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310-345 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator for Sun Cluster 3.2

Test Code : 310-345
Test designation : Sun Certified System Administrator for Sun Cluster 3.2
Vendor designation : SUN
: 310 actual Questions

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Renesas Electronics Sub-Gigahertz wireless solution chosen as typical verify bed Unit for Wi-sun FAN | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

via Ken Briodagh November 07, 2018

in line with a recent announcement, Wi-sun Alliance has adopted the Renesas Electronics organization, a enterprise of superior semiconductor solutions, sub-gigahertz (Sub-G) wireless avow as a candidate of the interoperability verify mattress instruments (TBUs) for the Wi-sun FAN (container enviornment community) Certification application.

Renesas is participate of the first wave of businesses participating in the Wi-sun FAN 1.0 certification system with its RAA604S00/RX651 wireless solution. Certifications are planned with the aid of the conclusion of 2018.

The Sub-G wireless solution facets Tessera know-how’s comparison platform, which comprises an comparison board3 installed with Renesas’ RAA604S00 wireless communications system-on-chip (SoC) and RX651 microcontroller (MCU), as well as conversation control software provided by using Renesas. Renesas will panoply the brand original Sub-G instant avow at its booth (stand B.c44) at European Utility Week 2018, November 6 to November 8, in Vienna, Austria.

“The Wi-solar neighborhood has been making giant strides in the edifice and deployment of instant communications in the power management systems industry, and we're restful to expand their dedication to the wise power markets and develop the latest Wi-solar requisites with their Wi-sun FAN-licensed avow and study at various mattress contraptions,” mentioned Akihiro Kuroda, VP, power Infrastructure traffic Division, Renesas Electronics organisation.

The Sub-G troupe presents points that are resilient to actual limitations and might transmit information even extra than supported via prior requirements, even in urban environments. considering that extensive areas may besides breathe covered with decent stability via mesh networks, it's applicable for functions such sensible meter communique, vigour usage visualization, monitoring gadget utilization, and managing a variety of sensors inside a utility, factories and buildings.

The IoT Evolution Expo, and collocated events, IoT Evolution health, LPWAN Expo, The smart metropolis event, and IIoT convention, will Take Place Jan. 29 to Feb 1 in ft. Lauderdale, Florida. talk over with IoTEvolutionExpo.com to register now.

Edited by using Ken Briodagh

writer information

Editorial Director


here's what the solar appears like from every planet In their solar system | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No influence found, try original keyword!Our photo voltaic apparatus is a severely pleasing vicinity ... We’d breathe nowhere with out the sun, intellect you, and a sequence of definitely unbelievable visualizations of their autochthonous designation – as seen from each planet, and defective demo...

Renesas is participate of 1st wave of checking out for Wi-solar FAN 1.0 certification | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

07 November 2018

Wi-solar Alliance has adopted Renesas Electronics' sub-gigahertz (Sub-G) wireless solution as a candidate of the interoperability study at various bed devices (TBUs) for the Wi-sun FAN (field district network) Certification application.

Renesas is a component of the primary wave of corporations participating in the Wi-sun FAN 1.0 certification manner with its RAA604S00/RX651 wireless answer. Certifications are planned with the aid of the conclusion of 2018.

The Sub-G wireless avow facets Tessera technology’s evaluation platform, which includes an contrast board set up with Renesas’ RAA604S00 wireless communications equipment-on-chip (SoC) and RX651 microcontroller (MCU), as well as conversation control application offered by course of Renesas.

“The Wi-solar neighborhood has been making gigantic strides within the construction and deployment of instant communications in the energy management techniques industry, and we're joyous to expand their commitment to the sensible power markets and develop the newest Wi-solar necessities with their Wi-sun FAN-licensed solution and check bed devices,” stated Akihiro Kuroda, vice chairman, energy Infrastructure company Division, Renesas Electronics organisation.

clients who help wise meters, smart illumination, infrastructure device, and equivalent products the usage of the Renesas Sub-G wireless avow can breathe able to easily assure interoperability between device that uses the Wi-solar FAN specification. subsequently, they may breathe in a position to reduce their development duration for Wi-solar FAN-compliant application apparatus by course of about twelve months in comparison with option options.

The Sub-G troupe offers features that are resilient to actual boundaries and may transmit records even additional than supported by earlier standards, even in urban environments. due to the fact that great areas can besides breathe lined with respectable stability via mesh networks, it is appropriate for purposes such wise meter communique, energy usage visualisation, monitoring apparatus utilisation, and managing numerous sensors inside a utility, factories and constructions.

author Bethan Grylls




Killexams.com 310-345 Dumps and actual Questions

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310-345 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator for Sun Cluster 3.2

Test Code : 310-345
Test designation : Sun Certified System Administrator for Sun Cluster 3.2
Vendor designation : SUN
: 310 actual Questions

310-345 examination prep were given to breathe this easy.
hey gentlemen I handed my 310-345 examination using killexams.com brain unload observe lead in handiest 20 days of readiness. The dumps absolutely changed my lifestyles once I shelling out them. presently im worked in a first ratebusiness enterprise with a decent income. course to killexams.com and the all group of the trutrainers. tough topics are efficiently secured by them. Likewise they provide excellent reference thats advantageous for the study at purpose. I solved almost indecent questions in just 225 minutes.


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Anatomy of a Java Finalizer | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

A yoke of patterns that could cause Java stack exhaustion were identified from years of research at IBM. One quick-witted scenario was observed when Java applications generated an extreme amount of finalizable objects whose classes had non-trivial Java finalizers.

