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8002 exam Dumps Source : II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement
Test Code : 8002
Test name : II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement
Vendor name : PRMIA
: 132 existent Questions
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PRMIA II- Mathematical Foundations of
“There probably are only a few americans who had careers as long as Sean had while getting as jiffy, and there’s a noteworthy explanation for that,” observed R.C. Buford, the San Antonio Spurs’ everyday manager, for whom Marks played for 2 seasons and apprenticed as an lieutenant drill and entrance office executive.
“In each function he’s had, he’s been a subculture builder,” Buford mentioned.
around the N.B.A., that word — tradition — has develop into relish a light catchphrase, an opening statement for most advantageous intentions.
“americans expend it any of the time — they’re going to labor complicated, play protection, play for the crew — but how many in fact do?” eminent P.J. Carlesimo, whose N.B.A. stops in teaching and broadcasting indulge in protected San Antonio and Brooklyn. “on account of his time with the Spurs, Sean is watchful of what a superb locker latitude is like.”
For distinction, retract the Knicks. Their unique administration group besides talks up culture creation, however their stylistic mode in drill David Fizdale’s first season has been archetypal Y.M.C.A. select-up. The Knicks’ front office claims operational independence from the team owner, James L. Dolan, but can’t even name a casual intelligence conference devoid of tailoring the visitor listing to his petty grievances.
In San Antonio, the location the Holt household has without question left the basketball people by myself, Marks turned into informed in no uncertain terms that he could smartly live a bridge to a future devoid of Gregg Popovich, the 70-yr-historic head educate and team president.
however the blank slate in Brooklyn — the location ownership is a largely absentee and ambiguously directed partnership between Mikhail Prokhorov and Joseph Tsai — presented a clear-slate challenge that became extra intriguing than daunting.
“We knew there indulge in been going to live some darkish days,” Marks referred to. “but they any gave up respectable jobs because they thought they had an chance to construct whatever thing special.”
in Part 1 of this collection I looked on the pecuniary system and crime. among the facets I made became that the executive has effectively abandoned its “5 in 4” mode — and is now claiming it changed into Michael Lee-Chin's aspirational goal. I insisted, although, that nowhere within the fashioned announcements of the mode did the executive disown the goal and as such any evaluation of its efficiency should retract account of the indisputable fact that its performance target turned into 5 per cent in every year for four years. The facts prove that the economic climate has been growing to live at just over one per cent per annum with 2016/17 at 1.three per cent, 2017/18 at 0.9 per cent, and 2018/19 anticipated to are available in beneath two per cent.
In a speech at Essex Valley in St Elizabeth, in mid-January, major Minister Andrew Holness bemoaned the sluggish tempo of pecuniary boom and set two per cent each year as the unique goal.
On the crime entrance, a welcome 20 per cent discount in murders become realised nationally in 2018 over 2017, led by passage of a 70.1 per cent discount in St James, home of 1 of three states of emergency (SOE). This efficiency is instructive for a brace of explanations, one being that discount rates took location in 12 of the 19 policing divisions, besides the fact that children there indulge in been SOEs in just three. One corporate enviornment division, Kingston primary, by which there become no SOE skilled a reduction of 40.7 per cent, whereas a rural division, Manchester, additionally now not having an SOE, realised a discount of 32.6 per cent.
Assessing the performance of the executive within the management of the schooling sector is a fancy assignment for at the least two motives:
(1) well timed information on the efficiency of the numerous areas of the Ministry of education and entities in the sector, aren't available; and
(2) one of the areas for which key performance indications can live organize aren't squarely below the handle of the Ministry of training.
In taking account of these constraints i will present an analysis of the sphere. In getting ready this article I consulted with about 30 stakeholders — former policymakers, former and current senior managers and advisors within the Ministry of training, educational planners, and practitioners. about a dozen (40 per cent) of the stakeholders responded to my questions and therefore the views expressed herein in Part replicate their contributions.
There are three key considerations in the sector on which i will live able to focus in this opening dialog:
(i) Foundations of essential considering and reasoning
(ii) the unique requisites Curriculum and the primary Exit Profile
(iii) The position of fogeys
pondering and reasoning
some of the areas during which I locate that their schooling device is at its weakest is within the construction of the capacities of scholars to indulge in interaction in necessary considering. The building of vital pondering is, and has been adopted as, a crucial goal of education.
important pondering, in its simplest that means, is the mode during which someone explanations through and assesses records and suggestions to contour a judgement (ie, arrive at a position). In most education programs the foundations of essential thinking are centered within the acquisition of the study of arithmetic and language. searching on the performance of students in these captious foundational subjects gives antecedent for continued subject. The remaining three country wide education Inspectorate (NEI) studies (2017, 2015, and 2014) give the context.
The 2017 record was in response to a sample of 189 colleges. In that document college students' attainment in English and mathematics was at or above the national middling of the ministry's ambitions in 21 per cent of the faculties inspected. In seventy nine per cent it become beneath the country wide regular.
The 2015 report represented the completion of the primary inspection cycle which any started in 2010 and mentioned on any 953 public colleges (simple and secondary). In that document college students' attainment in English and arithmetic was above the ministry's objectives in six per cent of the colleges inspected, on the target in 16 per cent of colleges, however below in seventy eight per cent.
The 2014 document used a pattern of 129 colleges. in this round, students' attainment in English and arithmetic become above the ministry's target in two per cent of the colleges inspected, at the objectives in 10 per cent, but beneath the target in 88 per cent.
one of the vital considerations to live watchful is that the very faculties don't seem to live represented in each and every round of inspection, and there is just one document (2015) on a complete cycle; so the 129 faculties in 2014 don't seem to live blanketed within the 189 in 2017, however each sets, and the others in the sector, are reflected in 2015. The 2017 file starts a brand unique cycle of inspections.
besides the fact that those constraints, the finding which stands out is efficiency within the two foundational areas of essential pondering (math and English). there's, in the beginning, first rate information in that the percent of schools wherein performance is below goal fell from 88 per cent in 2014 (involving 129 faculties) to seventy eight per cent in 2015, reflecting the photograph islandwide. but that this figure is still within the unreasonable 70s (79 per cent) in 2017 in 189 schools, after the complete circular of inspections (2010 – 2015), and after which systematic interventions would indulge in taken area, is a trigger for challenge.
The requisites curriculum and PEP
The implementation of the unique standards Curriculum (NSC) and its principal evaluation, the fundamental Exit Profile (PEP), has not been devoid of its impartial proportion of challenge. while the Ministry of schooling ought to live recommended for adjusting the implementation schedule and spirited with stakeholders, the most liable fret, in my assessment, and that of alternative stakeholders, is whether or not the PEP will land us anyplace different than the Grade Six success test (GSAT) did. conscious that one of the most basic motives for the PEP was to rationalise and execute extra equitable the location of students in high schools, there are actual questions now as to whether PEP will remedy that unwell.
but even though PEP cures the inequity in placement to a few degree, the plenty greater lengthy-term rigor is whether or not, given the findings on the advancement of crucial pondering, which the NSC is anticipated to tackle, what can live accomplished?
