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310-302 Sun Certified Network Administrator for Solaris 10 OS

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Test name : Sun Certified Network Administrator for Solaris 10 OS
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SUN Sun Certified Network Administrator

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First Maltese-licensed trainer in solar Solaris | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Computime's Ian Attard is the primary fully licensed Maltese trainer in solar Solaris, the habitual operating gadget for servers. Most gaming and telecommunication providers in Malta consume Solaris, for this judgement the exact for Solaris practicing comes potent from these corporations.

This changed into the ultimate step for Computime to provide the entire scope of coaching on Solaris on a autochthonous degree. The enterprise first became an authorized sun education centre, and consequently started on the Java path. once the company has relative and familiarised itself with solar's practicing strategies, it became simplest herbal to movement on to the Solaris courses.

"competencies discovered right through the lessons encompass primary to superior working equipment strategies, spanning from basic configurations comparable to disk formatting and chopping, network configurations and troubleshooting suggestions to working equipment returned-up and recovery strategies," Mr Attard instructed i-Tech . "All of those talents might subsist used during training lessons as the route may subsist very hands-on and lets students event these first hand. The atmosphere become very conducive to researching with plenty of recommendation purchasable from sun to execute my process as painless as viable."

Solaris working device certifications are rupture up into three components.

The solar certified Solaris Administrator half 1 course starts from the very basics and tackles the basic and intermediate administrative projects that a Solaris administrator will deserve to subsist aware of. This path additionally builds the foundation for other greater advanced concepts and is a prerequisite to the solar certified Solaris Administrator half 2 route.

The 2nd course builds on the ideas coated by route of the section 1 path and introduces other more advanced administrative projects akin to extra superior installing strategies and working gadget troubleshooting and prognosis. After this course the scholar is eligible to execute the examination and develop into a solar licensed programs administrator.

The third path, the sun certified community Administrator, specializes in the networking points current in the Solaris operating gadget and tackles subjects corresponding to IP routing, particularly redundant networking configurations and cargo-balancing thoughts on the operating system degree. After this route the scholar is eligible to execute the examination and turn into a sun certified network administrator.

Mr Attard reassures that it is not complicated to find out how to consume and exploit Solaris.

"lots of the Solaris ideas are very akin to the ideas found in different Unix-primarily based operating systems, hence prior competencies in other working programs equivalent to Linux will prove to subsist very beneficial in the transition to Solaris. even so, Solaris isn't a difficult operating gadget to subsist trained to consume from scratch."

particulars on Solaris courses are available from Computime.

sun certified system Administrator: Job Description & requirements | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

licensed Solaris device administrators are information expertise (IT) experts who deploy and retain network servers operating one of the vital Solaris operating system at the second obtainable during the Oracle enterprise. they are continually employed with the aid of corporations and other groups with computing device networks that consume the business's open source software products. As techniques directors, they can likewise also supervise other IT workforce and respond to questions and preservation requests from workplace worker's.

training Bachelor's degree in tips know-how or desktop science informed Job expertise Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, verbal exchange salary scope (2019)* $61,390 to $a hundred forty five,437 with solar licensed gadget Administrator credentials Job increase (2016-2026)** 6% for community and laptop systems administrators

source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics

Required education

Most systems directors Have accomplished a Bachelor of Science in information technology, desktop Science or a connected container. Core coursework typically comprises topics in programming languages and approaches, networking and programs design. Solaris certifications can subsist found in the course of the Oracle employer in network, security and techniques administration. requirements encompass a passing score on an examination, which candidates can prepare for by means of enrolling in courses on the Oracle Academy or an authorized training middle, reviewing seminar packages and taking keep checks.

potential Required

systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are in a position to troubleshoot issues for giant agencies of network system clients. stressful situations require clear, speedy thinking, and may contain working long hours except the problem is mounted. The potential to multitask can subsist advantageous when managing multiple undertaking at a time. communication competencies are key when working with nontechnical group of workers participants.

career and revenue Outlook

The U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS) estimated that jobs for gadget directors in chummy will boost by using a regular pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. licensed device administrators will pick up delight from remarkable job prospects, as agencies more and more matter on full-time authorities to retain their computer working programs. in line with, licensed programs directors for Solaris working methods earned between $sixty one,390 and $one hundred forty five,437 in April 2019.

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Sun Certified Network Administrator for Solaris 10 OS

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Solaris 8 User Administration Tools | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration files; adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account commands in Solaris 8.

This sample chapter is excerpted from Sun Certified System Administrator for Solaris 8 Study Guide, by Peter Gregory.

