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920-804 exam Dumps Source : Technology Standards and Protocol for Converged Networks
Test Code : 920-804
Test designation : Technology Standards and Protocol for Converged Networks
Vendor designation : Nortel
: 73 existent Questions
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Nortel Technology Standards and Protocol
March 31, 2005 14:00 ET
information release TRANSMITTED by means of CCNMatthews
NYSE, TSX symbol: NT
MARCH 31, 2005 - 14:00 ET
Nortel Names Gary Kunis as Chief technology Officer;Brian McFadden to guide advanced technology, Researchand requisites company
TORONTO--(CCNMatthews - Mar 31, 2005) -
Nortel Networks traffic enterprise (NYSE:NT) (TSX:NT) nowadays introduced theappointment of Gary Kunis as Chief know-how Officer (CTO). As CTO,Kunis will lead the strategic vision for the enterprise's product andtechnology portfolio.
except 2002, Kunis became the executive Science Officer at Cisco systems. One ofthe pioneers of the web within the Nineteen Eighties, Kunis has led numerousdevelopment and engineering breakthroughs involving web Protocol(IP) standards and routing expertise used to connect the international webof networks that execute up the information superhighway.
Kunis will report to Gary Daichendt, president and chief operatingofficer (COO), positive April four, 2005.
"We're overjoyed to relish Gary unite their crew. he's an acknowledgedInternet pioneer with a noteworthy checklist of accomplishment and that i understand hewill provide a superb contribution to Nortel's technologyleadership," referred to Gary Daichendt, president and chief operating officer,Nortel. "His track listing in main the building, servicing and sellingof network technologies globally can subsist a robust addition. he is anexcellent senior leader who any through his profession has consistentlydemonstrated his means to hyperlink expertise innovation with businesssuccess both internally and externally."
in addition to the Kunis appointment, Nortel announced that BrianMcFadden, a 26-12 months Nortel veteran and the latest CTO, has beenappointed to the role of Chief analysis Officer (CRO), positive April4, 2005. In his new role, McFadden will oversee the superior expertise,analysis and specifications solid and will proceed to file to thepresident and COO. He may subsist chargeable for setting Nortel's researchpriorities to subsist certain they aid the company's company innovations,which embrace preserving an industry management site in end-to-endbroadband, Voice over IP, multimedia features and functions, andwireless broadband solutions. McFadden will additionally execute certain that Nortelcontinues to play a lead position in industry specifications and regulatoryorganizations.
"we're absolutely dedicated to starting to subsist their traffic and a key componentof that is their endured technology management," said invoice Owens, vicechairman and chief govt officer, Nortel. "trendy announcementreaffirms the profound importance of analysis and edifice toNortel's future and their commitment to making certain their technology decisionsare particularly built-in with their medium company strategy and thedynamics of an incredibly aggressive world market. developing twodistinct technology and research and development groups withspecific mandates and led via two very achieved senior executivescertainly displays their 'playing to win' commitment to enhancingshareholder cost."
past in his career, Kunis turned into concerned in the design, implementationand operation of gigantic scale records and telecommunications networks forseveral U.S. government agency classes, including the offshoot ofDefense, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air drive, countrywide Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA), in addition to for civilian companies whereas workingfor the Boeing company. Kunis additionally held a yoke of senior engineeringpositions with Boeing's industrial and defense-connected companies.
A graduate of the state school of new york (SUNY) at Binghamton witha Bachelor of Arts diploma in Economics, Kunis too holds a grasp'sDegree in Economics from Tufts institution.
Kunis and McFadden relish too been appointed CTO and CRO, respectively,of Nortel Networks restrained, the enterprise's primary operating subsidiary.