The issue of weaknesses in crucial considering permeates the total fabric of the schooling gadget, from actual to backside, and a few of the identical academics who are to lead in the birth of content of the NSC are themselves needing to extend their vital thinking abilities. at the equal time, i'm not bound that an examinations-based mostly placement gadget is either per the character and philosophy of the NSC or the most suitable response to the inequities of their socio-financial and training systems.
The function of fogeys
one of the crucial government's signature coverage location is the 'removal' of auxiliary expenses, below what is established as the “Non-necessary Parental Contribution coverage”. I even indulge in shared earlier than that i'm of the view that this policy is untimely and retrograde in addition to mistaken in its precise-world utility. amongst different issues, the notion that parents haven't any responsibility to execute a contribution financially to the cost of their toddlers's training is a violation of the sacred responsibility of becoming a father or mother. however in addition to this 'violation', the truth is that high performing colleges can freight substantial charges which fogeys are expected to pay and, in every one of these colleges, the compliance cost is within the 90% range. That fact ought to carry weight something. among the issues it capacity is that folks are inclined to pay for a decent schooling. A stakeholder tells me of a father or mother who indulge in two boys going to unreasonable college, one attends a unreasonable performing school and the other attends a struggling school. The costs charged by passage of the high performing college is over $30,000.00 per yr with a brace of other fees charged birthright through the year. The expenses charged by passage of the struggling faculty is below $10,000.00 p.a. in accordance with the stakeholder, who has intimate expertise of the statistics, the one mother or father willingly pays the higher expenses and laments that what her newborn is getting at the different college isn't value her cash.
options and viable solutions
on the topic of the deficits in crucial thinking, which occur themselves at any degrees of the education system and the society, the treatments are neither instant nor elementary, but there's one location at which they may besides start. This starting factor is that they dispense with the concept and result that the school latitude is for people that couldn't execute it in other areas of endeavour and are searching for to recruit and maintain the brightest, most disciplined, and most committed for the classroom. this may imply better instructor-practising methods, more suitable pay, and better working conditions.
studying the lessons from the difficulties with the implementation of the NSC, one necessary rehearse they should undertake, as a society, is that of developing an tutorial coverage framework it really is supra-political. A supra-political academic coverage framework transcends political administrations and idiosyncrasies and preferences of individual ministers within and throughout political administrations. This coverage framework could live developed in concert with a broad pass component of stakeholders, with the related plans, innovations, timelines, and resources. The implementation can live led through a set of extremely in a position career educators, planners, and coverage consultants whose tenure isn't plagued by the trade of political administrators.
With respect to the non-obligatory parental contribution coverage I dangle the view that this policy has undermined an necessary social assemble named “parental responsibility”, while on the identical time being ineffectual in attaining its simple objective, that of improving entry to fine education. here's now not to title that the state should still no longer give assist to vulnerable families, however for fogeys who indulge in been paying $60,000 per term to forward their child to a private preparatory faculty to live told that the $30,000 per yr to forward that equal newborn to a high college is non-compulsory is conveniently unhealthy policy for training and society.
I even indulge in up to now proposed that executive should still establish a groundwork determine for what it takes to deliver an excellent secondary education event. Having taken account of this determine, estimated to live within the region of $sixty five,000.00 per scholar, per year, the government may still then are searching for to boost a funding coverage, which takes account of parental contributions (which may still live necessary) and the differentials in fogeys' capacity to pay, as well as the fiscal capabilities of colleges and their assist bases. putting any these variables in the combine the govt's fingers would play the position of “funding the hole”. This aptitude the abolition equality in per head subvention to faculties to at least one which money in line with diploma of necessity in in the hunt for to elevate best in every school.
The conversation is by using no aptitude completer...
Dr Canute Thompson is head of the Caribbean Centre for tutorial Planning, lecturer in the college of training, and co-founder and chief consultant for the Caribbean management Re-creativeness Initiative, at the university of the West Indies, Mona. he's additionally author of four books and a brace of articles on leadership. forward feedback to the Observer or email@example.com.
It’s been a bit greater than eighty years considering the fact that Hedy Lamarr carried out in a lone day stardom together with her first English-speaking film, 1938’s Oscar-nominated Algiers, but she’s once once more within the highlight, for reasons which indulge in every slight thing to execute with her brains, as opposed to her celebrated elegance.
Two infants’s books out this week inform youngster-pleasant reports of the actress’s enjoyable contributions to the scientific community: Hedy Lamarr’s Double existence: Hollywood Legend and awesome Inventor, by means of Laurie Wallmark with illustrations through Katy Wu; and Hedy & Her surprising Invention, by Jan Wahl with illustrations by means of Morgana Wallace.
As their titles indicate, whereas both books palpate on Lamarr’s Hollywood profession, it’s the labor she did at night, after a plenary day on an MGM set, that introduced her probably the most delight, if now not notoriety at the time. certainly, these two experiences and their artful, colourful photos are the latest to highlight a truism we’ve yet to thoroughly draw nigh in their tradition: for those who expend a mobile phone, GPS or Wi-Fi, you’re doing so due to know-how that resulted from Lamarr’s most exceptional invention.
“Hedy’s lifestyles became a existent dichotomy, and sometimes she struggled with that,” Wallmark says. “however the world as they know it today could now not live with out her.”
each books trail the yarn of Lamarr’s childhood in Vienna, her adore for her father, and her brief intellect for taking any kind of desktop aside to figure out the passage it labored. Her adore of playacting, in the meantime, combined with her beauty as she grew older, led the girl then called Hedwig Kiesler to acting classes, followed by means of theater and movie labor in Vienna and Berlin. (both authors wisely miss Lamarr’s appearance in 1933’s Ecstasy; a scene displaying her swimming in the nude led to a scandal when that film became released, even because it additionally won the live watchful of MGM head Louis B. Mayer.)
Rechristened Hedy Lamarr via Mayer upon her arrival in Hollywood in 1938, she co-starred in a number of excessive-wattage MGM movies, together with 1940’s boom city with Clark Gable and Spencer Tracy and 1941’s Ziegfeld lady with James Stewart and Judy Garland – in the latter, Lamarr’s personality earns repute, although now not happiness, as a result of her remarkable appears. artwork seemed to replicate existence, as both books explore the thought that the actress turned to her childhood adore of inventing, setting up a draft desk and gear in her home, so she might tinker with initiatives after a day on a soundstage.
“Her urbanity did not play a number one role in her ambitions for her lifestyles. This was proved by using the incontrovertible fact that even whereas she changed into working on films, in her spare time she became continuing with her inventions,” notes Wallace, a British Columbia-based mostly blended-media artist; Hedy & Her remarkable Invention is her first project as a toddlers’s e-book illustrator (Wahl, a prolific, award-successful toddlers’s e-book creator, handed away on January 29 on the age of 87). “In a sense, she should indulge in felt trapped with the aid of her attractiveness. Her charge at that time became wrapped up in her appearance and her success in films. but this didn't speechless her scientific curiosity, or her incentive to invent.”
a few of Lamarr’s concepts focused on rigor solving, relish a glow-in-the-darkish dog collar or a traffic symptom that could argue when the light was about to exchange. however in the earliest days of World fight II, as studies of the eu battle included intelligence of Germany jamming the signals of British torpedoes, Lamarr devoted herself to discovering a solution; she enlisted a friend, George Antheil, a composer and former weapons inspector, to companion together with her on the assignment, and both of them developed a system that became referred to as frequency hopping, allowing ships and torpedoes to communicate by the expend of radio indicators devoid of worry of jamming or interference.
