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SUN Sun Certified MySQL 5.0

Oracle increases certification checking out fees

How collaboration apps foster digital transformation

Oracle's bold plans for integrating sun's know-how

Oracle introduced an overview these days of its ambitions for its newly got sun products, focusing on built-in programs providing every thing from the utility to the database, servers and storage. "The solar deal closed the day before today. We're consummate pumped and excited," referred to Oracle president Charles Phillips at Oracle headquarters in Redwood Shores, Calif. Oracle introduced its $7.4 billion acquisition of sun remaining April, but the merger had been held up with the aid of the eu Union.

Oracle will hold the solar identify and "reinvigorate it," Phillips stated. seeking to stay away from the finger-pointing that may retrograde on when methods raze down, Oracle intends to live the one adult to demand the total stack, spoke of Phillips. "The bottom line is they want to help and alter the manner individuals purchase programs, [the way] they run, the style they manage them," he stated.

[ Sun co-founder Scott McNealy has written a farewell email to Sun employees and investors. | Relive the rise and drop of Sun Microsystems in InfoWorld's slideshow. ]

Oracle will present a product stack of Oracle and sun technologies engineered to drudgery together. The stack may live licensed, packaged, deployed, upgraded, and managed collectively, and it'll characteristic middleware, the database, OS, digital machines, servers, and storage. The products will live supported together as neatly.

Oracle itself, Phillips stated, offers products in OLTP, records warehousing, embedded database, middleware, CRM, human capital management, and trade performance administration. To this listing, solar provides an commercial enterprise OS, servers for Unix and the Oracle database, trade tape storage, and Java, solar's structure language.

Phillips wired Oracle's dedication to Java. "All their subsequent-technology functions are written in Java. they now fill a vested activity to observe that Java remains a hit," Phillips pointed out. JavaOne, the annual Java technical convention historically held in June, will continue but will in its site live held as Part of the Oracle OpenWorld convention September 19-23 in San Francisco.

The solar Solaris Unix OS will proceed to scale. "we're the only trade OS that scales down to very, very wee systems the entire route to a whole bunch of threads," spoke of John Fowler, Oracle executive vp for hardware engineering and a holdover from solar. "We're taking Solaris to heaps of threads and double-digit terabytes of reminiscence," he added.

MySQL, the open supply database Oracle acquires with the solar purchase, will become a Part of the business's open supply international company unit and hold its own revenue drive. "we'll configuration MySQL more advantageous," referred to Edward Screven, chief company architect at Oracle. MySQL can live built-in with Oracle commercial enterprise supervisor, comfortable Backup, and Audit Vault applied sciences.

Two shoppers introduced onstage lauded the solar-Oracle aggregate. "We're in reality anticipating Oracle being the only person they must muster when whatever thing goes wrong," observed David Maitland, director of company capabilities and the CIO for the Atomic Weapons establishment. "[Oracle] may live the primary organization that spans the complete expertise stack or most parts of it," famous note Kamlet, senior vp and provost at Carnegie Mellon school.

in the cloud computing area, Oracle will present a number of items for structure clouds, together with the Oracle WebLogic Server software server, Solaris containers, and sun Oracle servers and storage. "With the merger between sun and Oracle, Oracle will proffer a complete set of constructing blocks for managing and assembling public and private clouds," Screven spoke of. He didn't, youngsters, converse about the destiny of the sun Cloud public cloud platform announced remaining year that had been due to open ultimate summer.

Oracle will spend $four.three billion in research and construction in fiscal yr 2011, Phillips referred to.

Phillips moreover made an obvious quick reference to a circumstance he persevered final week when a former romantic hobby embarrassed him by route of posting billboards about their relationship in a number of cities. "with a bit of luck, you've had a a bit of smoother week than I've had," he referred to.

this article, "Oracle's bold plans for integrating sun's know-how," was in the rise posted at observe the newest developments on Oracle, Java, and MySQL at

Technical views on REIT shares -- preferred condominium Communities, sun Communities, Two Harbors investment, and UDR

manhattan, April 12, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- strives to carry the top-rated free research to the investment community.  today they are providing stories on APTS, SUI, TWO, and UDR which can live accessed at no cost through signing up to revisits the Residential REIT area, which focuses on residence structures, scholar housing, manufactured buildings, and single-family homes. in this morning's lineup are these four shares: favored apartment Communities Inc. (NYSE: APTS), solar Communities Inc. (NYSE: SUI), Two Harbors investment Corp. (NYSE: TWO), and UDR Inc. (NYSE: UDR). consummate you fill to finish is mark in today for this free confined time proffer by means of clicking the link below.

favorite condo Communities

Shares in favourite condominium Communities Inc. climbed 3.01%, ending Wednesday's buying and selling session at $14.70. The stock recorded a trading volume of 430,117 shares. The company's shares fill gained 0.sixty eight% in the remaining month and eight.49% during the last year. The stock is buying and selling 0.seventy three% above its 50-day relocating common. furthermore, shares of the business, which acquires and operates multifamily houses in pick centered markets consummate over the U.S., fill a Relative electricity Index (RSI) of 54.ninety two.  

On March twentieth, 2018, preferred apartment Communities announced the sale of Lake Cameron, a class A multifamily group determined in Raleigh, North Carolina. The enterprise sold Lake Cameron for low proceeds of about $43,450,000, which represents an exit capitalization charge of about 5.0%. Get the entire research file on APTS without impregnate by using clicking beneath at:

solar Communities

sun Communities Inc.'s stock rose just a shrimp via 0.85%, closing the day at $ninety one.64. a total extent of 466,225 shares was traded, which changed into above their three months typical volume of 441,860 shares. The company's shares fill advanced three.13% during the past month, 0.93% within the obsolete three months, and 10.seventy six% during the last year. The inventory is trading three.ninety three% and a pair of.forty one% above its 50-day and 200-day relocating averages, respectively. additionally, shares of solar Communities, which owned, operated, or had an pastime in a portfolio of 350 communities comprising about 122,000 developed websites in 29 states and Ontario, Canada, fill an RSI of sixty three.91. 

On March 22nd, 2018, sun Communities has revised the time for its prior to now introduced Q1 2018 convention designation from eleven:00 a.m. ET to 1:00 p.m. ET on April 24th, 2018. The enterprise will release its Q1 2018 working consequences on April 23rd, 2018, after markets shut. entry the free analysis document on SUI now by route of signing up at:

Two Harbors funding

On Wednesday, shares in manhattan headquartered Two Harbors funding Corp. recorded a trading extent of 1.14 million shares. The inventory ended the day 0.32% higher at $15.60. The business's shares are buying and selling above their 50-day relocating accustomed by route of 2.55%. moreover, shares of the company, which operates as a REIT that specializes in investing in, financing, and managing residential mortgage-backed securities, non-company securities, mortgage servicing rights, and other monetary property within the US, fill an RSI of 57.62.  

On March 29th, 2018, Two Harbors funding announced an adjustment to the conversion charge for the enterprise's 6.25% convertible senior notes due 2022. constructive after the near of trade on April 02nd, 2018, the brand new conversion fee for the senior notes is 61.7770 shares of accustomed inventory per $1,000 most needful volume of the senior notes. Are you already registered with Wall St. Equities? achieve this now for free, and fetch the record on TWO at:


UDR Inc.'s inventory declined a little by using 0.eleven%, finishing the day prior to this's session at $35.seventy five. a total extent of 1.seventy three million shares turned into traded, which become above their three months typical quantity of 1.sixty eight million shares. The enterprise's shares fill superior 1.22% in the final month. The inventory is trading above its 50-day pathetic medium by using 2.ninety one%. moreover, shares of UDR, which delivers long-time term charge to shareholders, the most suitable common of carrier to residents and the best property event for buddies, fill an RSI of 57.fifty four.  

On April 03rd, 2018, UDR Inc. introduced that it is going to release its Q1 2018 fiscal outcomes on April 25th, 2018, after the market closes. A convention designation can live held on April twenty sixth, 2018, at 12:00 p.m. ET. The webcast of the muster should live available on the company's investor members of the family web page. Aspiring Member, please capture a moment to register below to your free research file on UDR at:

Wall St. Equities:

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WSE has not been compensated; without detain or in some way; for producing or publishing this doc. 

