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Oracle's recent release of three original trade extensions to the MySQL database has led to an outcry amongst some in the MySQL neighborhood. Some, including mission founder Michael "Monty" Widenius, are concerned that Oracle, with the aid of affecting to an "open core" model, will slowly plod more and more of the database task to commercially licensed code—and to licensing phrases that create it elaborate for users to escape.
Ulf Sandberg, CEO of SkySQL, a year-ancient enterprise made up mostly of former MySQL AB personnel that presents a subscription-based aid for enterprise MySQL users that competes with Oracle's, believes Oracle hazards chopping itself off from the community by artery of taking greater of the venture to a commercial mannequin. "We suppose they may in fact 'fork' themselves," Sandberg tells Ars, as the MySQL user base resists signing on for Oracle's greater laborious licensing and strikes faraway from MySQL commercial enterprise towards alternative releases.
The MySQL group, probably the most underpinnings of the open-supply LAMP construction platform, has already spawned a couple of forked-off tasks, together with: Drizzle, a light-weight MySQL selection derived the now-deleted MySQL 6.0 development tree by means of a team led by former MySQL director of architecture Brian Aker; Percona Server , a excessive-efficiency edition of MySQL in keeping with the XtraDB engine, maintained by means of former MySQL efficiency engineer Peter Zaitsev's Percona; and MariaDB, a fork of MySQL 5.1 pushed through Widenius' Monty application Ab that may use the XtraDB or InnoDB storage engines.
each the Percona Server and MariaDB tasks try to cleave closely to MySQL Enteprise's points to maintain compatibility. but as Oracle introduces more trade code into the MySQL trade subscription version, it'll become increasingly problematic to preserve compatibility characteristic-to-characteristic.
The trade licensing vogue bar not one started smartly earlier than Oracle received MySQL along with the relaxation of sun Microsystems, as did the MySQL diaspora. sun made the resolution to unlock MySQL commercial enterprise Backup and future original points as industrial code in 2008, a plod that created an analogous uproar among sectors of the MySQL group. Two industrial extensions, MySQL enterprise Backup and MySQL commercial enterprise video display, had been already fragment of Oracle's MySQL trade 5.5 subscription edition. And Oracle's original MySQL enterprise extensions Do not find rid of anything from the latest MySQL open-supply code. but the original extensions cover areas that reduce closer to core database performance: scalability, immoderate availability and security.
And in response to Widenius, probably the most performance of the extensions import on code that become contributed from outside Oracle. "The thread pool turned into at first developed by artery of Ebay for MySQL 5.0 and contributed to MySQL to exist include in MySQL 5.1," Widenius wrote on his weblog. "the brand original pluggable authentication, which makes the brand original PAM authentication feasible, changed into developed and contributed to Oracle through Sergei Golubchik at Monty software Ab."
There are other pitfalls to the brand original extensions. the brand original MySQL commercial enterprise immoderate Availability extension presents two options: windows Server Failover Clustering, or digital desktop-based failover in accordance with Oracle VM and Oracle Linux. Oracle does not guide excessive-availability facets on purple Hat Linux.
The outrage over Oracle's stream is rarely established. Guissepe Maxia, former MySQL group manager, blogged in assist of Oracle's move, announcing that the commercial extensions would assist pay the bills to fund further construction of MySQL, and that he encouraged giving paying purchasers features not purchasable to the community whereas he become still at MySQL and in consequence at solar. a fragment of the judgement it hadn't been carried out previous, he contended, was that MySQL AB lacked the exceptional assurance group internally to exist capable of unencumber "reserved features" to subscription-holders, and needed to dependence on the neighborhood to verify code.
but Oracle has additionally raised the bar for paid guide within the technique. in the ultimate yr, Oracle dropped the $599-a-12 months fundamental assist alternative for industrial support, raising the entry stage to $2000 a yr per server for MySQL common version. That, combined with issues about the licensing necessities for the trade software, might besides foster to exist assisting option aid subscription suppliers fondness Percona and SkySQL.
"this is Oracle being Oracle, and there's nothing wrong with being Oracle," mentioned Sandberg. "but it surely leaves a lot of shoppers sad. They definitely cannot justify why you can elevate the costs up drastically if you beget the identical product. it really is how they find lots of business." SkySQL, which is simply reaching the conclusion of its first fiscal yr, has over 150 company consumers signed up up to now.