Nortel is a identified leader in offering communications capabilitiesthat raise the human adventure, ignite and power international commerce, andsecure and protect the realm's most captious suggestions. Serving bothservice issuer and commercial enterprise consumers, Nortel supplies innovativetechnology solutions encompassing end-to-conclusion broadband, Voice over IP,multimedia services and functions, and wireless broadband designed tohelp people remedy the world's finest challenges. Nortel does businessin greater than one hundred fifty nations. For extra assistance, dispute with Nortel on theWeb at www.nortel.com. For the newest Nortel news, visitwww.nortel.com/news.
certain counsel covered in this press free up is ahead-lookingand is theme to crucial risks and uncertainties. The results orevents expected in these statements may vary materially from actualresults or activities.
elements which might trigger results or routine to vary from currentexpectations consist of, amongst different issues: the result of regulatory andcriminal investigations and civil litigation actions concerning Nortel'srestatements and the relish an repercussion on any ensuing criminal judgments, settlements,penalties and costs may relish on Nortel's consequences of operations,monetary condition and liquidity; the findings of Nortel's independentreview and implementation of recommended remedial measures; the outcomeof the independent evaluation with admire to revenues for specificidentified transactions, which review may relish a specific stress onthe underlying habits that led to the initial consciousness of theserevenues; the restatement or revisions of Nortel's prior to now announcedor filed economic effects and ensuing terrible publicity; theexistence of fabric weaknesses in Nortel's internal controls overfinancial reporting; the relish an result on of Nortel's and NNL's failure to timelyfile their economic statements and related sporadic reviews, includingbreach of its support facility and public debt duties and Nortel'sinability to entry its shelf registration remark filed with theUnited States Securities and change commission ("SEC"); ongoing SECreviews, which may discontinuance up in alterations to their public filings; thepotential delisting or suspension of Nortel's and NNL's publicly tradedsecurities; the influence of management changes, including the terminationfor judgement of Nortel's former CEO, CFO and Controller in April 2004; thesufficiency of Nortel's restructuring actions, including the workplan introduced on August 19, 2004 as up-to-date on September 30, 2004,including the erudition for bigger specific prices to subsist incurred inconnection with restructuring movements in comparison to the estimated charges ofsuch moves;
cautious or reduced spending by artery of Nortel's purchasers; fluctuations inNortel's operating consequences and everyday industry, economic and marketconditions and increase quotes; fluctuations in Nortel's cash flow, levelof striking debt and existing debt scores; Nortel's capability torecruit and retain qualified personnel; using cash collateral tosupport Nortel's habitual course enterprise actions; the dependence onNortel's subsidiaries for funding; the strike of Nortel's definedbenefit plans and deferred tax property on consequences of operations andNortel's money circulation; the adverse conclusion of ilk actions, litigationin the generic course of business, intellectual property disputes andsimilar concerns; Nortel's dependence on new product development and itsability to call market demand for selected products; Nortel'sability to combine the operations and applied sciences of acquiredbusinesses in a pretty fine method; the relish an result on of speedy technological andmarket exchange; the relish an repercussion on of fee and product competitors; boundaries tointernational growth and global economic circumstances, notably inemerging markets and together with pastime rate and forex change ratefluctuations; the influence of clarification and consolidation in thetelecommunications industry; changes in legislation of the information superhighway; theimpact of the credit dangers of Nortel's valued clientele and the strike ofcustomer financing and commitments; stock market volatility generallyand on account of acceleration of the settlement date or earlysettlement, which is presently no longer purchasable, of Nortel's forwardpurchase contracts; the repercussion of Nortel's give and outsourcingcontracts that accommodate birth and setting up provisions, which, ifnot met, may outcome in the payment of immense penalties orliquidated damages; and the future success of Nortel's strategicalliances.
For additional info with respect to clear of these and otherfactors, see the most simultaneous Annual file on benign 10-ok and QuarterlyReport on benign 10-Q filed by using Nortel with the SEC. except otherwiserequired by germane securities laws, Nortel disclaims any intentionor duty to supersede or revise any ahead-looking statements,no matter if as a result of new tips, future movements or otherwise.
Nortel, the Nortel emblem and the Globemark are trademarks of NortelNetworks.
CNT & Nortel Collaborate on SAN Integration
desktop network expertise (CNT) and Nortel Networks relish added plans to simplify storage area network (SAN) integration into enterprise IP and optical networks. This cooperative endeavor is according to latest, demonstrated technologies, together with Nortel Networks' metropolitan and lengthy-haul optical products, and CNT's protocol adaptation applied sciences and centered requirements toil companies.
both agencies will collaborate on the design and construction of technologies and solutions that combine SAN purposes and infrastructure with the Optical internet, each metro and long haul. The collaboration will capture area in two stages.
in the near term, the collaboration will embrace the deployment of carrier provider-based SAN options if you want to kit products and functions from each businesses, including Nortel Networks' OPTera Metro multi-service platforms (CNT's UltraNet Director, CNT SAN Integration capabilities, and so forth.) perquisite into a sole consumer providing.
