that the native, standards-based SIP interoperability that Microsoft and Nortel announced nowadays may soundless simplify deployments and reduce complete impregnate of possession.”

  • Tom Craig President, IP Networking BT global functions

  • CLSA

    With operations in eleven international locations within the Asia-Pacific region and the economic facilities of ny and London, CLSA is one of the main monetary powerhouses global. Hong Kong-based CLSA is an award-profitable enterprise that provides capabilities in brokerage, funding banking and personal equity.

    “We needed to connect their regional workplaces and headquarters, with more than 1,000 personnel, with a system that more suitable their potential to execute trades and supply reporting data. The innovative Communications Alliance is supplying a unified communications system that brings the energy of Nortel’s IP telephony along with the collaboration of Microsoft office reside Communications Server to deliver an avow superior to anything on the market. it's going to allow us to fulfill the needs of their purchasers, meet their regulatory necessities across many countries and simplify communications for their employees. since the ingenious Communications Alliance allows for us to leverage their existing infrastructure, it is the most comparatively cheap avow available.”

  • T. Rajah Chief suggestions Officer CLSA

  • Fred Weber Inc.

    Fred Weber Inc. is the St. Louis area’s leader in cumbersome and highway development. based in Maryland Heights, Mo., this $300 million-a-yr, worker-owned enterprise focuses on full-provider concrete and asphalt paving projects and is the vicinity’s largest materials agency. The enterprise’s travail philosophies nowadays are the identical as these of founder Fred Weber 78 years in the past. of those, “The deserve to continually feel and alter company practices to more suitable serve valued clientele” led Fred Weber Inc. to leverage the Nortel and Microsoft relationship.

    “At Fred Weber, their wants are diverse than other companies. Their commerce exists past 4 walls and a normal workplace complicated. This creates a faultfinding need for profitable and respectable built-in communications. Orchestrating 1,200 employees throughout their 25 pile and substances places in addition to their various subsidiary corporations can live a logistical nightmare. The creative Communications Alliance solution supplied with the aid of Nortel and Microsoft helps lucid up this problem, and allows us to expend greater time with their shoppers and reply in proper time to their wants.”

  • Phillip Hagemann Chief tips Officer Fred Weber Inc.

  • foreign SOS

    foreign SOS is the area’s main issuer of medical suggestions, overseas healthcare and protection capabilities. With operations in 65 nations and a four,500-mighty travail force, exotic SOS helps companies and corporations control the health and safety hazards their tourists, expatriates and global travail constrain face.

    “featuring terrific features to their consumers globally requires helpful communique internally and externally. attractive Nortel and Microsoft’s resourceful Communications Alliance relationship gives us the occasion to assign in constrain a blended technology solution that allows us to enhance their core company of offering healthcare and security features every bit of over.”

  • Todd Schofield Chief expertise Officer overseas SOS

  • Thomas faculty

    Thomas college, a private faculty in Waterville, Maine, is dedicated to profession working towards with a rehearse of educating college students in company, know-how and schooling. With more than 950 undergraduate and graduate students, and a school of 66, Thomas is adopting slicing-aspect Microsoft and Nortel assistance know-how under the aegis of the ingenious Communications Alliance.

    “while they are a wee faculty, they hold the goal of enforcing unified communications capabilities to serve their college students and faculty on par with universities that hold larger enrollments and larger budgets. they hold used the Nortel telephony infrastructure for two decades and are now using Microsoft office are animate Communications Server, so the resourceful Communications Alliance unified communications suite is a natural extension. The draw is to set up the imaginative Communications Alliance solution to integrate communications, augment online coursework, and supply a customized, campuswide speedy messaging means and a collaborative electronic blackboard skill. The net influence is that they are a 113-yr-historic institution that is making ready their students for success of their own and skilled lives, and for leadership and repair in their communities.”

  • Chris Rhoda vice chairman of suggestions amenitiesThomas faculty

  • related Posts Redline Communications and Microsoft promulgate partnership to lessen the impregnate of tv White area answersMicrosoft build highlights unique occasion for developers, on the side and within the cloud Microsoft Dynamics 365 and Adobe journey Cloud chosen by means of 24 Hour fitness to radically change customer engagement Microsoft launches Azure site primarily based capabilities for geospatial needs throughout industries Microsoft and SAP live a portion of forces to provide consumers a depended on course to digital transformation within the cloud

    follow us:

  • Twitter
  • Share this page:

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • LinkedIn
  • Nortel CEO and President Mike Zafirovski (left) and Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer (appropriate) discussing the companies’ shared vision for unified communications. ny, tall apple. Jan. 17, 2007




    Killexams.com 922-090 Dumps and existent Questions

    100% existent Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with lofty Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



    922-090 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design

    Test Code : 922-090
    Test cognomen : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design
    Vendor cognomen : Nortel
    : 30 existent Questions

    Great source of remarkable dumps, accurate answers.
    way to 922-090 exam dump, I ultimately were given my 922-090 Certification. I failed this examination the first time round, and knew that this time, it changed into now or by no means. I nevertheless used the respectable e book, however saved practicing with killexams.com, and it helped. remaining time, I failed with the aid of a tiny margin, literally lacking some factors, but this time I had a solid skip rating. killexams.com centered exactly what youll collect at the examination. In my case, I felt they hold been giving to tons attention to various questions, to the factor of asking inappropriate stuff, but fortuitously i was organized! project executed.


    it's far really notable to hold 922-090 existent test question fiscal institution.
    Every topic and location, each scenario, killexams.com 922-090 substances hold been first-rate assist for me whilst getting equipped for this examination and actually doing it! I used to live apprehensive, but going back to this 922-090 and questioning that I understand the total lot due to the fact the 922-090 examination modified into very spotless after the killexams.com stuff, I were given an terrific discontinue close result. Now, doing the subsequent degree of Nortel certifications.


    found an existent source for actual 922-090 examination questions.
    killexams.com is really good. This exam isnt facile at all, but I got the top score. 100%. The 922-090 preparation pack includes the 922-090 existent exam questions, the latest updates and more. So you learn what you really need to know and accomplish not dissipate your time on unnecessary things that just divert your attention from what really needs to live learnt. I used their 922-090 testing engine a lot, so I felt very confident on the exam day. Now I am very contented that I decided to purchase this 922-090 pack, remarkable investment in my career, I furthermore assign my score on my resume and Linkedin profile, this is a remarkable reputation booster.


    it's far unbelieveable, but 922-090 dumps are availabe perquisite here.
    My convoke is Suman Kumar. I hold were given 89.25% in 922-090 examination after youve got your test materials. Thank youfor offering this configuration of profitable seize a Look at fabric because the reasons to the answers are excellent. Thank you killexams.Com for the high-quality question fiscal institution. The best exertion approximately this question monetary organization is the detailed answers. It allows me to apprehend the concept and mathematical calculations.


    Weekend Study is enough to pass 922-090 exam with I got.
    Killexams.Com is an redress indicator for a college students and users capability to travail and keep for the 922-090 exam. It is an accurate indication of their ability, in particular with assessments taken shortly before commencing their educational keep for the 922-090 examination. Killexams.Com gives a trustworthy updated. The 922-090 checks supply an intensive image of candidates potential and skills.


    What is needed to pass 922-090 exam?
    Surpassed the 922-090 examination with 99% marks. Super! Considering simplest 15 days steering time. every bit of credit rating is going to the query & avow by pass of manner of killexams. Its high-quality cloth made training so spotless that I ought toeven recognize the hard subjects secure. Thanks loads, killexams.Com for offering us such an spotless and effective observeguide. Want your crew retain on developing greater of such courses for different IT certification assessments.


    top notch source of high-quality actual test questions, redress solutions.
    I had taken the 922-090 arrangement from the killexams.Com as that turned into a median diploma for the readiness which had in the close given the exceptional degree of the planning to set off the ninety % scores in the 922-090 checktests. I without a doubt extremely joyful inside the device I were given issues the matters emptied the exciting technique and thru the helpof the equal; I had at lengthy ultimate got the detail out and about. It had made my association a ton of much less tough and with the assist of the killexams.Com I hold been organized to expand properly inside the existence.


    Start preparing these 922-090 questions answers and chillout.
    I spent adequate time reading those materials and handed the 922-090 examination. The stuff is right, and at the identical time as these are brain dumps, which means these materials are constructed at the actual exam stuff, I dont understand people who try to whinge approximately the 922-090 questions being distinct. In my case, not every bit of questions had been 100% the same, however the topics and posh fashion hold been clearly correct. So, pals, in case you seize a Look at hard enough youll accomplish simply first-rate.


    Get these s and visit holidays to assign together.
    It changed into very encourging revel in with killexams.Com group. They informed me to attempt their 922-090 examination questions as soon asand neglect failing the 922-090 exam. First I hesitated to apply the fabric because I fearful of failing the 922-090 examination. But once I informed by my buddies that they used the examination simulator for thier 922-090 certification exam, i purchased the guidance percentage. It gyrate out to live very reasonably-priced. That changed into the number one time that I satisfied to expend killexams.Com education material after I got 100% marks in my 922-090 examination. I in fact understand you killexams.Com team.


    Feeling vicissitude in passing 922-090 exam? you got to live kidding!
    To inaugurate with I want to mention manner to you humans. Ive cleared 922-090 examination through subscribing to your test materials. So I wanted to percentage my success on your net web site. Thank you once more. Thank you very heaps to your tremendous help. Ive cleared my 922-090 with 90%.