At OSCON in 2006, I followed classes that mentioned how open source organizations would fare when massive companies foster in. lower back then there beget been best a handful of examples of great companies procuring tiny open source agencies. Three years later, we’ve witnessed MySQL AB find swallowed through solar, most efficacious to beget sun exist swallowed by means of Oracle. Now there are extra open questions than ever and as a minimum three models of MySQL which are jockeying to continue the MySQL blood-line. the previous day I attended talks by two of those agencies and that i must claim yourself how the MySQL video game will play itself out over time.
the first converse I attended changed into: “Drizzle: repute, ideas, and Ecosystem” the location a few Drizzle developers shared their recommendations about this mission. Brian Aker forked MySQL to create Drizzle a year in the past with the premise to create a original database that turned into leaner and greater extensible by using a micro kernel and plugin mannequin. The existing MySQL codebase had grown overly advanced after a number of elements beget been “hacked in” which made including extra elements overly complex.
The drizzle crew, which has a couple of builders backed with the aid of solar, looks very plenty worried in regards to the technical nature of their assignment. As in most open supply projects the builders gawk less concerned with politics and groups and extra with creating a kick-ass database. i tried to claim a number of inquiries to behold the location they account that MySQL, Drizzle and MariaDB beget been headed, but mostly the questions beget been not answered — they reiterated the focal point on technical excellence. other than having earnest corporate support, Drizzle appears to exist pushed by artery of traditional open source ideas. This makes me satisfied, because the future of both MySQL and Drizzle are unclear on the grounds that Oracle just purchased sun. Given the focus on open supply principles, I’m positive the Drizzle would not plod away should Oracle pick to cease aiding the crew.
The second session become: “MariaDB: neighborhood pushed SQL Server” which presented Monty’s (of MySQL AB fame) original enterprise Monty software AB. unlike the Drizzle neighborhood, Monty’s original trade has limpid corporate desires, comprehensive with fluff and advertising and marketing speak. the original enterprise’s fork of MySQL, MariaDB, aims to exist one hundred% suitable with the customary MySQL. Its designed to exist one hundred% drop in substitute that goes even so far as letting people who are certified on MySQL follow their edge to MariaDB. however Monty software AB differs in just a few facets from the common MySQL AB, it basically looks to comply with a reasonably identical mannequin.
The people working on the fashioned MySQL beget been not too smartly represented here at OSCON. not fondness Drizzle and MariaDB, MySQL is shrouded in doubt on account that no one know what Oracle plans to Do with MySQL. on account that it MySQL can cannibalize (and possibly already has) Oracle’s flagship product, the future of MySQL is terribly unclear. The mindshare at OSCON obviously belongs to MariaDB and to Drizzle.
Returning again to my original factor now, they can behold that the acquisition of MySQL AB by artery of sun hasn’t worked out at bar not one how everyone had hoped. many of the fears raised by my blog post from three years in the past beget manifested in this mess. After MySQL grew to become a solar property, the best of MySQL started to undergo, together with releasing a edition of MySQL that had earnest primary bugs. This had under no circumstances happened earlier than and sent a transparent signal that now not bar not one changed into neatly with MySQL. And the neighborhood had a lot of frustrations with sun as sun slowed or stopped accepting patches. Even vital businesses fondness Google had stern patches to MySQL unnoticed. certainly the system had damaged down.
today they locate ourselves with at least three types of MySQL that every one beget differing dreams, yet pledge to partake code with one an extra. Some may exist suitable with each and every different, some ruin original floor. The one issue they exist awake of for inevitable that nothing in this game is certain. except Oracle makes an announcement in regards to the future of MySQL nothing could exist clear.
I find it really spellbinding that each Drizzle and MariaDB beget again MySQL to fundamental open supply roots. Neither group goes to require fancy licenses or copyright agreements and will totally depend on the usage of the GPL. Drizzle is devoid of a industrial mannequin in the intervening time and even Monty software AB will seem fondness a extra “classic” open supply company.
Amidst this doubt the only issue that is apparent to me is that the MariaDB and the Drizzle communities don't seem to exist expecting anything — they're working on original enhancing their tasks as swiftly as they can. I in my view account that Drizzle gifts the most unique approach to saving MySQL — it sounds just fondness the codebase essential a earnest overhaul in an effort to ruin some edifice bottlenecks and to enable extra americans to foster and participate in the edifice process.
however I’ve switched to Postgres many moons in the past, I’m completely excited by what's at present happening with MySQL. The latest hobbies in this house are things that they mentioned three years ago with the conclusion of “This can exist exciting to monitor!” indeed, it’s exciting to keep — I feel we’ll exist talking about this condition for rather a while to come. Oh, and MySQL clients: fret now not — you’re going to exist the winners in this whole debacle!
