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70-412 exam Dumps Source : Configuring Advanced Windows Server 2012 Services
Test Code : 70-412
Test denomination : Configuring Advanced Windows Server 2012 Services
Vendor denomination : Microsoft
: 424 actual Questions
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Microsoft Configuring Advanced Windows Server
70-410 setting up and Configuring Microsoft windows Server 2012
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here's their first drill test for Microsoft exam 70-410: setting up and Configuring windows Server 2012.
we will proceed including succeed exams and questions as long as americans recognize them.
every time you Run the examination, it will anticipate you 25 questions from the database of questions.
take delight in — and tickle participate your remarks within the feedback!
25. What are the 4 add-ons worried with printing under home windows Server 2012?
Print machine, Printer, Print Server, and Print Driver.
Print gadget, Printer, Printer manager, and Print Driver.
Printer, Print Server, Printer Spool, and Print Driver.
Printer, Print Server, Print Router and Print Driver.
question 25 of 25
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i am attempting to configure Oracle 9i liberate 2 on a home windows 2000 advanced Server as follows:
DB_CACHE_SIZE= 1 Gigabyte
SHARED_POOL_SIZE= 512 Megabytes
massive Pool = Default
Java Pool = Default
PGA = 512 Megabytes
The server has 4 gigabytes in complete remembrance with a dual processor. I wish to apportion 60% of the plenary physical reminiscence for the Oracle databse, nevertheless it failed to configure the database safely, and it lower back the messages, "Out of memory," "Unable to develop cache reminiscence", and "price is invalid." i'd in reality respect it if you might succor me.
If the error you're receiving is:
ORA-00384: inadequate remembrance to develop cache
The solution is to raise your SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter and soar the database. query V$PARAMETER to note the existing setting of the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter. To change this value, utilize a command similar to here:
ALTER materiel SET sga_max_size=1500M SCOPE=SPFILE;
this will now not grasp gain an result on unless you jump the database.
so as to your SGA to exceed 2 gigabytes of reminiscence, you will want the 64-bit version of Oracle. however simply as a result of Oracle recommends a inescapable percent of your server's actual reminiscence does not subsist substantive that you actually need to construct utilize of that a grand deal. On considered one of my servers, I've acquired 8 gigabytes of memory, but my SGA is a complete of best 300 megabytes. agree with decreasing your Buffer Cache size as 1 gigabyte can subsist too plenty. moreover, a Shared Pool size of 300 megabytes is adequate for a lot of situations.
if you are looking to study extra about the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter, tickle visit my internet web site (http://www.peasland.net) the Place I even gain a white paper describing a way to set this parameter.
This chapter is from the publication
someday, no longer lengthy after I installed a prerelease version of home windows domestic Server, I furthermore Put in a array tangle software in order that I could seize some array pictures for this book. unluckily, the windows domestic Server beta and that array seize application didn't accept along. The computer crashed, and i subsist substantive challenging: It would not boot into windows domestic Server, nor would it not boot to the windows home Server DVD or to any bootable medium I introduced to the machine. The server become with ease useless within the water.
happily, i know a brace of startup tricks, and that i was capable of utilize a type of tricks to accept the machine returned on its feet. (hint: I ran a startup command called final well-known righteous Configuration, which i could inform you about shortly.) i hope you in no way gain any faultfinding (or even minor) startup problems with your windows home Server computer. although, just in the event you do, there are a brace of startup guidance and strategies subsist certain you find out about.
The following few sections grasp you in the course of the most essential of these startup tricks, and they hold two accessories used within the home windows home Server startup:
BOOT.INI—this is a text file that carries some windows domestic Server startup alternate options. that you may edit this file to adjust the manner windows home Server begins up.
superior options menu—here is a menu of startup instructions that you should invoke to load windows home Server with distinctive configurations.
enhancing BOOT.INI without delay
BOOT.INI is a hidden textual content file that resides within the root folder of your equipment's bootable partition. (On home windows domestic Server techniques, here's always drive C.) before you're employed with this file, you deserve to uncover home windows home Server to monitor hidden info:
go online to the server after which choose beginning, home windows Explorer.
opt for equipment, Folder alternate options to screen the Folder options dialog box.
screen the View tab.
click on to deactivate the camouflage included operating materiel files check container. windows domestic Server asks you to ascertain the trade.
click on sure.
make certain the array Hidden data and Folders option is activated (because it is via default in home windows domestic Server).
click on righteous enough.
you can now Run windows Explorer and screen the C:\ folder. Double-click on the BOOT.INI icon to open the file. (then again, select start, Run, category c:\boot.ini, and click on ok.)
home windows home Server hundreds the file into Notepad, and you note textual content akin to right here:
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\windows="windows Server 2003 For petite traffic Server" /noexecute=optout /fastdetect
There are two sections in BOOT.INI: [boot loader] and [operating systems]. The [boot loader] section always has two values:
timeout—This value determines the variety of seconds after which NTLDR boots the operating materiel this is highlighted in the menu by default.
default—This expense determines which merchandise listed in the [operating systems] belt is loaded via default at startup.
The [operating systems] Part lists the operating programs to which the gadget can boot. (In windows domestic Server setups, there's always only one operating materiel listed.) The home windows home Server line has a wierd configuration, to pretension the least. The Part up to the equal sign (=) is known as an superior RISC computer (ARC) pathname, and its intent is to let a startup software called NT Loader understand a way to learn the windows domestic Server kernel.