What Is a Java Finalizer?A Java finalizer performs finalization tasks for an object. It's the antithetical of a Java constructor, which creates and initializes an instance of a Java class. A Java finalizer can breathe used to effect postmortem cleanup tasks on an instance of a class or to release system resources such as file descriptors or network socket connections when an demur is no longer needed and those resources Have to breathe released for other objects. You don't need any controversy or any recrudesce value for a finalizer. Unfortunately the current Java language specification does not define any finalizers for a Java class or interface when a class or interface is unloaded. Let's Take a closer study at finalize() manner of java.lang.Object that provides an instance method, finalize() for finalization:

protected void finalize() throws Throwable

When a Java demur is no longer needed, the space occupied by the demur is putative to breathe recycled automatically by the Java garbage collector. This is one of the significant differences in Java and is not create in most structural programming languages like C. If an instance of a class implements the finalize() method, its space cannot breathe recycled by the garbage collector in a timely fashion. Worst case, it may not breathe recycled at all.

Any instances of classes that implement the finalize() manner are often called finalizable objects. They will not breathe immediately reclaimed by the Java garbage collector when they are no longer referenced. Instead, the Java garbage collector appends the objects to a special queue for the finalization process. Usually it's performed by a special thread called a "Reference Handler" on some Java Virtual Machines. During this finalization process, the "Finalizer" thread will execute each finalize() manner of the objects. Only after successful completion of the finalize() manner will an demur breathe handed over for Java garbage collection to fetch its space reclaimed by "future" garbage collection. I did not avow "current," which means at least two garbage collection cycles are required to reclaim the finalizable object. Sounds like it has some overhead? You got it. They need several shots to fetch the space recycled.

Finalizer threads are not given maximum priorities on systems. If a "Finalizer" thread cannot retain up with the rate at which higher priority threads cause finalizable objects to breathe queued, the finalizer queue will retain growing and cause the Java stack to fill up. Eventually the Java stack will fetch exhausted and a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError will breathe thrown.

A Java Virtual Machine will never invoke the finalize() manner more than once for any object. If there's any exception thrown by the finalize() method, the finalization of the demur is halted.

You are free to accomplish virtually anything in the finalize() manner of your class. When you accomplish that, tickle accomplish not expect the remembrance space occupied by each and every demur to breathe reclaimed by the Java garbage collector when the demur is no longer referenced or no longer needed. Why? It is not guaranteed that the finalize() manner will complete the execution in timely manner. Worst case, it may not breathe even invoked even when there are no more references to the object. That means it's not guaranteed that any objects that Have a finalize() manner are garbage collected. That's a potential hazard from a remembrance management perspective and, needless to say, there is considerable overhead for queuing, dequeuing, running the finalize() method, and rescanning the demur in the next garbage collection cycle.

If you want to flee cleanup tasks on objects, consider finalizers as a final refer and implement your own cleanup method, which will breathe more predictable. It's very risky to depend on finalizers for postmortem cleanup tasks, especially if your finalizable objects Have references to autochthonous resources.

Hands-on experience with Java FinalizerWe can easily simulate this scenario with a yoke of test applications and Take a study at dumps and traces to remark what's happening inside of the Java stack and threads for hands-on experience.

Let's build a yoke of Java classes to recreate typical scenarios.

In ObjectWYieldFinalizer, they can implement the manner finalize() with Thread.yield() so that finalize() cannot complete its execution (see Listing 1) (Listings 1-7 can breathe downloaded here.)

The Thread.yield() manner prevents the currently executing thread from running and allows other threads to execute. If the Finalizer thread calls this finalize() method, it will recess its execution.

In ObjectWExceptionFinalizer, the finalizer() manner immediately throws a java.lang.IndexOutOfBoundsException. If the Finalizer thread calls this finalize() method, the demur finalization won't breathe completed because of the exception and there's no second haphazard to flee the finalize() manner (see Listing 2).

In ObjectWEmptyFinalizer, they don't implement any code in the finalize() manner (see Listing 3). ObjectWOFinalizer doesn't Have any finalize() manner (see Listing 4).

Let's flee each of the classes to remark what happens. Sun's Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can breathe used with the following options for the class TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.

/sun1.6.0_10/bin/java -Xmx50m -verbosegc -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError TestObjectWYieldFinalizer > verbosegc.txt

It looks very complicated. Why accomplish they need those command-line options? Well, without those options, they only fetch a exiguous information about Java garbage collection activities like this:

[Full GC 50815K->45644K(50816K), 0.2276940 secs][Full GC 48780K->46415K(50816K), 0.2233279 secs][Full GC 49551K->49551K(50816K), 0.2396315 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1886312 secs][Full GC 50815K->49219K(50816K), 0.1964926 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1865343 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1836961 secs]

We only fetch a nature of garbage collection (Full GC), total Java stack usage before garbage collection (50,815K), total Java stack usage after garbage collection (45,644K), a towering watermark of total Java stack (50,816K), and time spent in the garbage collection (0.2276940 secs).

High watermark is the size of the current Java heap. The Java stack can expand its size up to a maximum size or shrink to manage Java stack effectively.

The -XX:+PrintGCDetails option lets the JVM provide information on each generation in the Java heap.

We can remark Java stack usage and the time (in seconds) spent in Java garbage collection of each original generation, tenured generation, and permanent generation with the -XX:+PrintGCDetails option in the following example:

[GC [DefNew: 3520K->3520K(3520K), 0.0001143 secs][Tenured: 43897K->47295K(47296K), 0.2110999 secs] 47417K->47415K(50816K), [Perm : 17K->17K(12288K)], 0.2115593 secs][Times: user=0.22 sys=0.00, real=0.22 secs]

In tenured generation, Java stack usage was 43,897KB before this Java garbage collection. Java stack usage reached 47,295KB after Java garbage collection; 47296K is the size of the towering watermark of the tenured generation; 0.2110999 second was spent to collect the tenured generation. Unfortunately they accomplish not remark the maximum size of each generation with the -XX:+PrintGCDetails option alone.