    While it is very hard job to select trustworthy certification questions / answers resources with respect to review, reputation and validity because people collect ripoff due to choosing wrong service. Killexams.com compose it confident to serve its clients best to its resources with respect to exam dumps update and validity. Most of other's ripoff report complaint clients near to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams happily and easily. They never compromise on their review, reputation and character because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client assurance is principal to us. Specially they seize keeping of killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com ripoff report complaint, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. If you behold any mistaken report posted by their competitors with the cognomen killexams ripoff report complaint internet, killexams.com ripoff report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com complaint or something like this, just retain in reason that there are always substandard people damaging reputation of advantageous services due to their benefits. There are thousands of satisfied customers that pass their exams using killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams rehearse questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their sample questions and sample brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will definitely know that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.

    Back to Braindumps Menu


    000-041 mock exam | C2070-982 exam prep | 3303 braindumps | C2020-010 existent questions | NCE examcollection | C2140-058 study guide | VDCD510 study guide | 1D0-525 questions answers | HP2-H23 dumps | 000-513 test prep | 650-621 study guide | EE0-021 exam prep | ST0-200 rehearse test | P2090-010 free pdf | 9A0-019 dumps questions | 000-284 braindumps | C2150-609 test questions | COG-480 pdf download | HP0-766 braindumps | 000-910 braindumps |


    922-090 exam questions | 922-090 free pdf | 922-090 pdf download | 922-090 test questions | 922-090 real questions | 922-090 practice questions

    Kill your 922-090 exam at first attempt!
    Just travel through their Questions answers and sense assured approximately the 922-090 exam. You will pass your exam at lofty marks or your money back. They hold aggregated a database of 922-090 Dumps from actual test to live able to provide you with a prep to collect equipped and pass 922-090 exam at the first attempt. Simply install their Exam Simulator and collect ready. You will pass the exam.

    Nortel 922-090 Exam has given another presence to the IT business. It is currently required to certify as the stage which prompts a brighter future. live that as it may, you hold to assign extraordinary exertion in Nortel Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design exam, in light of the fact that there is no shun out of perusing. killexams.com hold made your easy, now your exam planning for 922-090 Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design isnt vehement any longer. Click http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/922-090 killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
    WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for every bit of exams on website
    PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
    DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
    OCTSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for every bit of Orders
    As, the killexams.com is a solid and trustworthy stage who furnishes 922-090 exam questions with 100% pass guarantee. You hold to hone questions for at least one day at any rate to score well in the exam. Your existent trip to success in 922-090 exam, really begins with killexams.com exam questions that is the magnificent and checked wellspring of your focused on position.

    Quality and Value for the 922-090 Exam: killexams.com rehearse Exams for Nortel 922-090 are formed to the most quickened standards of particular exactness, making utilization of simply certified masters and dispensed makers for development.

    100% Guarantee to Pass Your 922-090 Exam: If you don't pass the Nortel 922-090 exam using their killexams.com exam simulator and PDF, they will give you a complete REFUND of your purchasing charge.

    Downloadable, Interactive 922-090 Testing Software: Their Nortel 922-090 Preparation Material offers you which you should seize Nortel 922-090 exam. Unobtrusive components are appeared into and made through Nortel Certification Experts generally using industry delight in to supply particular, and honest to goodness.

    - Comprehensive questions and answers about 922-090 exam - 922-090 exam questions joined by displays - Verified Answers by Experts and very nearly 100% right - 922-090 exam questions updated on universal premise - 922-090 exam planning is in various determination questions (MCQs). - Tested by different circumstances previously distributing - Try free 922-090 exam demo before you select to collect it in killexams.com

    killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
    WC2017: 60% Discount Coupon for every bit of exams on website
    PROF17: 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
    DEAL17: 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
    OCTSPECIAL: 10% Special Discount Coupon for every bit of Orders


    922-090 Practice Test | 922-090 examcollection | 922-090 VCE | 922-090 study guide | 922-090 practice exam | 922-090 cram


    Killexams 000-M49 cram | Killexams HP2-H33 dumps questions | Killexams 9A0-385 rehearse questions | Killexams 1Z0-960 brain dumps | Killexams 1Z0-976 test questions | Killexams A2090-552 existent questions | Killexams HP0-262 study guide | Killexams 1Z0-899 existent questions | Killexams M2020-732 examcollection | Killexams 1V0-701 dump | Killexams 920-199 rehearse test | Killexams 920-167 test prep | Killexams CWNA-106 study guide | Killexams HP0-733 exam questions | Killexams 9A0-411 braindumps | Killexams HP0-J60 questions answers | Killexams 000-225 sample test | Killexams BCP-621 study guide | Killexams 210-260 exam prep | Killexams 1Z1-514 braindumps |


    killexams.com huge List of Exam Study Guides

    View Complete list of Killexams.com Brain dumps


    Killexams 050-890 existent questions | Killexams 000-172 test prep | Killexams 1Y1-456 test prep | Killexams 1Z0-569 existent questions | Killexams RH133 free pdf | Killexams HP0-Y23 questions answers | Killexams 156-706 bootcamp | Killexams 200-047 examcollection | Killexams VCS-254 braindumps | Killexams C8010-726 braindumps | Killexams 050-v71x-CSESECURID pdf download | Killexams CIA-III mock exam | Killexams E20-060 rehearse questions | Killexams HP0-J64 study guide | Killexams 920-110 exam prep | Killexams HP2-T24 braindumps | Killexams 000-225 test questions | Killexams 000-426 rehearse exam | Killexams C2010-505 questions and answers | Killexams NBSTSA-CST cheat sheets |


    Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design

    Pass 4 confident 922-090 dumps | Killexams.com 922-090 existent questions | https://www.textbookw.com/

    More exploits: the remarkable PLC hack | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    References Industrial control systems and other operational technology (OT) compose up the majority of industrial systems and faultfinding infrastructure that are used to control the distribution of power, manufacture cars, control water tide in hydro power plants and control trains and subways. These systems are the core of their modern digitalized society, and, without the proper functioning of these systems, trains could collide, they could live without electricity, water dams could overflow, and robots could slay the car during manufacturing.

    Trillions of insecure industrial control systems and OT systems exist around the world, and a many of these systems are made up of programmable logic controllers (PLCs). PLCs are the components that manage and control the various steps in a manufacturing process and cumbersome machinery such as the top drive on an offshore drilling rig. PLCs are essential for industrial control systems and OT systems. From a cybersecurity perspective, what is exciting is whether it is practicable to seize control of a PLC and what damage it would live practicable to inflict by doing so. Additionally, would it live practicable to seize control of the PLC remotely via the Internet?

    The Stuxnet worm

    To illustrate both how to attack a PLC and what the consequences of such could be, let us Look at the Stuxnet worm. Stuxnet is a stand-alone computer worm, which only targeted Siemens’ supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The worm was designed to attack specific Siemens PLCs and made expend of four zero-day vulnerabilities. The final version of Stuxnet was first discovered in Belarus in June 2010 by Sergey Ulasen from Kaspersky Labs. An earlier version of Stuxnet had already been discovered in 2009. However, the worm was developed much earlier, possibly even as early as 2005. Stuxnet was mainly designed to harm a nuclear plant located in Natanz, Iran. Unfortunately, Stuxnet spread to more than 115 countries, which illustrates how even a targeted attack could spread and antecedent damage outside of its core purpose.

    The worm was specially constructed to change the rotor hurry of the centrifuges inside the Natanz nuclear plant, eventually causing them to explode. What is exciting with Stuxnet is that it was a targeted worm, carefully designed to only antecedent harm if inescapable criteria were met, which means that most infected plants would not live harmed. In fact, Stuxnet would augment the rotor hurry of the centrifuges only if the industrial control system’s architecture matched the nuclear plant in Natanz. Due to its design and complexity, Stuxnet has been defined as an advanced persistent threat (APT). An APT collects data and executes commands continuously over a long epoch of time without detection. This furthermore is known as a “low and slow” attack.

    The Stuxnet worm was brought into the Natanz facility through a USB glimmer drive, enabling it to attack the system from the inside. This was necessary and a prerequisite for the attack as the Natanz facility was not directly accessible from the Internet because there is no remote connection. Once the Natanz facility was infected, the worm first executed locally on the infected host, although it did not actually accomplish anything to the infected host.

    After execution, the worm spread to the entire network, until it organize a Windows operating system running STEP 7. STEP 7 is the Siemens programming software designed for Siemens PLCs. The computer running STEP 7 is known as the control computer and directly interacts with and gives commands to the PLC. Once successfully arrived at the STEP 7 control computer, Stuxnet manipulated the code blocks sent from the control computer, executed risky commands on the PLC and made the centrifuges spin at a higher frequency than originally programmed. The attacks on the PLC were only executed approximately every 27 days to compose the attack stealthy and difficult to detect, which indeed is a central portion of an APT. Stuxnet furthermore took over the control computer and displayed mistaken output on the STEP 7 software. This attack step was a core portion of the attack and known as deception. In this case, the engineers located at the nuclear plant did not receive any indication of errors, assuming the centrifuges were spinning at the redress frequency. By receiving mistaken output in STEP 7, the engineers would assume the meltdown was caused by human error, rather than malware, and acted accordingly. Stuxnet furthermore hid code directly on the PLC after infection and has therefore furthermore been defined as a PLC rootkit.