In education for the long run, toil will launch instantly on the specification of latest, vertically integrated solutions combining IP, Optics, FC, SCSI, Escon and different applied sciences, with a focus on optimization of those technologies for networked storage purposes over provider provider networks. CNT and Nortel Networks will toil intently with the service provider neighborhood on the edifice of this specification.
furthermore, the organizations will jointly market and guide SAN/IP and SAN/optical solutions to carrier providers and key partners, and toil with network providers to strengthen a collection of storage purposes and capabilities. software labs will too subsist created to qualify storage solutions to operate beneath the new environments. both agencies will additionally participate in joint consumer trials to establish the cost of the expertise in proper networks.
before, IP networks relish been inadequate to ply the high-quality of carrier, the facts security needs or the bandwidth-on-demand wants of storage applications. CNT has developed a transport protocol that offers more advantageous storage application reliability on a typical IP backbone, together with records compression, alternate routing, load balancing and greater stream handle. This storage transport protocol is presently getting used to facilitate SAN extensions over lengthy distances, enabling key purposes akin to distance mirroring, tape backup and storage distribution.
CNT and Nortel Networks will toil towards the standardization of those improvements by submissions to the acceptable requisites committees, together with the web Engineering stint drive (IETF), and the American national requisites Institute (ANSI) T11 working group for consideration as an extension to the FCBB (Fibre Channel lower back-Bone) normal.
The items and know-how to support the collaboration between CNT and Nortel Networks exist these days, including the Fibre Channel products from Brocade, which relish been proven in each and every enterprise's lab. CNT and Nortel Networks are expecting to launch client trials in 3rd quarter 2000.
For extra counsel, dispute with www.nortelnetworks.com, or www.cnt.com.
PISCATAWAY, N.J.--(enterprise WIRE)--IEEE, the area's largest technical expert corporation dedicated to advancing expertise for humanity, and the IEEE standards association (IEEE-SA), nowadays announced the publishing and availability of IEEE 11073-20701-2018 - IEEE approved Draft medium for service-Oriented medical device exchange structure & Protocol Binding.
“IEEE 11073-20701 culminates their efforts to increase a requirements family that assures official statistics change between clinical gadgets within an open IP-based system focused on safe and secure interoperability to subsist certain affected person security,” talked about
Stefan Schlichting, subgroup chair, IEEE 11073 provider-oriented paraphernalia Connectivity (SDC) medium family. “In gratifying the want for this unifying family normal, they now can stronger aid the trade of true-time guidance between scientific gadgets and external programs to boost performance and interoperability in changing advert-hoc networks.”
the brand new commonplace completes the overseas corporation for Standardization (ISO)/IEEE 11073 family of requisites for aspect-of-Care (PoC) clinical device conversation and defines an architecture for service-oriented allotted PoC clinical gadgets and scientific IT programs. The regular defines a binding of the participant and verbal exchange mannequin defined in IEEE 11073-10207TM to the profile for transport over net services described in IEEE 11073-20702TM. IEEE 11073-20701 additionally defines a binding to community Time Protocol (NTP) and 5 Differentiated functions for time synchronization and to meet transport first-rate-of-service necessities.
IEEE 11073-20701-2018 is obtainable for buy at the IEEE specifications keep.
To gain erudition of more about IEEE-SA or about any of its host of market initiatives dispute with us on fb, result us on Twitter, connect with us on LinkedIn or on the past standards weblog.
in regards to the IEEE requisites association
The IEEE standards association, a globally recognized specifications-surroundings body inside IEEE, develops consensus requirements through an open process that engages traffic and brings collectively a vast stakeholder community. IEEE specifications set necessities and premier practices in accordance with current scientific and technological advantage. The IEEE-SA has a portfolio of over 1,200 energetic requirements and more than 650 standards under construction. For more advice visit http://necessities.ieee.org.