With -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps, they can fetch a timestamp for each garbage collection like this:

1.393: [GC 1002K->106K(5056K), 0.0001036 secs]

This garbage collection started 1.393 seconds after the JVM started.

The -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC option provides extensive information about each Java garbage collection (see Listing 5).

We can even remark the address sweep of each generation. Unfortunately there's no timestamp for each garbage collection with -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC option alone.

The final option, -XX:-HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError allows the JVM to dump the Java stack to a file when an allocation from the Java stack cannot breathe satisfied or a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError is thrown. This option was introduced in Sun Java 1.4.2 update 12 and Sun Java 5.0 update 7.

If you want to experiment with IBM's Java Virtual Machine, indecent you need is a -verbosegc command-line option. You accomplish not need any of these: -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC, or -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError.

Let's Take a study at what happened to the class while they talked about Sun JVM's command-line option. We've got java.lang.OutOfMemoryError from TestObjectWYieldFinalizer:

Exception in the thread "main" java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java stack spaceat java.lang.ref.Finalizer.register(Finalizer.java:72)at java.lang.Object.<init>(Object.java:20)at ObjectWYieldFinalizer.<init>(ObjectWYieldFinalizer.java:2)at TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.main(TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.java:11)

"java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java stack space." That means they got Java stack space exhaustion. The JVM could not earmark any more Java stack while running the manner java.lang.ref.Finalizer.register(), which is on line 72 of Finalizer.java. Finalizer.java? Of course, they did not write Finalizer.java. That's a participate of the JVM. They can besides check verbosegc.txt to which they redirected the garbage collection trace (see Listing 6).

About 3.711 seconds after the JVM started, they got java.lang.OutOfMemoryError. The Java stack dump is written to pid124.hprof.

Analysis of Java Garbage Collection TracesWe can exercise a implement to resolve this trace. The IBM Pattern Modeling and Analysis implement for Java Garbage Collector (PMAT) is one of top five technologies at alphaWorks. I Have implemented patented algorithms to call future failures related to Java stack exhaustion in this tool. tickle advert to United States Patent No. 7,475,214 if you are interested in the algorithms. Although they don't need these algorithms to investigate simple problem like this, you might breathe able to find situations where you could fetch some insight from fortune tellers. They can fetch a copy of the implement here.

PMAT parses verbose garbage collection (GC) trace, analyzes Java stack usage, and recommends workable solutions based on pattern modeling of Java stack usage.

The following features are included:

  • GC analysis
  • GC table view
  • Allocation failure summary
  • GC usage summary
  • GC duration summary
  • GC graph view
  • GC pattern analysis
  • Zoom in/out/selection/center of chart view
  • The implement can besides parse Sun's Java garbage collector traces, including the following:

  • Serial collector
  • Throughput/parallel collector
  • Concurrent collector
  • Incremental/train collector
  • We can start version 3.2 of the implement with a jar file in the download package. (V3.2 was the latest version when this article was written.)

    # /usr/java5/bin/java -Xmx200m -jar ga32.jar

    The implement provides a headless mode but let's bring up the graphical user interface mode for smooth demonstration. They can click on the "N" icon to open Sun's trace file. They can click on "I" for IBM's trace file as seen in pattern 1.

    We can remark in pattern 2 the analysis result and recommendation virtually instantly.


    New Names for Sun Certifications Under Oracle | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Written by GoCertify Staff Published: 01 September 2010

    With the merger of Sun certifications into the Oracle certification program, ailment indecent Sun certifications for Java, Solaris, MySQL, and Open Office Have been renamed under the Oracle brand.

    On September 1, 2010, Oracle integrated the existing certifications from Sun Microsystems' certification program into the Oracle Certifed Professional program as participate of the acquisition of Sun by Oracle. Each Sun certification was renamed to reflect the original Oracle branding, as mapped out below. The content of the related exams and scoring were not changed.

    Jump to: Java | Solaris | MySQL | OpenOffice

    Java Certifications

    Original Sun Name New Oracle Name Sun Certified Java Associate Oracle Certified Associate, Java SE 5/SE 6 Sun Certified Java Programmer (SCJP) SE 5 Oracle Certified Professional, Java SE 5 Programmer Sun Certified Java Programmer (SCJP) SE 6 Oracle Certified Professional, Java SE 6 Programmer Sun Certified Java Developer (SCJD) Oracle Certified Master, Java SE6 Developer Sun Certified Web Component Developer (SCWCD) EE5 Oracle Certified Professional, Java EE 5 Web Component Developer Sun Certified traffic Component Developer (SCBCD) EE5 Oracle Certified Professional, Java EE 5 traffic Component Developer Sun Certified Developer for Java Web Services 5 (SCDJWS) Oracle Certified Professional, Java EE 5 Web Services Developer Sun Certified Enterprise Architect (SCEA) EE5 Oracle Certified Master, Java EE 5 Enterprise Architect Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer (SCMAD) Oracle Certified Professional, Java ME 1 Mobile Application Developer Sun Certified JSP and Servlet Developer for the Java EE6 Platform Oracle Certified Professional, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 JavaServer Pages and Servlet Developer Sun Certified EJB Developer for the Java EE6 Platform Oracle Certified Professional, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 Enterprise JavaBeans Developer Sun Certified JPA Developer for the Java EE6 Platform Oracle Certified Professional, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 Java Persistence API Developer Sun Certified Developer for the Java Web Services for the Java EE6 Oracle Certified Professional, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 Web Services Developer Sun Certified Developer for the JSF for the Java EE6 Platform Oracle Certified Professional, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 JavaServer Faces Developer Sun Certified Specialist for NetBeans IDE Oracle Certified Expert, NetBeans Integrated development Environment 6.1 Programmer Sun Certified Integrator for Identity Manager 7.1 This certification was retired by Oracle Sun Certified Java CAPS Integrator This certification was retired by Oracle  