    One of the zero-day vulnerabilities used by Stuxnet targeted Windows operating systems. It was spread through the server-message-block (SMB) file-sharing protocol as documented in the vulnerability report CVE-2008-4250 in the National Vulnerability Database. The vulnerability allowed remote code execution, spreading aggressively across the local network. The worm had several other features, such as self-replication, updated itself using a command and control center, contained a Windows rootkit, which hid its binaries, and attempted to bypass security products.

    Stuxnet is known as the world’s first digital weapon and destroyed approximately 1,000 centrifuges inside the Natanz power plant. Having cyber attacks causing physical damage revolutionized how cybersecurity experts achieve threat analysis, as well as how PLC vendors design PLCs.

    Ebook: What manufacturers really  deem about the Industrial Internet of Things

    Hacking PLCs

    “Due to the need of integrity checks, older PLCs execute commands whether or not they are delivered from a legitimate source.”

    Part of Stuxnet was to expend the targeted PLCs as a hacker appliance by means of a PLC rootkit and by manipulating the communication between the control computer and the PLC. By targeting both the control computer and the PLC, Stuxnet succeeded in achieving its goal and at the identical time deceived the operators, buying enough time to slay the centrifuges. Stuxnet as an APT is a sophisticated attack that requires both significant intelligence-gathering and resources to execute. It is furthermore necessary to hold insights into the proprietary communication protocols in expend and insights into the architecture of the targeted PLCs, especially for crafting the PLC rootkit.

    What makes Stuxnet so exciting is that its code is now publicly available and can live reused in other attacks. Stuxnet has furthermore led to a significant augment in the number of available hacking courses for PLCs and industrial control systems. It is practicable to seize a course and learn how to hack PLCs and industrial control systems, in addition to how to expend publicly available hacking tools such as the Metasploit framework.

    An industrial control system (ICS) and a PLC compose expend of multiple communication protocols. Some of the most common protocols used are Profinet, Profibus and Modbus. Most protocols designed for ICS hold been designed without any security measures built in, which could allow remote code execution, packet sniffing and replay attacks, due to the need of authentication and encryption.

    Profinet, or industrial Ethernet, uses the traditional Ethernet hardware, which makes it compatible with most equipment. Profinet is widely used in the automation industry, and its design is based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. Profinet enables bi-directional communication and is the preferred communication protocol for the Siemens Simatic PLCs.

    Profibus is an international fieldbus communication standard. It is used to link several devices together and allows bi-directional communication. There are two types of Profibus—Profibus Decentralized Peripherals (DP) and Profibus Process Automation (PA). One limitation with Profibus is that it is only able to communicate with one device at a time. The unique version of Profibus is standardized in IEC 61158.

    Modbus is a serial communications protocol that was designed and published by Modicon (Schneider Electric) in 1979. Modbus is referred to as master- and-slave communication, since one master can hold up to 247 slave devices. The control computer—HMI/engineering workstation—would typically live the master, while the automation devices, or PLCs, are the slaves. It was originally designed as a communication protocol for PLCs and later became an international yardstick for connecting together multiple industrial devices. Modbus is facile to deploy, cheap and designed for SCADA systems. There are three variations of the Modbus protocol: American yardstick Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), remote terminal unit (RTU) and transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP).

    Modbus uses user datagram protocol (UDP) by default at port 502 and is mostly used by Schneider Electric. There are several Metasploit scanners that allow detection and exploitation of Modbus. Furthermore, there are furthermore Profinet scanners available in the Metasploit framework. Similar scanners coded in Python can furthermore live organize on GitHub. In 2011, Dillon Beresford, senior vulnerability research engineer at Dell, released remote exploits towards Siemens’ Simatic PLC series. These exploits were related to Profinet, which communicates using TCP port 102.

    What is exciting with these exploits is that they dump and view memory, and they even execute on and off commands to the PLC’s central processing unit (CPU). An illustration is the remote-memory-viewer exploit, which authenticates using a hard-coded backdoor password in Siemens’ Simatic S7-300 PLC. In this exploit, the CPU start/stop module executes shellcode toward the PLC and turns it on/off remotely. The identical start/stop exploit can live organize for the S7-1200 series. Furthermore, by injecting shellcode, it is furthermore practicable to gain remote access to the PLC.

    Due to the need of integrity checks, older PLCs execute commands whether or not they are delivered from a legitimate source. The reason for this is that there are no checksums on the network packages. A sweep of replay attacks has been shown to travail against a big number of PLCs, which allows the attacker to send execution commands remotely. Therefore, exploiting PLCs remotely with open-source tools is a major threat to SCADA systems. One of many reasons this is a huge problem is, if SCADA systems are suddenly turned off, the consequences can live stern for faultfinding infrastructure. Different SCADA systems are dependent on soft and controlled shutdowns to not antecedent any damage to the mechanical equipment. On the lustrous side, these exploits hold helped to raise awareness toward cybersecurity in faultfinding infrastructure.

    During Black Hat USA in 2011, Beresford introduced a live demo created for Siemens’ Simatic S7-300 and 1200 series. The exploits used during his demo are programmed in Ruby, which was made compatible with the Metasploit Framework. Other open-source tools such as “PLC scan” are furthermore available for anyone to download and expend in industrial control systems.

    Remote exploits on ICS were an essential portion of the Stuxnet worm. However, Beresford introduced how it is practicable to gain remote access to a PLC by using the hardcoded password integrated into the software, which is taking things one step further than what was done in Stuxnet.

    This is not purely a Siemens issue; Rockwell Automation has furthermore experienced a stack-based overflow that could allow remote access to the system by injecting whimsical code, according to CVE-2016-0868 of the National Vulnerability Database. The vulnerability was reported January 26, 2016, and was targeted toward the MicroLogix 1100 PLC. In addition, there are several other exploits and scanners available in the Metasploit project that can live used to remotely execute commands to different PLC models.

    When it comes to the control computer, it can furthermore live used as a hacker tool, mainly because of various software exploits, of which some will enable to seize control of the engineering workstation in a SCADA system or ICS. This enables the attacker to pivot or exploit the data sent to the PLC. An exploit created by James Fitts, contributor to the Exploit Database, allows a remote attacker to inject whimsical code into Fatek’s PLC programming software, WinProladder, as documented CVE-2016-8377 of the National Vulnerability Database.

    Even though the attacker could trigger the exploit remotely, it does soundless require user interaction, such as a visit to a malicious Web page or opening an infected file, to successfully seize odds of the exploit. The exploit is a stack-based overflow that is available in Ruby for Metasploit import. Applications programmed in C are often more vulnerable to buffer overflows than other programming languages, and there are many C-based software packages in expend in industrial control systems. For example, injecting shellcode through a buffer overflow vulnerability can vouchsafe remote access to the system. It can furthermore live used for privilege escalation.

    Shodan and Internet-facing PLCs

    Shodan is a search engine that is widely used by security experts and hackers to find different devices on the Internet. By using inescapable search terms, it is practicable to find PLCs connected directly to the Internet. During a search for “Simatic” performed March 2, 2018, a total of 1,737 ICS devices were found.

    Having an ICS reachable from the Internet represents a stern risk of exploitation, which could lead to remote access, sabotage and espionage. For example, an automated scanning based on search results from Shodan could identify every bit of potential targets and eventually provide a suitable target into a specific faultfinding infrastructure system or ICS. Furthermore, combining a Shodan search script with code from Stuxnet could potentially live a major risk for anyone with PLCs reachable either indirectly or directly from the Internet.

    Are they screwed?

    The need of security in industrial control systems is a major concern to national security. A PLC was originally designed to only duty as an automatic operator in an industrial control system and not to live connected to external components and reachable from the Internet. However, the evolution in ICS design has started to expose PLCs to the Internet, which can live shown through searches using tools such Shodan. PLCs faith on air-gapped networks and restricted physical access as a security measure.

    Air-gapped networks hold multiple times been shown to live a flawed design and are in no circumstance a legitimate security controversy in modern ICS. This was proven by the Stuxnet attack, which spread to more than 115 countries, infecting faultfinding infrastructure worldwide, even though most control systems were in principle designed as air-gapped. This change in ICS and critical-infrastructure environments means PLCs are exposed to a larger security threat than earlier.

    Penetration testing

    Securing an ICS environment, including the PLCs, is nontrivial, as these systems are not designed to live cyber-resilient. This means that one has to to some extent integrate cybersecurity resilience measures into and around the ICS. Such measures include, for example, perimeter defense such as firewalls to reduce the risk of unwanted network traffic; network monitoring and preferably non-intrusive, ICS-specific, anomaly-based network monitoring as such systems are designed to not pose any additional load on ICS networks; and ultimate but not least endpoint protection and monitoring to reduce the exposure PLCs hold to attacks via remote connections and to detect any sign of attacks as early as possible. The latter requires some sort of ICS-specific endpoint protection and monitoring. But another very principal aspect is to identify and understand the risks. What are the attack interfaces, attack methods and attacks and potential consequences? Additionally, it is principal to evaluate and continuously re-evaluate the likelihood of potential attacks.

    One fashion to gain insight into the risk exposure is penetration testing where the goal is to identify attack vectors and to test these attack vectors either on paper or in practice—so, attack the system. However, penetration testing in an ICS environment requires a mindful approach that is significantly different than yardstick penetration testing techniques for IT systems. Industrial control systems accommodate sensitive equipment, such as PLCs. These devices hold a sensitive processing unit, which may lead to freezing, configuration resets and faulting if stressed due to low stack handling.