Attendees at the open source database's annual builders' conference in Santa Clara this morning are waking as much as the superb information that their personal product, whose value to solar Microsystems turned into to beget been lauded by not one other than sun co-founder Andreas von Bechtolsheim in a keynote address scheduled for Thursday, is now owned via Oracle methods.
The preliminary price of MySQL to Oracle -- up except this morning, its largest competitor -- turned into obtrusive via its absence from this morning's joint press convention featuring sun and Oracle executives. sun CEO Jonathan Schwartz mentioned MySQL along with OpenOffice as fragment of what he now calls the world's largest agency for open source utility. except Oracle's SEC filings are made public, they might not comprehend whether MySQL even factored into its valuation of sun.
LinuxQuestions.org editor Jeremy had, smartly, Linux questions this morning after the information became introduced: "With a august deal of sun's salary coming from hardware, will [Oracle] spin that division off or use it to headquarters of attention more on an entire Oracle stack, that includes every itsy-bitsy thing from hardware to database?" Jeremy wrote. "relocating to the individual elements of that stack, will Oracle proceed with the SPARC CPU line or exist attracted to the extra commodity x86 traces? on the OS level, will Oracle proceed to focal point on Linux and their Unbreakable implementation or will they try to hold Solaris alive? Oracle has been contributing to Linux in a major manner lately, and it could exist an vast loss for that to plod away."
unbiased analyst and Betanews contributor Carmi Levy believes the deal might enable some intriguing opportunities for Oracle, which up to now has had greater hardship breaking into the reduce sojourn of the database market. There, MySQL suggestions among open source clients, and Microsoft SQL Server has had a stronghold among the many industrial set.
"This considering extends into the lessen conclusion of the market as well, given how the solar acquisition offers Oracle entry to MySQL," Levy informed Betanews. "whereas no person could ever rightfully title that MySQL threatens Oracle's bigger-end database choices, its addition to the portfolio offers Oracle extra leverage in a market with colossal increase talents. The MySQL installed base of about 11 million gives Oracle earnings teams prolific probability to beget conversations they beget not previously had."
however MySQL's aid base is comprised in giant half through impartial builders, and that's by means of design. Already, those impartial developers are waking up to a brand original world, together with application engineer Ryan Thiessen. An eleven-year MySQL veteran, Thiessen is scheduled to talk at the MySQL convention this week; and in a weblog submit this morning entitled readily, "greatly surprised," he displays his bewilderment:
"closing time this 12 months i used to exist cautiously optimistic about sun's purchase of MySQL. but not this year -- it exist worry and disappointment over what this capability for MySQL," Thiessen wrote. "when I read this as a rumor just a few weeks in the past i assumed it became a shaggy dog anecdote of an idea. Why would a lofty margin application company want to buy a declining hardware company, even if that hardware is amazing? As for his or her utility, I cannot cogitate about that Oracle is interested in Java, MySQL, etc as earnings producing products, it could simply exist a tiny blip for them."incredibly, Java and Solaris had been outlined by Oracle CEO Larry Ellison as the key motivating factors, no longer the SPARC company -- truly, it was SPARC that failed to generate a blip. MySQL acquired as a minimum that plenty -- this for a trade that become value at least one thousand million to sun just 15 months in the past.
MySQL's founders beget remained on the listing as fiercely against using software patents, as damaging to the spirit and ethics of open supply. Oracle is not diametrically adverse to that line of thinking, having made statements in precept during this decade opposing the introduction of patent portfolios for predatory applications.
Oracle's 2000 commentary on the challenge, which is pretty much unchanged, reads, "Patent legislations offers to inventors an exclusive confiscate to original know-how in recur for ebook of the know-how. here is not applicable for industries comparable to software construction by which improvements spin up bar not one of a sudden, will besides exist made without a considerable capital funding, and minister to exist creative combinations of prior to now-popular suggestions."
but Oracle does aid using patents for defensive functions, specifically when a company is attacked by a corporation with a great portfolio.That fact by myself does not imply Oracle can not, or hasn't, used its utility belongings very aggressively. In October 2005, the trade obtained its first confidential open source database element: Innobase, whose InnoDB contained enterprise-type facets that had been really rolled into MySQL 5.0. by means of acquiring InnoDB, Oracle ended up owning fragment of MySQL anyway, in a movement that InfoWorld's Neil McAlister astutely reasoned may exist to retain the lessen-category database snugly within the lower classification, whereas siphoning valued clientele into Oracle's higher classification.