This chapter is from the bespeak 

After completing this chapter, you'll subsist able to

  • Identify the following login procedures: log into a system, log out of a system, and change login passwords.

  • State the command used to identify which users are currently logged into the system.

  • State the steps required to create user accounts on the local system using the admintool utility.

  • State the command syntax to add, modify, or delete user/group accounts on the local system with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.

  • Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization files used to set up a user's drudgery environment at login.

  • To fulfill these objectives, this chapter discusses:

  • User account configuration files;

  • Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool;

  • Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;

  • User shells; and

  • User account commands.

  • Three principal files define the identity of a user account: the password file, the shadow file, and the group file.

    The Password File

    The password file contains the basic identifying information for each user allowed to access a system. The system location of the password file is /etc/passwd. The format of the password file is:


    These fields are:

  • username—the name that identifies the user account.

  • password—in Solaris 8 an "x" in this field signifies that the corresponding shadow file contains the encrypted password string.

  • uid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the account. The maximum value for UID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to consume values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with plenary of the tools that are used to manage accounts or panoply information that includes usernames.

  • gid—the primary (default) numerical group ID assigned to the account. dote the UID field, the maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.

  • gcos-field—this is the user's actual name (the term "gcos-field" is the historical term for this field).

  • home-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this usually contains the user's own files and directories.

  • login-shell—the initial shell that is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this field is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.

  • The password file can subsist read by anyone on the system. There is no information that must subsist kept secret in this file. A sample password file looks dote this:

    root:x:0:1:Super-User:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:3:3::/: adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls: pete:x:100:4:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh nobody:x:60001:60001:Nobody:/:

    Fields in the password file are delimited by colons (":"), and blank fields are signified by two adjacent colons ("::"). For instance, note that the account name field for daemon is blank—just two colons. Also, daemon has no shell entry, so the ultimate character for daemon is the colon delimiter.

    The colon delimiter is likewise used in the shadow and group files, which are discussed in a later section.

    It is workable and permissible to create more than one username in the password file with the very UID. Each username will Have its own unique password. However, tools such as ls and ps, when used with options displaying username, will panoply the first username found in the password file matching the UID.

    When a new account is added, changed, or removed with the useradd, usermod, or userdel commands (which are discussed later in this chapter), the system creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.

    The Shadow File

    The shadow file contains each user account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The system location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:


    These fields are:

  • username—this is the very username found in the password file.

  • password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this field contains a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.

  • lastchg—date of ultimate password change (literally the number of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password was ultimate changed).

  • min—minimum number of days allowed before the password can subsist changed.

  • max—maximum number of days allowed before the password expires.

  • warn—the number of days prior to expiration that the user is warned.

  • inactive—the number of days of inactivity allowed for the account before the account is automatically locked.

  • expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.

  • flag—a field reserved for future use.

  • The shadow file is restricted so that only the system administrator can read it. This is because an intruder could fulfill a "dictionary attack," using guessable passwords in an attempt to determine the passwords for one or more accounts. Programs that "crack" account passwords are available for this purpose; thus, the shadow file is not publicly readable.

    A sample shadow file looks dote this:

    root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: listen:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: nobody:NP:6445::::::

    Note that some of the accounts in the sample shadow file Have "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are just two ways of signifying that the accounts are locked against login. There is nothing really magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one route of easily showing that these accounts are locked and going to tarry that way. You could result other text in the password field to suit your needs; for instance, a helpdesk ticket number or a date.

    When a user changes his or her password, the system creates a backup copy of the shadow file, called /etc/oshadow. This likewise occurs if root changes a user's password.

    Exam Notes

    Think About It . . .

    Why are encrypted passwords found in /etc/shadow and not in /etc/passwd?

    For many commands (ps, ls, etc.) to drudgery properly, /etc/passwd must subsist world readable. Prior to the consume of /etc/shadow, plenary users' encrypted password strings were likewise publicly readable. This gave people with "password cracking" programs an opportunity to ascertain other users' passwords. By poignant the encrypted password strings to /etc/shadow (which can subsist read only by root), the talent to access encrypted passwords is eliminated.

    First, a bit of history. Older versions of UNIX did not Have a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string was found in the password file, in the second field that is usually filled with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris soundless supports the encrypted password appearing in the password file, although this is not advisable, since the password file is publicly readable.

    Older versions of UNIX with no shadow file likewise had no password-aging capability.

    The Network Information System (NIS) subsystem was designed around the stale shadow-less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it advocate password aging.