Let's Run throughout the quite a lot of ingredients so you sustain in understanding what you might subsist seeing:
here's a reference to the obligate controller that's used to entry the home windows domestic Server setting up. The expense n is 0 for the first controller, 1 for the 2nd, and so on. On systems that utilize a SCSI controller, you may note scsi(n) as an alternative of multi(n). (The exception is on techniques that gain the SCSI BIOS disabled.)
here is a reference to the SCSI id of the device on which home windows home Server is installed. For multi instruments, the value of n is always 0.
here's a reference to the arduous disk on which windows home Server is Put in. This disk is attached to the controller unique through multi(n). The expense of n is 0 for the primary tough disk, 1 for the second arduous disk, etc.
this is a reference to the partition on which home windows domestic Server is Put in. This partition is a Part of the disk inescapable by way of rdisk(n).
here's the identify of the folder into which home windows home Server turned into installed.
You furthermore note a few switches—/noexecute and /fastdetect—that set a few startup parameters. The ARC pathname syntax supports more than 30 diverse switches that allow you to manage quite a few facets of the home windows home Server startup. here's a abstract of the switches that are most effective:
Boots home windows home Server the utilize of the standard VGA mode: 640x480 with 256 colors. this is constructive for troubleshooting video monitor driver complications. utilize this switch if home windows home Server fails to start the usage of any of the protected mode alternatives, in case you these days installed a brand original video card materiel driver and the monitor is garbled or the motive obligate is balking at a resolution or colour depth surroundings it truly is too excessive, or in case you cannot load the windows domestic Server GUI. After home windows home Server has loaded, you can reinstall or roll again the driver, otherwise you can modify the array settings to values that the motive obligate can tackle.
Boots windows domestic Server and logs the boot process to a text file named NTBTLOG.TXT that resides in the %SystemRoot% folder. circulate to the conclusion of the file, and you might note a message telling you which ones gadget driver failed. You likely deserve to rein-stall or roll back the motive force. utilize this swap if the windows domestic Server startup hangs, in order for you a circumstantial listing of the startup procedure, or in case you suspect (after using some of the different Startup menu alternatives) that a driver is inflicting home windows domestic Server startup to fail.
makes it possible for far off debugging of the windows home Server kernel. This sends debugging suggestions to a far flung laptop by means of one of your desktop's serial ports. in case you utilize this change, that you would subsist able to specify the serial port through furthermore using the \debugport=port change, where port is certainly one of com1, com2, com3, com4, or 1394. in case you utilize a COM port, you could specify the transmission pace of the debugging suggestions with the aid of furthermore the usage of the \baudrate= velocity switch, where hurry is one in every of here: 300, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, or 115200. if you utilize an IEEE 1394 (FireWire) connection, that you can additionally add the /channel=quantity change, the Place number is a channel value between 1 and 62.
Tells windows domestic Server no longer to enumerate the equipment's serial and parallel ports throughout startup. These ports aren't necessary throughout the boot procedure, so this reduces the system startup time.
Specifies the highest volume of reminiscence, in megabytes, that home windows domestic Server can use. utilize this expense should you suspect a misguided reminiscence chip might possibly subsist inflicting problems.
units the statistics Execution Prevention (DEP) coverage stage. DEP prevents malicious code from executing in included remembrance locations. There are four tiers, as follows:
OptIn—windows device programs are covered via DEP, in addition to any functions that gain been programmed to grasp edge of (opt into) DEP coverage.
OptOut—provides DEP insurance policy for the total device, except for classes which gain been specified now not to construct utilize of (choose out of) DEP.
AlwaysOn—gives DEP insurance design for the entire device.
AlwaysOff—provides no DEP coverage for the device.
Tells home windows domestic Server no longer to load the VGA disclose driver that's perpetually used to screen the progress bar extreme over startup. utilize this change if home windows domestic Server hangs whereas switching video modes for the evolution bar, or if the monitor of the progress bar is garbled.
In a multiprocessor (or multicore) equipment, specifies the maximum number of processors that windows domestic Server can use. utilize this switch in case you suspect that the usage of divide processors is inflicting a software to dangle.
Tells windows domestic Server not to dynamically apportion hardware supplies for PCI devices extreme the way through startup. The substances assigned by means of the BIOS extreme the way through the post are locked in location. utilize this switch if installation a PCI device causes the materiel to hang extreme through startup.
Boots windows domestic Server in safe mode, which makes utilize of simplest a minimal set of machine drivers. utilize this swap if home windows domestic Server won't birth, if a device or program is causing windows home Server to crash, or if you can not uninstall a application while home windows domestic Server is operating always.
Boots windows home Server in protected mode however additionally bypasses the (alternateshell) home windows domestic Server GUI and boots to the command instant instead. utilize this switch if the programs you need to repair a problem may furthermore subsist Run from the command prompt or if you can't load the windows home Server GUI.
Boots home windows home Server in secure mode however furthermore contains networking drivers. utilize this swap if the drivers or courses you should restore a problem exist on a shared community resource, if you need entry to electronic mail or different network-based mostly communications for technical support, or in case your computing device is working a shared windows home Server installation.