    Standard penetration testing such as a simple port scan performed by tools such as Nmap might live enough to overload the processing unit. Due to fragile network stack handling, inescapable devices cannot ply the number of network packages generated by Nmap and similar tools. Therefore, it is best rehearse to not achieve penetration testing on a live ICS environment. ICS penetration testing should live performed only in a controlled lab environment.

    There are many penetration testing methodologies to select from, although few tailored for ICS. One ICS-friendly methodology is the zero-entry methodology for penetration testing. The zero-entry methodology is comprised of four steps: reconnaissance, scanning, exploitation and post-exploitation.

    Post-exploitation might involve maintaining access to the system, which is what an APT does when establishing a path for the control-and-command-center communication, which is used to send intelligence information on the target system and to upload unique exploits/malware. Furthermore, covering your tracks to veil your attack steps are in many sophisticated attacks the fifth step.

    Reconnaissance focuses on gathering information about the target, such as IP address and domain-name-system (DNS) records, and reading about common vulnerabilities for the target PLCs. Scanning involves actively scanning the target for open ports, detecting operating system and running services.

    Nmap, including the Nmap Script Engine (NSE), is an illustration of a appliance that is often used for scanning. In case a vulnerability is found, the attack moves forward to exploitation. In most cases, such vulnerabilities are used to gain access to the system through different services running on the PLC. After exploiting the vulnerability, it is preferable to compose the access persistent. However, not every bit of services give the occasion to create a persistent backdoor.

    For many PLCs, it is practicable to extract details about the PLC using a controlled Nmap scan toward the PLC. This must live performed with keeping to avoid interrupting the PLC. They hold a lab setup where they achieve controlled penetration testing on PLCs and other ICS equipment.

    In one of their penetration tests, the Nmap scan revealed MAC address, hardware and firmware information (Figure 1). Also, the scan revealed that Port 80, 102 and 443 were open. By using different scripts in the Nmap Script Engine (NSE), they were able to extract detailed information about the firmware, hardware, MAC address and serial number. This detailed information can live used to develop exploits and to investigate vulnerabilities toward the specific PLC series.

    Figure 1: detailed information can live used to develop exploits and to investigate vulnerabilities toward the specific PLC series.

    We used the result from the Nmap scan to investigate vulnerabilities, for which many are reported and discussed in the National Vulnerability Database. After discovering and exploiting vulnerabilities, it is in many cases practicable to crack the password and furthermore to gain access to the PLC and shut it down.

    ALSO READ: How safe are your controllers?

    Langner, R. 2013. To Kill a centrifuge. The Langner Group, Tech. Rep. https://www.langner.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/to-kill-a-centrifuge.pdf

    Mueller, P. and Yadegari, B. 2012. The Stuxnet Worm. Département des sciences de l’informatique, Université de l’Arizona. https://www2.cs.arizona.edu/~collberg/Teaching/466-566/2013/Resources/presentations/2012/topic9-final/report.pdf

    Falliere, N., Murchu, L. O. and Chien, E. 2011. W32. Stuxnet dossier. White paper, Symantec Corp. Security Response, 5, 29. http://ants.mju.ac.kr/2013Fall/w32_stuxnet_dossier(Symantec).pdf

    Hu, P. Li, H. Fu, H. Cansever, D. and Mohapatra, P. Dynamic defense strategy against advanced persistent threat with insiders. Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 2015 IEEE Conference on, 2015. IEEE, 747-755. http://qurinet.ucdavis.edu/pubs/conf/infocom15-pengfei.pdf

    Falliere, N. 2010. Exploring Stuxnet‘s PLC Infection Process. Symantec blog entry. http://daveschull.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Exploring-Stuxnet.pdf

    National Vulnerability Database. 2008. CVE-2008-4250 Detail. https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/cve-2008-4250

    Matrosov, A., Rodionov, E. Harley, D. and Malcho, J. 2010. Stuxnet under the microscope. ESET LLC (September 2010). http://www.rpac.in/image/ITR%201.pdf

    Denning, D. E. 2012. Stuxnet: What has changed? Future Internet, 4, 672-687. http://www.mdpi.com/1999-5903/4/3/672/htm

    Fidler, D. P. 2011. Was stuxnet an act of war? Decoding a cyberattack. IEEE Security & Privacy, 9, 56-59. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8182/ff717efd66ac92b870d0cd47a4194d4e6aa6.pdf

    Chen, T. M. and Abu-Nimeh, S. 2011. Lessons from stuxnet. Computer, 44, 91-93. http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/8203/1/ieee-computer-april-2011.pdf

    Kennedy, D. O'Gorman, J., Kearns, D. and Aharoni, M. 2011. Metasploit - The Penetration Tester's Guide. No starch press.

    Stouffer, K. Falco, J. and Scarfone, K. 2011. lead to industrial control systems (ICS) security. NIST special publication, 800, 16-16. http://www.gocs.com.de/pages/fachberichte/archiv/164-sp800_82_r2_draft.pdf

    Beresford, D. 2011. Exploiting Siemens Simatic S7 PLCs. Black Hat USA 2011. Las Vegas 16, 723-733. https://media.blackhat.com/bh-us-11/Beresford/BH_US11_Beresford_S7_PLCs_WP.pdf

    Briscoe, N. 2000. Understanding the OSI 7-layer model. PC Network Advisor, 120. https://www.os3.nl/_media/2014-2015/info/5_osi_model.pdf

    Siemens. 2017. S7-1200 Communication. Siemens. https://w3.siemens.com/mcms/programmable-logic-controller/en/basic-controller/s7-1200/communication/pages/default_vor_tabs.aspx#Description

    Igure, V. M. Laughter, S. A. and Williams, R. D. 2006. Security issues in SCADA networks. Computers & Security, 25, 498-506. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ea0d/2e22439c0dac5c667bdb9b8344e281cc7dac.pdf

    Profibus. 2017. Profibus standardized in IEC 61158. https://www.profibus.com/technology/profibus/

    Panchal, P. and Patel, A. 2015. Interfacing of PLC with NI-LabVIEW using Modbus Protocol. ETCEE–2015, 54.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alpesh_Patel16/publication/282986115_PI_control_of_level_control_system_using_PLC_and_LabVIEW_based_SCADA/links/570e117608ae3199889cb0d4.pdf

    Bodungen, C. S., Aaron; Wilhoit, Kyle; Hilt, Stephen; Singer, Bryan L. 2016. Hacking Exposed Industrial Control Systems: ICS and SCADA Security Secrets & Solutions, McGraw-Hill Education.

    Kennedy, D. O'Gorman, J., Kearns, D. and Aharoni, M. 2011. Metasploit - The Penetration Tester's Guide. No starch press.

    Wilhoit, K. 2013. Who’s Really Attacking Your ICS Equipment? Trend Micro, 10.http://www.trendmicro.com.hk/cloud-content/apac/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp-whos-really-attacking-your-ics-equipment.pdf

    National Vulnerability Database. 2016. CVE-2016-0868 Detail. https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2016-0868

    National Vulnerability Database. 2016. CVE-2016-8377 Detail. https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2016-8377

    Black, P. E. and Bojanova, I. 2016. Defeating Buffer Overflow: A petty but risky Bug. IT professional, 18, 58-61. htps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5455784/

    Shodan. 2017. What is Shodan? Shodan. https://help.shodan.io/the-basics/what-is-shodan

    Ercolani, V. 2017. A Survey of Shodan Data. University of Arizona. https://msmis.eller.arizona.edu/sites/msmis/files/documents/sfs_papers/vincent_ercolani_sfs_masters_paper.pdf

    Engebretson, P. 2013. The basics of hacking and penetration testing, Waltham, Syngress.

    Regalado, D. Harris, S. Harper, A. Eagle, C. Ness, J. Spasojevic, B. Linn, R. and Sims, S. 2015. Gray Hat Hacking - The Ethical Hacker's Handbook. McGraw-Hill Education Group.

    Houmb thumbDr. Siv Hilde Houmb is associate professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Gjøvik, Norway. She has a Ph.D. in computer science, focusing on cybersecurity and determination theory, and is the CTO of Secure-NOK, which she founded in 2010. She has an extensive background in controls security and cybersecurity, including penetration testing, risk assessment, security protocol progress and ethical hacking. She’s published more than 50 scientific papers and articles on cybersecurity and risk assessment.

    Dr. Houmb worked as a security specialist and risk analyst in Telenor from 1999 to 2011, was a guest researcher at Colorado condition University from 2004 to 2006 and held a post-doctoral at the University of Twente in the Netherlands from 2007 to 2008. She has served as a security specialist for the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) and the European Commission (EC) on topics such as RFID, car-to-car communications, privacy impact assessments, risk assessment and security evaluations of unique and emerging ICT technologies. Dr. Houmb leads the cybersecurity committee at the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) and works with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and the National Institute for Standards and Technologies (NIST) on cybersecurity standardization and regulation of oil and gas, maritime and faultfinding manufacturing. Dr. Houmb furthermore is the editor of the two first international cybersecurity guidelines for the drilling industry, published by IADC.