    Solaris Certifications

    Original Sun Name New Oracle Name Sun Certified Solaris Associate (SCSAS) Oracle Certified Associate, Oracle Solaris 10 Operating System Sun Certified System Administrator (SCSA) for Solaris OS 10 Oracle Certified Professional, Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator Sun Certified Network Administrator (SCNA) for Solaris OS 10 Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Network Administrator Sun Certified Security Administrator (SCSECA) for Solaris OS 10 Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Security Administrator

    MySQL Certifications

    Original Sun Name New Oracle Name Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Database Administrator (SCMDBA) Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.0 Database Administrator Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer (SCMDEV) Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.0 Developer Sun Certified MySQL Associate (SCMA) Oracle Certified Associate, MySQL 5.0/5.1/5.5 Sun Certified MySQL 5.1 Cluster Database Administrator (SCMCDBA) Oracle Certified Expert, MySQL 5.1 Cluster Database Administrator

    OpenOffice Certifications

    Original Sun Name New Oracle Name Sun Certified OpenOffice.org Calc Specialist Oracle Certified Expert, OpenOffice.org Calc Sun Certified OpenOffice.org Impress Specialist Oracle Certified Expert, OpenOffice.org Impress Sun Certified OpenOffice.org Writer Specialist Oracle Certified Expert, OpenOffice.org Writer

    The individual exams Have been renamed as well, following the same naming scheme. A pdf version of this list that includes the exam names is available on Oracle's blog.


    Phases of the Patch Management Process | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Like this article? They recommend 

    This article separates a comprehensive patch management strategy into seven phases as shown in FIGURE 1 and discussed below.

    Figure 1FIGURE 1 Fig 1. High-Level Patch Management Process

    Phase 1—Identify and categorize the different types of compute services in your compute environment into three discrete categories; mission critical, traffic critical, and traffic operational.

    Phase 2—Develop a rollout scheme for each of the three environment categories (mission critical, traffic critical, and traffic operational).

    Phase 3—Create the patch clusters for the each nature of environment based on the rollout manner selected.

    Phase 4—Plan the patch rollout so that the proper records are maintained, and identify the most appropriate contingency diagram (patch back-out plan).

    Phase 5—Obtain change management approval and notify other departments.

    Phase 6—Execute the patch cluster rollout.

    Phase 7—Perform ongoing patch monitoring and maintenance.

    Refer to the patch management stream chart at the sojourn of this article for an illustration of the kinds of decisions you acquire as you skedaddle through these phases.

    Phase 1: Categorizing Your Compute Services

    Your compute environment is probably comprised of different types of compute services. This includes a set of systems supplying mission faultfinding services, traffic faultfinding services and traffic operational services. You might Have indecent or a subset of these environments. It is helpful to mediate in terms of the service-level requirements for reliability, availability, serviceability, scalability, security, performance, and so on. Prioritize your compute services based on functional traffic requirements.

    The first step in the patch management process is to identify how faultfinding the service is. The selection of patches, the rollout strategy and execution, indecent vary based on the prioritization of the compute environment services. For example, in a mission faultfinding environment, system security is a towering priority because a break-in can result in a compromised system that can cripple a business, either through reduced service or worse, intentional data theft or corruption. In this example, security is a faultfinding factor and security patches need to breathe added to the list of patches in the patch cluster (new security patches near out every month as original ways of intrusions by hackers are discovered).

    The following three broad compute environment categories are used throughout this article:

  • Mission faultfinding environment—an environment in which even one hour of downtime will Have a significant impact on the traffic service, and availability is required at almost any price.

  • Business faultfinding environment—an environment in which traffic services require continuous availability, but breaks in service for short periods of time are not catastrophic.

  • Business operational environment—an environment in which breaks in services are not catastrophic.

  • Mission faultfinding Environment

    A mission faultfinding environment typically has the following sub environments (FIGURE 2):

  • Development environment for developing applications that will eventually breathe moved into production.

  • Test environment for unit test of applications.

  • Integration environment in which several application units are integrated and tested together. The integration environment is besides often used for endurance testing, failure testing, and load testing of applications after applying Solaris patches.

  • Preproduction environment for final testing. The preproduction environment often closely resembles the production environment and is used for final testing in an environment that has most of the variables create in the actual production environment. In some cases, the integration environment is besides used as the preproduction environment.

  • Figure 02FIGURE 2 Sub Environments in a Mission faultfinding Environment

    After moving through indecent these environments, the application (whole application or additional features or bug fixes) is promoted to the production environment.

    Among the sub environments, only the production environment is actually mission critical. This can vary depending on whether each one of these sub environments are physically separated. In many data centers, the sub environments are located physically on the same system, but Have a logical separation through logical domains or other virtual machine techniques.

    Business faultfinding Environment

    A traffic faultfinding environment might not breathe as strictly controlled as a mission faultfinding environment and might only Have one test environment for indecent types of testing. FIGURE 3 shows a typical traffic faultfinding environment.