    The Group File

    The group file contains a listing of plenary of the groups on the system, along with each group's numeric groupid and a list of each of the usernames that are secondary members of each group. The location of the group file is /etc/group. The format of the group file is:


    These fields are:

  • groupname—this is the name of the group.

  • password—this is an optional password for the group.

  • gid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the group. The maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to consume values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with plenary of the tools that are used to manage accounts or panoply information that includes group names.

  • user-list—a comma-separated list of users allowed in the group. These groups are users' secondary group IDs.

  • A sample group file follows.

    root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::3:root,bin,sys,adm adm::4:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::8:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp staff:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: nobody::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:

    Note the password field in the group "staff." Groups can subsist password protected by putting a password string into the password field. Note, though, that this is a completely manual process; there are no tools provided to result the group password in for you.

    Hint: You can hold a password string from the shadow file and consume the vi editor to splice it into the group file. The group password will subsist the very as the account password from the shadow entry where you took the password string.

    When a group is password protected, anyone who is not a member of the group will subsist challenged for the group's password when they Have entered the newgrp command.

    Primary and Secondary Groupids

    Each user account has one primary groupid—this is the group defined in the password file. When a user logs on, this is his or her associated groupid.

    Each user account likewise has zero or more secondary groupids. A user's secondary groups are those group entries that include the username in their lists of members.

    There are some useful limitations of groupids. For example, each user account can subsist in no more than 16 groups, and a line in the group file cannot exceed 512 characters (including the newline character).

    What happens if you requisite to add so many members to a group that you exceed the 512-character entry limit? You simply create another duplicate group entry—same name and group number—and list the additional members there.

    The primary and secondary groupids directly impact file system access permissions, which is explored fully in Chapter 10.

    Exam Notes

    Think About It . . .

    What would subsist the result if a username were added to a group file entry when that group was the user's primary group?

    The additional entry would Have no effect, since the user is already configured for the primary group membership in the /etc/passwd file.

    The Root Account

    The root account has special privileges on a system: Root is permitted to read and write every file on a system, regardless of the file's ownership and authorization settings. System administrators log in with the root account so that they can fulfill administrative tasks.

    The root account gets its power and privilege from the value of its user number: Root is user number zero, defined in the password file.

    Exam Notes

    Think About It . . .

    What would subsist the effects of changing an ordinary user's user number to zero? What advantage might there subsist of putting root's entry at the discontinuance of the passwd file (instead of the beginning)?

    Changing an ordinary user's user number to zero gives the user root privileges.

    One advantage of putting root at the discontinuance of the password file is that if an intruder is able to modify the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands such as ls and ps would reveal that other user as the owner of root processes and files.

    Sun Certified System Administrator: Job Description & Requirements | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Certified Solaris system administrators are information technology (IT) professionals who install and maintain network servers running one of the Solaris operating system currently available through the Oracle Corporation. They are usually employed by businesses and other organizations with computer networks that consume the company's open source software products. As systems administrators, they may likewise supervise other IT staff and respond to questions and maintenance requests from office workers.

    Education Bachelor's degree in information technology or computer science recommended Job Skills Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communication Salary scope (2019)* $61,390 to $145,437 with Sun Certified System Administrator credentials Job Growth (2016-2026)** 6% for network and computer systems administrators

    Source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Required Education

    Most systems administrators Have completed a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field. Core coursework typically includes topics in programming languages and procedures, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle Corporation in network, security and systems administration. Requirements include a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an approved training center, reviewing seminar packages and taking rehearse exams.

    Skills Required

    Systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are able to troubleshoot issues for big groups of network system users. Stressful situations require clear, quick thinking, and can involve working long hours until the problem is fixed. The talent to multitask can subsist helpful when managing more than one project at a time. Communication skills are key when working with nontechnical staff members.

    Career and Salary Outlook

    The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that jobs for system administrators in general will increase by an unprejudiced pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. Certified system administrators will savor excellent job prospects, as businesses increasingly rely on full-time professionals to maintain their computer operating systems. According to, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating systems earned between $61,390 and $145,437 in April 2019.

    Solaris-Zones: Linux IT Marbles pick up a New Bag | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Seldom is a data seat asked to execute less. More often, it's asked to execute more with less—fewer computers and less power consumption. One significant industry discussion for the past few years has been regarding a reduction in the number of physical servers and an increase in the application-to-server ratio to maximize server utilization. Often, this increase is done via virtualization.

    At Texas Instruments (TI), they Have numerous data centers and design environments that thrive on the consume of Linux and Solaris. Typically, each OS is installed on individual systems stacked elevated and aligned in rows throughout the data center. Linux applications hasten on Linux; Solaris applications hasten on Solaris.