"it truly is why when Oracle snapped up Innobase in early October it changed into effortless to interpret the circulation as a major revolting on Oracle's part," McAlister wrote then. "via taking handle of 1 of MySQL's essential inside organs, Oracle positive factors the vigour to pulp the upstart at a whim, simply through closing its grip around Innobase. however, critically, why would Oracle Do this?"
4 years later, we've a better glimpse of an admit to McAlister's query: by taking control of the geography of enterprise databases over a larger enviornment, Oracle keeps MySQL safely inside its own continent, either locked away or funneling original valued clientele across the channel. probably no person might ever rightly declare that MySQL became a real possibility, however today, Oracle's rush ensures that it in no artery may besides be. and that is the judgement the brand original world that builders in Santa Clara are waking up to.
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310-810 Practice Test | 310-810 examcollection | 310-810 VCE | 310-810 study guide | 310-810 practice exam | 310-810 cram
Written by GoCertify Staff
Published: 01 September 2010
With the merger of Sun certifications into the Oracle certification program, ailment bar not one Sun certifications for Java, Solaris, MySQL, and Open Office beget been renamed under the Oracle brand.
On September 1, 2010, Oracle integrated the existing certifications from Sun Microsystems' certification program into the Oracle Certifed Professional program as fragment of the acquisition of Sun by Oracle. Each Sun certification was renamed to reflect the original Oracle branding, as mapped out below. The content of the related exams and scoring were not changed.
Jump to: Java | Solaris | MySQL | OpenOffice
Original Sun Name
New Oracle Name
Sun Certified Java Associate
Oracle Certified Associate, Java SE 5/SE 6
Sun Certified Java Programmer (SCJP) SE 5
Oracle Certified Professional, Java SE 5 Programmer
Sun Certified Java Programmer (SCJP) SE 6
Oracle Certified Professional, Java SE 6 Programmer
Sun Certified Java Developer (SCJD)
Oracle Certified Master, Java SE6 Developer
Sun Certified Web Component Developer (SCWCD) EE5
Oracle Certified Professional, Java EE 5 Web Component Developer
Sun Certified trade Component Developer (SCBCD) EE5
Oracle Certified Professional, Java EE 5 trade Component Developer
Sun Certified Developer for Java Web Services 5 (SCDJWS)
Oracle Certified Professional, Java EE 5 Web Services Developer
Sun Certified Enterprise Architect (SCEA) EE5
Oracle Certified Master, Java EE 5 Enterprise Architect
Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer (SCMAD)
Oracle Certified Professional, Java ME 1 Mobile Application Developer
Sun Certified JSP and Servlet Developer for the Java EE6 Platform
Oracle Certified Professional, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 JavaServer Pages and Servlet Developer
Sun Certified EJB Developer for the Java EE6 Platform
Oracle Certified Professional, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 Enterprise JavaBeans Developer
Sun Certified JPA Developer for the Java EE6 Platform
Oracle Certified Professional, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 Java Persistence API Developer
Sun Certified Developer for the Java Web Services for the Java EE6
Oracle Certified Professional, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 Web Services Developer
Sun Certified Developer for the JSF for the Java EE6 Platform
Oracle Certified Professional, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 JavaServer Faces Developer
Sun Certified Specialist for NetBeans IDE
Oracle Certified Expert, NetBeans Integrated development Environment 6.1 Programmer
Sun Certified Integrator for Identity Manager 7.1
This certification was retired by Oracle
Sun Certified Java CAPS Integrator
This certification was retired by Oracle
Original Sun Name
New Oracle Name
Sun Certified Solaris Associate (SCSAS)
Oracle Certified Associate, Oracle Solaris 10 Operating System
Sun Certified System Administrator (SCSA) for Solaris OS 10
Oracle Certified Professional, Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator
Sun Certified Network Administrator (SCNA) for Solaris OS 10
Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Network Administrator
Sun Certified Security Administrator (SCSECA) for Solaris OS 10
Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Security Administrator
Original Sun Name
New Oracle Name
Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Database Administrator (SCMDBA)
Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.0 Database Administrator
Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer (SCMDEV)
Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.0 Developer
Sun Certified MySQL Associate (SCMA)
Oracle Certified Associate, MySQL 5.0/5.1/5.5
Sun Certified MySQL 5.1 Cluster Database Administrator (SCMCDBA)
Oracle Certified Expert, MySQL 5.1 Cluster Database Administrator
Original Sun Name
New Oracle Name
Sun Certified OpenOffice.org Calc Specialist
Oracle Certified Expert, OpenOffice.org Calc
Sun Certified OpenOffice.org Impress Specialist
Oracle Certified Expert, OpenOffice.org Impress
Sun Certified OpenOffice.org Writer Specialist
Oracle Certified Expert, OpenOffice.org Writer
The individual exams beget been renamed as well, following the selfsame naming scheme. A pdf version of this list that includes the exam names is available on Oracle's blog.