    Figure 03FIGURE 3 Sub Environments in a traffic faultfinding Environment

    Business Operational Environment

    A traffic operational environment might Have a loosely controlled production environment. Testing is typically done in the development environment and applications are promoted directly to the production environment. FIGURE 4 shows a typical traffic operational environment.

    Figure 04FIGURE 4 Sub Environments in a traffic Operational Environment

    Categorize Your Compute Services Into Environment Pools

    For each service or application, determine the environment nature and categorize each into various pools as shown in FIGURE 5.

    Figure 05FIGURE 5 Environment Pools

    For each application or service in each environment pool, indecent systems associated with the application (including the application servers, web servers, database servers, middleware servers, and so on), are placed in the same environment pool, and indecent of them Have the same criticality level. For example, a fictitious company called Fortune 526, categorizes three of their environments into three pools as follows:

    Mission Critical

    Business Critical

    Business Operational

    Fortune 526 identified their e-commerce services as the mission faultfinding component of their compute services because this environment is used to sell the company's products and services online. If this environment is not available even for a few minutes, the impact is very high, including loss of revenue and customer satisfaction.

    All systems that uphold the following e-commerce services are placed in the mission faultfinding pool:

    The SAP environment is used by Fortune 526 for internal employee payroll. If this environment is not available for an hour or less, payroll processing will breathe delayed, but the company will not experience powerful revenue loss.

    All systems that uphold the SAP applications are placed in the traffic faultfinding pool:

  • SAP application servers

  • SAP database servers

  • Fortune 526's customer resource management (CRM) environment is used for sales forecasts and reporting. This environment is required to accurately call revenue, but if it is down for a tiny term of time, the company will not lose revenue.

    All systems that uphold the CRM applications are placed in the traffic operational pool:

    Phase 2: Developing a Patch Rollout Scheme

    In any IT environment, changes are initiated from many areas. A pending patch rollout is one of those areas where a change is initiated. In the yardstick change management process, your first assignment is to filter and prioritize the incoming requests based on potential significance and complexity. If a change is deemed urgent, the exigent change process is initiated that facilitates a quick solution, but besides increases the risk of failure. The yardstick change process handles any other change request.

    Phase 2 outlines a patch rollout scheme for each nature of environment pool, taking into account the need for quick solutions (emergency rollouts) to those environments that can follow the yardstick change process (rapid and regularly scheduled rollouts).

    Schemes for Mission faultfinding Environments

    In a mission faultfinding environment, the patch rollout scheme can breathe classified into the following three categories:

    In the case of patch management, you should integrate the regularly scheduled rollout scheme into your yardstick change process. The rapid rollout scheme and emergency rollout schemes for patches should breathe special cases of the exigent change process within the context of your change management process.

    Regularly Scheduled Rollout Scheme

    Use the regularly scheduled rollout scheme (FIGURE 6) as the timehonored mode of operation for applying patches in a mission faultfinding environment. The following steps define this scheme:

  • The first step is to resolve the available patches at the SunSolve Onlinesm program1 and create a patch cluster customized to your mission faultfinding environment. effect this analysis on a monthly basis to ensure that your mission faultfinding services are as up-to-date as possible.

  • In the first month, apply the patch cluster to a development environment. This provides the opportunity to test the patch cluster on systems in which developers are developing code that will eventually breathe promoted to the production environment. If problems are encountered, software developers can correct the problems or you can coordinate with Sun to resolve any problems2.

  • In the second month, roll the patch cluster into the test (integration test) environment. This provides for testing of the patches with software that will soon breathe moving into the production environment.

  • In the third month, roll the patch cluster into the preproduction environment. exercise this environment for endurance, stress, and regression testing, inducing weighty loads on the systems that are equivalent to the merge of loads that will breathe generated in the actual production environment. In addition, conduct failure testing to determine if towering availability features (such as redundant networking) are working properly.

  • At sojourn of the third month, roll the patch cluster into the production environment.

  • Rapid Rollout Scheme

    Use the rapid rollout scheme (FIGURE 6) when a lead system administrator has identified a known problem that requires a few patches to breathe added fairly quickly. A advantageous sample is a situation in which a system administrator has been notified by a security administrator about a CERT advisory that describes a recent storm into a Solaris system. The system administrator uses the patch analysis tools available from the SunSolve Online program to determine that a patch has been released that fixes this security hole. This process can breathe used besides to add a feature to a system that is faultfinding to the traffic service and that cannot wait for more than a month.

    Figure 06FIGURE 6 Rollout Schemes for a Mission faultfinding Environment

    In this process, the identified patches are first rolled into a test environment, tested for 15 days or so, and then rolled into the preproduction environment and stress and regression tested for 15 more days, and finally rolled into the production environment. This scheme moves the patches into the environment sooner than the regular rollout scheme, but soundless gives them a total of one month for endurance testing the patches before moving the patches into production.

    NOTE

    For some e-business applications, fixing a security pocket might warrant using the emergency rollout scheme discussed in the next section.

    Emergency Rollout Scheme

    Use the emergency rollout scheme (FIGURE 6) in highly faultfinding situations that require application of one or two patches immediately. Typically, this is a situation in which a mission faultfinding system has a solemn problem, and after analysis, it is create that one or two patches exist that would fix the problem. supervision should breathe taken to apply only those patches that are directly apposite to fixing the current problem. This opportunity should not breathe used to apply other patches, otherwise you introduce more unknown entities into the environment, further complicating a challenging situation, and it won't breathe limpid which patch actually resolved the problem. Consistently following the regularly scheduled rollout scheme ensures that emergency patching situations occur rarely.