That conception is explained in convenient-to-realize language and accompanying illustrations in each books. “Age latitude can evolve with a ebook relish this,” says Wallmark, whose preview labor turned into 2017’s Grace Hopper: Queen of laptop Code, concerning the American computer scientist and rear admiral of the U.S. Navy. “I’ve read the publication to preschoolers, and i’ve carried out college visits with seventh graders. The younger ones might not obtain any of the science, but they’ll obtain the relaxation of the story.”
Lamarr and Antheil obtained a patent for his or her invention in August 1942; via then the U.S. had entered World war II, and the pair offered their device to the U.S. Navy, which deemed it too complicated and costly to enforce. Fearing one other nation might possibly live able to expend the information device, although, the Navy declared it classified. it might live 40 years before the technology could live declassified, and by using then the patent had long expired. Lamarr and Antheil under no circumstances made a penny from their invention, which ultimately grew to become the precursor to cozy wireless communications.
Hedy Lamarr died in 2000 at the age of 85, however by using then the scientific neighborhood had begun to well known her achievements; in 1997, 55 years after she and Antheil got their patent, they had been identified with the electronic Frontier foundation’s Pioneer Award, a flash illustrated in Wallmark’s book, which additionally mentions that in 2014, Lamarr become posthumously inducted into the national Inventors corridor of reputation.
This isn’t the primary time Lamarr’s success past film has been highlighted. Richard Rhodes’s Hedy’s Folly: The life and step forward innovations of Hedy Lamarr, probably the most eye-catching lady on earth was posted in 2011, while a pair of picture novels – the newest, Hedy Lamarr: an astounding life, with the aid of William Roy and Sylvain Dorange, turned into launched in 2018 – even indulge in sought to talk about the yin and yang central to Lamarr’s very own and knowledgeable heritage. but the two books released on Tuesday are the primary written with toddlers in intellect, and Wallmark says the actress should live a assignment mannequin, for ladies and boys alike.
“What Hedy Lamarr’s lifestyles teaches us – and it’s an necessary message for any children to recognize – is that you simply don’t must choose to live only one component,” says Wallmark, who earned degrees in arithmetic and desktop science and taught the latter discipline earlier than fitting a children’s booklet writer. “It’s marvelous enough to live a celeb and a brilliant inventor, or it’s adequate to live a soccer participant and besides in the glee membership, for example. They additionally minister to grow up after which, whatever thing you select as your foremost in college, that’s what you do. but Hedy suggests us anything else is feasible.”
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By Dino Grandoni and Jeff Stein
For months, the term Green unique Deal has been bandied about by Democrats in Congress and on the crusade trail for president as their catchall phrase for a sweeping effort to halt runaway climate change.
On Thursday, the slogan got some meat on its bones as Sen. Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.) and Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.) prepared to introduce a framework outlining the goals of a sweeping climate pact going forward — and stop other Democrats from defining the Green unique Deal however they wanted.
Their measure already has the backing of four Democratic senators who indulge in launched bids for the 2020 presidential nomination. But it is already being lampooned by Republicans — though embraced by progressives — for its broad aims on things unrelated to climate, including increased access to housing, health freight and education for lower-income communities.
“This is really about providing justice for communities and just transitions for communities,” Ocasio-Cortez told NPR in an interview Thursday morning. “So really the heart of the Green unique Deal is about social justice.”
Ocasio-Cortez and Markey contour a notable pairing: The former leveraged her political stardom to galvanize progressives around a require for a comprehensive climate mode while the latter brings gravitas to the proposal as one of the original sponsors of Barack Obama's ultimately unsuccessful cap-and-trade plan
The proposal is a nonbinding resolution, but its aims are ambitious. The Democratic resolution calls for the United States to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions within ten years by “dramatically expanding and upgrading renewable power sources.” It stands as a stark counterpoint to the Trump administration's downplaying of the scientific consensus behind climate change, as it has rolled back rules designed to hold global warming and withdrawn from the Paris climate accord aimed at reducing global pollution.
The five-page resolution is not confined to climate change, however. It promotes a plethora of progressive ideals — relish housing, health care, education, unions and indigenous rights, which are only indirectly related to Democratic climate desires.
“The resolution is clear: They necessity to saunter to renewable energy as swiftly as possible,” said Stephen O'Hanlon, co-founder of the Sunrise Movement that has agitated for such a strategy.
That youth climate advocacy organization brought the thought of a Green unique Deal to the fore in Washington by staging sit-in protests in the offices of a number of high-ranking Democrats, including then-Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.). Sunrise, which endorsed Ocasio-Cortez before her conquest over then-Rep. Joe Crowley (D) in the unique York primary last summer, worked with both the congresswoman's and Markey's offices to craft the resolution.
“If we’re affecting to 100 percent antiseptic and renewable energy in 10 years,” O'Hanlon added, “there won’t live the incentive to build unique coal or fossil fuel infrastructure.”
At least four Senate Democrats currently running for president — Cory Booker of unique Jersey, Kirsten Gillibrand of unique York, Kamala Harris of California and Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts — will co-sponsor the plan, spokespeople for the senators confirmed.
Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.), who is considering another rush for president, is besides backing the plan. any five senators had previously endorsed the concept of the Green unique Deal.
In total, nine senators and 60 House members are on board, according to Markey's office. The supporters include Congressional Progressive Caucus leaders Mark Pocan (Wis.) and Pramila Jayapal (Wash.), as well as Ocasio-Cortez allies Ro Khanna (Calif.), Rashida Tlaib (Mich.), and Joe Neguse (Colo.).
Markey and Ocasio-Cortez are expected to formally introduce their resolution on Thursday afternoon with “dozens” of supporters among congressional Democrats, according to a source with lore of the rollout who was not authorized to debate it publicly.
Their proposal stipulates that any infrastructure deal struck with President Trump and other Republicans must address climate change, such as by building resilience to extreme weather events. It gives progressives something many of them indulge in been itching for: The covenant of a guaranteed high-paying job for every American. Among its demands are unique trade rules to “stop the transfer of jobs and pollution overseas.”
The proposal besides calls for a sweeping overhaul of the transportation sector “as much as is technologically possible,” with investments in zero-emissions vehicles along with high-speed rail and other public transit.
“We indulge in something very ambitious in mind, something akin to what they undertook in the Second World War,” said Robert Hockett, a professor at Cornell University who provided input on the plan. “It gives us a document around which to galvanize planning and action, and gives political figures running for office something they can symptom onto or repudiate. There won’t live latitude anymore for just supporting 'the concept.' ”
But one crucial thing the proposal does not spell out: How the federal government is expected to pay for or achieve these broad aims.