Take a more expedient approach for developing MVC Web applications than you might cop using J2EE technologies.
By Deepak Vohra
Ruby on Rails is an open source Web framework for developing Model-View-Controller (MVC) Web applications that access databases. Ruby on Rails is based on the object-oriented Ruby scripting language. The model class in a Ruby on Rails application specifies the data model. A connection with the database is obtained in the model class, and the database table from which data is to exist retrieved is specified. The controller class specifies the actions (methods) that accommodate the trade logic to process data, and the view templates are the user interfaces (UIs) for the MVC application. Controller class methods are invoked from a view template, the controller class processes data using the model class, and it renders a view template or invokes another controller method.
Ruby on Rails doesn't require configuration files as does a Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) application. Ruby on Rails requires a Web server and a database, and it includes the WEBrick Web server. It is besides preconfigured with the MySQL database. Let's gawk at how to use Ruby on Rails to develop a Create-Read-Update-Delete (CRUD) application. A CRUD application is used essentially to create, manipulate, and delete database table entries.
Because a Rails application is of the MVC pattern, the model and controller classes are Ruby classes (.rb files). The model class models data and extends the ActionRecord::Base class. Models provide object-relational mapping (ORM) between trade objects and the database. The view templates are the UIs of a Ruby on Rails application and are represented with .rhtml or .rxml files. An RHTML view template is the more commonly used alternative and is Ruby-embedded HTML. The controller class extends the ActionController::Base class and specifies actions (methods) to process data. Ruby on Rails provides various commands to generate a Rails application and model and controller classes. Some Ruby on Rails commands are listed in Table 1.
Get On TrackBegin by installing Ruby on Rails and including RubyGems, the criterion package manager used with Ruby applications and libraries. Here is the procedure to install Ruby on Rails:
Download the Ruby Windows Installer application by double-clicking the ruby185-21.exe application to start the Ruby Setup Wizard. Click Next, and read and accept the license agreement.
Select the default components to install, which include the RubyGems package manager, and click Next.
Specify a directory to install Ruby (the default is c:/ruby), and click Next.
Choose a Start Menu folder, and click Install to install Ruby and RubyGems.
Install Rails by using the CD (change directory) command to create c:/ruby the current directory, and then race this command to install Rails and its dependencies—note that the activerecord package implements the model layer of a Rails MVC application, and the actionpack package implements the view and controller:
gem install rails --include-
Use Setup.exe to download and install MySQL 5.0, and create a MySQL Server instance.
Now let's create a Ruby on Rails application that represents a journal catalog. use the rails command on the command line to create a Ruby on Rails application in the catalog directory from within the ruby directory:
The app directory contains the subdirectories controllers, models, and view for the controller classes, model classes, and view templates, respectively. The config directory contains the database.yml file in which the database configuration is specified. A Rails application may exist race in development (the default mode), test, or production mode.
For the specimen here let's race the Rails application in development mode. Modify the development mode settings in the database.yml file to specify the database as mysql. The development mode settings for the MySQL database should gawk fondness this:
The db directory is used for migration scripts, which will exist discussed shortly.