    In this process, the senior system administrator or architect determines, with the benefit of Sun, what patches are required to immediately rectify the problem. Sometimes, this can breathe a temporary patch, besides called a T-patch or a patch create in the Sun Alert list3. Once the patches are determined, they are carefully applied to the preproduction environment, tested in that environment at least for a few hours, then an exigent maintenance window is scheduled, and the patch is applied to the production environment. supervision should breathe taken to create a well-tested back-out scheme before applying these patches to the production environment.

    Schemes for traffic faultfinding Environments

    The patch rollout schemes (FIGURE 7) for the traffic faultfinding environment is similar to the schemes used in mission faultfinding environments. exercise the three rollout schemes; regularly scheduled, rapid, and emergency rollout schemes. But you might pick to skip testing in two environments, and instead opt to test only once in the integration environment as participate of the regularly scheduled rollout process. In addition, for the rapid rollouts, you can opt to chop down the testing time to 15 days per environment. For the emergency rollout scheme, testing for just a few hours in the integration environment before rolling into production might suffice.

    Figure 07FIGURE 7 Rollout Schemes for traffic faultfinding Environments

    Schemes for traffic Operational Environments

    A traffic operational environment may not require specific rollout schemes for regularly scheduled, rapid, and emergency rollouts. If no problems were create after applying the patch cluster to the development or test environment, the patch cluster can breathe rolled into production. Some companies Have a higher availability for traffic operational environments and might opt to treat their traffic operational environments like traffic faultfinding environments and follow the strategies outlined in the previous traffic faultfinding section.

    Plan to test the patch cluster by installing it in a development environment (test for a few hours), and apply the patch cluster to your production environment.

    Phase 3: Creating a Custom Patch Cluster

    Phase 3 is complex, but becomes simpler with practice. efficient exercise of the tools that are available in Sun's Patch Portal from the SunSolve Online program is essential.

    The following table summarizes the tools that you can exercise to create a patch cluster customized for your target environments. More information about each implement is available from the Patch Portal at http://sunsolve.sun.com.

    TABLE 1 Patch Management Tools

    Patch Management Tools

    Description

    PatchCheck4

    Performs a basic analysis of a system. Generates an HTML report of indecent installed patches and compares it with a cross-reference file that has a list of indecent current patches, including recommended and security patches. From the resulting data, you can create a patch suite that can breathe downloaded.

    Patch Finder

    Search for a particular patch from the SunSolve patch database. exercise the Patch Finder to panoply a specific patch description.

    PatchPro

    Analyzes and generates a custom patch list for your system.

    Signed patches

    Verifies that a patch is from Sun. Using signed patches is a secure manner of applying patches because they involve a digital signature that can breathe verified.

    Solaris_ Patch Manager Tool

    Provides configuration-specific patch analysis, automated patch downloads, patch dependency resolution, and patch installation. The Solaris Patch Manager implement requires Perl version 5.0 at a minimum.

    Sun alert patches

    Temporary patches for recently discovered problems. These patches are participate of the SunSolve EarlyNotifiersm Service.

    Sun™ Explorer software

    Collects system data. flee the Sun Explorer software implement on your system to create an output file that is a snapshot of your system configuration. transmit the Sun Explorer software output to Sun and request a list of missing patches.

    Sun Root CA certificate

    SUNWcert package used to verify the digital signatures in Signed Patches.

    Based on service flat requirements, some mission faultfinding environments require a manual selection of patches to create a custom patch cluster. The more faultfinding your environment, the more selective you should breathe in edifice your patch cluster. Some situations require application of one patch at a time, and avoiding application of a all patch cluster in one single run. This article assumes that your senior system administrator and the senior system architect Have the expertise to exercise the patch management tools to near up with a customized patch cluster for your target production environment. Some things to consider are as follows:

  • Consider the Solaris Jumbo Kernel Patch

    This patch is one of the most faultfinding patches that you should consider as a patch candidate. Often times the version of this patch is reported in the output of the uname -a command. Review the README for this patch to remark if this patch has principal fixes and updates for the platform that you are using. For example, if most of the updates in the latest jumbo patch Have fixes for the Sun Fire 15K system, and your environment does not Have any Sun Fire 15K systems, then you might not want to apply this patch. However, you might consider this patch anyway to fill uphold issues with Sun (for example, Sun Service might require the installation of the latest Solaris Jumbo Kernel patch in order to uphold your Sun systems).

  • Investigate Sun Alert Patches

    Review the README files for the latest Sunsm Alert patches to remark if any of the problems or fixes are applicable to the platforms in your environment. If so, dig a exiguous deeper and call Sun uphold to find out more about these patches. accomplish a thorough risk analysis with Sun, and with your own IT management, and then select the patches for candidates in creating your patch cluster.

  • Check for Recommended and Security Patches

    Review the README files for each one of these patches and remark which ones are applicable for your environment. For example, if there is a fix for a Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) card, and you don't exercise Fibre Channel in your environment, this patch may not breathe required for your system. When it comes to security patches, it is a best exercise to apply indecent Recommended and Security patches, and then breathe selective about indecent other patches.

  • Verify Patches With Your Vendors

    While selecting patches, ensure that applying a patch or a cluster of patches will not demolish an application that works well with the current version of Solaris OE. The patch selection process should involve contacting the applications and RDBMS vendors to acquire sure that applications labor well after applying these patches to Solaris OE. Testing, as discussed in aspect 2, will besides surface compatibility issues.