PRESS free up tactics:

The non-sponsored content contained herein has been prepared by means of a author (the "creator") and is truth checked and reviewed by means of a third-celebration research carrier company (the "Reviewer") represented by a credentialed fiscal analyst [for additional tips on analyst credentials, please e mail Rohit Tuli, a CFA® charterholder (the "Sponsor"), offers needful counsel in making ready the document templates. The Reviewer has reviewed and revised the content, as integral, based on publicly available suggestions which is believed to live official. content is researched, written and reviewed on a reasonable-effort groundwork. The Reviewer has not carried out any independent investigations or forensic audits to validate the suggestions herein. The Reviewer has most efficacious independently reviewed the tips supplied by the writer in line with the methods outlined by WSE. WSE is not entitled to veto or intrude in the utility of such strategies by means of the third-birthday party analysis carrier trade to the articles, documents or studies, as the case may be. until in any other case referred to, any content outside of this doc has no affiliation with the author or the Reviewer in any method.  

NO assurance

WSE, the writer, and the Reviewer are not answerable for any oversight which may live occasioned on the time of printing of this doc or any error, mistake or shortcoming. No liability is authorised whatsoever for any direct, circuitous or consequential loss arising from using this document. WSE, the writer, and the Reviewer expressly disclaim any fiduciary responsibility or legal responsibility for any penalties, fiscal or in any other case coming up from any reliance positioned on the counsel in this doc. additionally, WSE, the creator, and the Reviewer finish not (1) assure the accuracy, timeliness, completeness or suitable sequencing of the guidance, or (2) warrant any outcomes from exercise of the tips. The protected suggestions is realm to alternate without notice. 

not AN offering

This document is not supposed as an offering, recommendation, or a solicitation of an proffer to purchase or promote the securities outlined or discussed, and is to live used for informational purposes only. please study consummate associated disclosures and disclaimers in complete before investing. Neither WSE nor any birthday celebration affiliated with us is a registered funding adviser or broking service-broker with any agency or in any jurisdiction by any means. To download their report(s), read their disclosures, or for extra counsel, consult with


For any questions, inquiries, or feedback achieve out to us without delay. if you're an organization, they are protecting and wish to not feature on their insurance record contact us via electronic mail and/or cell between 09:30 EDT to 16:00 EDT from Monday to Friday at:e-mail: mobilephone number: +21-32-044-483 office tackle: 1 Scotts highway #24-10, Shaw core Singapore 228

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Linux Timeline

Linux Journal celebrated the publication of its 100th issue in 2002 with the release of the Linux Timeline. It's now 2006, Linux itself turns 15 this year and Linux Journal, a shrimp older, grayer and wiser, is soon to release it's 150th issue. In celebration and in honor of an incredible community's history we're compiling the significant events of 2002 through 2006 (and of course anything from earlier years that they may fill previously missed).

We question you to capture a few minutes of time and profit record history. consider this article post a giant whiteboard -- comment on the event or events you find to live most significant in Linux's recent history, you'll likely observe their editors doing just the same.

We'll compile the events and re-release the timeline for consummate to participate in the upcoming months.

Ready? Here they go:

August 1991

``Hello everybody out there using minix - I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't live titanic and professional enjoy gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since april, and is starting to fetch ready. I'd enjoy any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it a little (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things).I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work. This implies that I'll fetch something practical within a few months, and I'd enjoy to know what features most people would want. Any suggestions are welcome, but I won't plight I'll implement them :-) Linus (PS. Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT protable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never will back anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's consummate I fill :-(.''

September 1991

Linux version 0.01 is released and do on the Net.

April 1992

The first Linux newsgroup, comp.os.linux, is proposed and started by Ari Lemmke.

October 1992

Peter MacDonald announces SLS, the first standalone Linux install. At least 10MB of space on disk was recommended.

June 1993

Slackware, by Patrick Volkerding, becomes the first commercial standalone distribution and quickly becomes Popular within the Linux community.

August 1993

Matt Welsh's Linux Installation and Getting Started, version 1 is released. This is the first reserve on Linux.

March 1994

The first issue of Linux Journal is published. This issue featured an interview with Linus Torvalds and articles written by Phil Hughes, Robert ``Bob'' Young, Michael K. Johnson, Arnold Robbins, Matt Welsh, Ian A. Murdock, frank B. Brokken, K. Kubat, Micahel Kraehe and Bernie Thompson. Advertisers in the premier issue involve Algorithms Inc., Amtec Engineering, Basmark, Fintronic (later became VA Research, VA Linux Systems, then...), Infomagic, Prime Time Freeware, Promox, Signum Support, SSC, Trans Ameritech, USENIX, Windsor Tech and Yggdrasil.

Linux 1.0 is released.

June 1994

While at a conference in New Orleans, Jon ``maddog'' Hall persuades Linus to port Linux to DEC's 64-bit Alpha computer processor chip. Less than two weeks later, maddog had moreover persuaded DEC to fund the project. An Alpha workstation was immediately sent to Linus. ``Digital [DEC] and the Linux community formed the first truly successful venture of suits and Linux geeks working together'', said maddog.

Linux International, a nonprofit vendor organization, is founded by Jon ``maddog'' Hall. Linux International goes on to become a major contributor to the success of Linux, helping corporations and others drudgery toward the promotion of the Linux operating system.

August 1994

Linux trademark dispute: is Linux trademarked? William R. Della Croce, Jr. files for the trademark ``Linux'' on August 15, 1994, and it is registered in September. Della Croce has no known involvement in the Linux community yet sends letters out to prominent Linux companies demanding money for exercise of the trademark ``Linux''. A lawsuit is filed in 1996 against Della Croce. Plaintiffs in the suit involve Linus Torvalds; Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc. (publishers of Linux Journal); Yggdrasil Computing, Inc.; Linux International; and WorkGroup Solutions (also known as LinuxMall). The plaintiffs prevail, and in 1997 declar the matter as settled by the assignment of the note to Linus Torvalds on behalf of consummate Petitioners and Linux users.

September 1994

Linux is first mentioned in the mainstream press. Wired magazine features an article titled ``Kernel Kid'', by Seth Rosenthal. He writes: ``So, is Linus going to become the Bill Gates of Finland? Maybe not. He claims to live 'by no means a qualified student' and is in no run to graduate since 'Linux has taken a lot of time from my studies, and I enjoy the drudgery I fill at the University which keeps me alive.'''

Randolph Bentson reports on the world's first vendor-supported Linux device driver in Linux Journal. Cyclades gave him a multiport serial card in exchange for developing a Linux driver for it.

December 1994

A major tradeshow and conference capture notice of Linux. Open Systems World features a Linux track, hosted by Linux Journal. Two days of seminars involve Eric Youngdale, Donald Becker, Dirk Hohndel, Phil Hughes, Michael K. Johnson and David Wexelblat as speakers.

April 1995

Linux Expo, the first Linux-specific tradeshow and conference series, launches, thanks to the folks at North Carolina state University and in particular, Donnie Barnes. Speakers involve Marc Ewing, Rik Faith and Michael K. Johnson, among others. Linux Expo snowballs and becomes the most Popular and well-attended annual Linux divulge for the next several years (after three years Red Hat takes over organization and becomes the major sponsor). The charge for entry into the exhibit hall and a pass to the conferences? $4.

January 1997

First ``Linux virus'' discovered. Called Bliss, it actually works on any UNIX-like OS and offers a helpful--``bliss-uninfect-files-please'' command-line option. Alan Cox points out that Bliss ``does not circumvent the security of the system, it relies on people with privilege to finish something dumb'' and reminds users to install digitally signed software from trustworthy sites only and to check signatures before installing.

``In fact it's probably easier to write a virus for Linux because it's open source and the code is available. So they will live seeing more Linux viruses as the OS becomes more common and popular.''--Wishful thinking from McAfee

January 1998

Linux Weekly news begins publication with Jonathan Corbet and Elizabeth Coolbaugh as founders. The very first issue, dated January 22, was just a tiny hint of what LWN was to become.

Netscape announces that they will release the source to their browser under a free software license. This almost certainly remains one of the most needful events of the year; it opened a lot of eyes to what Linux and free software could provide.

Red Hat Advanced development Labs (RHAD) is founded. It has since become one of the higher-profile places where people are paid to develop free software and an needful component of the GNOME Project. RHAD is able to attract developers enjoy ``Rasterman'' (although only for a short time) and Federico Mena-Quintero.

February 1998

The Cobalt Qube is announced and immediately becomes a favorite in the trade press due to its high performance, low charge and cute configuration factor. Cobalt's Linux engineering is done by nothing other than David Miller, the source of much that is qualified in the Linux kernel.

The Linux user community wins InfoWorld's technical back award; Red Hat 5.0 moreover won their Operating System award. But it was the tech back award that truly opened some eyes; everybody had been adage that Linux had no support. This was the rise of the pause of the ``no support'' argument.