IEEE is the world’s greatest technical skilled organization dedicated to advancing know-how for the capitalize of humanity. via its highly famed publications, conferences, expertise standards, and skilled and tutorial activities, IEEE is the depended on voice in a wide variety of areas ranging from aerospace programs, computers, and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, electric vigour, and customer electronics. learn more at http://www.ieee.org.
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Technology Standards and Protocol for Converged Networks
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Broadband Forum-orchestrated feedback from major global operators and vendors will open doors for the leveraging of fixed and mobile networks to unlock new service capabilities
FREMONT, Calif., Feb. 14, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- A milestone flash in developing a converged 5G core network, addressing both fixed and mobile networks, has been reached after Broadband Forum delivered particular recommendations to 3GPP.
The proposals made by Broadband Forum were created at the request of carriers that participate in both Broadband Forum and 3GPP and were developed after a comprehensive cycle of iterative feedback between the two organizations. The suggestions address the common interfaces for access networks and 5G core networks to support the convergence of wireline and wireless networks. particular recommendations on a number of interfaces in the context of fixed 5G relish been passed on to 3GPP, which will allow its members to evaluate the interfaces that flee between the 5G core and the fixed network. In addition to this, recommendations on signaling changes and enhancements were too provided, addressing how wireless access can subsist fully integrated into the 5G core.
David Aders, (Acting) Executive Converged Control Plane Engineering at Telstra Corporation, one of the operators which contributed significantly to the recommendations, said: "The Fixed Mobile Convergence vision is an distinguished enabler for Telstra in line with their Network Technology vision to provide their customers with services that can span any access technologies in a consistent and unified manner. The alignment and collaboration between Broadband Forum and 3GPP are essential to delivering an ecosystem that is truly game changing and providing a globally supported framework for operators such as ourselves to develop many next generation services."
Alex Jinsung Choi, Senior Vice President Strategy and Technology Innovation at Deutsche Telekom Group, another operator that contributed significantly, said: "Our vision for 5G is to deliver a seamless savor for their customers across any their devices, whatever the access type. Implementing a converged and integrated core network is the key to unlock this converged services approach. They welcome this distinguished contribution to ensure a globally standardized approach to achieve Fixed Mobile Convergence."
As piece of its efforts to drive Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC), Broadband Forum is too developing a specification for a 5G Access Gateway office (AGF) that adapts fixed access onto the 5G core, specifications for 5G-capable Customer Premises paraphernalia (CPE), and specifications which address the interworking of existing fixed access subscribers and deployed paraphernalia into a 5G core that encompass a variety of deployment scenarios. This will enable the integration of wireless and wireline technologies, empowering operators to create powerful new converged service offerings.
"This is an exciting flash for the 5G market, as well as for Broadband Forum, 3GPP and their memberships," said Dave Allan, Broadband Forum's Wireless and Wireline Convergence toil area Director. "As they reach this milestone in their toil on Fixed Mobile Convergence, they are able to deliver the particular feedback and recommendations which will drive the core convergence of fixed and mobile networks. In many ways this is just the genesis and, as Release 16 progresses and 5G further expands, their toil with 3GPP will continue to ensure standardization of this new technology is successful. With 5G promising a variety of new and innovative applications such as autonomous driving and healthcare, this toil is crucial to enabling converged operators to unlock these opportunities – empowering them to deliver a uniform savor to their customers irrespective of the access media type, technology, or appliance they are using."
The scope of the toil in cooperation with 3GPP forms the backbone of a converged network, which will enable the efficient delivery of 5G services over various access networks, including fixed broadband access, WLAN, 3GPP-defined radios, Bluetooth and many more. This unlocks capabilities to access services provided by the 5G network using non-3GPP access – ensuring users can seamlessly switch between fixed and mobile networks without compromising their connectivity.
"Through their toil on 5G, they are delivering a network for enhanced user experiences - enabled by ultra-fast data connections, an open and flexible architecture and mobility," said Georg Mayer, 3GPP Core Networks and Terminals Group Chair. "The recommendations from Broadband Forum allow us to develop a truly access agnostic and common 5G core network, which will allow seamless user and service mobility between 3GPP and non-3GPP accesses."