  • Analyze Patch Dependencies

    Analyzing the patches for dependencies is besides an principal factor in patch selection. The Patch Manager implement listed in TABLE 1 helps with dependency analysis. It is besides principal to check for nested dependencies.

  • Phase 4: Planning the Patch Rollout

    Proper patch management strategy includes a diagram that tracks indecent patches, and provides a means to back out of any patch. This participate of the strategy must Take Place before the patch rollout.

    Patch Tracking—Building a Patch Store

    It is advantageous to create a server (with adequate bandwidth and processor power to deploy patches through the network) that can serve as a patch repository, or patch store, and can breathe used for the following:

  • Providing an archive of indecent patch clusters that were ever rolled out.

  • Functioning as a patch server for patch clusters that are planned for rollout.

  • Aiding with version control for indecent patches to retain a history of patches applied to various systems and environments. The following table sample can breathe used as a template for a simple version control and record keeping:

    Patch Cluster designation and Number

    Directory

    Installation Date/Time

    Environment Names

    System Names

    SUNWyyy/yy-24

    /home/patches

    09/30/02 18:00 PST

    Retail Web Env/Integration Test Subenv.

    Mercury, Venus, Mars

  • Tracking troublesome patches. First remove the problem patch from the patches available in the patch store, and create the following table that can breathe used as a template for a simple course of tracking problem patches:

    Patch Cluster designation and Number

    Directory

    Problem Details

    Type and designation of System Where Problem Occurred

    Name and nature of Environment

    SUNWxxx

    Security fix

    Broke rsh command

    Sun Fire 4800 (Mercury)

    Integration test sub-env under retail web env/mission critical

  • Tracking change management. A table can breathe stored in the patch store with the following details:

    Patch Cluster designation and Number

    Business reason for Patch

    Patch System Administrator

    Lead System Administrator and Architect Approver

    Management Approver

    SUNWxxx

    Improves users' response time.

    John K. Administrator

    Bill D. Lead

    Tom S. Manager

  • Once the patch store is created and the proper records are kept, you Have the following patch information available:

  • A patch archive with tested patches ready for installation in your production environment.

  • A record of indecent systems and indecent patches that Have been applied in your environment.

  • A history of patches that caused problems and required the patch to breathe backed out. The patch store can breathe used to generate a list of indecent systems and environments in which a particular patch has been applied.

  • Contingency Planning—Devise a Patch Back-out Method

    There is always a haphazard that the installation of a patch cluster will cause something to demolish or degrade, even after testing in preproduction environments. No matter which nature of environment you are planning to patch, you should acquire appropriate contingency plans by defining a manner to back out of an installed patch cluster. The following methods offer some ideas.

    Method A

    This manner is the simplest course to back out of a patch and can breathe used in a traffic operational environment. Every Sun Patch comes with a README file with instructions on how to install the patch and how to back out of a patch. By default, installing a patch cluster saves an original version of the objects being patched in the /var/sadm/patch directory. The back-out script uses the saved objects to restore the software to pre-patched state. In some cases, even though you've installed an entire patch cluster, patches can breathe backed out only one patch at a time using the patchrm command. To Take extra measures to acquire sure that your back-out diagram works, apply the patch cluster to a test system, and follow the back-out instructions in the README to acquire sure you are able to successfully back out of the patch cluster.

    NOTE

    The patch installation command offers a -nosave option which prevents the saving of the existing objects. It is highly recommended not to exercise this option, just in case the need arises to back out of a patch cluster.

    Method B

    This manner can breathe used in a traffic faultfinding environment. This manner involves using manner A, but requires that you back up your Solaris OE to a tape before applying the patch cluster. exercise the ufsdump or vxdump commands to back up to tape depending on what nature of file system (ufs or vxfs) your Solaris OE is using. The system must breathe in a quiesced state when a backup is taken. In this case, in addition to the back-out script, you Have a a backup to restore your Solaris OE to the a pre-patched state. Alternatively, since tape restores are very slow, traffic faultfinding environments that cannot wait for a unhurried recovery from tape, can maintain an additional disk and exercise the UNIX™ dd command to acquire a copy of the boot disk.

    Method C

    This manner can breathe used in a nonclustered mission faultfinding environment where downtime to the production system can breathe minimized by using a implement called Solaris_ Live Upgrade5 software during the patch rollout process. Solaris Live Upgrade allows you to acquire a replica of the boot image of the production system while it is up and running and in a low-usage period. Solaris Live Upgrade software can first breathe used to acquire a copy of the boot environment, the patch cluster can breathe applied to the copy, and the copy can breathe taken through a rigorous testing process. The copy can breathe moved to a test system for thorough testing. If everything goes well with the tests, Solaris Live Upgrade software can breathe used to switch the copy to become the dynamic production boot environment. The only downtime will breathe the time taken to accomplish the Solaris Live Upgrade software switch, which is equivalent to the time taken to reboot a system. Following the procedure outlined in manner B is a prerequisite. In addition to that, consider making two tape copies of your Solaris OE in case one of the tapes becomes unusable.

    Method D

    This manner can breathe used in a clustered mission faultfinding environment. Sun Cluster software is usually retain in Place for towering availability in mission faultfinding environments. A clustered environment gives the opportunity to minimize downtime of the actual production system during patch rollouts. The minimizing process requires breaking the cluster, keeping the primary node running in a production mode, applying the patch cluster to the standby node, and conducting stress and regression tests using the standby node. After successful testing, the standby node is made the dynamic production system, the patches are applied to the primary production node, stress tested and regression tested, and finally both nodes are moved into the cluster. Downtime is minimized to the time it takes to remove the nodes from the cluster and the time to retain the cluster back together. This is typically equivalent to the time it takes to reboot a production system. Following the procedures outlined in manner B is a prerequisite.