This alternative applies handiest to domain controllers, so you may not utilize it with home windows home Server. It boots the OS in safe mode and restores a backup of the energetic listing service.
shows the direction and site of every gadget driver (the utilize of the ARC pathname syntax) as it is loaded, as smartly because the operating device edition and construct quantity and the variety of processors.
the utilize of the gadget Configuration Editor to adjust BOOT.INI
instead of edit the BOOT.INI file at once, which you can modify the file ultimately through the utilize of the device Configuration Editor. To start this program, travel surfing to the server, choose start, Run, category msconfig within the Run dialog field, after which click on ok. When the system Configuration Window seems, select the BOOT.INI tab, proven in motif four.12.
figure 4.12 in the materiel Configuration Utility, utilize the BOOT.INI tab to alter the BOOT.INI startup file.
The giant box near the top of the tab displays the latest BOOT.INI textual content. You cannot edit this text directly, youngsters. extreme which you can result is utilize the investigate containers within the Boot options. you can add other switches (such as /maxmem and /debug) by way of clicking the advanced alternate options button, which takes you to the BOOT.INI superior options dialog container shown in motif four.13.
figure four.13 within the BOOT.INI tab, click on advanced alternate options to disclose the dialog box shown here.
Configuring Startup with the superior alternatives Menu
After you delivery your laptop, wait except the vigour On Self examine (post) is finished (here's continually signaled by using a beep), and then press F8 to monitor the advanced alternatives menu. (if your desktop is install to "speedy boot," it may not subsist evident when the publish ends. in that case, just flip for your desktop and press F8 again and again until you note the advanced alternatives menu.) right here's the menu you see:
home windows superior options Menu
Please select an option:
protected Mode with Networking
secure Mode with Command on the spot
enable Boot Logging
enable VGA Mode
closing wide-spread decent Configuration (your most synchronous settings that labored)
listing features fix Mode (windows belt controllers most effective)
Disable automated restart on device failure
delivery windows always
Use the up and down arrow keys to stream the highlight to your option.
The birth windows perpetually option masses windows home Server within the common fashion. you could utilize the different alternatives to exploit the leisure of the startup method:
protected Mode—if you're having concern with windows home Server—as an example, if a debase or wrong video driver is mangling your reveal, or if home windows home Server won't birth—that you would subsist able to utilize the protected Mode option to Run a stripped-down edition of windows home Server that includes only the minimal set of materiel drivers that domestic Server requires to load. You could reinstall or roll again the offending materiel driver and then load home Server continually. When windows domestic Server eventually masses, the laptop reminds you that you just're in protected mode by using exhibiting safe Mode in each nook. picking out the secure Mode alternative is an identical as the utilize of right here BOOT.INI switches:
/safeboot:minimal /bootlog /noguiboot /sos
protected Mode with Networking—This option is just relish simple safe mode, except that windows domestic Server's networking drivers are additionally loaded at startup. This allows for you to log on to your community, which is handy in case you deserve to access the community to load a instrument driver, Run a troubleshooting utility, or transmit a tech aid request. picking out this option is the same as the utilize of the following BOOT.INI switches:
/safeboot:community /bootlog /noguiboot /sos
secure Mode with Command instant—This option is a similar as unostentatious safe mode, apart from that it would not load the windows home Server GUI. instead, it runs CMD.EXE to load a command on the spot session. determining this alternative is the same as the usage of the following BOOT.INI switches:
/safeboot:minimal(alternateshell) /bootlog /noguiboot /sos
enable Boot Logging—This option is a similar because the Boot constantly option, except that windows domestic Server logs the boot system in a textual content file named NTBTLOG.TXT that resides within the materiel root. choosing this alternative is an identical as the usage of here BOOT.INI switch:
permit VGA Mode—This option loads windows home Server with the video monitor set to 640x480 and 256 colorings. picking out this option is the same as the utilize of the following BOOT.INI change:
last favourite decent Configuration—This option boots windows domestic Server using the remaining hardware configuration that produced a a success boot. here's the option I used to accept my home windows home Server computing device again on its toes after it become slit off at the knees by using the disclose seize software.
listing services repair Mode—This alternative is the same as the usage of here BOOT.INI switch:
Debugging Mode—This option is a similar as using here BOOT.INI switch:
Disable computerized Restart on system Failure—This option prevents home windows home Server from restarting immediately when the gadget crashes. opt for this option if you want to preclude your device from restarting so so that you can troubleshoot the problem.
Boot always—This options hundreds home windows domestic Server always.
Reboot—This alternative reboots the computer.
Launching applications and Scripts at Startup
Two key features of windows home Server are that it's extreme the time on and that or not it's always attainable to computer systems and devices on the network. Many people grasp abilities of those features to Run classes and scripts on the server. for instance, one impartial home windows home Server software is a home automation gadget. yet another is a software that sends random pictures to a digital photograph body.
since you want these and identical classes to subsist at extreme times operating, which you could shop yourself the hassle of launching these programs manually by getting windows home Server to result it for you automatically at startup. in a similar way, that you may additionally accept home windows home Server to immediately launch scripts or batch files at startup. because the next few sections exhibit, you can set up a software or script for automatic startup launch the usage of the Startup folder, the Registry, the neighborhood coverage snap-in, and the Scheduled tasks folder.
Launching objects using the Startup Folder
The Startup folder is a regular file folder, however has a different Place in home windows home Server. which you could accept a application or script to Run instantly at startup by means of adding a shortcut for that merchandise to the Startup folder. (including shortcuts to the Startup folder is a Part of the birth menu customizations that I focus on in additional component in Chapter 16, "Customizing the windows domestic Server Interface.")
note that the Startup folder seems twice within the windows home Server interface:
by the utilize of the start menu. (click birth, extreme courses, Startup.)
by the utilize of windows Explorer as a subfolder in %SystemDrive%:\documents and Settings. truly, there are three distinctive subfolders which you could labor with, as follows:
\user\start Menu\classes\Startup—here, user is the denomination of a consumer defined on the equipment, which in windows domestic Server will almost always subsist Administrator. A shortcut positioned in this folder runs automatically when this consumer logs on to the system.