The Green unique Deal would live paid for “the very passage they paid for the original unique Deal, World War II, the bank bailouts, tax cuts for the wealthy and decades of war — with public money appropriated by Congress,” Ocasio-Cortez said, according to the Associated Press.
That gave Republicans on Capitol Hill an opening to storm the mode as an ill-conceived wishlist — even before it was formally unveiled.
“Wealth transfer schemes suggested in the radical policies relish the Green unique Deal may not live the best path to community prosperity,” said Rep. John Shimkus (Ill.), the top Republican on the House Energy and Commerce subcommittee on climate change and other environmental issues.
That House panel was one of two — along with the Natural Resources Committee — to hold hearings on climate change on Wednesday.
After two years out of power in Congress and the White House, Democrat are sending a message that the planet's warming will finally once again live a priority in Washington by scheduling that pair of hearings as among the first held in the unique Congress.
“Today they whirl the page on this committee from climate change denial to climate action,” Natural Resources Chairman Raúl Grijalva (D-Ariz) said.
Ocasio-Cortez and Markey’s proposal does not include an outright ban on fossil fuels, which some nigh to the bill observe as a concession to moderates and labor groups. Some environmental activists defended that decision, motto the investments in green energy would execute the ban unnecessary.
"There's some bold and visionary pieces in the Green unique Deal resolution," said Erich Pica, president of Friends of the Earth, a climate advocacy group. "But the failure to mention and explicitly state that they indulge in to cessation the era of fossil fuels is just a huge missed chance to live existent about where they are and where they necessity to go."
The mode besides does not explicitly exclude some major forms of low-emissions electricity — mainly, nuclear energy and hydropower — as some observers worried it would.
While environmentalists indulge in previously protested both forms of power over concerns relish the risk of meltdown or the fragmentation of river habitat, climate analysts — including those with the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) — say both are necessary today to reduce emissions enough to stave off the worst effects of climate change.
An IPCC report in October describing how the world has just over a decade to hold global warming to temper levels proved to live a noteworthy motivating factor in the recent wave of climate activism. Ocasio-Cortez and Markey’s resolution cites those findings.
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Paradise, Calif. after the wildfire. (AP Photo/Noah Berger)
— The toll extreme weather takes: last year’s disastrous train of hurricanes, wildfires and extreme weather events killed at least 247 people and cost the nation about $91 billion. Of the 14 separate events eminent in the data released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, $73 billion of the damage was attributed to Hurricanes Michael and Florence and the spate of wildfires in the West, The Post’s Brady Dennis and Chris Mooney report. While 2018 did not eclipse the $306 billion in damage caused by devastating natural catastrophes in 2017, “the most recent numbers continue what some experts convoke an alarming trend toward an increasing number of billion-dollar disasters, fueled, at least in part, by the warming climate.”
Put in perspective: “Since 1980, the United States has experienced 241 weather and climate disasters where the overall damage reached or exceeded $1 billion, when adjusted for inflation,” Dennis and Mooney write. “Between 1980 and 2013, according to NOAA, the nation averaged roughly half a dozen such disasters a year. Over the most recent five years, that number has jumped to more than 12.” Deke Arndt, chief of the monitoring arm at NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, told reporters the nation had “about twice the number of billion dollar disasters than they indulge in in an middling year over the last 40 years or so.”
Man, it’s a stinging one: To boot, NASA and NOAA scientists made a separate announcement Wednesday that the Earth’s middling surface temperature last year was officially the fourth highest in nearly 140 years of data. The past four years indulge in been the warmest on record, according to the data, and nine of the 10 warmest years on record indulge in occurred since 2005. And in most or any of those years, the temperature on Earth was at least 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit above the middling 19th century temperature. Gavin Schmidt, director of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies at NASA, said it was “quite clearly the fourth-warmest year in their record, which goes back to 1880, and probably was warmer than many hundreds of years before that.”
Glaciers and ice caps on Baffin Island in Arctic Canada. (Gifford Miller, University of Colorado Boulder/INSTAAR)
— Earth is looking a lot relish it did during an ancient warming period: The planet is paralleling some of the conditions from the most recent major warm age 115,000 years ago. One clue for researchers was the discovery of ancient plants that emerged from retreating mountain glaciers in northeastern Canada, The Post’s Chris Mooney reports. The plants they organize were “very age indeed, and had probably last grown in these spots some 115,000 years ago,” he writes. “That’s the last time the areas were actually not covered by ice, the scientists believe.”
But there’s a major (and troubling) discrepancy between current and ancient conditions: Sea levels were 20 to 30 feet higher back then. “Scientists are now intensely debating precisely which processes could indulge in played out then — and how soon they’ll play out again. After all, West Antarctica has already been shown, once again, to live birth a retreat.”
Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (Tom Williams/CQ Roll Call)
— Senate Democrat trolls Chamber of Commerce: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-R.I.) entered a tongue-in-cheek submission in a $25,000-prize contest being held by the traffic lobbying group for the "best, most viable ideas for a long-term sustainable funding source for infrastructure." The munificent senator recommended eliminating fossil-fuel subsidies and placing a charge on carbon. "One would anticipate a traffic organization whose members can’t grow or thrive in the absence of an expanding economy or liable infrastructure to live on the front lines of this fight," he wrote. "Unfortunately... the U.S. Chamber of Commerce [has] not supported climate action."
Not the first time he has taken direct at the chamber: Whitehouse recently challenged claims made by the trade group in uphold of the oil industry in a friend-of-the-court brief filed in a lawsuit between four California local governments and major oil companies.
Volunteers prepare to antiseptic a restroom at Joshua Tree National Park on Jan. 4. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
— Park Service won’t expend visitor fees for park operations: The National Park Service has reportedly decided to expend congressionally appropriated funds to pay for maintenance and staffing during the partial government shutdown, reversing an earlier saunter to expend park visitor entrance fees, the Hill reports, citing an internal Park Service memo. “We indulge in confirmed with the [White House] Office of Management and Budget that the NPS can saunter obligations made during the appropriations lapse from the FLREA fee account and apply those obligations to the National Park Service annual operating account,” NPS deputy director Dan Smith said in the memo, per the report.
Meanwhile: Rep. Betty McCollum (D-Minn.), the chairwoman of the House Appropriations subcommittee that oversees the Park Service, called for an investigation of the Trump administration’s initial saunter to expend entrance fees. “It is evident that NPS and DOI allowed national parks sites to remain open without adequate staff and services to protect the parks and their visitors,” she wrote in a note to the Government Accountability Office.
During a hearing Wednesday, McCollum said she’s “more than convinced, sadly, that the administration has ignored the law and the policies that the agencies indulge in had in location for years to protect their citizens and their public lands,” per the Hill.
Senate Minority Leader Charles E. Schumer (D-N.Y.) (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)
— Schumer recommends FERC replacement: Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) has recommended energy attorney Allison Clements to supersede Cheryl LaFleur on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, E&E intelligence reports. LaFleur announced last week that she would not seek a third term and plans to wait on the commission until her term expires on June 30. “Clements, currently the director of antiseptic energy markets at the Energy Foundation, has a long history of providing clarity to antiseptic energy groups and the public on complicated policies and rulemakings at FERC,” per the report. In a memo, Capital Alpha suggested Clements could succeed FERC Chairman Neil Chatterjee if a Democratic president takes the White House in 2020. Though it is tradition for the president to postpone to Senate leaders on picks for the commission, Trump is not required to accept Schumer’s recommendation.
The Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee holds a hearing on the status and outlook of energy innovation.
— A mammoth snow pile on the Golden State: More than 10 feet of snow clobbered California's mountains over the past week, The Post's Ian Livingston writes, and even brought snow to nearby coastal regions.
Glossary UW Bothell Course Descriptions UW Tacoma Course Descriptions
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ACCTG 199 Accounting for Problem Solving (2, max. 4)Supplementary lectures, discussions, and problem- solving sessions in introductory accounting. Enrollment priority to EOP students and others by permission. Credit may not live applied to fulfill specific program requirements. Corequisite: ACCTG 215. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: AWSp.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 199
ACCTG 215 Introduction to Accounting and pecuniary Reporting (5)Nature and social setting of accounting; uses of accounting information; introduction of basic accounting concepts and procedures; interpretation of pecuniary statements. May not live repeated. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 215
ACCTG 219 Essentials of Accounting (4)Provides an introduction to basic accounting principles and procedures; expend of accounting information to execute decisions from the perspective of both external investors and internal managers. Cannot live taken for credit if ACCTG 225 has been completed for credit.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 219
ACCTG 225 Fundamentals of Managerial Accounting (5)Analyses and evaluation of accounting information as Part of the managerial process of planning, conclusion making, and control. Concentrates on information useful to enterprise managers. Prerequisite: ACCTG 215; ECON 200; may not live repeated. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 225
ACCTG 275 Accounting and Finance Essentials (3) QSR PapermanExplores the economic foundations of accounting systems. Discusses the short-term and long-term implications of using accounting information to evaluate performance, create budgets, and anatomize pecuniary statements. Not open for credit to students pursuing a traffic degree. Offered: Sp.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 275
ACCTG 301 Intermediate Accounting I (4)Concepts and principles of pecuniary accounting. Analysis of controversies and problems related to the measurement of enterprise income and asset and liability valuation. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 225; may not live repeated. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 301
ACCTG 302 Intermediate Accounting II (4)Concepts and principles of pecuniary accounting. Analysis of controversies and problems related to the measurement of enterprise income and asset and liability valuation. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 301; minimum grade of 2.0 in B CMU 301; may not live repeated. Offered: AWSp.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 302
ACCTG 303 Intermediate Accounting III (4)Concepts and principles of pecuniary accounting. Analysis of controversies and problems related to the measurement of enterprise income and asset and liability valuation. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 302; may not live repeated. Offered: AWSp.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 303
ACCTG 311 Cost Accounting (4)Introduction to the theory of cost accounting; job order, process, and measure cost systems; overhead accounting; problems in accumulation and allocation of costs; conclusion making with cost data. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 225; may not live repeated. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 311
ACCTG 320 Introduction to Accounting Information Systems (4)Concepts of accounting information systems in organizations. Processes of analyzing and designing accounting information systems, with accent on those using computer facilities. Internal controls and auditing considerations. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 225; I S 300 which may live taken concurrently; may not live repeated. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 320
ACCTG 321 Tax Effects of traffic Decisions (4)Issues in taxation, including tax considerations in traffic conclusion making, tax effects of traffic transactions, taxation of compensation, fringe benefits, capital gains, fixed asset transactions, disposition of traffic distribution from corporations. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 301; may not live repeated. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 321
ACCTG 411 Auditing Standards and Principles (4)Intensive introduction to the attest function in society today. The environment, the process, and the report of the public auditor are analyzed. Potential extensions of the attest function are examined. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 303; 2.0 in ACCTG 320; may not live repeated. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 411
ACCTG 440 Accounting and pecuniary Management Decisions (4)Business pecuniary planning with an accent of the role of accounting information in pecuniary decisions. Topics include the accounting and finance aspects of traffic valuation, short and long term financing, short and long term investments, alternative types of debt and equity financing, and related topics. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 303; 2.0 in ACCTG 311; 2.0 in ACCTG 321; FIN 350; may not live repeated. Offered: AWSp.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 440
ACCTG 450 traffic Taxation (4)Issues of taxation for entities other than individuals, including corporations, subchapter S corporations, partnerships, estates, and trusts. Includes corporate distributions, liquidations, and reorganizations. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 321; may not live repeated. Offered: WSp.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 450
ACCTG 471 Forensics and Ethical conclusion Making in Accounting (4)Provides a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and techniques of forensic accounting and ethical conclusion making in accounting. Prerequisite: ACCTG 225; MGMT 200; either QMETH 201, IND E 315, MATH 390/STAT 390, Q SCI 381, PSYCH 315, PSYCH 318, SOC/STAT/CS&SS 221, STAT 220, or STAT 311.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 471
ACCTG 480 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organizations (4)Fund and budgetary accounting as applied to public sector organizations, such as governments, foundations, hospitals, and colleges. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 302; may not live repeated. Offered: WSp.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 480
ACCTG 485 Advanced pecuniary Accounting (4)Accounting for partnerships, accounting for traffic combinations, parent-subsidiary and arm relationships, outlandish exchange. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in ACCTG 303; may not live repeated. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 485
ACCTG 490 Special Topics in Accounting (1-6, max. 12)Special topics of current concern to faculty and students. Offered only when faculty is available and student interest is sufficient. Class is announced in foster of scheduled offerings.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 490
ACCTG 495 Accounting Internship (1-4, max. 8)One quarter's internship with a certified public accounting firm, industrial organization, or government agency. Prerequisite: ACCTG 301. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 495
ACCTG 499 Undergraduate Research (1-6, max. 9)Arranged and supervised by individual members of the faculty.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 499
ACCTG 500 pecuniary Accounting (4)Introduction to concepts and procedures underlying determination and presentation of information for pecuniary decisions by investors and other conclusion makers outside the traffic enterprise. Study of problems of valuation, income determination, and pecuniary reporting.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 500
ACCTG 501 Managerial Accounting (4)Study of the generation and the expend of accounting information within the solid for purposes of planning and controlling operations. Topics covered include cost concepts, responsibility accounting systems, cost control, and the expend of accounting information in short- and long-term management conclusion problems. Prerequisite: ACCTG 500.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 501
ACCTG 502 pecuniary Reporting and Analysis (4) F. HodgeProvides students with an understanding of the numbers side of business. Students will learn how to expend pecuniary information in real-life management situations to impact traffic decisions. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 502
ACCTG 503 Introduction to Accounting for Managers (4)Provides potential managers with a basic lore of pecuniary and managerial accounting. Focuses on the use, not the preparation, of accounting information. Examples presented for a variety of for-profit and nonprofit organizations.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 503
ACCTG 505 Intensive Analysis of Accounting Principles and Practices (26)Covers the subjects in the required core for undergraduate accounting majors: intermediate accounting, advanced accounting, cost accounting, auditing, and tax accounting. Credits execute not signify toward MBA degree. Prerequisite: ACCTG 215 and ACCTG 225 or equivalent, or leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 505