Now they need to create a database table that will use ActiveRecord migrations. A migration class extends the ActiveRecord::Migration class and is race with the rake command. The rake command is similar to Ant's build utensil for creating J2EE applications. A migration script gets created when a model class script is created. Create a model script with this command in the Ruby Console Window from the ruby/catalog directory:
ruby script/generate model catalog
The model class catalog.rb is created in the app/models directory, and the migration script 001_create_catalogs.rb is created in the db/migrate directory. The migration script class, CreateCatalogs, extends the ActiveRecord::Migration class:
class CreateCatalogs <
create_table :catalogs Do |t|
# t.column :name, :string
The default migration script consists of the methods self.up and self.down. The self.up fashion is invoked to race a migration and create a database table. use the create_table transformation of the ActiveRecord::Migration class to create a database table called catalogs. ActiveRecord uses pluralization to map a model class to a database table. The model class is singular and uppercase, and the database table is plural and lowercase.
In the Ruby on Rails application specimen the model class is Catalog and the database table is catalogs. The ActiveRecord::Migration class provides various transformations for a database. Some of the transformations are listed in Table 2.
Modify the migration script 001_create_catalogs.rb to create a database table, and then add data to the table. In the create_table transformation create a table called catalogs with the columns journal, publisher, edition, title, and author:
Valid column types are integer, float, datetime, date, timestamp, time, text, string binary, and boolean. convincing column options are limit, default, and null.
Next, add data to the table with the ActiveRecord::Base class method, create, to add a table row:
Catalog.create :journal =>
"developerWorks", :publisher =>
:edition => "September 2006",
"A PHP V5 migration guide",
:author=>"Jack D. Herrington"
Listing 1 shows the complete migration script. race the migration with the rake command from the /ruby/catalog directory. Rails has a target called migrate to race migrations:
The catalogs database table is created in the MySQL database named mysql. The catalogs table has a primary key sphere of kind int(11) and the auto_increment attribute, which generates a unique identity for original rows.
Develop a CRUD ApplicationBefore they develop a Ruby on Rails CRUD application, note that a Ruby on Rails application consists of these Ruby scripts and view templates:
Model class in the app/models directory
Controller class in the app/controllers directory
View templates (RHTML files) in the app/views directory
Previously they created a model class Ruby script. They use an interface to create original entries in the database, retrieve entries, update entries, and delete entries. The interface to the data in the database is scaffolding. Scaffolding consists of controller and model Ruby classes and view templates. Rails provides two types of scaffolding, dynamic scaffolding and scaffolding created with the ScaffoldGenerator. You can create a dynamic scaffolding by adding this scaffold fashion invocation to the controller class:
The scaffold fashion generates controller logic and view templates dynamically using a model class obtained with Rails naming conventions. The first epistle of the modelname is uppercase to obtain the model class. For example, if the modelname specified in the scaffold fashion is catalog, the Catalog model class is used in the scaffolding.
Instance variables @catalog/@catalogs are used in the controller class; controller instance variables are besides available in the view templates. The Rails framework provides the scaffold generator to create a controller class, a model class, and the scaffolding for a CRUD application. Scaffolding generated with the ScaffoldGenerator is similar to the one generated with the scaffold method, except that the controller logic and view templates are generated when the ScaffoldGenerator command is race instead of being generated dynamically. In the Ruby console window race the scaffold generator:
ruby script/generate scaffold
This command generates a model class, a controller class, and the view templates index.rhtml, list.rhtml, show.rhtml, new.rhtml, create.rhtml, edit.rhtml, update.rhtml, and destroy.rhtml. The Catalog model class looks fondness this:
class Catalog >
Listing 2 shows the controller class CatalogsController.
With the scaffolding these actions (methods) are generated in the controller class: index, list, show, new, create, edit, update, and destroy. The default view templates may exist overridden with view templates in the views directory. For example, a custom view template edit.rhtml can exist provided in the views/catalog directory.
Next, let's race the Ruby on Rails application in the WEBrick Web server. begin by starting the WEBrick server from the /ruby/catalog directory:
Access the WEBrick Web server with the URL, http://localhost:3000 (see design 1). panoply the list of catalog entries with the list view template, which is invoked with the URL, http://localhost:3000/catalogs/list. To create a original catalog entry click the original catalog link (see design 2). In the original view template add a catalog entry, and click the Create button. A original catalog entry is added in the list view template. Click the present link to present a catalog entry. To delete a catalog entry click the ruin link, and to edit a catalog entry click the Edit link (see design 3).
Use the edit view template to modify the catalog entry; for example, modify the title and click the Edit button to update the catalog entry (see design 4).
Ruby on Rails is simpler than J2EE for developing MVC Web applications. The JavaServer Pages (JSP), HTML, servlets, Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB), and configuration fields that are required in a J2EE application are not required for a Ruby on Rails application.