    Phase 5: Obtaining Change Management Approval and Notifying Other Groups

    Once the required patch cluster has been created, the next step is to fetch approval from the appropriate change management authorities. In some companies, there is a change advisory board (CAB), or sometimes referred to as a change control board (CCB). The CAB exists to endorse changes and to assist in the assessment and prioritization of changes.

    The kinds of steps that relate to patch management change control are as follows:

  • Communicate the nature of the change in the established format for your organization. This might entail completing a change management contour that describes the planned changes, the traffic justifications, list of departments and systems affected, dates, expected outcome, contingency plans (patch back-out plan), required resources, and so forth.

  • Obtain formal change management approvals. This might require paper or electronic signatures as defined in your change management processes. For example, indecent CAB members, traffic Unit Manager for the system in which the change is being made, IT director, and so on might Have authority. Some companies' processes require some end-user approvals also. Approvals must breathe obtained before moving to the next step. Approved forms must breathe filed carefully for future reference and future internal and external audits.

  • Update the change control information in the patch store as explained in aspect 4.

  • Employ the exercise of implementation management6 for patches that constitute major changes. This is a role of the ITIL yardstick change management process that facilitates the build-out and preparation necessary for successful deployment of significant changes. If the patch rollout results in minor changes the implementation management portion can breathe skipped.

  • Make sure that you notify indecent the appropriate departments. Some departments to consider are as follows:

  • Help desk—Tell them about the impending change, with date and time of introduction of change in production. This will give benefit desk an opportunity to breathe prepared for additional calls during that term by arranging for additional personnel or by asking the existing personnel to breathe on towering alert.

  • System management and monitoring center—They should know about the change so that they can anticipate any alerts and prepare for problem diagnosis as needed.

  • Call center or Escalation center—If a problem occurs after the change is made, and if the problem was caused by the original change, the escalation managers will at least know where to start looking to conduct root cause analysis.

  • _ Vendors related to the system—This includes application vendors, database vendors, hardware vendors and other faultfinding infrastructure vendors.

  • Users—Provide contact information so they can communicate any issues as they arise.

  • These are some typical considerations for mission faultfinding environments. Your data centers no doubt Have a set of policies and procedures for communication and approvals that might not breathe outlined in this article. Your polices obviously must breathe taken into consideration.

    Phase 6: Executing the Patch Rollout

    The yardstick change management process requires that this aspect breathe included in the execution management7 process for promotion to the production environment.

    In aspect 6, it's finally time to install the patch clusters. Depending on the environment (mission critical, traffic critical, or traffic operational) and the rollout scheme (regularly scheduled, rapid, or emergency), effect the initial rollout into the appropriate test environment. The testing aspect should involve three levels of testing:

  • Solaris OE flat testing

    These tests involve creating and running a generic system script that performs commands such as ping, netstat, process comparisons, NFS test, iostat, and so on. The script helps to validate the basic operation of the operating environment after the patch cluster is installed.

  • Application flat testing

    These tests check various application functionality and ensure that everything soundless works. For example, in an environment with web servers, application servers, middleware servers, and database servers in various tiers, application of a patch cluster to any one tier might strike other tiers in terms of functionality. Testing sojourn users' functionality helps ensure that indecent tiers are in working order, and that indecent tiers labor well together after applying the patch cluster.

  • Preproduction flat testing

    Testing in a preproduction environment ensures that application functionality continues to labor in an environment that closely resembles the production environment with similar storage district networks (SANs), network infrastructure, security infrastructure, and so on. For example, the combination of applying a patch to a security hardened production environment might expose problems that are not seen in the development or test environments.

  • When the patch cluster testing is done, effect the patch rollout in your production environment.

    Phase 7: Performing Ongoing Patch Maintenance

    Even though following the previous phases keeps the patches up to date on indecent the systems, there can breathe occasional emergency rollouts. This can occur over a term of time and result in systems that are out of sync with each other. Over a term of time, patches might fetch out-of-date relative to the latest patches from the SunSolve Online program. The process used by system managers might Fall through the cracks if there is no on-going audit of this patch identification process. A simple course to automate this maintenance process is described below.

    Sun Professional Services supplies a implement called i-status as participate of the Application Readiness Service (ARS) offering. This implement is a configuration monitoring tool. It is besides called a dynamic flee engage because any changes made to a system configuration are automatically updated within i-status. The i-status implement has an easy-to-use GUI that shows the latest configuration of the system. Without i-status, a system administrator has to manually update a static flee book. In addition to maintaining up-to-date configuration data of one or more systems, i-status can breathe used to monitor and compare patch levels of various systems.

    FIGURE 8 shows an i-status screen that has a list of hosts. The % current column shows how current the patches are on each system.

    Figure 08FIGURE 8 Current Patch Report in i-status Tool

    FIGURE 9 shows another i-status screen. There are five columns showing five different systems. The rows that Have underlined patches expose patches that are out of revision level. The first row shows that a patch is missing on some systems.

    Figure 09FIGURE 9 Patches Compared in i-status Tool

    NOTE

    Some systems intentionally accomplish not Have the latest patches installed. exercise the i-status implement as a course of gathering information, not as a definitive lead for edifice your next patch cluster.

    The i-status implement requires the latest patch cross reference file from the SunSolve Online program. This file must always breathe up-to-date. To ensure you Have the latest file, you can exercise a scheduler like the UNIX cron utility to periodically download the patch cross reference file. The scheduler can besides breathe configured to remind the you to check the i-status console periodically.



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