     

     

    Erik David Martin thumbErik David Martin is an IT security student at Noroff Education located in Stavanger, Norway. He is currently working on a bachelor’s degree in computer security and will finish his degree at the University of South Wales. He collaborated with Dr. Houmb during his end-semester thesis in 2018 where hacking and exploitation of PLCs was in focus. Martin had a summer internship at Secure-NOK AS shortly after finishing the thesis. The internship involved further security research of PLCs and pile a demo kit, which should live used for demonstrations during security conferences and stands. The demo kit involved a Python-based GUI program that automatically attacked a PLC by using the graphical interface and different communication libraries. He has furthermore contributed to Exploit Database by finding a vulnerability and submitting a Python-based exploit.


    Asynchronous Communication — Methods and Strategies | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Asynchronous communication is a widely-used communication fashion between different processes and systems. In an asynchronous communication, the client sends a request to the server (which requires lengthy processing) and receives a delivery acknowledgment perquisite away. Different from the synchronous communication, this response does not hold the required information, yet.

    After the client receives the acknowledgment, it continues to accomplish its other tasks, assuming it will eventually live notified when the required information is ready on the server side.

    The biggest profit of asynchronous communication is the increased performance. Since the client does not obstruct its valuable CPU cycles just for waiting, it can deliver more within the identical timeframe. Increased decoupling between the client-server interaction will furthermore lead to better scalability.

    We behold asynchronous communication patterns everywhere. Here are some examples:

  • A “Design and Assign” request is submitted to the Inventory Management Application, from the Order Management Application.
  • A “full dump” is requested from an Inventory Management Application.
  • Monitoring Application sends 1000 SMS’s to the service impacted customers via an SMS Gateway.
  • Examples can live multiplied, but the principle is the same: Notify the caller when the lengthy process is finished, and the information can live consumed.

    There are three methods to implement an asynchronous communication:

  • Asynchronous Callbacks
  • Using Pub-Sub messaging using a Message Broker (or MoM)
  • Polling for condition Changes
  • In this article, they will elaborate these methods and some strategies that can compose them effective.

    Method 1: Asynchronous Callback

    In an asynchronous callback mechanism, following steps occur:

  • The client authenticates to the server.

  • The client calls the server operation. (Web service, RPC, Local fashion call, etc.)

  • The client furthermore subscribes with its “callback endpoint address” to the server. (explained below)

  • The server acknowledges the receipt of the request synchronously.

  • Client waits for the reply from another pre-defined channel (A Servlet, PHP page, Local handle, etc.)

  • Server finishes the required travail and notifies the client from the channel.

  • The client fetches the information and processes it.

  • Method 2: Broker-based Publish/Subscribe

    In this method, a “topic” is created to enable the Client-Server communication. The steps are similar to Asynchronous Callback, but here, the medium differs. The server never notifies the client directly. It does this through a buffer, which is the Broker.

  • The client authenticates to the server.

  • The client calls the server operation. (Web service, RPC, Local fashion call, etc.)

  • The client subscribes to the broker and starts listening to the topic from a different thread.

  • Server finishes the required travail and publishes a message to the topic.

  • The client fetches the information and processes it.

  • Since they faith on a different broker component that will accomplish the mediation between the systems, they should hold a solid understanding of the inner workings of that broker. Features like message durability, TTLs, and routings need to live elaborated thoroughly.

    Method 3: Polling

    Polling should live the least preferred fashion from the performance and scalability point of view as it puts extra strain on both client and server side. However, in some conditions, (especially when you hold no control over the legacy server application’s code or repository), you may live forced to implement it. Here are the typical steps of polling:

  • The client authenticates to the server.

  • The client calls the server operation. (Web service, RPC, Local fashion call, etc.)

  • Server acknowledges the receipt of the request synchronously. Server puts the request in its database or exposes its condition via an external service (such as web service)

  • Every X seconds, client polls the condition of the request by connecting to the repository or the exposed interface.

  • If request’s condition transitions to “ready”, the client fetches the information and processes it.

  • There are inescapable strategies you need to regard while designing asynchronous communication architectures.

    Key Strategy

    The participants should live able to uniquely identify each request. That is to say, if the client asks the server to dump its database to an FTP server, the server should return its acknowledgment with a key that identifies this individual request.

    The client can, then, wait for this particular key in its listening channel and correlate the incoming notification to the original request. Ideally, this key should live generated by the server. However, in some situations (cloud trailing requirement or legacy application involvement), the client provides a unique key attached to the request. It is then the server’s responsibility to respond back with the identical key when the callback time comes. The drawback to this second approach is key collisions. If a divorce client furthermore provides the identical key at the identical time, the server will need to reject the request.

    Broker-based Publish/Subscribe fashion normally uses one shared topic for every bit of clients. Key Strategy becomes extremely principal especially when this fashion is chosen.

    Retry Strategy

    Imagine you are implementing the callback approach with an external URL. The remote client has passed the request, got its acknowledgment and waiting for the callback event to live delivered. What if the clients’ endpoint is not available at that instant due to some reason? (Network outage, rebooting due to patch deployment, etc.)

    If the server simply ignores this callback, when the client comes back up, it will never receive the callback. Therefore the request will never live fulfilled; client resources would live unnecessarily consumed.

    To avoid this situation, Server should implement retries. It should retry the callback multiple times, waiting for fixed/increasing intervals in between. If the remote portion never comes alive, then the callback message can live assign in a repository that can live “re-played” manually by the support personnel.

    With the broker approach, retry strategy can live even more challenging. There is a shadowy side of the publish/subscribe model. When you publish a message, it will live delivered to every bit of of the subscribers. If the subscriber is not listening at that instant though, the message is lost! There are some workarounds to avoid this situation, such as durable application server topics, attached queues, or some tools like Apache Kafka. tickle note that these workarounds can near with increased costs of maintainability, so feasibility studies should live performed before the rollout.

    Subscription Strategy

    Asynchronous Callback fashion requires a subscription strategy. The client should provide the server its address. For webhooks, this is a URL hosted on the client’s web server. For other cases, it could even live a hostname and port number.

    Rather than putting client URLs to a central database before the integration starts, they should implement a dynamic endpoint subscription methodology. The modern pass to accomplish this is to provide a Restful web service endpoint which accepts a request id, URL, and a key. “request id,” comes from the initial synchronous request they made, which will live used as the correlation key. “URL” is the client’s callback address. “key” is the password that should live passed to the client along with the URL callback.

    Before the callback happens, the server can Look up a “request id” from a lookup table (fed previously by a subscription) and find out the endpoint address to call. If this is a one-off request/response pair, the lookup row can live deleted from the repository on the spot.

    Payload Strategy

    Generated response on the server side can portray any information. It can live a ten digit number or a ten terabyte file. Payload strategies depict how this information is passed to the client side.The payload can live directly passed inside the asynchronous notification itself. If the size is expressed in kilobytes, they can pass the information along to the callback. If this is not the case, the pointer to the file should live passed in the notification. If the information is captured in a, say, ten terabyte file, a file name, and an FTP server IP address can live passed within the notification. It would live then the client’s responsibility to travel ahead and fetch that file.

    Designing asynchronous systems require mindful design. The first question they need to inquire ourselves is “Will it live more feasible to accomplish this synchronously?”. If the non-functional requirements allow, they should stick to the synchronous pass of doing things. If you close up deciding the asynchronous path though, methodologies and strategies that are mentioned in this article can compose your journey smoother.

    Topics:

    performance ,asynchronous communication ,asynchronous ,asynchronous programming ,asynchronous methods


    The Best VPN Services of 2018 | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    VPNs retain You Safe Online

    Are you so used to your data traveling via Wi-Fi that you've stopped worrying about the safety and security of that data—and about who else might live spying on it, or even stealing it for nefarious purposes? If so, you are—sadly—in the majority, and you ought to regard using a viritual private network, or VPN. In fact, when PCMag ran a survey on VPN usage, they organize that a shocking 71 percent of the 1,000 respondents had never even used a VPN. Even among those who support net neutrality—who you might deem would watch to live well informed on technology and privacy issues—55 percent had never used a VPN.

    That attitude to the safety and privacy of personal data creates an immense risk when it comes to online security. Public Wi-Fi networks, which are ubiquitous and convenient, are unfortunately furthermore highly convenient for attackers looking to compromise your personal information. How accomplish you know, for example, that "starbucks_wifi_real" is actually the Wi-Fi network for the coffee shop? Anyone could hold created that network, and they may hold done so in order to entice victims into disclosing personal information over it. In fact, a approved security researcher prank is to create a network with the identical cognomen as a free, approved service and behold how many devices will automatically connect because it appears safe.

    Even if you're inclined to faith your fellow humans (which I accomplish not recommend), you soundless shouldn't faith your internet service provider. In its infinite wisdom, Congress has decided that your ISP is allowed to sell your browsing history.

    In short, it's time to start thinking about protecting your personal information. That's where virtual private networks, or VPNs, near in. These services expend simple software to protect your internet connection, and they give you greater control over how you parade online, too. While you might never hold heard of VPN services, they are valuable tools that you should understand and use. So who needs a VPN? The short avow is that everyone does. Even Mac users can profit from a VPN.

    What Is a VPN?

    In the simplest terms, a VPN creates a secure, encrypted connection—which can live thought of as a tunnel—between your computer and a server operated by the VPN service. In a professional setting, this tunnel effectively makes you portion of the company's network, as if you were physically sitting in the office.

    While you're connected to a VPN, every bit of your network traffic passes through this protected tunnel, and no one—not even your ISP—can behold your traffic until it exits the tunnel from the VPN server and enters the public internet. If you compose confident to only connect to websites secured with HTTPS, your data will continue to live encrypted even after it leaves the VPN.