Eric Raymond and friends Come up with the term ``open source''. They apply for trademark status and do up the web site. Thus begins the formal application to shove Linux for corporate use.

March 1998

Consumer advocate Ralph Nader asks the big PC vendors (Dell, Gateway, Micron, etc.) to proffer non-Microsoft systems, including systems with Linux installed.

April 1998

Linux is covered by the US National Public Radio news, marking one of its first appearances in the mainstream, nontechnical press.

O'Reilly holds the ``first ever'' Free Software Summit, featuring Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Linus Torvalds, Guido van Rossum, Eric Allman, Phil Zimmermann, Eric Raymond and Paul Vixie.

May 1998

The Google search engine pops up. Not only is it one of the best search engines around, but it's based on Linux and features a Linux-specific search page.

Big databases start to arrive. back for Linux is announced by Computer Associates for their Ingres system and by Ardent Software for their O2 kick database.

June 1998

``Like a lot of products that are free, you fetch a loyal following even though it's small. I've never had a customer mention Linux to me.''--Bill Gates, PC Week, June 25, 1998

``...these operating systems will not find widespread exercise in mainstream commercial applications in the next three years, nor will there live broad third-party application support.''--The Gartner Group says there is shrimp hope for free software.

A Datapro study comes out showing that Linux has the highest user satisfaction of any system; it moreover shows Linux to live the only system other than Microsoft Windows NT that is increasing its market share.

IBM announces that it will dispense and back the Apache web server after working a deal with the Apache team.

July 1998

The desktop wars rage as KDE and GNOME advocates hurl flames at each other. Linus gets in on the act, adage that KDE is okay with him. In this context, KDE 1.0 is released. The first stable release of the K Desktop Environment proves to live popular, despite the complaints from those who finish not enjoy the licensing of the Qt library.

Informix quietly releases software for Linux. Meanwhile, Oracle beats Informix to the punch PR-wise and makes a Linux-friendly announcement first, suggesting that they would soon live supporting Linux. Oracle promises to configuration a affliction version available by the pause of 1998, a deadline they beat by months. This, seemingly, was one of the acid tests for the potential of long-term success for Linux; a noteworthy deal of attention resulted from both Informix's and Oracle's announcements.

Informix announces back for Linux effectively moments after Oracle does so. Sybase later announces their back for Linux also.

Linus appears on the cover of Forbes magazine. A lengthy myth presents Linux in a highly positive manner and brings the system to the attention of many who had never heard of it before. Linux begins to become a household word.

September 1998 is launched by Dave Whitinger and Dwight Johnson. The site, later acquired by, arguably becomes the most well-read and visited Linux portal of consummate time.

Microsoft's Steve Ballmer admits that they are ``worried'' about free software and suggests that some of the Windows NT source code may live made available to developers. The same month Microsoft goes on to list Linux as a competitive threat in its annual SEC (US Securities and Exchange Commission) filing. Speculation abounds that their actual purpose is to influence the upcoming antitrust trial.

October 1998

``For the moment, however, the company from Redmond, Washington, seems almost grateful for the rising profile of Linux, seeing it as an simple route of demonstrating that Windows is not a monopoly, ahead of its antitrust trial, scheduled to open on October 15. That may live short-sighted. In the long run, Linux and other open-source programs could occasions Mr. Gates much grief.''--The Economist, October 3, 1998

Intel and Netscape (and two venture capital firms) declar minority investments in Red Hat Software. The money is to live used to build an ``enterprise back division'' within Red Hat. An unbelievable amount of press is generated by this event, which is seen as a big-business endorsement of Linux.

Corel announces that WordPerfect 8 for Linux will live downloadable for free for ``personal use''. They moreover declar a partnership with Red Hat to supply Linux for the Netwinder.

October 1998

A confidential Microsoft memorandum on Redmond's strategy against Linux and Open Source software was leaked to Eric S. Raymond. Raymond, with his own added commentary, releases the memorandum to the national press over Halloween Weekend. Because of consummate of the press surrounding the story, Microsoft was forced to admit the now-infamous Halloween Document's authenticity. This was the first time the public heard Microsoft admit Linux was becoming inflexible competition.

December 1998

A report from IDC says that Linux shipments rose by more than 200% in 1998, and its market participate rose by more than 150%. Linux has a 17% market participate and a growth rate unmatched by any other system on the market.

January 1999

``Microsoft Corp. will howl it out to the world when Windows 2000 finally ships. Linux creator Linus Torvalds announced the arrival of the next generation of Linux, version 2.2, with a simple note to the Linux-kernel mailing list.''--Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols, Sm@rt Reseller

Samba 2.0 is released. It contains a reverse-engineered implementation of the Microsoft domain controller protocols, allowing Linux servers to provide complete services to Windows networks.

Hewlett-Packard and Compaq declar plans to proffer Linux-based systems. Later, Dell moreover announces plans to open selling Linux-installed systems. SGI contents itself with providing information on how to bring up Linux on its systems.

Loki Entertainment Software announces that it will port Civilization: muster to Power to Linux.

February 1999

Linux and BSD users unite for ``Windows Refund Day''. They visit Microsoft, hoping to return the unused Windows licenses that they were forced to acquire when they purchased a computer system bundled with the OS.

March 1999

``Like a Russian revolutionary erased from a photograph, he is being written out of history. Stallman is the originator of the Free Software movement and the GNU/Linux operating system. But you wouldn't know it from reading about LinuxWorld (Expo). Linus Torvalds got consummate the ink.''--Leander Kahney, Wired magazine, March 1999

The first LinuxWorld Conference and Expo is held in San Jose, California. As the first titanic commercial ``tradeshow'' event for Linux, it serves notice to the world that Linux has arrived; 12,000 people are said to fill attended.

Linux Magazine debuts, bringing some additional competition to the Linux print business. Later, other magazines rise and drop including Open, Journal of Linux Technology (JOLT) and Maximum Linux.

VA Research buys the domain for $1,000,000 and announces plans to swirl it into a Linux portal. Microsoft's rumored bid for the domain is frustrated.

April 1999

``...please imagine what it is enjoy to observe an idealistic project stymied and made ineffective because people don't usually give it the credit for what it has done. If you're an idealist enjoy me, that can ruin your whole decade.''--Richard Stallman on GNU/Linux

Al Gore's presidential shove web site claims to live open source. That pretension is gone, but the site soundless claims: ``In the spirit of the Open Source movement, they fill established the Gore 2000 Volunteer Source Code Project; is an 'open site'."

HP announces 24/7 back services for the Caldera, Turbolinux, Red Hat and SuSE distributions. They moreover release OpenMail for Linux.

The Linux FreeS/WAN Project releases a free IPSec implementation, allowing Linux to role as a VPN gateway using what is now the industry standard.

``But the mere fact that there is now an official SEC document that includes the text of the GPL serves as fairly astonishing proof that the rules of the software trade really are being rewritten.''--Andrew Leonard, Salon

May 1999

``Those two shrimp words--open source--have become a magical incantation, enjoy portal in 1998 or shove in 1997. Just whisper them and consummate will live yours: media attention, consumer interest and, of course, venture capital.''--Andrew Leonard, Wired

August 1999

First Intel IA-64 ``Merced'' silicon. Although Intel had given simulators to several OS vendors, Linux is the only OS to run on the new architecture on its first day. The Register headline: ``Merced silicon happens: Linux runs, NT doesn't''.

SGI announces the 1400L--a Linux-based server system. SGI moreover announces a partnership with Red Hat and begins contributing to kernel development in a titanic way.

Red Hat's initial public offering happens; a last-minute repricing helps to create difficulties for people participating in the community offering. The stock charge immediately rises to $50; a value that seems high at the time.

``For the umpteenth time, someone paved paradise, do up a parking lot. For the thousands of Linux coders who've built the utopian open-source movement--offering free profit to create a free operating system--the IPO of Red Hat Software was a confident mark of Wall Street cutting the ribbon on the new Linux mall.''--The Industry Standard

Motorola jumps into Linux announcements of embedded systems products, back and training services, and a partnership with Lineo.

Sun acquires StarDivision; it announces plans to release StarOffice under the Sun Community Source License and to configuration a web-enabled version of the office suite.

September 1999

``'Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corp. in Burlington, New Jersey is spending $1 million or so to buy 1,250 Linux-equipped PCs from Dell, but it won't pay Red Hat a dime for support', says Michael Prince, chief information officer. 'I suppose Red Hat's trade model makes sense to somebody, but it makes no sense to us', he says.''--Daniel Lyons, Forbes, May 31, 1999. Then in September, Burlington ended up purchasing back from Red Hat.