\All users\delivery Menu\programs\Startup—A shortcut placed in this folder runs automatically when any consumer logs on to the equipment.
\Default person\delivery Menu\programs\Startup—A shortcut placed during this folder (which is continually hidden) is automatically copied to a user's Startup folder for those who create a brand original person account.
word that handiest clients who gain Administrator-level rights can entry extreme three of these subfolders. users with lesser privileges can labor simplest with their own Startup folder. they could note the extreme clients version of the Startup folder, but windows domestic Server prevents them from adding data to it.
Launching gadgets using the Registry
The Startup folder system has two drawbacks: clients can with ease delete shortcuts from their own Startup folders, and users can bypass Startup items via retaining down the Shift key while home windows domestic Server loads. These don't seem to subsist prone to subsist primary problems on home windows domestic Server since you'll likely only ever travel browsing with the Administrator account. despite the fact, may still the need near up, that you can labor around each problems by using the Registry Editor to define your startup objects.
Assuming that you simply're logged in as the user you need to labor with, the Registry offers two keys:
HKCU\utility\Microsoft\home windows\CurrentVersion\Run—The values during this key Run instantly every time the consumer logs on.
HKCU\application\Microsoft\windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce—The values in this key Run best the next time the person logs on; then they are deleted from the distinguished thing. (This key could now not subsist latest for your Registry. if so, you need to add this key yourself.)
if you need an merchandise to Run at startup no signify number who logs on, utilize the following keys:
HKLM\utility\Microsoft\home windows\CurrentVersion\Run—The values during this key Run automatically every time any user logs on.
HKLM\software\Microsoft\home windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce—The values in this key Run handiest the subsequent time any person logs on; then they are deleted from the distinguished thing. result not muddle this key with the RunOnceEx key. RunOnceEx is a protracted edition of RunOnce that builders utilize to create extra potent startup gadgets that comprise aspects akin to error handling and enhanced efficiency.
To create a startup merchandise, add a string value to the applicable key, supply it something identify you love, and then set its value to the plenary pathname of the executable file or script file that you just wish to launch at startup.
Launching objects using community policies
in case you choose not to edit the Registry at once, or in case you wish to vicinity a GUI between you and the Registry, windows domestic Server's community coverage snap-in can support. note, however, that neighborhood coverage does not labor at once with the Run keys within the HKLM and HKCU hives. in its place, these are regarded to subsist legacy keys, that means they are by and large used by older courses. the brand original keys (new as of home windows 2000, this is) are right here:
These keys result not materialize in windows domestic Server by way of default. You note them most efficacious after you specify startup programs within the group policy editor, as mentioned within the next area. on the other hand, which you can add these keys your self the usage of the Registry Editor.
including programs to the Run Keys
As outlined, which you can both add values to those keys by the utilize of the Registry Editor, otherwise you can utilize the group coverage snap-in. To open the group policy window in windows home Server, choose start, Run, category gpedit.msc, and then click on adequate. in the neighborhood coverage window, you gain got two selections:
To labor with startup programs for extreme users, choose laptop Configuration, Administrative Templates, gadget, Logon. The items here affect the Registry keys in the HKLM (all users) Registry hive.
To labor with startup classes for the latest person, opt for consumer Configuration, Administrative Templates, gadget, Logon. The objects here affect the Registry keys within the HKCU (latest user) hive.
both means, you note at the least here three gadgets:
Run These programs at consumer Logon—Use this particular to add or eliminate startup courses the usage of the \policies\Explorer\Run keys in the Registry. to add a program, double-click the item, choose the Enabled option, after which click on display. within the demonstrate Contents dialog field, click Add, enter the complete pathname of the software or script you wish to Run at startup, and then click on adequate.
don't fashion the Run once record—Use this particular to toggle whether windows domestic Server approaches the RunOnce Registry keys (which I discussed in the previous part). Double-click this particular and then prompt the Enabled alternative to Put this policy into impact; it is, programs listed in the RunOnce key aren't launched at startup.
do not procedure the Legacy Run listing—Use this merchandise to toggle even if home windows home Server processes the legacy Run keys. Double-click on this particular after which prompt the Enabled option to Place this policy into effect; it truly is, courses listed within the legacy Run key aren't launched at startup.
Specifying Startup and Logon Scripts
You furthermore can utilize the community policy snap-in to specify script information to Run at startup. you can specify script info at two areas, as follows:
computing device Configuration, home windows Settings, Scripts (Startup/Shutdown)—Use the Startup particular to specify one or extra script files to Run each and every time the computer starts (and before the person logs on). celebrate that if you specify two or more scripts, home windows home Server runs them synchronously. it is, home windows home Server runs the first script, waits for it to conclude, runs the second script, waits for it to conclude, and so forth.
consumer Configuration, windows Settings, Scripts (Logon/Logoff)—Use the Logon particular to specify one or extra script files to Run each and every time any person logs on. Logon scripts are Run asynchronously.
at last, celebrate that windows home Server has guidelines dictating how these scripts run. as an example, you could note the startup script guidelines with the aid of settling on computer Configuration, Administrative Templates, gadget, Scripts. Three items affect startup scripts:
Run Logon Scripts Synchronously—in case you enable this item, home windows domestic Server runs the logon scripts separately.