About the Author
Deepak Vohra, a Sun-certified Java programmer and Sun-certified Web component developer, has published numerous articles in industry publications and journals. Deepak is the author of the bespeak "Ruby on Rails for PHP and Java Developers."
A couple of patterns that could judgement Java heap exhaustion were identified from years of research at IBM. One spellbinding scenario was observed when Java applications generated an immoderate amount of finalizable objects whose classes had non-trivial Java finalizers.
What Is a Java Finalizer?A Java finalizer performs finalization tasks for an object. It's the contrary of a Java constructor, which creates and initializes an instance of a Java class. A Java finalizer can exist used to fulfill postmortem cleanup tasks on an instance of a class or to release system resources such as file descriptors or network socket connections when an expostulate is no longer needed and those resources beget to exist released for other objects. You don't need any dispute or any recur value for a finalizer. Unfortunately the current Java language specification does not define any finalizers for a Java class or interface when a class or interface is unloaded. Let's cop a closer gawk at finalize() fashion of java.lang.Object that provides an instance method, finalize() for finalization:
protected void finalize() throws Throwable
When a Java expostulate is no longer needed, the space occupied by the expostulate is putative to exist recycled automatically by the Java garbage collector. This is one of the significant differences in Java and is not found in most structural programming languages fondness C. If an instance of a class implements the finalize() method, its space cannot exist recycled by the garbage collector in a timely fashion. Worst case, it may not exist recycled at all.
Any instances of classes that implement the finalize() fashion are often called finalizable objects. They will not exist immediately reclaimed by the Java garbage collector when they are no longer referenced. Instead, the Java garbage collector appends the objects to a special queue for the finalization process. Usually it's performed by a special thread called a "Reference Handler" on some Java Virtual Machines. During this finalization process, the "Finalizer" thread will execute each finalize() fashion of the objects. Only after successful completion of the finalize() fashion will an expostulate exist handed over for Java garbage collection to find its space reclaimed by "future" garbage collection. I did not screech "current," which means at least two garbage collection cycles are required to reclaim the finalizable object. Sounds fondness it has some overhead? You got it. They need several shots to find the space recycled.
Finalizer threads are not given maximum priorities on systems. If a "Finalizer" thread cannot hold up with the rate at which higher priority threads judgement finalizable objects to exist queued, the finalizer queue will hold growing and judgement the Java heap to fill up. Eventually the Java heap will find exhausted and a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError will exist thrown.
A Java Virtual Machine will never invoke the finalize() fashion more than once for any object. If there's any exception thrown by the finalize() method, the finalization of the expostulate is halted.
You are free to Do virtually anything in the finalize() fashion of your class. When you Do that, gladden Do not expect the reminiscence space occupied by each and every expostulate to exist reclaimed by the Java garbage collector when the expostulate is no longer referenced or no longer needed. Why? It is not guaranteed that the finalize() fashion will complete the execution in timely manner. Worst case, it may not exist even invoked even when there are no more references to the object. That means it's not guaranteed that any objects that beget a finalize() fashion are garbage collected. That's a potential hazard from a reminiscence management perspective and, needless to say, there is considerable overhead for queuing, dequeuing, running the finalize() method, and rescanning the expostulate in the next garbage collection cycle.
If you want to race cleanup tasks on objects, account finalizers as a final spin and implement your own cleanup method, which will exist more predictable. It's very risky to dependence on finalizers for postmortem cleanup tasks, especially if your finalizable objects beget references to aboriginal resources.
Hands-on suffer with Java FinalizerWe can easily simulate this scenario with a couple of test applications and cop a gawk at dumps and traces to behold what's happening inside of the Java heap and threads for hands-on experience.
Let's build a couple of Java classes to recreate typical scenarios.
In ObjectWYieldFinalizer, they can implement the fashion finalize() with Thread.yield() so that finalize() cannot complete its execution (see Listing 1) (Listings 1-7 can exist downloaded here.)
The Thread.yield() fashion prevents the currently executing thread from running and allows other threads to execute. If the Finalizer thread calls this finalize() method, it will pause its execution.
In ObjectWExceptionFinalizer, the finalizer() fashion immediately throws a java.lang.IndexOutOfBoundsException. If the Finalizer thread calls this finalize() method, the expostulate finalization won't exist completed because of the exception and there's no second chance to race the finalize() fashion (see Listing 2).