ACCTG 506 Intensive Analysis of Accounting Principles and Practices I (10)First of an intensive three-course program. Emphasizes the practical application of accounting concepts in a traffic setting. Credits execute not signify toward MBA degree. Prerequisite: ACCTG 215; ACCTG 225 or equivalent, or leave of instructor. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 506
ACCTG 507 Intensive Analysis of Accounting Principles and Practices II (8)Second of an intensive three-course program. Covers the third Part of pecuniary accounting, accrual-based pecuniary statements, and cost accounting for decision-making. Credits execute not signify toward MBA degree. Prerequisite: ACCTG 506. Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 507
ACCTG 508 Intensive Analysis of Accounting Principles and Practices III (8)View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 508
ACCTG 510 Introduction to pecuniary Statement Analysis (4)Extension of the core pecuniary accounting material, focusing on the expend of pecuniary statements to assess the pecuniary position and prospects of companies. Examines the captious pecuniary reporting issues that influence interpretation of pecuniary statements. Prerequisite: either B A 500, ACCTG 500, or leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 510
ACCTG 511 Advanced pecuniary Statement Analysis (4)Covers accounting issues related to solid valuation and expend of pecuniary statement information to assess the risks and rewards of various solid strategies. Prerequisite: ACCTG 510 or leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 511
ACCTG 513 Tax Effects of traffic Decisions (4)Importance of tax considerations in making traffic decisions. Covers regulatory and economic impacts of the U. S. tax system. Prerequisite: either B A 500, ACCTG 500, or leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 513
ACCTG 515 Problems in Managerial and Cost Accounting (4)Extension of the core management accounting material. Uses cases and discussion to anatomize costing techniques, expend of accounting data in planning and evaluation of managerial performance, and expend of accounting data in short-run and long-run decisions. Prerequisite: either B A 502, ACCTG 501, or leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 515
ACCTG 520 Accounting, Audit and Assurance Regulation (4)Examines necessary regulatory issues in accounting, auditing, and assurance. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 520
ACCTG 521 Advanced Cases in Assurance Services (4)Advanced case studies for professional accountants focusing on current issues and the expend of analytical tools with real-world applications in audit and assurance settings. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 521
ACCTG 522 Data Analytics for Professional Accountants (4)Application of data analytics concepts and techniques for professional accountants, with real-world applications in audit, assurance, and advisory settings. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 522
ACCTG 523 Advanced pecuniary Statement Analysis (4)Advanced traditional and data-driven analysis of pecuniary statements from a user perspective with real-world applications for professional accountants. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 523
ACCTG 524 Individual Taxation (4)Political, economic, and social forces influencing federal income taxation, role of taxation in personal decisions. Coverage of individual tax matters, including traffic and investment income, traffic and personal deductions, property transactions, and tax issues of employees.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 524
ACCTG 525 traffic and International Taxation (4)Issues of taxation for entities other than individuals, including corporations, subchapter S corporations, partnerships, estates, and trusts. Includes corporate distributions, liquidations, and reorganizations. International dimensions of traffic taxation introduced. Prerequisite: ACCTG 524.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 525
ACCTG 526 Advanced Accounting Codification Research (4)Advanced research and application of the codification for involved accounting issues for public companies including tax, consolidation, and recent / or announced accounting measure changes. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 526
ACCTG 527 Communications in Professional Accounting (4)Development of communications skills for professional accountants, including effectual written and oral skills with a focus on real-world settings in audit, assurance, and advisory services. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 527
ACCTG 528 Advanced Cases in Accounting Advisory (4)Project-based learning involving real-world applications of contemporaneous problems in accounting advisory settings using innovative analytical tools and data-driven research techniques. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 528
ACCTG 529 traffic Ethics and Law for Accountants (4)Explores basic legal and ethical principles underlying the rehearse of accounting. Special attention devoted to identifying legal and ethical issues as they arise in commercial and professional accounting contexts. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 529
ACCTG 530 Tax Issues in Property Ownership (4)Analysis of gain and loss realization, recognition, and characterization of such. circumstantial exploration of statutory and case law regarding acquisition, ownership, and disposition of assets. Treatment of capital and ordinary gains and losses. Timing issues regarding deferral transactions and installment reporting are analyzed. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 530
ACCTG 531 Timing and Periods of Taxation (3)Analysis of the cash and accrual methods of accounting, preference of taxable age and multi-period transaction analysis. Consideration of statute of limitations and mitigation thereof. Details of passive activity losses. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 531
ACCTG 532 Data Analytics for Tax Accountants (2) H. MamaniIntroduction to data analytics concepts and techniques for tax accountants. accent on data visualization. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 532
ACCTG 533 Procedural and Policy Issues (4)Analysis of the procedures of federal taxation: assessment, collection, and refund claims. circumstantial exploration of the rules governing the statute of limitations and the mitigation thereof. An introduction to tax policy considerations is given. Tax penalties are explored. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 533
ACCTG 534 Fundamentals of Corporate Taxation (3)Detailed analysis of contribution of assets to corporations. Calculation of recognized gains and basic effects of asset contributions. Treatment of income and deduction items of corporate operations. Analysis of distribution of assets to shareholders with respect to their stock. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 534
ACCTG 535 Advanced Issues in Corporate Taxation (4)A continuation of ACCTG 534. Fundamentals of affecting assets out of and within corporate solution. Basics of corporate reorganizations: acquisitive and divisive. The details of the election to obtain (or avoid) the Section 338 election are explored in detail. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent; ACCTG 534 or leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 535
ACCTG 536 Tax Provisions (3)Examines the components of corporate income tax provisions. Topics include the current and deferred provision, equilibrium sheet and income statement impacts, rate reconciliations, and audit documentation and standards. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent; ACCTG 535 or leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 536
ACCTG 537 Income Taxation of Conduits I (3)Tax consequences to owners and entity from formation, operation, distributions from, and liquidation of partnerships and S corporations. Study of taxable and tax-free formations, nature of "bottom line" income and separately stated items, changes to owners' tax basis, basics of non-liquidating and liquidating distributions. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent. Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 537
ACCTG 538 Income Taxation of Conduits II (3)A continuation of ACCTG 537. Study of involved issues in partnership and S corporation taxation. Substantial portion involves resolving case studies to improve analytic skills and interrelate partnership and S corporation planning issues. Sections 751(b) and 736 examined in detail. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent; ACCTG 537 or leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 538
ACCTG 539 Tax Research and conclusion Making (4)Decision-making processes in relation to problems of taxation. Tools of tax analysis and research and the communication of conclusions flowing from professional tax work. Role of the professional accountant in client traffic transactions and in negotiations with taxing authorities is highlighted and simulated on the basis of actual case histories. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 539
ACCTG 540 Ethics and Communications for Taxation Professionals (4)Focuses on ethics and internal communications in accounting settings. Evaluation of the ethics of difficult tax questions and rehearse communicating explanations and recommendations to colleagues and managers.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 540