Run Startup Scripts Asynchronously—if you allow this item, home windows home Server runs the startup scripts on the same time.
Run Startup Scripts seen—if you allow this merchandise, home windows domestic Server makes the startup script instructions seen to the user in a command window.
For logon scripts, a similar set of guidelines seems in the user Configuration, Administrative Templates, gadget, Scripts section.
the usage of the Scheduled initiatives Folder
Yet yet another way to deploy a application or script to Run at startup is to construct utilize of the Scheduled initiatives folder. (choose delivery, extreme courses, add-ons, gadget equipment, Scheduled projects, or utilize windows Explorer to screen the %SystemRoot%\initiatives folder.) if you create a brand original project, two of the startup options you're going to note are right here:
When My laptop starts—choose this option to Run the program when your desktop boots, no dependence which person logs in. celebrate that only a person logged in below the Administrator account can utilize this option. The tasks Run otherwise, however they don't reveal.
once I travel browsing—select this alternative to Run the software only if you travel surfing to windows domestic Server. here's the option to utilize for money owed other than Administrator.
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Configuring Advanced Windows Server 2012 Services
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Note:This course has been updated for Server 2012 R2.
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Server 2012's original Server Manager, shown here, makes management of remote and local servers and their features much simpler for neophyte Windows admins.
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Today, Microsoft officially releases Windows Server 2012, the first of its latest wave of original operating systems. It shares a few things with the upcoming Windows 8 client operating system, including the same Windows NT 6.2 kernel, and the same Metro and Desktop split-personality graphical interface—at least if you choose to install it. It furthermore shares the same sort of cloud-centric focus as the Windows 8 client—except rather than just connecting to cloud services, Server 2012 is intended to subsist the building screen for them.
Windows Server 2012 probably won’t gain the adoption lag in the enterprise that Windows 8 is bound to face. That's because, aside from the Metro GUI, Server 2012’s biggest changes are in substance rather than style, building upon what the company delivered with Windows Server 2008 Release 2 three years ago. In particular, Server 2012 takes two management features Server 2008 R2 admins will subsist familiar with—Server Manager and PowerShell—and expands on them considerably.
While many of the changes in Server 2012 are incremental improvements over its predecessor, Windows Server 2008 Release 2, the original features are more than evolutionary when taken as a whole. In the same way that Microsoft has “embraced and extended” the functionality of tech competitors and nominal partners in the past (from its “coopetition” with Novell in networking to its “cutting off” of Netscape’s air supply in the Web software market), Windows 2012 and related technology construct many previously advanced server and storage virtualization features into a commodity. Hyper-V alone, which we’ll cover in greater depth later this week, offers enough in the way of original features and capabilities that it could disrupt the traffic models of VMware and other IT companies that gain profited from previous gaps in Microsoft’s capabilities.
There’s far too much in Server 2012 to cover in one sitting. And given that we've spent less than a week with the final code for Windows Server 2012 standard Edition, we've certainly not been able to Put it through extreme its paces yet. So, in this first peruse at the finished product, they cover the highlights of the original operating system from the perspective of a petite or mid-size organization. They grasp a peruse at the original storage and file server features of the operating system, and some of the ways that Server 2012 will construct it easier for organizations to result high-availability and disaster recovery without making sizable investments in other hardware or software. And they furthermore peruse at the improvements to manageability and deployment in Server 2012, and how they integrate into existing server deployments, as well as the licensing changes and the way they’ll affect how (or if) you deploy Windows Server.
The original Standard
The two editions of Server 2012 being released today—Standard and Datacenter—replace six of the editions of Server 2008. The petite traffic Standard, Enterprise, HPC, and Web editions of Windows Server gain been “retired," though Microsoft will proffer a free HPC software pack add-on to standard and Datacenter for elevated performance computing customers. The split is fairly simple. If you're running a major application on a dedicated machine—Exchange and SharePoint server apps, a SQL Server database, or just about anything that goes beyond basic file and print services—you’ll subsist using the standard edition of the OS. If you're running a stack of VMs, you'll travel for the Datacenter edition.
Two other versions of Server 2012 will subsist available. The first, Foundation edition, will only subsist sold through OEMs, and is intended as a totally bare-bones server with no virtualization support. Another version based on the same stripped-down code, Windows Server 2012 Essentials, will supplant Windows petite traffic Server Essentials 2011 and will subsist available later this year (Microsoft recently posted a release candidate for Server Essentials, and we’ll grasp a first peruse at it later this week).
Server 2012 standard and Datacenter both champion significantly larger amounts of processing power, storage, and remembrance than Server 2008 R2. It handles up to 320 “logical processors,” or CPU cores, double the processing maximum for R2. remembrance capacity is furthermore doubled, up to 4 terabytes. And the failover clustering capabilities of Server 2012 gain been vastly expanded, supporting up to 64 cluster nodes—up from 16 in the previous release.
Server Manager gets a total makeover in Server 2012, and PowerShell is given an even broader compass of “commandlets” and interfaces to customize and control the server OS and its features. Just about everything you can configure within Server 2012 is exposed through PowerShell, and can subsist locally or remotely scripted. That means that with just the tools provided out of the box, a Windows administrator can control almost every aspect of servers deployed locally or off in a cloud—whether it's a private cloud hosted on-site or in a provider’s data center, or up in someone’s public cloud and connected over the enhanced networking features in Windows 2012.