    Think about it this way: If your car pulls out of your driveway, someone can result you and behold where you are going, how long you are at your destination, and when you are coming back. They might even live able to peek inside your car and learn more about you. With a VPN service, you are essentially driving into a closed parking garage, switching to a different car, and driving out, so that no one who was originally following you knows where you went.

    VPN services, while tremendously helpful, are not foolproof. There's no magic bullet (or magic armor) when it comes to security. A determined adversary can almost always transgression your defenses in one pass or another. Using a VPN can't assist if you unwisely download ransomware on a visit to the shadowy Web, or if you are tricked into giving up your data to a phishing attack.

    What a VPN can accomplish is to protect you against mass data collection and the casual criminal vacuuming up user data for later use. It can furthermore protect your privacy by making it harder for advertisers to design out who and where you are. That's why VPNs are important, even when you're browsing from the comfort and (relative) safety of your home.

    Who Needs a VPN?

    First and foremost, using a VPN prevents anyone on the identical network access point (or anywhere else) from intercepting your web traffic in a man-in-the-middle attack. This is especially handy for travelers and for those using public Wi-Fi networks, such as web surfers at hotels, airports, and coffee shops. Someone on the identical network, or the person in control of the network you're using, could conceivably intercept your information while you're connected.

    VPNs furthermore cloak your computer's actual IP address, hiding it behind the IP address of the VPN server you're connected to. IP addresses are distributed based on location, so you can assay someone's location simply by looking at their IP address. And while IP addresses may change, it's practicable to track someone across the internet by watching where the identical IP address appears. Using a VPN makes it harder for advertisers (or spies, or hackers) to track you online.

    Many VPN services furthermore provide their own DNS resolution system. deem of DNS as a phone bespeak that turns a text-based URL like "pcmag.com" into a numeric IP address that computers can understand. Savvy snoops can monitor DNS requests and track your movements online. Greedy attackers can furthermore expend DNS poisoning to direct you to bogus phishing pages designed to lift your data. When you expend a VPN's DNS system, it's another layer of protection.

    VPNs are necessary for improving individual privacy, but there are furthermore people for whom a VPN is essential for personal and professional safety. Some journalists and political activists faith on VPN services to circumvent government censorship and safely communicate with the outside world. Check the local laws before using a VPN in China, Russia, Turkey, or any country with with repressive internet policies.

    What about using a VPN for BitTorrent? Some services, such as TorGuard and NordVPN, allow peer-to-peer file sharing and the expend of BitTorrent sharing. Others restrict such activity to specific servers. live smart: Learn the company's terms of service—and the local laws on the subject. That pass you can't complain if you shun into trouble.

    VPNs and Net Neutrality

    It is practicable (emphasis on "possible") that VPNs may live able to save net neutrality repeal. benign of.

    For those who are unaware, net neutrality is the much-discussed concept that ISPs treat web services and apps equally, and not create snappy lanes for companies that pay more, or require consumers to sign up for specific plans in order to access services like Netflix or Twitter. Federal net neutrality rules would ensure that the internet effectively continues to operate the pass it has for its entire existence.

    Depending on how ISPs respond to a newly deregulated environment, a VPN could tunnel traffic past any choke points or blockades thrown up by ISPs. That said, an obvious response would live to obstruct or throttle every bit of VPN traffic. Or perhaps ISPs will near up with an entirely novel pass to monetize the letitude given them by the current need of net neutrality legislation.

    We'll hold to behold how this plays out, but this isn't really a problem that VPNs should hold to fix. It's up to Congress and, by extension, the voters. So perquisite after you purchase a VPN subscription, maybe give your reps and senators a call.

    How to select a VPN Service

    The VPN services market has exploded in the past few years, and a wee competition has turned into an all-out melee. Many providers are capitalizing on the universal population's growing concerns about surveillance and cybercrime, which means it's getting hard to narrate when a company is actually providing a secure service and when it's throwing out a lot of fancy words while selling snake oil. In fact, since VPN services hold become so approved in the wake of Congress killing ISP privacy rules, there hold even been fake VPNs popping up, so live careful. It's principal to retain a few things in reason when evaluating which VPN service is perquisite for you: reputation, performance, nature of encryption used, transparency, ease of use, support, and extra features. Don't just focus on expense or speed, though those are principal factors.

    Some VPN services provide a free trial, so seize odds of it. compose confident you are contented with what you signed up for, and seize odds of money-back guarantees if you're not. This is actually why they furthermore recommend starting out with a short-term subscription—a week or a month—to really compose confident you are happy. KeepSolid VPN Unlimited offers a one-week Vacation subscription, for example. Yes, you may collect a discount by signing up for a year, but that's more money at stake should you realize the service doesn't meet your performance needs.

    Most users want a complete graphical user interface for managing their VPN connection and settings, though a few would rather download a configuration file and import it into the OpenVPN client. Most VPN companies they hold reviewed support every bit of levels of technological savvy, and the best hold robust customer support for when things travel sideways.

    Free Vs. Paid VPNs

    Not every bit of VPN services require that you pay. There are, in fact, many excellent free VPNs. But every bit of of the free VPNs we've tested hold some benign of limitation. Some limit you to just a few simultaneous connections or devices on an account. Others restrict you to a few hundred MBs of data per day or per month. Others limit you to just a handful of servers. soundless others accomplish every bit of of the above.

    Finding the best free VPN is an exercise in balancing those restrictions. TunnelBear, for example, lets you expend any server on its network but limits you to 500MB-1GB per month. Avira Phantom VPN lets you expend as many devices as you like and any server you like, but furthermore restricts you to 500MB per month. AnchorFree Hotspot Shield furthermore places no limits on the number of devices, but restricts you to 500MB per day and only US-based servers. Kaspersky Secure Connection furthermore doesn't limit your devices but doesn't let you select a VPN server—the app does it automatically.

    ProtonVPN has the unique distinction of placing no data restrictions on free users. You can browse as much as you want, as long as you want. You will live limited to just one device on the service at a time and can only select between three server locations, but the unlimited data makes up for every bit of that. It doesn't harm that ProtonVPN, from the identical people that brought you super-secure ProtonMail email, is very concerned about security and customer privacy. For every bit of that, ProtonVPN is their Editors' option for free VPN.

    Can You faith Your VPN Service?

    If you're using a service to route every bit of your internet traffic through its servers, you hold to live able to faith the provider. Established security companies, such as F-Secure, may hold only recently near to the VPN market. It's easier to faith companies that hold been around a dinky longer, simply because their reputation is likely to live known. But companies and products can change quickly. Today's unhurried VPN service that won't let you cancel your subscription could live tomorrow's poster child for excellence.

    We're not cryptography experts, so they can't verify every bit of of the encryption claims providers make. Instead, they focus on the features provided. bounty features like ad blocking, firewalls, and Kill switches that disconnect you from the web if your VPN connection drops, travel a long pass toward keeping you safe. They furthermore prefer providers that support OpenVPN, since it's a yardstick that's known for its hurry and reliability. It's also, as the cognomen implies, open source, signification it benefits from many developers' eyes looking for potential problems.

    Since they ultimate tested VPNs, we've given special attention to the privacy practices of VPN companies and not just the technology they provide. In their testing, they read through the privacy policies and argue company practices with VPN service representatives. What they Look for is a commitment to protect user information, and to seize a hands-off approach to gathering user data.

    As portion of their research, they furthermore compose confident to find out where the company is based and under what legal framework it operates. Some countries don't hold data-retention laws, making it easier to retain a swear of "We don't retain any logs." It's furthermore useful to know under what circumstances a VPN company will hand over information to law enforcement and what information it would hold to provide if that should happen.

    The best VPN services hold a privacy policy that clearly spells out what the service does, what information it collects, and what it does to protect that information. Some companies define that they collect some information, but don't inform you about how they intend to expend that information. Others are more transparent.

    While a VPN can protect your privacy online, you might soundless want to seize the additional step of avoiding paying for one using a credit card, for righteous or security reasons. Several VPN services now accept anonymous payment methods such Bitcoin, and some even accept retailer gift cards. Both of these transactions is about as close as you can collect to paying with cash for something online. That Starbucks gift card may live better spent on secure web browsing than a mediocre-at-best latte.

    Understanding the Limitations of a VPN

    VPNs are great, but it's just as principal to know what a VPN can and cannot do. A appliance is only useful when it's used correctly, after all.

    While it hides your IP address, a VPN is not a proper anonymization service. For that, you'll want to access the Tor network, which will almost certainly unhurried down your connection. While a VPN tunnels your web traffic to a VPN server, Tor bounces around your traffic through several volunteer nodes making it much, much harder to track. Using Tor furthermore grants access to hidden shadowy Web sites, which a VPN simply cannot do. That said, some services, such as NordVPN, tender Tor access on specific servers. IVPN offers a similar feature called multi-hop VPN, which lets you route your web traffic in tricky ways.

    Using a VPN will avert most kinds of DNS attacks that would redirect you to a phishing page, but a regular antediluvian page made to Look like a legit one in order to trick you into entering your data can soundless work. Some VPNs, and most browsers, are pretty advantageous about blocking phishing pages, but this attack soundless claims too many victims to live ignored. expend common sense and live confident to verify that websites are what they exclaim they are by looking carefully at the URL and always visiting HTTPS sites.