The new specifications developed by 3GPP and Broadband Forum – which will either figure a piece of or complement 3GPP's Release 16 specifications, due for publication at the discontinuance of 2019 – marks the distinguished role of the fixed network in supporting 5G. The joint toil of the two organizations will continue in the flee up to and following the publication of 3GPP's Release 16 specifications and will expand as 5G networks are built out and start to evolve.
Within Broadband Forum, further toil has been carried out to address the design requirements of 5G and the technology enablers which will drive both mobile and fixed developments, as well as liaison with other industry alliances, including NGMN, which aims to address the functionality and performance of next generation mobile networks.
"Two years ago, ten of the world's biggest operators came to us with their concerns that the 5G infrastructure which was being developed would not let them capture odds of both their wireless and wireline networks," said Geoff Burke, CMO of Broadband Forum. "Today, they are able to deliver a set of recommendations which will not only address how the 5G core can subsist evolved to support the fixed networks of these operators but provide them with the capabilities to launch new innovative combined subscriber offerings."
For a summary of Broadband Forum activities in 5G fixed-mobile convergence, watch this video from Broadband Forum's Wireless and Wireline Convergence toil area Director Dave Allan. To find out more about Broadband Forum, gratify visit: https://www.broadband-forum.org/.
About Broadband Forum Broadband Forum is the communications industry's leading organization focused on accelerating broadband innovation, standards, and ecosystem development. Their members' passion – delivering on the swear of broadband by enabling smarter and faster broadband networks and a thriving broadband ecosystem.
A non-profit industry organization composed of the industry's leading broadband operators, vendors, and thought leaders, their toil to date has been the foundation for broadband's global proliferation and innovation. For example, the Forum's flagship TR-069 CPE WAN Management Protocol has nearly 1 billion installations worldwide.
Broadband Forum working groups collaborate to define best practices for global networks, enable new revenue-generating service and content delivery, establish technology migration strategies, and engineer captious device, service & development management tools in the home and traffic IP networking infrastructure. They develop multi-service broadband packet networking specifications addressing architecture, device and service management, software data models, interoperability and certification in the broadband market.
Our free technical reports and white papers can subsist create at https://www.broadband-forum.org/.
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Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is a concept that has emerged in recent years to decouple network control and forwarding functions. SDN promises to enable a manageable and cost-effective network that fits the needs of high-bandwidth applications. Most published SDN-related information talks about Ethernet networks and describes the endeavor to adjust Ethernet to the needs of today’s applications.
The one network ilk that does not require special endeavor to adjust it to the computational needs of high-performance computing, abysmal learning or any other data intensive application is InfiniBand. InfiniBand was specified (in 1999) as the ultimate software-defined network, long before the term SDN was coined.
InfiniBand networks can subsist fully controlled and managed by a software component called a subnet-manager. Unlike Ethernet, InfiniBand does not relish different kinds of network switches, such as “top of rack” or “aggregation level” switches, because it uses the selfsame edifice obstruct to create any size of infrastructure—from a tiny cluster to an Exascale platform, and to figure a sort of network topology. InfiniBand does not carry the involved network algorithm baggage that Ethernet does, which becomes more onerous from generation to generation, and creates performance and cost burdens on the Ethernet infrastructure. Moreover, InfiniBand switch latency is 3 times better than the best Ethernet switch on the market today (and probably in the future too), and InfiniBand networks can subsist 30 percent or more better cost efficient than the bandwidth equivalent Ethernet network.
20 years ago, there were two leading proprietary networks in the world of HPC: Myrinet from Myricom and QsNet from Quadrics. Looking back, one of the mistakes both vendors made was to switch from a plenary proprietary network to using Ethernet as the underlying network and to flee their proprietary transport over Ethernet, tying their roadmap to Ethernet. The judgement for this slouch was clear: reducing the R&D efforts needed to develop a network. But the cost was high: Performance limitations, adding complexity and scaling issues due to Ethernet. As a result, Myrinet and QsNet fell behind InfiniBand—a network that was designed for data-intensive applications. As a side note, Quadrics became defunct in 2009. Their IP was later used by Gnodal to create Ethernet switches running the Quadrics protocol inside the switch. But Gnodal did not succeed and was defunct in 2013. Also, the selfsame IP is now being used by one of the HPC system vendors for their new proprietary interconnect, which again is trying to flee a proprietary network transport over Ethernet, in spite of the failure of previous attempts.