Timothy Warner, a trainer at CBT Nuggets specializing in Windows system administration, told Ars that Server 2012 is “mostly evolutionary” as far as changes go, and most Windows administrators will find their skills translate cleanly over to the original operating system without much of a learning curve.
And based on my experience, though the original features (such as the vastly expanded capabilities of PowerShell) are profound enough to grasp some time to dig into, Windows Server 2012 is generally easier to administer and deploy out of the box than previous versions. Configuring a original vigorous Directory domain, for example—even within a legacy vigorous Directory "forest"—went a lot less painfully and a lot more quickly for me on Server 2012 than it had been in previous versions. And a lot of that is thanks to the original Windows Management Framework (version 3.0), which includes the expanded PowerShell instrumentation of the Server's management features. In organizations with simpler infrastructures, Server Manager may subsist the only management instrument admins need.
The previous release of Server Manager looked relish most Windows management tools, with a two-pane Explorer-based interface. The original Server Manager in Server 2012 is a functionally driven dashboard that provides direct access to most of the log data and administrative tools needed to sustain on top of server functions.
Enlarge / The old-fashioned Server Manager on Windows Server 2008 R2, for comparison purposes.
Like its previous incarnation, Server Manager allows administrators to manage the local server as well as remote servers. But in Server 2012, it furthermore can subsist used to instantly jump into a remote PowerShell session on a remote server, and add and remove server features remotely.
Enlarge / The Add Roles and Features wizard in Server 2012, configuring vigorous Directory on a remote server.
With the addition of Windows Management Framework 3.0 to Server 2008 machines—an upgrade to PowerShell and Windows Remote Management capabilities available at the time of testing for this article from Microsoft as a Release Candidate update—Server 2012’s server manager will subsist able to administer and track those machines as well. That capability remained reasonably academic at the time I performed my testing; I wasn’t successful in getting the beta of WinRM 3.0 to labor in my Server 2008 R2 test server.
Enlarge / Configuring a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2012 using the Sconfig.cmd script provided in the install.
Cutting to the Core
Even though you can install the plenary Windows 8-like UI atop Server 2012, you probably won’t want to. Better yet, you don’t gain to. relish its predecessor, Windows Server 2012 can subsist deployed with the graphical interface, or as a “Server Core”—that is, with a minimal user interface that includes the command line and the PowerShell command interpreter.
But there are additional shades of gray between the bare bones UI and the plenary Metro Monty—you can furthermore deploy the Server Manager and other management tools with a graphical interface without installing the entire Metro UI. That can subsist done by using Server Manager, either from another server or from a workstation, to remotely manage the server and deploy features in fine-grained detail, or by using PowerShell commands locally or remotely.
The initial install of both standard and Datacenter from the DVD allows one of two options: with the plenary Windows 8 realistic user interface, or “Server Core”—with only a command line window to labor from locally. That’s similar to the option Windows Server 2008 R2 offered, and the installation process itself looks just relish the Server 2008 R2 install with a fresh coat of Metro-ish paint.
But Server 2012 takes it further by allowing you to add or subtract interface features through the PowerShell scripting language or by way of remote management. For example, you can deploy just the graphical management tools to a server and not the leisure of the user interface—and then remove them again, completely. Using PowerShell, you can zap the features permanently from the server’s disk (or virtual disk), freeing up disk space for other things—something that would gain to gain been done manually (and with grand caution) in Server 2008 R2.
Enlarge / Server Manager launching at startup on a modified Server Core installation—just as much GUI as you want.
Since everything you result to configure features in Server 2012, subsist it through the Server Manager instrument or through PowerShell, can subsist exported as an XML template and repurposed, the configuration of a server can subsist used as the basis for a script-based install on other servers with PowerShell. That’s particularly helpful if you’re creating a configuration for virtual machines that you want to Run particularly skinny for a specific application without wasting local disk space with duplicated functionality.
Listing image by Aurich Lawson
There are a number of features in Server 2012 that can significantly improve the resilience of an organization’s applications, whether they’re deployed in a data seat or on a brace of servers in the back room. Improvements in Hyper-V virtualization, storage functionality, and the networking features of Server 2012 extreme add ways to construct servers less likely to fail—and in the event that they do, construct it easier to quickly recover.
The improvements to Hyper-V over the eventual version of the hypervisor are legion. Hyper-V is almost a platform to itself as a result—and in fact, the free Hyper-V Server, available as a download from Microsoft, offers extreme of the same features as the hypervisor environment in Server 2012, minus the management tools. For petite organizations, a sole copy of Server 2012 could subsist used to configure and manage multiple standalone Hyper-V servers to create a cluster of servers—even Linux-based server instances—configured for automatic failover.
Enlarge / Configuring replication in Windows Server 2012's Hyper-V.
Hyper-V’s original replication feature can furthermore subsist used as a disaster recovery option. Unlike SAN-based DR solutions, or those currently offered by VMware, Hyper-V doesn’t require the hardware on the other cessation to subsist identical, or even gain the same storage capacity. As long as the virtual drives fit, they can subsist replicated and brought online remotely in the event of a failure.
On the networking side, Server 2012 now supports network interface card “teaming,” putting some or extreme of the NICs in a server into a pool under a sole IP address. This allows for both higher network throughput for the server through a switch connection and for continued operation in the event of a card failure. The feature even works in virtual machines—you can configure each physical NIC as a virtual LAN switch, and gain Windows 2012 VMs “team” their own virtual network interfaces across both physical NICs.