The first titanic Linux stock rush happens. Shares in Applix more than double in volume, reaching nearly 27 million shares--three times the 9 million shares that are actually on the market.

SCO trashes Linux in a brochure distributed in Northern Europe: ``Linux at this moment can live considered more a plaything for IT students rather than a sober operating system in which to site the functioning, security and future of a business. Because Linux is basically a free-for-all it means that no individual person/company is accountable should anything retrograde wrong, plus there is no route to call which route Linux will evolve.''

Stock in Red Hat hits $135/share. The charge seems unbelievably high at the time.

October 1999

Sun Microsystems announces that it will release the source to Solaris under the Sun Community Source License. The actual release drew criticism: ``In a sail aimed at Linux, Sun said it will declar Wednesday that it is making the source code for its new Solaris 8 operating system 'open'. Webster's has lots of definitions for the word, including 'not sealed, fastened, or locked'. But when you dig into the details of Sun's announcement, you'll find that what it is offering doesn't Come near to meeting the dictionary's definition, let lonely that of the Open Source movement.''--Lawrence Aragon,, January 26, 2000

November 1999

``...if there's one thing about Linux users, they're do-ers, not whiners.''--Andy Patrizio,

Red Hat buys Cygnus for almost $700 million in stock. Rumors of other acquisitions by Red Hat open to circulate and divulge no signs of stopping.

December 1999

VA Linux Systems goes public after two repricings (originally priced at $11-$13/share). The final IPO charge is $30/share; that charge rises immediately to $300 before closing around $250. It sets the record for the biggest IPO rise in the history of the NASDAQ.

``Gee. recall when the titanic question was 'How finish they configuration money at this?'''--Eric Raymond

January 2000

VA Linux Systems announces SourceForge (although the site had actually been up and running since November 1999). SourceForge moreover makes the code for its operation available under the GPL. By the pause of the year, SourceForge hosted over 12,000 projects and 92,000 registered developers.

Version 1.0 of Red Flag Linux is released in the People's Republic of China.

Transmeta breaks its long silence and tells the world what it has been up to--the Crusoe chip, of course.

The Linux Professional Institute announces the availability of its first Linux professional certification exam.

Linux wannabe press releases current from companies trying to ride on the success of Linux stocks., for example, posts the following: `` has further distinguished itself in the competitive Internet health industry race by being one of the first to integrate the Linux Operating System, produced by Red Hat, the leading developer and provider of open-source software solutions.''

February 2000

The latest IDC report suggests that Linux now ranks as the ``second-most-popular operating system for server computers'', with 25% of the server operating system sales in 1999. Windows NT is first with 38% and NetWare ranks third with 19%. IDC previously predicted that Linux would fetch up to the number two position--in 2002 or 2003. The revolution appears to live well ahead of schedule.

VA Linux Systems acquisition of in a high-profile purchase that values Andover shares at 0.425 of VA's, or roughly $50/share. is the owner of the Popular web sites and and frank Kaspar and Associates moreover fill made plans to merge. has been at the top of the retail side of Linux almost since the very beginning; Kaspar is one of the largest distribution channels.

Red Hat wins InfoWorld's ``Product of the Year'' award for the fourth time in a row.

March 2000

``The law in open code means that no actor can gain ultimate control over open-source code. Even the kings can't fetch ultimate control over the code. For example, if Linus Torvalds, father of the Linux kernel, tried to steer GNU/Linux in a route that others in the community rejected, then others in the community could always fill removed the offending Part and gone in a different way. This threat constrains the kings; they can only lead where they know the people will follow.''--``Innovation, Regulation, and the Internet'' by Lawrence Lessig for The American Prospect.

A new version of LILO is posted that is able to fetch past the 1024-cylinder boot limit that has plagued PC systems for years.

The latest Netcraft survey shows Apache running on just over 60% of the Web.

Caldera Systems goes public after a short delay, on March 21. The stock, which was offered at $14/share, began trading at $26 and closed at $29.44. It thus registered a 110% gain on its first day.

``Caldera knows of no company that has built a profitable trade based in whole or in Part on open-source software.''--Caldera SEC filing

Walnut Creek (the parent company for Slackware) and BSDi declar their merger. Yahoo! will live taking an equity investment in the new company.

Motorola Computer Group announces the release of its HA Linux distribution. This distribution is aimed at telecommunications applications that require very high amounts of uptime; it includes hot-swap capability and is available for the i386 and PowerPC architectures.

The Embedded Linux Consortium is announced. Its goal is ``to amplify the depth, breadth and speed of Linux adoption in the immense embedded computer market''. The initial leader will live Rick Lehrbaum, the man behind the and web sites, among other things.

Ericsson announces its ``Screen Phone HS210'' product--a Linux-based telephone with a touchscreen that can live used for e-mail, web browsing, etc. Ericsson and Opera Software moreover declar that Ericsson's (Linux-based) HS210 Screen Phone will incorporate the Opera web browser.

April 2000

Code is ruled to live speech. On April 4, 2000, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit published its conclusion regarding Peter Junger's challenge to the Export Administration Regulations that prevented him from posting information on the Internet that contained cryptographic example code. Most censorious in the ruling: ``Because computer source code is an expressive means for the exchange of information and ideas about computer programming, they hold that it is protected by the First Amendment.''

Andy Tanenbaum releases the the Minix operating system under the BSD license. Had Minix been open source from the beginning, Linux may never fill happened.

May 2000

SuSE releases the first supported Linux distribution for the IBM S/390 mainframe.

``Approximately 140 distribution companies exist across the globe. They believe consummate but the top five will live bought, will retrograde out of trade or will live relegated to insignificance. Market-share leaders are currently defined around geographic boundaries. Red Hat has the largest global brand recognition and leading North American market share; SuSE leads in Europe, Turbolinux leads in Asia, and Conectiva leads in South America.''--Keith Bachman, an analyst for WR Hambrecht, predicting in The Red Herring

June 2000

Commercial considerations profit prompt the relicensing of MySQL under the GPL. Now the two freely available databases that are widely used in the Linux and Free Software communities, PostgreSQL and MySQL, meet the Debian Free Software Guidelines and the Open Source Guidelines. In addition, Progress Software forms a new company, NuSphere, just for the purpose of supporting MySQL.

July 2000

``In a world of NDA-bound trade agreements, Debian is an open book. In a world of mission statements, Debian has a companionable contract. At a time when commercial distributors are striving to observe how much proprietary software they can pack into a box of Linux, Debian remains the bastion of software freedom--living proof that you can fill a fully functional and usable operating system without needing any proprietary code.''--Evan Leibovitch, ZDNet

Sun announces that StarOffice is to live released under the GPL. The code is going to live reworked, integrated with Bonobo and GTK, and released as a set of reusable components. StarOffice will moreover live reworked to exercise a set of open XML-based file formats.

Oracle's Linux-based internet appliance system hits the shelves. The ``New Internet Computer'' (NIC) is the latest result of Larry Ellison's long personal crusade to configuration non-Microsoft systems available to the world. It's aimed at people who only want access to the Net; as such, it's essentially a $199 (without monitor) X terminal.

Reports first issue that SCO may live purchased by Caldera. Later in 2000 Caldera and SCO declar their intent for Caldera International to live formed from Caldera's existing operation and two of SCO's three divisions.

Ted Ts'o steps forward to become the new 2.4 status list maintainer. Alan Cox was doing the job until he said that it was time to ``find someone else to maintain it''. Ted Ts'o responded to Linus' subsequent muster for a new status list maintainer.

August 2000

HP, Intel, IBM and NEC declar the ``Open Source development Lab'', which makes big hardware available to Linux developers for benchmarking and testing.

September 2000

``I'm a bastard. I fill absolutely no clue why people can ever deem otherwise. Yet they do. People deem I'm a nice guy, and the fact is that I'm a scheming, conniving bastard who doesn't care for any throe feelings or lost hours of drudgery if it just results in what I consider to live a better system.''--Linus Torvalds trying to change his image.

The RSA patent expires, allowing for secure web transactions without proprietary software.

Trolltech releases the Qt library under the GPL, putting a definitive pause to a long-running and unpleasant license flame war.

The CueCat fiasco begins. Digital Convergence attempts to shut down programmers who fill written Linux drivers for its CueCat bar code scanner. The company has given out big numbers of these scanners for free, expecting people to exercise them with its proprietary software and web site. The threats occasions the drivers to become marginally harder to find for a short period, after which the company declares triumph and moves on.