Beyond high latency, which escalates with the size of the network infrastructure, Ethernet too suffers from congestion control (such as ECN and QCN) and routing schemes that enact not fitting dynamic HPC and AI workloads. A vendor trying to exhaust Ethernet as the basis for proprietary network transports will exigency to invest in developing proprietary protocols to ply these issues, which is complicated and leads to overall lower performance.
The InfiniBand specification is handled by IBTA (InfiniBand Trade Association); as an industry standards-based interconnect technology, InfiniBand is proven to provide forward and backward compatibility across generations of technology. As the ultimate software-defined network, InfiniBand provides low latency, smart routing and congestion-avoidance mechanisms together with the capacity to support vendor-defined In-Network Computing acceleration engines. In-Network Computing transforms the data focus interconnect into a “distributed co-processor” able to ply and accelerate the performance of various data algorithms, such as reductions and more.
In-Networking Computing is the heart of today’s and tomorrow’s data-centric data centers. Firstly, it provides the capacity to offload any network functions from the CPU to the network. And secondly, it allows offloading various data algorithms. Examples are Mellanox Scalable Hierarchical Aggregation and Reduction Protocol (SHARP)™ technology, interconnect-based MPI Tag Matching and Rendezvous protocol network engines, and more.
In looking at InfiniBand routing schemes, InfiniBand provides a very efficient and robust fine-grained adaptive routing. For known application patterns, InfiniBand enables supercomputer managers to exhaust perfectly matched static routing schemes, and to easily optimize them for their needs. For supercomputing infrastructures supporting a wide variety of HPC and AI workloads, InfiniBand offers adaptive routing. InfiniBand too ensures reliable data delivery and does not drop packets.
Oakridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) pinnacle supercomputer and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Sierra supercomputer reflect the DoE Exascale architecture path and are ranked number 1 and number 2 on the November 2018 TOP500 supercomputers list. These systems leverage InfiniBand for its high throughput, low latency, routing protocols, and In-Network Computing engines to deliver an efficient and scalable computing infrastructure. In a paper titled “The Design, Deployment, and Evaluation of the CORAL Pre-Exascale Systems,” people from Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore labs explore the performance advantages of the InfiniBand network, including the performance of InfiniBand adaptive routing technology.
Figure 1 and motif 2 showcase the testing results on the pinnacle supercomputer. These results are based on the Bisection bandwidth benchmark MpiGraph, which explores the performance of MPI process pairs in plenary permutations. motif 1 presents the histogram results, in which adaptive routing showcases that any MPI pairs achieve nearly maximum bandwidth, while static routing suffers from congestion that limits data bandwidth. motif 2 highlights the selfsame results differently, where lighter colors picture less variation and data traffic congestion between pairs of nodes. Adaptive routing in InfiniBand sustains 96% network utilization at a big scale (this is the fastest supercomputer in the world today). This even of network utilization is higher than other existing networks, and future proprietary networks on paper.
Figure 1 – MpiGraph Performance Results of InfiniBand – Demonstrates the Performance Advantages of Adaptive Routing over Static Routing
Figure 2 – MpiGraph Performance Results of InfiniBand – Demonstrates the Performance Advantages of Adaptive Routing over Static Routing
Another aspect of InfiniBand is its capacity to support any network topology one can design. For example, InfiniBand is being used to figure Fat-Tree (CLOS) topologies, Hypercube and Enhanced Hypercube, Torus, Mesh, Dragonfly+ and more. The InfiniBand Dragonfly+ topology enables lower latency versus other Dragonfly topologies used in proprietary networks. The current HDR 200 gigabit InfiniBand solution can connect more than 160 thousand endpoints with the Dragonfly+ topology at 3 switch connection hops. And the upcoming NDR 400 gigabit InfiniBand technology can connect more than 1 million endpoints in the selfsame manner.
By leveraging the economy of scale, and the scale of performance, InfiniBand is the leading interconnect solution for the Exascale era.
The exigency to host, process, and transmit more data, in less time and more securely, is putting huge strain on existing datacenter network, server, and storage architectures, with the demands of specific applications like synthetic intelligence, machine learning, image recognition, and data analytics exacerbating the problem.