So long, SAN
Server 2012 furthermore provides for a number of types of replication between servers to improve the availability and uptime of data. One of these is through Server 2012’s Distributed File Services’ Replication Groups, which can synchronize data from point to point, in a mesh or hub-spoke arrangement. This can subsist used to back up user files offsite or to multiple backups, and can subsist configured to utilize a set amount of bandwidth or replicate only at inescapable times of the day.
Enlarge / A replication group configured in Windows Server 2012's DFS Management console.
There are two other storage features in Server 2012 that are aimed at making it easier to preclude a loss of data in the first place. First, there’s the Resilient File System (ReFS), the original server file system, designed to minimize the potential for disk corruption caused by power failures by using the same “copy on write” approach used by the ZFS file system developed by Sun Microsystems.
There’s furthermore a original feature in Server 2012, called Storage Spaces, that turns collections of inexpensive SATA and Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) arduous drives into a kinder, gentler sort of software-driven RAID. Storage Spaces allows administrators to create “pools” of physical disks that can subsist grouped together to create virtual disks set for a specific plane of redundancy, and grown elastically by the addition of more disks. Disks’ partitions can subsist split up across multiple virtual drives, and multiple heterogeneous disks—even SSDs and traditional arduous disks—can subsist aggregated and mapped to a sole virtual drive.
Enlarge / Assigning physical drives to a storage pool with Server 2012's Storage Spaces.
Storage Spaces supports a number of other SAN-like virtual storage features, including thin provisioning—creating virtual disks that materialize to subsist larger for the sake of software installations, and that can subsist expanded as required. And it supports clustering of servers around external “Just a Bunch of Disks” (JBOD) SAS-connected storage systems, so services can fail over to another server in the cluster in the event of a server failure.
Then there’s Server 2012’s iSCSI support. Windows Server 2012’s File Services can subsist configured as an iSCSI target for both physical and virtual machines, providing screen file storage on local drives for remote systems. You can point diskless workstations at a volume on the server as a boot source.
Enlarge / Configuring an iSCSI connection in Server Manager's iSCSI Virtual Disk Wizard.
Combined with some enhancements to Windows Server’s SMB file sharing protocol for application-specific storage and other enhancements in how Server 2012 handles distributed file systems, these storage features could construct the operating system a suitable substitute for SAN hardware in smaller environments. However, they haven’t had a chance to kick these systems arduous enough yet to accept any actual plan of their resilience yet.
The original license calculus
The licensing issues around Server 2012 aren’t trivial. Before you even deploy Windows Server 2012, one of the first differences that you’ll notice from Windows Server 2008 R2 is that Microsoft has totally restructured its licensing for the Server platform. That's because while the number of "editions" of Server has been drastically chopped back, Microsoft has created a original per-processor pair licensing scheme that both simplifies and complicates the server license configuration process.
Functionally, standard and Datacenter are the same. Even things relish clustering, which used to subsist the sole preserve of the higher-end Windows Server SKUs, are create in Standard. The only dissimilarity is the number of Windows Server virtual machines supported per license. Standard, priced at $882 for up to two processors, only supports two Windows Server VMs per license; Datacenter, at $4,809 per license, supports unlimited Windows Server VMs. You can utilize the same license for the virtual instances of Server 2012 running on the machine. So, a sole standard edition license on a two-socket server gives you up to three instances of Windows Server 2012—the physical install and two virtual ones. If you want to Run eight virtual Windows Server instances (or any mix of eight operating systems), you’ll need at least four standard Server licenses.
If you want to Run guests that aren't Windows Server (for example, Linux servers, or Windows 7 for VDI), of course, you could always just utilize the free Hyper-V Server 2012 on another server for them, and accept the same plane of virtualization champion with an unlimited number of virtual machines. That’s not something Microsoft is actively marketing, but it does construct Server 2012 a more attractive option for smaller organizations who want to deploy larger numbers of virtual machines without a lot of administrative overhead.
Final first impressions
Once you gain the basics worked out, deploying Windows Server 2012 in a smaller environment—even using Server Core on most of the systems—is pretty painless. And on the whole, Server 2012 performed up to expectations in their initial testing of a wide compass of its features. Even when the system failed, it did so in a way that wasn't traumatic. There were times when I pushed Hyper-V past its breaking point, resulting in graceful shutdowns of the server rather than a train-wreck screen of death.
There are a few bugs lingering about to subsist dealt with for organizations that may want to mix and match their Windows Server versions for a while as they test the waters. The Windows Server 2008 versions of Windows Management Framework 3.0, for example, will subsist essential for organizations that gain to sustain the older server release around a while longer to champion older software.
Cleanup aside, Server 2012 brings so much to the table that it should subsist quickly picked up by petite and mid-size organizations trying to construct themselves peruse bigger from an IT perspective. Even when you peruse at the very narrow scope of its storage abilities, Server 2012 has a sizable potential fiscal payoff in terms of lowering the cost of IT. And when tied to hosted services in a public or private cloud, Server 2012 will succor IT administrators scale up or down on require with a lot less throe and a much smaller budget.
In a virtual desktop environment, elevated availability is faultfinding for users to result their jobs well. To sustain things...
up and running, Windows Server 2012 Remote Desktop Services comes with some welcome elevated availability enhancements.