ACCTG 541 Communications for Taxation Professionals II (4)Introduction to the communications forms and to practices of professional accountants and accounting managers. progress of effectual written and oral skills employed in accounting presentations, such as audit reports and consultants' reports. Study of results of organizational communications research applicable to accounting firms and/or units within firms. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 541
ACCTG 542 Communications for Taxation Professionals III (4)Development of oral and written skills associated with the tax accountant's role as a client advocate. Develop communication production related to the various stages of a tax case. Prerequisite: ACCTG 541.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 542
ACCTG 543 Income Taxation of Trusts and Estates (3)Development of fundamental skills regarding income taxation of trusts and estates. Calculation of distributable net income and the distribution deduction for the fiduciary entity. Basic analysis of the throwback rules. Case studies. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 543
ACCTG 545 state and Local Tax Issues (4)Focuses on state and local tax issues such as multi-state tax treaties, sales taxes, nexus, taxes on outrageous receipts, and apportionment. Prerequisite: Undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 545
ACCTG 547 Estate and Gift Taxation (3)Development of fundamental lore of the unified transfer tax on the transfer of property from one person to another. Calculation of outrageous estate, adjusted outrageous estate, and taxable estate. Calculation of gift and estate taxes owing. Discussion of estate planning concepts. Prerequisite: undergraduate accounting concentration or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 547
ACCTG 548 Speaker Forum-Tax (3)Covers topics such as state and local taxation, international taxation, interperiod tax allocation, qualified and nonqualified stock options, the R&D credit, and IRS audit issues presented by practicing professionals in the industry.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 548
ACCTG 549 International Tax Issues (4)Covers international tax concepts including the outlandish tax credit, international tax ownership structures, permanent establishments, income sourcing rules, and international tax treaties.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 549
ACCTG 564 Governmental Accounting (4)Budgetary and pecuniary accounting/reporting as applied at the state, local, and special-purpose governments; pecuniary accounting and reporting for not-for-profit organizations.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 564
ACCTG 566 Issues in International Accounting (4)Insights into the conceptual, managerial, professional, and institutional issues of international accounting. Focus on current topics in international accounting and on the cultural, managerial, and governmental forces that shape both internal and external accounting in specific countries.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 566
ACCTG 575 Internship (14)Professional internship in graduate accounting program. Cannot live taken for credit if ACCTG 577 is taken for credit. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 575
ACCTG 576 Experiential Learning Project (2)Written communication describing experiences scholarly in the MPAcc internship or MPAcc Independent research project. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 576
ACCTG 577 Independent Research Project (2-8)Independent research on a topic of contemporaneous interest to the accounting profession. Cannot live taken for credit if ACCTG 575 is taken for credit. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MPAcc program or by leave of the MPAcc Program Office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 577
ACCTG 579 Special Topics in Accounting (2/4, max. 12)Accounting topics of current concern to faculty and students. Offered only when faculty are available and adequate student interest exists. Seminar content announced in foster of scheduled offering. Prerequisite: leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 579
ACCTG 580 Doctoral Seminar: Introduction to Accounting Research (4)Examination of research problems and techniques in accounting. Interdisciplinary nature of accounting research emphasized. labor in finance, economics, and psychology used to develop current trends in accounting research. Prerequisite: doctoral student status.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 580
ACCTG 581 Doctoral Seminar in Managerial Accounting (4)Critical examination of conceptual and practical issues of cost and managerial accounting. Specific topics may change from quarter to quarter, and they include application of behavioral, quantitative, and economic models to managerial accounting problems. Prerequisite: ACCTG 511 or leave of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 581
ACCTG 582 PhD Research Seminar: Introduction to Selected Research Topics (4)Introduces first-year and second-year accounting PhD students to the research areas and methodologies of the current account faculty. Research areas include financial, managerial, audit, and tax. Research methodologies include analytical, archival, experiments, and surveys.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 582
ACCTG 596 Doctoral Seminar in pecuniary Accounting Research (4)Review and captious analysis of research strategies and methods applied to problems in pecuniary reporting rehearse and pecuniary accounting measure setting. Prerequisite: doctoral student status and ACCTG 580 or equivalent or leave of graduate office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 596
ACCTG 597 Doctoral Seminar in Managerial Accounting Research (4)Critical analysis of current managerial accounting research, both published and unpublished. Prerequisite: doctoral student status and ACCTG 581 or equivalent or leave of graduate office.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 597
ACCTG 599 Doctoral Seminar in Accounting (1, max. 12)Study and research in advanced topics of accounting. Generally concerned with unpublished areas of research as well as research methodology and philosophy. Conducted by departmental faculty and occasional distinguished visiting faculty. Prerequisite: doctoral student status.View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 599
ACCTG 600 Independent Study or Research (*-)View course details in MyPlan: ACCTG 600
CHARLESTON, W.Va. — The state Board of Education voted Wednesday to obtain behind some parts of the controversial omnibus education reform bill while rejecting other provisions in the measure.
Members met in emergency session for approximately five hours going over each of the major issues of the bill, SB 451, and then voting to endorse or reject the proposals on an individual basis.
Board members said they felt the necessity to act quickly with the state Senate discussing the bill in a rare Committee of the gross meeting Wednesday.
“I umpire that the lightning accelerate with which this bill has moved has necessitated that they indulge in this emergency session,” said David Perry, president of the state Board of Education.
Both Perry and Dr. Steve Paine, superintendent of schools, said they were not notified of the contents of SB 451 prior to its origination last week in the Senate Education Committee.
“I respect the Legislature and I respect the legislative process and I would request that they would requite and respect the expertise that exists on this state Board of Education and I indulge in even started to talk about the people that they indulge in as resources,” Paine said.
“The fact that they umpire that they will not obtain a reform agenda that would labor — they any want higher student achievement levels.”
Paine cited individual BOE member education credentials.
“Look at the Board that they have,” he said. “Now why are they not being consulted when they talk about reform agenda?”
During the meeting, Sarah Stewart, legal counsel for the state Department of Education, circumstantial the dozens of provisions within the more than 130-page bill.
The charter schools provision generated the majority of questions and comments covering funding, constitutionality and policy. At least one BOE member said the individual proposal warranted “a plenary review” potentially lasting several days.
Questions about the provision dealing with allowing counties to raise levy rates garnered some additional questions along with the provisions dealing with student transfers, educational savings accounts and student transfers.
Stewart said the proposed bill removes a current requirement that both counties involved accredit a transfer.
Overall, “There’s a lot of hidden questions and concerns and they indulge in to find those answers and any they can execute to find those answers is to obtain together and debate it,” said Miller Hall, vice president of the state Board of Education.
The board voted to uphold things relish pay raises for education workers, paying math teachers more, tax credits for classroom teachers, a change in the unexcused absences policy and increasing the local partake cap for county school system funding.
The board voted not to endorse the bill’s nonseverability clause, making central office staff ‘will and pleasure’ employees, not paying teachers for labor stoppages, charter schools and education savings accounts.
The board approved two additional motions. One offered by member Tom Campbell calling for the legislature to account the issues separately not in one bill.