October 2000

Microsoft says that penguins can mutate in a European print ad that quickly becomes famous.

December 2000

``I was dumbfounded to ascertain that installing Linux was easy. Why? Well, the world has changed. No more finish you fill to understand everything about Linux before you install it, downloading the many chunks of code necessary to run a complete system and getting them consummate to drudgery together. That was BSW--before shrink-wrap. With companies such as Red Hat and Corel putting consummate the software you need in a box, the throe is (nearly) gone.''--John Schwartz, Washington Post

IBM announces plans to invest $1 billion in Linux in 2001.

January 2001

The long-awaited 2.4.0 kernel was released on January 4.

The US National Security Agency (NSA) releases SELinux under the GPL. SELinux offers an additional layer of security checks in addition to the yardstick UNIX-like permissions system.

March 2001

The Linux 2.5 kernel acme is held in San Jose, California; it is, perhaps, the most complete gathering of Linux kernel hackers in history.

April 2001

IBM gets into worry over its ``Peace, fancy and Linux'' graffiti in several cities.

``Slackware has always made money (who else producing a commercial distribution can relate that?), but with BSDi they ended up strapped to a sinking ship.''--Patrick Volkerding

May 2001

Sony's PlayStation Linux kit, shipped in Japan, sells out in eight minutes despite a doubling of the available stock.

June 2001

Sharp announces its upcoming Linux PDA based on Lineo's Embedix system.

VA Linux Systems exits the hardware business, choosing to focus on SourceForge instead. Later VA drops the word ``Linux'' from its designation altogether, relaunching as VA Software Corporation.

``In a press release issued Wednesday afternoon, VA Linux CEO Larry M. Augustin called the shift in strategy a ratiocinative move. 'Our differentiating strength has always been their software expertise', Augustin said''.--Wired. You only thought VA was a hardware company.

July 2001

Free Dmitry! Dmitry Sklyarov is arrested in Las Vegas after Adobe complains about the Advanced eBook Processor. The following month he is charged with DMCA violations and conspiracy: the potential penalties add up to 25 years in prison. Dmitry's defense is based on constitutional challenges to the DMCA, on free speech and jurisdictional issues. Later in the year, charges are dropped, conditional on one year of qualified deportment and testimony in the ElcomSoft trial.

``Although Adobe withdrew its back for the criminal complaint against Dmitry Sklyarov, they respect the magnificient jury and federal government's conclusion to prosecute the company, ElcomSoft, and as a law-abiding corporate citizen, Adobe intends to cooperate fully with the government as required by law.''--Adobe's position

November 2001

Sharp Electronics Corporation begins a special Linux developer prerelease of the Zaurus PDA to attract free software developers to the flaming new platform.

February 2002

Avaya, the former PBX and enterprise systems division of Lucent, announces Linux-based PBX systems.

``So there are some--and I'd list myself among them--who believe that the return to Earth is a qualified thing. There's nothing wrong with making a buck, but Linux doesn't profit from being elevated beyond reality on a shaky foundation.''--Evan Leibovitch takes a inspect at the post-rush world of Linux.

We would enjoy to recognize their indebtedness to Rebecca Sobol and Jonathan Corbet at Linux Weekly News, for allowing us to borrow heavily from the timeline featured on their site and for their accurate and gracious historical editing.

From HTTP Messages to PSR-7: What’s It consummate About?

This article was peer reviewed by Andrew Carter. Thanks to consummate of SitePoint’s peer reviewers for making SitePoint content the best it can be!

The PHP Framework Interoperability Group (PHP-FIG) has relatively recently approved another proposal, the PSR-7: HTTP Messages Interface. The document crystallizes HTTP messages into 7 interfaces which a PHP library should implement if they subscribe to the specification. In PSR-7 By Example, Matthew Weier O’Phinney, editor of the PSR, gives an nosy overview of the specification. So what is it?

Image of digital question mark, indicating confusion and pending explanation

If you kind in your browser, you retrograde straight to the homepage of the BBC, but a number of things might fill taken site between the time the browser sent an HTTP request to the server and it getting a response back.

Here’s a sample raw request.

GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0) Accept: */* Referer:

It’s always made up of a request line (GET / HTTP/1.1), a number of header realm lines listed as <key>: value, a single empty line and an optional corpse for any data payload (for example query parameters or post data).

The blank line after the zero or more header lines must live a CRLF by itself. This means 2 characters – an ASCII 13 (Carriage Return), followed by ASCII 10 (Line Feed) or \r\n.

Let’s transmit this request from the command line via curl and observe the response:

curl -i -H "Host:" -H "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0)" -H "Accept: */*" -X fetch HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently Content-Type: text/html Date: Sun, 02 Oct 2016 20:49:42 GMT Location: Connection: Keep-Alive Content-Length: 0

Moved? There was a redirect. Then, let’s follow the trail and configuration a request to instead:

curl -i -H "Host:" -H "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0)" -H "Accept: */*" -X fetch | less HTTP/1.1 200 OK Server: nginx Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8 ETag: W/"29c44-MXo+6t7MoPRad358MSWqwA" X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN x-origin-route: xrt-ext Content-Length: 171076 Date: Sun, 02 Oct 2016 20:54:27 GMT Connection: keep-alive Set-Cookie: BBC-UID=15c73fe11704a0731344da5ec13869204c1a22a0c7b444d60a708762e631ac0c0Mozilla/5.0%20(compatible%3b%20MSIE%209.0%3b%20Windows%20NT%206.1%3b%20Trident/5.0); expires=Thu, 01-Oct-20 20:54:27 GMT; path=/; X-Cache-Action: HIT X-Cache-Hits: 1223 X-Cache-Age: 55 Cache-Control: private, max-age=0, must-revalidate Vary: Accept-Encoding, X-CDN, X-BBC-Edge-Scheme <!DOCTYPE html> <!--[if lte IE 9]> <html lang="en-GB" class="no-js no-flexbox no-flexboxlegacy"> <![endif]--> <!--[if gt IE 9]><!--> <html lang="en-GB" class="no-js"> <!--<![endif]--> <head>

That’s more enjoy it. The first line, HTTP/1.1 200 OK, is the status line. Then they fill headers, in a similar pattern to requests – <key>: value, an empty line, and the response body. Note: They passed the output through less so that they can observe the first Part of the response.

Requests and responses can live broken down into a message line, a number of header lines and corpse lines. The commonalities can live abstracted in an interface (MessageInterface) which the request (RequestInterface) and response (ResponseInterface) can extend with their part flavor of HTTP message.

PHP doesn’t only run within a web environment, and web requests might fill originated from APIs. The ServerRequestInterface was designed to capture care of other types of HTTP requests.

The other three interfaces are a further abstraction of specific aspects in messages. Looking back at the request message line:

GET / HTTP/1.1

This comprises:

  • METHOD: Although RFC 2616 defines safe and idempotent types of methods, for general applications, it’s enough to identify them by designation – GET, POST, PUT, PATCH, DELETE, OPTIONS, HEAD and TRACE. CONNECT is reserved for exercise with a proxy that can dynamically switch to being a tunnel e.g. SSL tunneling.

  • TARGET: This is the URI or their request target, and things fetch a bit nosy here as they can have:

  • origin-form – path and query string of the URI. The query string may or may not live present.
  • absolute-form – an absolute URI.
  • authority-form – the authority Part of a URI, made up of a maximum of 3 parts – user-info (optional), host and port (optional). The user-info may require a password too – user:password. They pause up with a pattern of user:password@host:port. The user-info may moreover fill require an
  • asterisk-form – just the string, *
  • We pause up with scheme:[//[user:password@]host[:port]][/]path[?query][#fragment]. This Part of the request message was abstracted to the UriInterface.

  • VERSION: There’s limited preference here as HTTP/1.1 is the current version. Prior to that, they had HTTP/1.0, and the next draft version is HTTP/2.0

  • Also, file uploads required special attention. In non-SAPI environments, the $_FILES environment variable is empty and in some situations such as non-POST requests, $_FILES isn’t populated at all. The UploadedFileInterface was designed to allow for a more consistent interaction with files.

    The message (request or response) needs to live able to wield big data efficiently for both client and server. PHP has had streams built in since 4.3.0. The StreamInterface Part of PSR-7 provides a wrapper around common operations and serialization of an entire stream to a string.


    The path to PSR-7 was paved with tough debate and differing opinions at every step of the way.