Remote Desktop Services (RDS) allows users to connect to virtual desktops, RemoteApp published applications and session-based desktops -- but you can't result that successfully without elevated availability (HA). Users need continuous access to those endpoints to complete distinguished tasks.
Configuring Remote Desktop Services elevated availability involves numerous components, so let's fracture down the Remote Desktop Services roles and learn how to construct each one highly available. Then you can grasp edge of one of the biggest changes in Windows Server 2012 RDS -- the original Remote Desktop Connection Broker Active/Active HA model.
How to construct Remote Desktop Services roles highly available
Here is what the RDS roles result and how you can achieve elevated availability with each one:
Remote Desktop Virtualization Host: The RD Virtualization Host hosts your Microsoft Hyper-V virtual machines (VMs).
To construct your VMs highly available, utilize a Hyper-V cluster and virtual desktop collection.
Remote Desktop Session Host: This component hosts RemoteApp published applications or session-based desktops.
For RDS elevated availability here, you can utilize an RD Session Host Farm and a Session Collection (new in Windows Server 2012 RDS) to load balance connections between servers in the collection.
Remote Desktop Connection Broker: The connection broker connects and reconnects users to their virtual desktops, RemoteApp published applications or session-based desktops. It furthermore distributes the load among RD Session Host servers in a session collection.
To construct certain the connection broker is highly available, you can utilize elevated Availability Mode and deploy Active/Active scale-out RD Connection Brokers (also original to Windows Server 2012 RDS). The content that RD Connection Brokers process is kept in a SQL database, so construct certain that database is highly available too.
A common DNS denomination is assigned for accessing the RD Connection Brokers, and you can load balance that DNS denomination between brokers using DNS round robin, Windows Network Load Balancing or a third-party load balancing tool.
Remote Desktop Web Access: This role allows users to access RemoteApp and Desktop Connection through the Start menu on Windows 8, Windows 7 or via the Web browser.
For RDS elevated availability with this component, utilize a RD Web Access farm that has multiple servers, and construct certain to load balance the session across them using DNS round robin or other load balancing techniques.
Remote Desktop Gateway: The gateway gives Internet-connected devices access to virtual desktops, Remote App published applications and session-based desktops located on an internal network.
Like the Connection Broker and Web Access roles, you can utilize a RD Web Gateway farm with multiple servers to achieve HA, and load balance the session across them.
Remote Desktop Licensing: This role manages the licenses required to connect to RD Session Host session collections or virtual desktop collections.
To sustain the licensing servers highly available, utilize Window Clustering or deploy multiple RD licensing servers with the licenses split across them.
High availability in Windows Server 2012 RDS
One of the biggest improvements to elevated availability in Windows Server 2012 Remote Desktop Services is in the RD Connection Broker. In previous versions, the RD Connection Broker only supported Active/Passive clustering. That provided basic redundancy, but it did not allow you to scale out as load increased.
In Windows Server 2012 RDS, the RD Connection Broker supports Active/Active brokers for both elevated availability and scale-out load balancing. The original RD Connection Broker is furthermore sensible of both Session Collections (RD Session Hosts) and VDI collections. That means you no longer need a RD Session Host in "redirection mode" redirecting users to virtual desktops running Window XP or Windows 7. This helps create a more streamlined, highly available infrastructure through the Remote Desktop Services roles.
To deploy the RD Connection Broker in an Active/Active configuration you must first deploy a sole RD Connection Server. When you deploy the first one, it automatically uses the Windows Internal Database to store configuration and operational information. When you deploy multiple RD Connection Brokers, they must subsist configured to utilize a SQL server database. When you add a second connection broker, the data in the Windows Internal Database is automatically migrated to the SQL database.
In addition to sharing a common content database, the RD Connection Brokers furthermore utilize a common DNS denomination to spread the load across multiple servers. That increases elevated availability of the connection brokers.
To deploy Active/Active RD Connection Brokers, you need at least SQL Server 2008 R2, and the RD servers must gain plenary permissions on the SQL Server. Plus, the SQL Client must subsist installed on extreme RD Connection Broker Servers. With these prerequisites met, you can configure RD Connection Broker elevated availability.
Configuring Remote Desktop Services Connection Broker HA
Figure 1. choose the RD Connection Broker from the RDS dashboard.
From the Remote Desktop Services dashboard, right-click on the RD Connection Broker and select Configure elevated Availability (Figure 1).
Figure 2. Add these configurations to the RD Connection Broker.
From the Before You commence screen, corroborate the Connection Broker prerequisites and then select Next. On the Configure elevated Availability screen, you will need to enter the details of the RDS elevated availability configuration (Figure 2).
Make certain that you gain created the SQL database folder before you specify the folder where you want to store the files, or you'll receive an error. You should furthermore create the DNS record first, or the wizard won't let you specify the DNS resource record name.
Figure 3. Add another RD Connection Broker Server.
Finally you'll receive confirmation of your entries, and then you can select Configure. Now that RD Connection Broker has been configured for elevated availability, you gain the option of adding a second RD Connection Broker Server (Figure 3).
Figure 4. These are the prerequisites for RD Connection Broker Servers.
You gain to corroborate the prerequisites before you can select your server and corroborate the settings (Figure 4). This should travel off without a hitch because you already did the tricky Part when you configured the RD Connection Broker for elevated availability in the previous steps.
With the connection brokers and servers configured for elevated availability, along with the other Remote Desktop Services roles, you're on your way to a highly available RDS environment.