“Education of their children is extremely important. Many people impact the success or failure of that and hearing those various opinions on issues if vital and that’s why they imply the issues live separated,” Campbell said.
A motion from Perry was approved calling for the creation of a special committee of education and legislative stakeholders to live appointed by state School Superintendent Steve Paine to study the future of education.
“It would live formed to peer at a world-class educational system over the next year and gain back to the legislature with suggestions,” Perry said.
The board besides voted not to retract an official position on some issues.
Paine said he backed Governor Jim Justice’s five percent pay raise proposal which dated back to October.
“I had no thought that that pay raise bill would indulge in amended into it or added to it any the different components of this omnibus bill,” Paine said. “Otherwise, they probably could indulge in said something about their concerns at that time, but they didn’t know it was coming.”
On Tuesday, Governor Justice said he wanted his pay raise bill to depart through the legislative process without additional measures lumped into it.
“I umpire it was really necessary for the Governor to weigh in on this bill and they appreciate his statements,” Paine said in response.
“It’s time for us to figure out how to obtain together, talk about the issues, negotiate if necessary and let’s saunter this agenda and this state forward the passage he is so capably leading birthright now.”
The next regular meeting of the state Board of Education is scheduled for Feb. 13.
The WVBE voted to endorse the following sections of SB451:
Tax Credit (§11-21-25) Provides up to $250 annual tax credit to classroom teacher at public or private school for supplementary education materials or professional progress costs.
Student Unexcused Absences (§18-8-4) Removes the requirement to forward a written notice to a parent/guardian when a student receives 3 and 5 unexcused absences and instead requires the school to execute “meaningful contact” with the parent/guardian upon 3 and 5 unexcused absences.
Professional Student uphold Personnel (§18-9A-2) Expands the statutory definition of “professional student uphold personnel” from only nurses and counselors to include any professional personnel providing direct social and emotional student uphold services to students (e.g., social workers, psychologists; Communities in Schools site coordinator, etc.).
1,400 Enrollment Floor (§18-9A-2) Sets a net student enrollment floor of 1,400 students for purposes of a county’s basic foundation program. Currently, this will impact 11 counties whose net enrollment is currently below 1,400 students.
Step 5 Funding (§18-9A-8) Increases Step 5 funding for Professional Student uphold Personnel by removing the current statutory cap and inserts a 4.70 ratio of per 1,000 students.
Step 6a Funding (§18-9A-19) Increases Step 6a funding for current operations by 1%.
Local partake Cap (§18-9A-12) Places a cap on every county’s local partake amount equal to the county’s local partake amount in FY16. If a county’s local partake amount increases from the FY16 amount, the county will uphold those additional funds. Currently, this modification would palpate 36 counties.
Teacher Salary Increases (§18A-4-2) Provides a 5% pay raise to classroom teachers (includes professional student uphold personnel in Step 5).
Supplement for Math Teachers (§18A-4-2) For purposes of the salary schedule, provides three additional years of sustain for certified math teachers that drill math at least 60% of the time.
Math Teacher Incentive (§18A-4-2d) Provides a one-time, $2,000 supplement to middle and high school math teachers that complete a specialized math course and drill math at least 60% of the time.
County Salary Supplement (§18A-4-5a) Allows county Boards of Education to provide salary supplements to teachers that are certified to and execute drill in a captious necessity and shortage subject, drill in schools in remote geographic locations or drill in locations that indulge in experienced high rates of turnover in sustain teachers.
School Service Personnel Salary extend (§18A-4-8a) Provides a 5% pay raise to school service personnel.
Underwood-Smith Scholarship (§18C-4-1, et seq) Changes the focus of the scholarship program to students intending to pursue teaching careers in WV in math, science or special education at the elementary, middle or secondary flat and provides scholarship recipients with additional academic uphold and training for math, science, or special education mentors, starting in the recipient’s freshman year and continuing until they receive a degree.
West Virginia Board of Risk and Insurance Management (BRIM) Coverage (§29-12-5a) Requires county Board of Education to annually notify its employees in writing about applicable coverage provided by BRIM.
The WVBE voted to endorse the following sections of SB451, with provisions as eminent below:
Re-incentive Personal Days (§5-16-13) For members of the Teachers’ Retirement System on or after July 1, 2019, allows 10 days of accrued leave to live converted to $500. (The WVBE voted that this measure besides include School Service Personnel).
Levy Rates (§11-8-6f) Allows county Board of Education to vote annually to extend their maximum levy rate up to a specific statutory maximum amount. (The WVBE endorsed this measure provided that no school district receive a loss in state funding).
School Counselors (§18-5-18b) Removes the percentages of counselor time that is to live disburse on administrative duties and clarifies that counselors main responsibility is to provide direct counseling services to students and supporting students with their academic, social and emotional needs. (The WVBE endorsed this measure provided that no less than 75% of counselors’ time live spent counseling students).
Student Promotion (§18-5-46) Declares that teacher’s recommendation on whether a student to foster to the next grade flat shall live primary consideration when making that determination. (The WVBE endorsed this measure amending the language to dispute “important consideration” rather than “primary consideration.”)
The WVBE voted not to endorse the following sections of SB451:
Nonseverability Clause (§18-1-5) Purports to declare that if any Part of the “Act” (which presumably is the Bill) is struck down by the legal system, then any other parts of the bill will revert back to current language.
Open Enrollment/Student Transfers (§18-5-16) Revises the inter-county transfer process and authorizes a county board of education to establish an open enrollment policy.
Central Office Staff (§18-5-32) Changes the employment status of central office staff (“central office administrators, supervisors and directors”) from a continuing condense status to will-and-pleasure of the county Superintendent and may live removed by the county Superintendent upon approval by the county Board of Education.
Strikes/Work Stoppages (§18-5-45a) Prohibits “banked time” from being used to make-up days where school was closed due to a strike or labor stoppage. When a labor stoppage causes the county superintendent to nigh school, the county Board of Education must withhold employee pay for each day closed due to labor stoppage and interscholastic athletic events cannot live held on days that school was closed due to labor stoppage.
Charter Schools (§18-5G-1, et seq) Allows for the establishment of public charter schools.
Education Savings Account (§18-31-1, et seq) Establishes Education Savings Accounts (ESAs), which are accounts funded by the state to eligible students to pay qualifying education expenses.
Equity Payment (§18A-4-5) Changes the statutory equity payment to teachers and school service personnel to a state supplement.
Payroll Protection (§18A-4-9) Before dues to an employee organization providing representation, lobbying or other employee related service may live automatically deducted from a county Board of Education employee, the employee must submit an annual request authorizing the deduction.
The WVBE voted to retract no position on the following sections of SB451:
Reductions in obligate (RIF) (§18A-4-7a) Changes the current statutory requirement that RIF decisions live based on seniority and instead requires that RIF decisions live based on qualifications. The employee that is least qualified is the employee that is to live RIF’ed.
Leave Accrual (§18A-4-10) Changes when personal leave is accrued by county Board of Education employees from the birth of the employment term to on the last working day of each month in the employment term. Employees currently accrue 15 days at the birth of the employment term and under the revised language, would accrue 1.5 days at the cessation of each month (10 months total).