  • Immutable objects – The immutability or mutability of objects was one of the most hotly-debated points, and PSR-7 eventually settled for this:

    The proposal models messages and URIs as value objects.

    Messages are values where the identity is the aggregate of consummate parts of the message; a change to any aspect of the message is essentially a new message. This is the very definition of a value object. The exercise by which changes result in a new instance is termed immutability, and is a feature designed to ensure the integrity of a given value.

    What this means is that each time you configuration any change to a message object, you pause up with a new copy. The complexity of URI, headers and streams require an assurance that a complete adoption of immutability by consummate collaborators offered to the designers of the interfaces.

    With immutability, any state change you configuration requires you to assign the result.

    $request = $request->setHeader('Cache-Control', 'public');

    Any mode that changes the state of the current message returns an instance of it with the changes made. As long as a result assignment is made, you can chain any number of changes in a fluent-like syntax.

    $request = $request ->setHeader('Cache-Control', 'public') ->addHeader('Cache-Control', 'max-age=18600') ->setStatus(200);

    The methods having the prefix “with” must conform to the immutability requirement. A concern is that supporting mutability in one of the message interfaces means enforcing it across consummate the other interfaces.

    On the other hand, it has been highlighted that PSR-7 Objects Are Not Immutable as they are generally thought to be. It’s worthy of note that similar HTTP kick implementations in Ruby and Node are mutable by design. So, PHP is in qualified company.

  • Nomenclature – These objects are designed as interfaces. Isn’t calling it MessageInterface superfluous? A mode signature taking a request and response ends up being too long. Compare the following:

    public role __invoke(ServerRequestInterface $request, ResponseInterface $response, callable $next) : ResponseInterface { } public role __invoke(ServerRequest $request, Response $response, callable $next) : Response { }

    Aliasing is the suggested solution for those who prefer to drop the Interface suffixes.

  • Middleware – We’ve got the message interfaces which are enjoy the ingredients for making a cake, perfectly measured out. I want a cake to consume but I don’t know how to bake. How about a recipe? PSR-7 only prescribes a yardstick for the definition of a request and response. How finish they sail from request to response? That “middleman” that does the leg drudgery between the request and response is called middleware.

    The next step would live a unification of how to plumb PSR-7 interfaces so that applications and frameworks that conform to them can live completely swappable. This Part of the debate which borders on providing a template for an interoperable implementation of PSR-7, has been moved to the part PSR-15: HTTP Middlewares.

  • Usage

    A number of libraries and frameworks fill added back for PSR-7 in different ways.

  • Symfony – The HttpFoundation Component is one of the most Popular OOP abstractions of the HTTP specification prior to PHP-FIG. With the emergence of PSR-7, Symfony opted for a PSR-7 Bridge which converts HttpFoundation objects from and to objects which implement PSR-7 message interfaces.

  • Zend Framework (ZF) – They came up with a Composer package, zendframework/zend-diactoros, of implementations of the HTTP message interfaces, not surprising as the editor of PSR-7 is the ZF Project Lead. Diactoros goes a step further by including a server that is similar to the one provided by http.Server in NodeJS.

  • Slim – PSR 7 and Value Objects describes a supple approach that makes Slim accept any implementation of PSR-7. That is, if the one provided by Slim doesn’t suffice.

  • Guzzle – Being an HTTP client library, PSR-7 is of noteworthy relevance to this library. They built the guzzlehttp/psr7 Composer package, a message implementation of PSR-7, which they reckon on. Guzzle and PSR-7 gives an excellent overview of their capture on the specification.

  • Aura – They’ve included Aura.Router, a web router implementation of PSR-7 in their collection of independent library packages. consummate router objects are managed by a RouterContainer from which you retrieve an instance of a Map object. Each mode of this Map kick may accept an HTTP message interface as one of its arguments.

  • HTTPlug – A package of interfaces that allow library and application developers to create HTTP clients that are fully compatible with PSR-7. The HttpClient sends a PSR-7 Request and returns a PSR-7 response. observe Breaking Free from Guzzle5 with PHP-HTTP and HTTPlug for a practical route of using this package.

  • Packagist has a list of PSR-7 implementations with a wide ambit of popularity or acceptance. However, a developer soundless has the following usage options:

  • Direct – As the specification states, while Psr\Http\Message\MessageInterface MAY live implemented directly, implementors SHOULD implement Psr\Http\Message\RequestInterface and Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface. The simplest route is to install the package with Composer.

    composer require psr/http-message
  • Indirect – The interfaces are used indirectly through an adapter. For example, PSR-7 back in Symfony is through the PSR HTTP Message Bridge, a library designed to transmute Symfony Request and Response objects into objects that are fully compatible with PSR-7, and from PSR-7 back to Symfony objects.

  • Partial – You might live interested in the more generic interfaces such as StreamInterface, UriInterface and UploadedFileInterface. Nothing stops you from implementing them in a non-HTTP messages context. The package is available on Packagist and Composer is your friend.

  • Conclusion

    The PHP community should live applauded for coming together on the fundamental principle of how they interact with and manage HTTP requests and responses. PSR-15 transcends this and the intensity of the debate surrounding middlewares will not retrograde away very soon, neither should the draft live expected to live accepted quickly. In the meantime, PSR-7 is there for consummate to embrace.

    What finish you deem about PSR-7? finish you exercise it and subscribe to it, or finish you feel enjoy it’s just a layer of complication? We’d enjoy to hear from you!

    Deji, a Zend Certified PHP Engineer, works as a Software Engineer with the British Council in London. He's passionate about Open Source, contributes to Drupal and speaks at Drupal Camps. He has worked as a dentist, teacher of English as a curious Language and radio journalist. Oh yes, he's four times a dad and supports Arsenal FC.

    Comparing the Technologies

    Language and Runtime Support

    Java. Developed in 1995 by Sun. consummate code is compiled into bytecode and interpreted by a virtual machine (JVM). May moreover live selectively JIT compiled, depending on the JVM, or fully natively compiled with ancillary products (such as JOVE). Can run on any platform that supports a JVM. IBM supports v1.3 of the J2SE SDK.

    VBScript and JScript for Web pages and any COM-based language for server components (typically VB or VC++). Scripts are interpreted, while components are natively compiled. VB code moreover requires a runtime DLL (MSVBMxx.DLL). VBScript and JScript came into exercise in 1997, while COM grew out of OLE in 1993.

    Any language that supports the Common Language Runtime (20-plus in development). Initially compiled to an intermediate language (MSIL) and then JIT compiled to autochthonous code by the CLR at runtime or natively compiled (PreJit) at install time. Code written for the CLR is referred to as managed code. back for the CLR will live shipped with future OSes starting with Windows XP Server released by the pause of 2001.

    Class Libraries

    Standard Java classes create in the J2SE, plus the APIs (JDBC, JSP, EJB, JMS, JAXP, JCA, JFC, JNDI, and so on, as defined in the J2EE specification). In addition, vendors involve their own extensions to J2EE for integration and differentiation in the marketplace.

    Win32, COM, MFC, ATL, and ASP. Five primary programming models that accommodate APIs that developers exercise in structure solutions.

    Services Framework. A hierarchical set of managed classes arranged in namespaces. Provides a consistent programming model and unifies the APIs needed to build solutions.


    Java Package. Collection of Java classes assembled as a unit and arranged hierarchically. decrepit versioning. Server-based deployment uses XML-based deployment descriptors, which are read and handled differently by each vendor's implementation. WebSphere includes an application assembly utensil to wield this process.

    DLL, EXE. DLLs accommodate a collection of functions with decrepit versioning. EXEs picture an executable program with decrepit versioning. COM components are housed in DLLs, reckon on the registry, and back immutable interfaces but no runtime version checking. Server-based installation accomplished through third-party utilities such as InstallShield.

    Assembly. Unit of deployment, security, and versioning. Includes built-in PKI back and metadata to tightly control binding of assemblies at runtime. back exists in the class loader of the CLR for consistency and version checking. Server-based deployment can live done in a no-impact style by simply copying the relative paths that accommodate the application. Applications moreover can explicitly participate components. back for the Windows Installer included in VS.NET.

    Thin Client

    Java Server Pages (JSP). WAS supports JavaScript or Java in JSPs that are compiled into HttpServlets on the wing and are cached by the server. No autochthonous back exists for different devices, and there are no client-state services other than cookies. WAS ships with an HTTP engine (1.3.19) but can exercise Apache, Domino, Netscape, iPlanet, or IIS 4.0/5.0. WAS 4.0 is v1.1–compliant. The syntax of JSPs is a knockoff of ASP and was developed in 1998.