    In addition to blocking malicious sites and ads, some VPNs furthermore pretension to obstruct malware. They don't test the efficacy of these network-based protections, but most parade to live blacklists of sites known to host malicious software. That's great, but don't assume it's anywhere near as advantageous as standalone antivirus. expend this feature to complement, not replace, your antivirus.

    Lastly, retain in reason that some security conscious companies like banks may live confused by your VPN. If your bank sees you logging in from what appears to live another US condition or even another country, it can raise red flags. anticipate to behold captchas and more frequent multifactor requests when your VPN is on.

    VPNs by the Numbers

    Some principal things to Look for when shopping for a VPN are the number of licenses for simultaneous connections that near with your fee, the number of servers available, and the number of locations in which the company has servers. It every bit of comes down to numbers.

    Most VPN services allow you to connect up to five devices with a lone account. Any service that offers fewer connections is outside the mainstream. retain in reason that you'll need to connect every device in your home individually to the VPN service, so just two or three licenses won't live enough for the unprejudiced nested pair. Note that many VPN services tender indigenous apps for both Android and iOS, but that such devices count toward your total number of connections.

    Of course, there are more than just phones and computers in a home. Game systems, tablets, and smart home devices such as light bulbs and fridges every bit of need to connect to the internet. Many of these things can't shun VPN software on their own, nor can they live configured to connect to a VPN through their individual settings. In these cases, you may live better off configuring your router to connect with the VPN of your choice. By adding VPN protection to your router, you secure the traffic of every gadget connected to that router. And the router—and everything protected by it—uses just one of your licenses. Nearly every bit of of the companies they hold reviewed tender software for most consumer routers and even routers with preinstalled VPN software, making it even easier to add this plane of protection.

    When it comes to servers, more is always better. More servers weigh in that you're less likely to live shunted into a VPN server that is already filled to the brim with other users. NordVPN, Private Internet Access, and TorGuard currently lead the pack with well over 3,000 servers each—NordVPN is at the forefront with 4,875 servers. But the competition is nascence to heat up. ultimate year, only a handful of companies offered more than 500 servers, now it's becoming unusual to find a company offering fewer than 1,000 servers.

    The number and distribution of those servers is furthermore important. The more places a VPN has to offer, the more options you hold to spoof your location! More importantly, having numerous servers in diverse locales means that no matter where you travel on Earth you'll live able to find a nearby VPN server. The closer the VPN server, the better the hurry and reliability of the connection it can tender you. Remember, you don't need to connect to a far-flung VPN server in order to gain security benefits. For most purposes, a server down the street is as safe as one across the globe.

    In the most recent round of testing, we've furthermore looked at how many virtual servers a given VPN company uses. A virtual server is just what it sounds like—a software-defined server running on server hardware that might hold several virtual servers onboard. The thing about virtual servers is that they can live configured to parade as if they are in one country when they are actually being hosted somewhere else. That's an issue if you're especially concerned about where you web traffic is traveling. It's a bit worrisome to select one location and ascertain you're actually connected somewhere else entirely.

    Related StorySee How They Test VPNs

    What's the Fastest VPN?

    We hold often said that having to select between security and convenience is a mistaken dichotomy, but it is at least sort of proper in the case of VPN services. When a VPN is active, your web traffic is taking a more circuitous route than usual, often resulting in sluggish download and upload speeds as well as increased latency. The advantageous advice is that using a VPN probably isn't going to remind you of the dial-up days of yore.

    Most services provide perfectly adequate internet hurry when in use, and can even ply streaming HD video. However, 4K video and other data-intensive tasks like gaming over a VPN are another story. Some VPN services, such as NordVPN, hold started to roll out specialty servers for high-bandwidth activities. And nearly every service they hold tested includes a appliance to connect you with the fastest available network. Of course, you can always limit your VPN expend to when you're not on a trusted network.

    When they test VPNs, they expend the Ookla hurry test tool. (Note that Ookla is owned by PCMag's publisher, Ziff Davis.) This test provides metrics for latency, download speeds, and upload speeds. Any one of these can live an principal measurement depending on your needs, but they watch to view the download hurry as the most important. After all, they live in an age of digital consumption.

    Our hurry tests stress comparison and reproducibility. That means they stand by their work, but your individual results may vary. After all, perhaps you live on top of a VPN server, or just betide to hold a super-high bandwidth connection.

    What follows are the results from their top-rated VPNs as of May, 2018.

    All that being said, they currently cognomen TorGuard as the fastest VPN service. It doesn't seize the top spot in every bit of of their tests, but has remarkably low latency and had the best performance in the all-important download tests. Fittingly, it offers many add-ons such as dedicated IP addresses that, along with its speed, will appeal to the BitTorrent users it is designed to protect.

    Can I expend a VPN for Netflix?

    Borders soundless exist on the web, in the configuration of geographic restrictions for streaming content. The BBC iPlayer, for example, lets UK residents watch the Beeb to their heart's content. The rest of the world, not so much. But if you were to select a VPN server in the UK, your computer's IP address would parade to live the identical as the server, allowing you to view the content.

    The exertion is that Netflix and similar video streaming services are getting sensible to the scam. In their testing, they organize that Netflix blocks streaming more often than not when they were using a VPN. There are a few exceptions, but Netflix is actively working to protect its content deals. VPNs that travail with Netflix today may not travail tomorrow.

    Netflix blocking paying customers might appear odd, but it's every bit of about regions and not people. Just because you paid for Netflix in one site does not weigh in you're entitled to the content available on the identical service but in a different location. Media distribution and rights are messy and complicated. You may or may not accord with the laws and terms of service surrounding media streaming, but you should definitely live aware that they exist and understand when you're taking the risk of breaking them. Netflix, for its part, lays out how that it will attempt to verify a user's location in order to provide content in section 6c of its Terms of expend document.

    What's the Best VPN For Kodi?

    If you don't know what Kodi is, you're not alone. However, an analysis of searches leading to their site reveals that a surprising number of you are, in fact looking for VPN that works with the occult Kodi. Dictionary.com defines Kodi as a practicable misspelling of "Jodi," but PCMag analyst Ben Moore clarified for me that Kodi is "free, open-source software for managing your local collection of movies, television shows, music, and photos."

    With Kodi, you can access your media over a local connection (LAN) or from a remote media server, if that's your thing. This is, presumably, where concerns about VPN enter the picture. A device using a VPN, for example, will hold its connection encrypted on the local network. You might hold exertion connecting to it. Using Chromecast on a VPN device just doesn't work, for example. Kodi users might hold the identical issue.

    For local VPN issues, you hold a brace of options. First, regard installing VPN software on your router and not using a VPN on your local machines. Alternatively, many VPN services tender browser plug-ins that only encrypt your browser traffic. That's not example from a security perspective, but it's useful when every bit of you need to secure is your browser information.

    Some, but not all, VPN services will let you designate specific applications to live routed outside the encrypted tunnel. This means the traffic will live unencrypted, but furthermore accessible locally.

    If you're trying to connect to a remote media source with Kodi, a VPN would likely play a different role. It might, for example, avert your ISP from determining what you're up to. It might furthermore live useful if you're connecting to a third-party service for Kodi that allows streaming of copyright-infringing material. retain in mind, however, that some VPN services specifically prohibit the expend of their services for copyright infringement.

    VPN for Windows 10 and Beyond

    When they test VPNs, they generally start with the Windows client. This is often the most complete review, covering several different platforms as well as the service's features and pricing in depth. That's purely out of necessity, since most of their readers expend Windows (although this writer is currently using a MacBook Air). They currently expend a Lenovo ThinkPad T460s laptop running the latest version of Windows 10. They periodically upgrade to a newer machine, in order to simulate what most users experience.

    But as you can behold from the chart at the top, however, Windows is not the only platform for VPNs. The Android mobile operating system, for example, is the most widely used OS on the planet. So it makes sense that they furthermore test VPNs for Android.

    That's not to ignore Apple users. They furthermore review VPN clients for macOS and iOS.

    Using a VPN is a dinky trickier for ChromeOS users, however. While Google has worked to compose it easier to expend a VPN with a Chromebook or Chromebox, it's not always a walk in the park. Their lead to how to set up a VPN on a Chromebook can compose the job a bit easier, however. In these cases, you might find it easier to install a VPN plug-in for the Chrome browser. This will only secure some of your traffic, but it's better than nothing.

    Finally, they hold lately begun to review the best Linux VPN apps, too.

    Using a Mobile VPN

    We used to counsel people to accomplish banking and other principal commerce over their cellular connection when using a mobile device, since it is generally safer than connecting with a public Wi-Fi network. But even that isn't always a safe bet. Researchers hold demonstrated how a portable cell tower, such as a femtocell, can live used for malicious ends. The attack hinges on jamming the LTE and 3G bands, which are secured with tenacious encryption, and forcing devices to connect with a phony tower over the less-secure 2G band. Because the attacker controls the fake tower, he can carry out a man-in-the-middle attack and behold every bit of the data passing over the cellular connection. Admittedly, this is an exotic attack, but it's far from impossible.

    Wi-Fi attacks, on the other hand, are probably far more common than we'd like to believe. While attending the Black Hat convention, researchers saw thousands of devices connecting to a rogue access point. It had been configured to mimic networks that victim's devices had previously connected to, since many devices will automatically reconnect to a known network without checking with the user. That's why they recommend getting a VPN app for your mobile device to protect every bit of your mobile communications. Even if you don't hold it on every bit of the time, using a mobile VPN is a smart pass to protect your personal information.