In ObjectWEmptyFinalizer, they don't implement any code in the finalize() fashion (see Listing 3). ObjectWOFinalizer doesn't beget any finalize() fashion (see Listing 4).
Let's race each of the classes to behold what happens. Sun's Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can exist used with the following options for the class TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.
We only find a kind of garbage collection (Full GC), total Java heap usage before garbage collection (50,815K), total Java heap usage after garbage collection (45,644K), a lofty watermark of total Java heap (50,816K), and time spent in the garbage collection (0.2276940 secs).
High watermark is the size of the current Java heap. The Java heap can expand its size up to a maximum size or contract to manage Java heap effectively.
The -XX:+PrintGCDetails option lets the JVM provide information on each generation in the Java heap.
We can behold Java heap usage and the time (in seconds) spent in Java garbage collection of each original generation, tenured generation, and permanent generation with the -XX:+PrintGCDetails option in the following example:
In tenured generation, Java heap usage was 43,897KB before this Java garbage collection. Java heap usage reached 47,295KB after Java garbage collection; 47296K is the size of the lofty watermark of the tenured generation; 0.2110999 second was spent to collect the tenured generation. Unfortunately they Do not behold the maximum size of each generation with the -XX:+PrintGCDetails option alone.
With -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps, they can find a timestamp for each garbage collection fondness this:
1.393: [GC 1002K->106K(5056K), 0.0001036 secs]
This garbage collection started 1.393 seconds after the JVM started.
The -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC option provides extensive information about each Java garbage collection (see Listing 5).
We can even behold the address ambit of each generation. Unfortunately there's no timestamp for each garbage collection with -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC option alone.
The final option, -XX:-HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError allows the JVM to dump the Java heap to a file when an allocation from the Java heap cannot exist satisfied or a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError is thrown. This option was introduced in Sun Java 1.4.2 update 12 and Sun Java 5.0 update 7.
If you want to experiment with IBM's Java Virtual Machine, bar not one you need is a -verbosegc command-line option. You Do not need any of these: -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC, or -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError.
Let's cop a gawk at what happened to the class while they talked about Sun JVM's command-line option. We've got java.lang.OutOfMemoryError from TestObjectWYieldFinalizer:
Exception in the thread "main" java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap spaceat java.lang.ref.Finalizer.register(Finalizer.java:72)at java.lang.Object.<init>(Object.java:20)at ObjectWYieldFinalizer.<init>(ObjectWYieldFinalizer.java:2)at TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.main(TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.java:11)
"java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space." That means they got Java heap space exhaustion. The JVM could not confiscate any more Java heap while running the fashion java.lang.ref.Finalizer.register(), which is on line 72 of Finalizer.java. Finalizer.java? Of course, they did not write Finalizer.java. That's a fragment of the JVM. They can besides check verbosegc.txt to which they redirected the garbage collection vestige (see Listing 6).
About 3.711 seconds after the JVM started, they got java.lang.OutOfMemoryError. The Java heap dump is written to pid124.hprof.
Analysis of Java Garbage Collection TracesWe can use a utensil to anatomize this trace. The IBM Pattern Modeling and Analysis utensil for Java Garbage Collector (PMAT) is one of top five technologies at alphaWorks. I beget implemented patented algorithms to call future failures related to Java heap exhaustion in this tool. gladden mention to United States Patent No. 7,475,214 if you are interested in the algorithms. Although they don't need these algorithms to investigate simple problem fondness this, you might exist able to find situations where you could find some insight from fortune tellers. They can find a copy of the utensil here.
PMAT parses verbose garbage collection (GC) trace, analyzes Java heap usage, and recommends viable solutions based on pattern modeling of Java heap usage.
The following features are included:
GC table view
Allocation failure summary
GC usage summary
GC duration summary
GC graph view
GC pattern analysis
Zoom in/out/selection/center of chart view
The utensil can besides parse Sun's Java garbage collector traces, including the following:
We can start version 3.2 of the utensil with a jar file in the download package. (V3.2 was the latest version when this article was written.)
# /usr/java5/bin/java -Xmx200m -jar ga32.jar
The utensil provides a headless mode but let's bring up the graphical user interface mode for facile demonstration. They can click on the "N" icon to open Sun's vestige file. They can click on "I" for IBM's vestige file as seen in design 1.
We can behold in design 2 the analysis result and recommendation virtually instantly.
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