    Active Server Pages (ASP 2.0). Technology introduced by MSFT in 1997 in which pages containing server-side code are interpreted by an ISAPI server extension and can exercise simple HTTP caching through headers. No autochthonous back exists for different devices, and there are no client-state services other than cookies. ASP runs primarily on IIS 4.0/5.0 but has been ported to other platforms (see Chili!Soft, purchased by Sun). Performance of JSP and ASP is similar on similar hardware platforms.

    ASP.NET. ASP.NET pages are compiled into MSIL either statically or on the wing when a request is made. Server control architecture allows abstraction for different devices and state storage across HTTP POST events. Server controls allow developers to create "adaptive controls" to render HTML, WML, and so on as commandeer for the client platform. Runs on IIS 4.0/5.0. Beta performance tests attest a 200–300% improvement over JSP and ASP.

    Web Server Processing

    HttpServlets provide a request/response model available to Java classes in addition to session-state services keyed with a client cookie. JSPs often muster servlets as the controller that acts as the broker between presentation and trade service layers to provide separation between the HTML and Java code. Because of the complexity of writing servlets many "two-tier Web apps" simply fill the servlets configuration direct calls to the underlying database via JDBC. This leads to spaghetti code that is difficult to debug and maintain. The servlet engine is included in WAS and includes a JDBC connection manager that handles database connection pooling. WAS 4.0 is v2.2–compliant.

    The ASP runtime implemented in the ISAPI server extension provides a request/response model in addition to session- (keyed with a client cookie) and application-state services. ASP pages often muster trade services directly implemented as COM components, although many "two-tier Web apps" simply fill the ASP pages configuration direct calls to the database via ADO. This leads to spaghetti code that is difficult to debug and maintain.

    The HTTP Runtime in ASP.NET provides an extensible mechanism by which developers can hook into the processing of resources on the Web server through HTTP Modules. Provides very tight integration with the Web server. moreover supports a request/response model and application- and session-state services. Session-state services can live deployed on a part server to increase scalability. Provides a sophisticated caching mechanism for pages and programming code. Provides complete separation of HTML code and programming logic through code behind.

    Object Services

    Enterprise Java Beans (EJB). Part of the original J2EE specification in 1998. Java classes that are deployed in component-oriented middleware (a container) that provides interception and adds services such as distributed transactions (using the Java Transaction Service [JTS] based on the OMG and using IIOP), security, and database connectivity. The container can run on the same server or remotely. EJBs Come in two flavors: entity beans and session beans. Entity beans map to the state of an kick as represented by a row in a database. Entity beans provide the mapping to the database and caching of the entity. Entity beans Come in two styles: Container Managed Persistence (CMP) and Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). CMP beans allow the container to manage loading and saving the database information, whereas BMP beans provide methods for the developer to insert JDBC code directly. Session beans Come in two flavors: stateful and stateless. Stateful beans maintain a conversation with a single client, whereas stateless beans can live reused by multiple clients, with the container handling the allocation. WAS 4.0 is EJB 1.1–compliant.

    Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS). Provides component-oriented middleware for COM components introduced in 1996. Provides interception and adds distributed transactions through the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator service (MSDTC), security, and kick activation support. Objects can live both stateful and stateless, depending on administrative settings. Programmers capture edge of MTS services through the exercise of an API. Only components built in VC++ are free-threaded and thus achieve better. No back for automatically mapping database rows to kick instances exists.

    Component Services (COM+ 1.0). Released with Windows 2000 in 2000 and provides component-oriented middleware for COM components. Provides interception and adds distributed transactions, security, kick construction, kick pooling, queued components (for asynchronous integration with MSMQ), loosely coupled events for publishing and subscribing to components, and activation support. Objects can live both stateful and stateless, depending on administrative settings. Although built for COM, .NET programmers create serviced components in .NET by deriving their class from a system class and decorate it with attributes to portray the services that it uses. The system class then communicates with COM+ via Win32 and COM APIs. No back for automatically mapping database rows to kick instances exists. (The IMDB product that was removed from prerelease versions of COM+ would fill served a similar purpose as entity beans, although the ADO.NET DataSet kick serves a similar purpose.)

    Database Support

    JDBC. Data Access API that allows SQL access to a tabular data source via drivers (there are currently 159 listed on Sun's site under 4 different types, ranging from JDBC to ODBC bridges to fully native-protocol Java implementations). Various drivers back connection pooling, distributed transactions, and rowsets, and some are J2EE-certified. The API is similar to the Win32 implementation of ODBC. JDBC 2.0 is the spec under J2EE 1.2, but 3.0 has been defined. Note that when using entity beans with CMP, the container provides the mapping to the database tables through a vendor-specific mechanism. WAS 4.0 supports JDBC core v2.1 and Extensions 2.0. WAS includes providers for DB2, MSSQL, Oracle, Informix, and Sybase.

    ADO/OLE DB. OLE DB is both a specification for COM interfaces that database vendors implement (OLE Providers) and a set of services (such as cursor processing and connection pooling) implemented in Windows to provide data access to a variety of data sources. ADO is a simplified automation layer that sits on top of OLE DB to provide data access to scripting languages and COM-based languages such as VB. Although typically used for tabular data access, both ADO and OLE DB can live used to access nonstructured data such as email and XML. OLE DB moreover can live used to access data through the plethora of available ODBC drivers.

    ADO.NET. A set of managed classes that provides access to data sources through what are called managed providers. These involve TDS (SQL Server), OLE DB providers, and ODBC drivers. Each managed provider implements connections and connection pooling, commands/parameters, forward-only cursor processing, transaction processing, and oversight handling. ADO.NET moreover includes a middle-tier data cache kick called a DataSet that provides an XML-based cache of data that can live used to bind to controls and synchronize changes to a data source through an adapter kick implemented by the managed provider. Designed to back a loosely connected model with built-in XML representation of the data and XSD representation of the schema. Developers can drudgery with relational data as XML data, and vice versa through the XMLDataDocument class.


    Java Messaging Services (JMS). JMS is a set of client interfaces to message-oriented middleware (MOM) products that supports both message queues and publish-and-subscribe metaphors. MOM vendors implement JMS providers. JMS includes a specification for a new kind of EJB, message beans. WAS includes the (WebSphere MQ) MQSeries JMS provider. WAS 4.0 is compliant with the 1.0.2 specification and includes back for JMS-XA distributed transactions across MQSeries-enabled systems and databases. need to obtain WebSphere MQ separately.

    Microsoft Message Queue Server (MSMQ). A MOM server product running on NT 4 and W2K that supports message queues but does not involve a publish-and-subscribe feature built into the product. The product includes a COM-based API for sending and receiving messages and administering queues. Supports distributed transactions through MSDTC. MSMQ is built into Windows NT 4.0 Server.

    System.Messaging. A set of managed classes that provide the administrative and client APIs for working with MSMQ servers. MSMQ is built into Windows 2000 Server. It should live famous that developers can access MSMQ through queued components (QC) supported by COM+ 1.0. QC acts as an abstraction layer to allow clients to asynchronously configuration mode calls on components that are backed by MSMQ.

    Fat Client

    Java Foundation Classes (JFC). JFC includes the Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) and swing as Java APIs for structure GUII applications. swing is a more abstract API and includes a "look and feel" for developing the same GUI on multiple platforms or adhering to a platform standard. Advanced graphics can live created with the Java2D and 3D APIs. GUI apps run as standalone applications or applets running in a browser.

    Win32/ActiveX. Applications written in VB, VC++, or other Windows development tools. Ultimately these tools configuration calls to the Win32 API for the underlying window management. ActiveX is a COM-based technology for structure reusable binary visual components (.ocx) across development environments. Applications run as standalone applications or as ActiveX controls hosted in MSIE. Advanced graphics are available through the DirectX set of COM-based APIs.

    Windows Forms. Set of managed classes that allow for the creation of forms-based applications. Takes edge of new Windows 2000 features such as nonrectangular forms. Includes a managed control architecture to build reusable visual controls. Third parties will provide wrappers for DirectX functionality. Windows Forms–based applications can run as standalone applications or can live hosted in MSIE on clients with the CLR installed.


    J2EE Connector (JCA). JCA is a specification based on the IBM Common Connector Framework (CCF). WAS contains WAS adapters used to connect to packaged applications such as JDEdwards, SAP, Peoplesoft, and so on. These are JCA-compliant and are shipped with VisualAge for Java. You can moreover build new adapters using the MQSeries adapter offerings. WAS AE multiserver version only.