When they add new platforms, many organizations now prefer to buy software-defined object/block/file storage solutions from vendors such as Red Hat, or exhaust open source distributions like OpenStack, sometimes underpinned by or side-by-side with hyperconverged infrastructure (HCI) storage stacks from the likes of Nutanix, Dell EMC, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Cisco Systems. Moreover, spinning disk is rapidly being replaced by more efficient all-flash solutions, with Gartner predicting that by 2021 50 percent of any datacenters will uses solid state drives (SSDs) for high performance workloads. any of which means that current storage area networks (SANs) just cannot reduce it any more.
Fibre Channel Falling Behind
That is particularly proper of Fibre Channel SANs, the demise of which has been predicted for decades, though a huge install base, ease of management, and isolation of obstruct storage traffic appears to ensure their short-term relevancy. The problem for Fibre Channel now is that another of its historical advantages – a regularly updated roadmap offering a well-defined path to upgrade – looks like it’s petering out and the technology has peaked in terms of future performance enhancements. Similarly, FC no longer holds the performance odds as Ethernet speeds relish recently surpassed Fibre Channel speeds.
Ethernet Storage Fabric And RoCE
One of Fibre Channel’s key advantages over Ethernet looks to relish been eroded further by the emergence of what Mellanox has dubbed the Ethernet Storage Fabric (ESF), ESF supports unique storage-aware features such as delivering brilliant networking and storage offloads including TCP, RDMA, NVMe over Fabrics (NVMe-oF), erasure coding, T10 DIF, and encryption to deliver the highest levels of performance and the lowest latency and a lossless fabric. Mellanox switches too feature zero packet loss (no avoidable packet loss, for specimen due to traffic microbursts), and deliver that performance fairly and consistently to respond customers growing desire for Ethernet-based storage due to its capacity to support block, file, and remonstrate storage, as well as simultaneously handling compute and storage traffic.
ESF, which supports the selfsame remote direct memory access (RDMA) protocol as InfiniBand, can exhaust RDMA to bypasses the TCP/IP stack and enable direct server to server and server to storage data transfers between application memories without offloading the processing overhead onto the CPU. This allows ESF to deliver significant performance and efficiency gains. It is now being deployed in cloud, storage and enterprise Ethernet networks with RDMA over converged Ethernet (RoCE – pronounced Rocky, and currently create in Microsoft’s Azure Cloud and other hyperscaler clouds) to reduce latency and server CPU/IO bottlenecks for example. Best of any ESF supports RoCE on either lossy or lossless networks and can simultaneously support TCP/IP traffic on the selfsame fabric.
And using RDMA alongside NVMe-oF network protocol for data transfers between the host and attached storage systems can bring latencies down even further from milliseconds to microseconds and even nanoseconds. Though the technology is just begging to subsist adopted by the Enterprise market, it has been deployed by hyper scale datacenters for years. It is envisaged that NVMe interfaces will supersede existing technologies like SAS and SATA to support plenary line rates needed by machine learning (ML) and synthetic intelligence (AI) applications and further exploit the adoption of RDMA.
Intelligent or Smart NICs provide hardware offloads to reduce latency and free up CPU on the initiator and target, so both servers and storage relish more CPU power for running applications or storage features. Other advanced functions, like support for Open vSwitch (OVS) virtual switches and overlay networks, that potentially save owners and operators money on additional network switch hardware elsewhere, as well as faster, more efficient security via embedded firewalls and the offloading of encryption off the server and onto the SmartNIC itself.
InfiniBand Marches On
With Fibre Channel out of the running, it now looks like a straight fight between InfiniBand and Ethernet to provide the high-speed storage fabrics datacenters want to future proof their operations. And unlike Fibre Channel, both technologies relish ambitious roadmaps.
The InfiniBand Trade Association (IBTA) published a roadmap outlining 1x, 2x, 4x and 12x port widths with bandwidth reaching 600 Gb/sec in 2018, depending on the capacity per lane (either 100 Gb/sec or 125 Gb/sec) and the number of lanes per server. InfiniBand is a fine fitting for server interconnects over short-distance passive and energetic copper cables in HPC datacenters but can too subsist deployed over optical cables over distances of up to 10 kilometers for inter-datacenter connections.