    Most VPN services tender both Android and iOS VPN apps, saving you the exertion of configuring your phone's VPN settings yourself. VPN providers typically allow up to five devices to live connected simultaneously under a lone account. Also, while there are free VPN services available, many require that mobile users sign up for a paid subscription.

    Not every bit of mobile VPN apps are created equal. In fact, most VPN providers tender different services (and sometimes, different servers) for their mobile offerings than they accomplish for their desktop counterparts. We're pleased to behold that NordVPN and Private Internet Access provide the identical excellent selection of servers regardless of platform. These apps received an Editors' option nod both for desktop VPN apps and Android VPN apps.

    One feature of note for Android users is that some VPN services furthermore obstruct online ads and trackers. While iPhone owners can expend apps like 1Blocker to remove ads and trackers from Safari, ad blockers aren't available on the Google Play store.

    If you're of the iPhone persuasion, there are a few other caveats to regard for a mobile VPN. Some iPhone VPN apps don't expend OpenVPN, even if the VPN service that made the app supports the protocol. That's because Apple requires additional vetting if a company wants to embrace OpenVPN with its app. VPN app developers hold slowly started jumping through those extra hoops and are bringing support for protocols such as OpenVPN to iOS.

    Thankfully, there's a workaround for this problem. Instead of using the VPN app from the company from which you've purchased a subscription, you can download the standalone OpenVPN app. Open it, and you can enter your subscription information from the VPN company you've decided to travail with. The OpenVPN app will then connect to the VPN company's servers using their preferred protocol.

    Which VPN Is perquisite for You?

    Computer and software providers travail hard to compose confident that the devices you buy are safe perquisite out of the box. But they don't provide everything you'll need. Antivirus software, for example, consistently outperforms the built-in protections. In the identical vein, VPN software lets you expend the web and Wi-Fi with assurance that your information will remain secure. It's critically principal and often overlooked.

    Even if you don't expend it every instant of every day, a VPN is a fundamental appliance that everyone should hold at their disposal—like a password manager or an online backup service. A VPN is furthermore a service that will only become more principal as their more of their devices become connected. So sojourn safe, and collect a VPN.

    Click through the review links of the best VPN services below for detailed analysis and performance results, and feel free to chime in on the comments section below them. Once you've picked, live confident to read their feature on how to set up and expend a VPN to collect the most from your chosen service.

  • Pros: More than 4,800 servers in diverse locations worldwide. Unique, specialized servers. Six simultaneous connections. P2P allowed. Browser apps. Blocks ads, other web threats. tenacious customer privacy stance.

    Cons: Expensive.

    Bottom Line: NordVPN wraps a slick client around a tenacious collection of features and a huge network of servers for securing your online activities. Earning a rare 5-star rating, it's their top pick for VPNs.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Affordable. wee footprint. Far above unprejudiced number of available servers. Ad blocking. Supports P2P file sharing and BitTorrent. Multiplatform support. tenacious stance on customer privacy.

    Cons: Spartan interface may confuse unique users. No free version. No specialized servers.

    Bottom Line: Private Internet Access offers a robust, full-featured service, at an unbeatable price. Its tremendous value offsets its rudimentary UI, making it an Editors' option for VPNs.

    Read Review
  • Pros: 1,000 servers around the globe. Allows BitTorrenting. Automatic IP address cycling. Kill Switch.

    Cons: Unwelcoming interface.

    Bottom Line: VPN service IPVanish secures your web traffic from prying eyes. It packs powerful features veteran VPN users will appreciate, though its interface may assign off the less experienced.

    Read Review
  • Pros: advantageous server distribution. Robust network. tenacious privacy policy. Excellent and unique features. Offers seven licenses with a subscription.

    Cons: Expensive. Unintuitive design.

    Bottom Line: CyberGhost offers an excellent VPN product with strong, unique features not organize elsewhere. It's a worthy choice.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Excellent privacy policies. Pleasing, approachable design. Browser extensions, including a stand-alone ad blocker.

    Cons: Uninspiring hurry test results. need of geographic diversity in server locations.

    Bottom Line: TunnelBear's VPN is a rare security product that doesn't constrain you to compromise between security and usability. It's friendly when you need it to be, invisible when you don't, and it doesn't skimp on security.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Designed for BitTorrent and P2P. Numerous servers spread across the globe. tenacious privacy policy. Top hurry test scores. Many add-ons.

    Cons: Clunky client. No free trial. Lacks specialized servers.

    Bottom Line: TorGuard VPN is the best stake for BitTorrent seeders and leechers to secure their web traffic. It's packed with features confident to appeal to security wonks, and it has the best hurry test scores yet, though its client is clunky.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Diverse geographic distribution of servers. Allows P2P and BitTorrent. Simple interface. Supports OpenVPN protocol.

    Cons: Expensive. Fewer than unprejudiced simultaneous connections allowed. No ad-blocking or advanced features. Lackluster hurry scores.

    Bottom Line: ExpressVPN packages VPN protection and BitTorrent support into a simple interface, but it is expensive and lacks advanced features.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Multiplatform, multiprotocol support. tenacious privacy policy. Allows P2P traffic. advantageous geographic distribution of VPN servers. Limited free account.

    Cons: Few simultaneous connections. Few servers. No ad blocking.

    Bottom Line: Golden Frog VyprVPN offers an excellent distribution of VPN servers worldwide and a tenacious privacy policy. It allows few simultaneous VPN connections, however, and its total number of servers is low.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Inexpensive. Allows P2P and BitTorrent. Browser extensions. Personal VPN server, static IP available. Specialized servers.

    Cons: Restrictive policy on number of devices. wee number of servers. No free version. No ad blocking.

    Bottom Line: KeepSolid VPN Unlimited offers a tenacious slate of security and privacy features, but doesn't tender many servers and enforces a restrictive device policy.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Hundreds of server locations spread across almost every nation. Friendly, simple interface. Allows BitTorrent. remarkable name.

    Cons: Expensive. Relies heavily on virtual server locations. No ad blocking. No free version.

    Bottom Line: veil My Ass VPN turns heads with its name, and it has solid security and a robust server network, to boot. The downside is its hefty expense tag.

    Read Review


  • Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [47 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1530 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [368 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [269 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





    References :


    Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/11912218
    Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12885594
    Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2017/12/review-922-090-real-question-and.html
    RSS Feed : http://feeds.feedburner.com/JustStudyTheseNortel922-090QuestionsAndPassTheRealTest
    Wordpress : https://wp.me/p7SJ6L-2c2
    Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/faok59dohvubl7d2m9sohyq94tfjjl1i











    Killexams 922-090 exams | Killexams 922-090 cert | Pass4Sure 922-090 questions | Pass4sure 922-090 | pass-guaratee 922-090 | best 922-090 test preparation | best 922-090 training guides | 922-090 examcollection | killexams | killexams 922-090 review | killexams 922-090 legit | kill 922-090 example | kill 922-090 example journalism | kill exams 922-090 reviews | kill exam ripoff report | review 922-090 | review 922-090 quizlet | review 922-090 login | review 922-090 archives | review 922-090 sheet | legitimate 922-090 | legit 922-090 | legitimacy 922-090 | legitimation 922-090 | legit 922-090 check | legitimate 922-090 program | legitimize 922-090 | legitimate 922-090 business | legitimate 922-090 definition | legit 922-090 site | legit online banking | legit 922-090 website | legitimacy 922-090 definition | >pass 4 sure | pass for sure | p4s | pass4sure certification | pass4sure exam | IT certification | IT Exam | 922-090 material provider | pass4sure login | pass4sure 922-090 exams | pass4sure 922-090 reviews | pass4sure aws | pass4sure 922-090 security | pass4sure coupon | pass4sure 922-090 dumps | pass4sure cissp | pass4sure 922-090 braindumps | pass4sure 922-090 test | pass4sure 922-090 torrent | pass4sure 922-090 download | pass4surekey | pass4sure cap | pass4sure free | examsoft | examsoft login | exams | exams free | examsolutions | exams4pilots | examsoft download | exams questions | examslocal | exams practice |



    International Edition Textbooks

    Save huge amounts of cash when you buy international edition textbooks from TEXTBOOKw.com. An international edition is a textbook that has been published outside of the US and can be drastically cheaper than the US edition.

    ** International edition textbooks save students an average of 50% over the prices offered at their college bookstores.

    Highlights > Recent Additions
    Showing Page 1 of 5
    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
    By Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones
    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 129217613X
    ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Our ISBN10 : 129217613X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Computer Security: Principles and PracticeComputer Security: Principles and Practice
    By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown
    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
    ISBN10 : 0134794109
    ISBN13 : 9780134794105
    Our ISBN10 : 1292220619
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292220611
    Subject : Computer Science & Technology
    Price : $65.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126046542X
    ISBN13 : 9781260465426
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $39.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 0078021782
    ISBN13 : 9780078021787
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $65.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William G Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
    ISBN13 : 9781260211108
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260682137
    ISBN13 : 9781260682137
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $80.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260277143
    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $77.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1259929434
    ISBN13 : 9781259929434
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $76.00
    922-090922-090
    By Peter W. Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260128474
    ISBN13 : 9781260128475
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $39.00
    922-090922-090
    By Peter Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260147150
    ISBN13 : 9781260147155
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $64.00
    Result Page : 1 2 3 4 5