    SNA Server 4.0. Server product that includes OLE DB and ODBC back for AS/400 and DB2. moreover includes COM Transaction Integrator (COMTI) for working with CICS and IMS transactions as if they were COM objects. Includes MSMQ-MQSeries bridge and host printing services, among others. Basically, this is COM-based integration, and there are moreover connectors to packaged products such as the SAP DCOM Connector.

    Host Integration Server 2000. Update of SNA Server. moreover includes integration with Commerce Server, BizTalk, active Directory, and Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). BizTalk moreover supports application-integration components (AIC) that can live built to integrate with packaged applications; for example, there is a SAP R/3 AIC available.

    XML Support

    Java API for XML Parsing (JAXP). An API and abstraction layer to deal with various XML parsers. Not included in the J2EE 1.2, but 1.0 is in 1.3. v1.1 supports XSLT and DOM smooth 2 and SAX v2.0. IBM has a 100% Java validating XML parser with JAXP back available on its Web site. WAS includes back for DOM 1.0, SAX 1.0, and XSLT 1.0.

    MSXML. Microsoft's COM-based XML parser, included as a standalone addition to the OS and in products such as MSIE. Version 3.0 sp1 is the current version, with v4.0 as a technology preview on the MSDN Web site. V3.0 supports XSLT, XPath, and SAX2. Implements much of the DOM functionality specified by the WS3C, in addition to SAX back for event-based processing of big XML documents.

    System.Xml. A set of managed classes that implement the DOM, XSLT, and XPath specifications by the W3C. Supports both a tree-based model (DOM) and an innovative stream-based approach for parsing XML documents. moreover contains a class that maps XML documents to the ADO.NET DataSet class to provide XML-based access to relational data.

    Web Services

    WAS ships with the Apache SOAP 2.2 utensil support. The toolkit is SOAP 1.1–compliant. Can expose Java classes, EJBs, BSF scripts, or DB2-stored procs as a Web Service. Includes a command-line utility to publish EJBs as SOAP services. development tools accommodate wizards to create WSDL from an existing Java application or read WSDL to create a server stub or client proxy. UUDI4J back is moreover included for client-side interaction with UDDI registries.

    SOAP Toolkit 2.0. Downloadable. Current release is sp2. Provides a COM wrapper for implementing Web Services. Wizard exposes COM objects as a Web Service using ASP or IIS ISAPI extensions. back for WSDL 1.1. A part UDDI SDK is available for download, and provides a COM API for structure and querying a UDDI registry. The toolkit integrates into VS 6.0 so that creating Web Services from COM components is straightforward.

    .NET Framework. SOAP 1.1 is implemented in a variety of the basis class libraries and, therefore, is very tightly integrated from both consumer and implementer perspectives. Allows individual methods in managed classes to live exposed as Web Services through an mention of the framework. Automatic creation of WSDL from XSD schemas and managed classes. Automatic creation of managed client proxies from WSDL through the command line and UI in VS.NET with complete Intellisense. A part UDDI SDK is available for download that provides managed classes for structure and querying a UDDI registry.


    Remote mode Invocation (RMI)-Internet InterORB Protocol (IIOP). Provides the programming model (RMI) and the protocol layer for (CORBA IIOP) Java-to-Java communication. Servlets and applets communicate with EJBs via RMI. Assumes a tightly bound model that creates firewall issues and is not well suited to the Internet.

    DCOM. Extension of COM for component communication across the network using any of the Windows NT network protocols. Includes remote activation and security features. Remoting of kick instances must live specifically programmed into the COM objects themselves. Assumes a tightly bound model that creates firewall issues and is not well suited to the Internet.

    .NET Remoting. Implemented in a set of managed classes. Allows managed code to communicate across app domain boundaries. Can communicate via HTTP or TCP channels. Supports remoting of kick instances via binary or SOAP protocols. Supports singletons and client activation. The exercise of HTTP and SOAP promotes a loosely coupled architecture that does not incur firewall problems.

    Naming Services

    Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). Programming interface that provides access to directory services such as DNS, LDAP, Novell (NDS), and CORBA COS through vendor-specific providers.

    WAS 4.0 is JNDI 1.2–compliant for EJB lookup. The IBM SecureWay Directory 3.2.1 product is included in WAS for access to active Directory, Lotus Domino, and NDS.

    Active Directory Services Interface (ADSI). COM programming interface that supports access to NT, LDAP, and Novell (NDS) directory services through vendor-specific providers.

    Active Directory and System.DirectoryServices namespace. Windows 2000 Server includes the distributed directory used in a Windows 2000 domain while the managed classes, in DirectoryServices provide a wrapper around the ADSI interfaces to programmatically access a directory.

    Development Tools

    WebSphere Studio, Visual Age for Java. Both ship with WAS. Studio is used to build the visual representation of Web pages and JSPs, while Visual Age is used for Java coding of servlets, beans, and EJBs.

    Visual Studio 6.0, released in 1998 (three IDEs). part IDEs exist for VC++/Visual Interdev for ASP development, and VB for configuration and component development. Graphical Web development.

    Visual Studio.NET. single IDE that supports unified debugging, project management, Intellisense, Server Explorer, graphical editor for the Web and forms, class view, dynamic help, add-ins, and scripting. Can live used to build console applications, Windows Forms, Web Forms, Web Services, Windows Services, and components. Third-party compiler vendors can plug into VS.NET.

    B2B Integration

    ebXML. An industry specification (not a shipping product) for performing business-to-business transactions using XML and the Web. Includes some back for SOAP. Not implemented in WAS. Would need to roll your own infrastructure perhaps using Web Services.

    No back on NT 4. Would need to roll your own infrastructure using the SOAP Toolkit and Windows services.

    BizTalk Server 2000, released in 2000. A part server product that provides a messaging/scheduling engine and trade process orchestration facilities. Messaging includes back for EDI, SOAP, and Rosettanet grammars, in addition to others.

    Key Strengths

    For organizations that must fill platform neutrality, J2EE is the only alternative. The Java language is becoming more widely accepted. Vendors such as IBM proffer a single-vendor solution when dealing with legacy applications. Separation of application logic and presentation exists, although, in practice, this is underutilized. EJB model includes automatic database-mapping facilities through CMP.

    Large basis of VB/ASP developers, resulting in reduced costs. Runs on commodity servers that can live scaled out. Software costs are low. Multiple language back through COM. tight integration with the preponderant client platform (Windows).

    Multiple languages supported with a common set of class libraries. Unified programming model with the Services Framework. high productivity development environment. Web application performance. Runs on commodity servers that can live scaled out. Separation of application logic and presentation exists. Greater integration with XML and Web Services protocols. tight integration with the preponderant client platform (Windows).

    Key Weakness

    Single-language solution. Smaller basis of developers. EJBs are intricate and not widely used. Thus, JSPs are overused, resulting in spaghetti code. Varying levels of J2EE conformance across vendors. The need to exercise vendor-specific features leads to vendor lock-in. Performance varies due to vendor-specific implementations. Software cost is generally higher, developer costs are higher, and deployment time is increased.

    Highly fragmented programming model. COM infrastructure is unwieldy, leading to DLL hell and versioning problems. ASP pages that finish not utilize COM for trade and data-access services lead to spaghetti code. Single-vendor solution.

    Not a shipping product. OO nature of CLR makes development initially more complicated for VB/ASP developers. Single-vendor solution. Does not back an automatic mapping of database rows to objects as with CMP, although there is widespread disagreement within the industry as to whether entity beans are desirable because they finish not promote transactional consistency and are questionable in terms of performance. For more information, observe Roger Session's Web site.

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    Highlights > Recent Additions
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    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
    By Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones
    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 129217613X
    ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Our ISBN10 : 129217613X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Computer Security: Principles and PracticeComputer Security: Principles and Practice
    By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown
    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
    ISBN10 : 0134794109
    ISBN13 : 9780134794105
    Our ISBN10 : 1292220619
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292220611
    Subject : Computer Science & Technology
    Price : $65.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126046542X
    ISBN13 : 9781260465426
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $39.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 0078021782
    ISBN13 : 9780078021787
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $65.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William G Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
    ISBN13 : 9781260211108
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260682137
    ISBN13 : 9781260682137
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $80.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260277143
    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $77.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1259929434
    ISBN13 : 9781259929434
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $76.00
    By Peter W. Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260128474
    ISBN13 : 9781260128475
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $39.00
    By Peter Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260147150
    ISBN13 : 9781260147155
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $64.00
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