InfiniBand has a lot of support among the HPC community and across some hyperscalers and cloud builders, with its advantages not limited just to throughput and low latency. InfiniBand, with the HDR flavor, now has a lot of headroom for expansion required by even hyperscale datacenters, supporting maximum cluster sizes of up to 40,000 nodes, which can subsist extended further by clustering. It has traditionally offered lower latency than Ethernet due to the latter’s exhaust of forward oversight correction, whilst users laud the higher wire speeds, larger packet sizes, dynamic routing capabilities and simple to exhaust multi pathing it provides.
Manufacturers are slugging it out to bag 100 Gb/sec and 200 Gb/sec interconnects to market. Mellanox is currently shipping enhanced data rate (EDR) InfiniBand components that combine four lanes of 25 Gb/sec into 100 Gb/sec of total bandwidth (PAM-4 signaling is what makes the 50 Gb/sec physical signaling peep like 100 Gb/sec). The company started shipping started shipping 200 Gb/sec Higher Data Rate (HDR) InfiniBand ultimate year and has a faster Next Data Rate (NDR) InfiniBand too on the horizon with native 100 Gb/sec signaling. At the extreme discontinuance of Mellanox’s roadmap is the Extended Data Rate (XDR) InfiniBand specification, running potentially to 1 Tbit/sec across the four lanes that are typically used to execute a server port at some indeterminate point in the future; this implies 250 Gb/sec signaling per lane, and it is not clear yet what coalesce of native signaling, data encoding, and modulation will subsist used to reach this goal.
Ethernet Eyes 1.6 Tbit/sec
But Ethernet too is backed by concrete plans for improved connectivity. The 200 Gb/sec and 400 Gb/sec specifications were ratified by the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Working Group late ultimate year, with the consortium of suppliers which execute up the Ethernet Alliance confident they will see 400 Gb/sec links deployed in hyper scale datacenters by 2020. Further specifications ramping capacity up to 800 Gb/sec and 1.6 Tb/sec connectivity could emerge as soon as 2023.
Both 200 Gb/sec and 400 Gb/sec support a range of different cabling specifications that should satisfy the short range and long range transmission requirements, backwards compatibility and power consumption limits in most datacenters where space and electricity is often at a premium, using either single-mode fiber (SMF) or multi-mode fiber (MMF) based on multiple lanes and fiber strands.
The latest Ethernet specifications too moved to address the latency issues caused by the exigency to fulfill forward oversight correction prior to data transmission to ensure reliability. Rather than making it optional, the 802.bs architecture embeds Reed Solomon forward oversight correction (FEC) in the physical coding sub-layer (PCS) for each rate, effectively forcing manufacturers to develop 200 Gb/sec and 400 Gb/sec extender sublayers to support the future development of other PCS sublayers that can utilize other types of FEC for greater efficiency at a later date.
Ethernet Gathering Momentum
Any timescale for the deployment of the latest InfiniBand or Ethernet technology in either cloud or enterprise datacenters depends on when manufacturers can bag suitable components onto market, and how keenly they are priced.
The momentum appears now very firmly behind Ethernet however. While sales of Mellanox’s InfiniBand ASICs and switches held solid from 2015 through 2018, with occasional spikes here and there, InfiniBand showed modest growth driven by some ML/AI projects. It was demand for the company’s ESF networking components and high-performance Ethernet – where Mellanox maintains leadership in 25 Gb/sec and above in Ethernet adapters – that drove most of its revenue growth in 2018, and where they will continue to capitalize from a multi-year transition to higher speeds.
Things could change, but one thing is sure, no matter which technology wins networks will become more intelligent. Today, InfiniBand has the lead with technologies like SMART, which accelerate not just HPC but too AI workloads. But Ethernet is too developing rapidly with SmartNIC technology and virtual switch offloads. Ethernet is set to deliver almost everything the modern hyperconverged or software driven datacenter needs in terms of storage performance, capacity and management over the long term. It looks like Ethernet is one technology that would subsist difficult to stake against. In the end, one thing is certain – the networks of the future will subsist smarter and faster.