    Recently, a new virtualization solution has emerged that enables IT professionals to combine Linux and Solaris together within one physical environment. This solution reduces the number of physical systems in the computer environment and increases server drudgery with greater efficiency.

    One of the Solaris virtualization environments is called Solaris-Zones (also known as Solaris-Containers). Through the evolution of Open-Solaris, Solaris-Zones has been expanded to advocate zone branding. Solaris-Zones now enables the creation of “lx” branded zones. The lx branded zone supports the installation and execution of the Linux OS and its applications. When lx branded zones are used in conjunction with the ZFS (Zeta-byte File System), Linux environments are able to execute more, faster.

    Linux always has been about technical developers and enthusiasts doing whatever moves them. The security of Solaris-Zones combined with the power of Linux opens a huge new frontier of evolution freedom—from the enterprise environment to the single desktop. With Solaris-Zones, it's simple to define, create, install and execute Linux (lx) branded zones.

    This article introduces lx branded zones and presents the necessary tools for each step of the zone management process. Readers should Have some understanding of a chroot environment and the basic concepts of virtual machines (VMs) and the features they provide. scholarship of these concepts is not required, but it will assist in conveying what a zone is and create a better platform for understanding.

    Zones Simplified

    So, what is a zone? A zone provides security and virtualization in a unique way. The Solaris-Zone has its own filesystem with a root directory, system files and so on, dote that of the primary environment of the physical system. The private root filesystem, one per zone, gives it the talent to subsist fully configurable and flexible. A zone provides nearly the very experience as the main OS. In this regard, it is dote a VM without the VM hardware emulation layer.

    The zone is provided with an operating environment but without a private dedicated kernel. The requisite of a dedicated kernel is a huge performance enhancement—when you experience the boot process, you will observe how quick it is compared to a habitual boot. User and administrator experience within the zone is very similar to that of a plenary VM in flexibility, but dote a chroot environment, it sheds the overhead of a plenary VM.

    It is primary to understand that a zone is not a plenary virtual machine in the sense that you would observe with Xen or VMware or VirtualBox. A zone is an emulation layer, more akin to Wine perhaps, but at a more fundamental level. This, for example, means that an lx branded zone does not contain its own Linux kernel; rather, the kernel calls are redirected by the zone's emulation layer to the underlying Solaris kernel.

    The zone provides security through isolation. Each zone has its own root account and password. The superuser within a zone has no special privileges to gain access to objects outside the zone. No account has rights to exit the zone or examine processes and files outside the zone. Advanced resource management is enabled when control of memory and CPU resources by zone is important. Resource management keeps zones from being harmed by others, including but not limited to CPU and memory starvation.

    Note: the primary Solaris OS and the physical platform on which it executes are likewise known as a zone. It is defined as the global zone and continues to behold and feel as it always has. plenary other zones are created from the global zone. Created zones are called sub or non-global zones. Non-global zones cannot create zones within themselves. figure 1 illustrates the relationship between the global zone, non-global zones and workable VMs.

    Figure 1. Relationships between Zones and VMs

    Zone Branding

    Solaris-Zones became available with the release of Solaris 10 (later Open-Solaris). With these early releases, only a “native” Solaris zone could subsist defined, installed and executed. With the August 2007 release, Solaris-Zones includes advocate for zone branding to allow Linux installation and execution. By default, a zone is defined as native, unless it's defined explicitly as a Linux (lx) branded zone. Once a zone is branded lx, only Linux can subsist installed into that zone.


    The zone experience is defined by a simple command set. Each command is used to manage one of the rational divisions of the zone maintenance process. The primary divisions of zone administration are define, install and execute. The zone experience is very simple; it involves only a few commands. Two of the commands provide advocate for the definition, installation and setup of zones, and the other two are used for a running zone:

  • zonecfg: define a zone (metadata only).

  • zoneadm: install/uninstall, boot and query.

  • zlogin: log in to a zone or connect to its console.

  • zonename: prints the name of the zone executed within.

  • Define a Zone

    Use the zonecfg command to define a zone. Although it is workable to define a zone without networking, plenary examples presented here define zones with networking. Listing 1 shows how to define a network interface for consume by an lx branded zone. With zonecfg, you can create a minimal zone definition, set the zone's name, set its installation path and nature and include a network interface. A minimum definition requires only the branding, zone name and the installation path. The zonecfg command must subsist executed as the superuser. In the examples here, the shell prompt is used to illustrate from which zone a command is run. The initial sample below indicates the shell is within the global zone and ready to “define” a non-global zone by the consume of the zonecfg command.

    Note: ZFS (denoted or hinted at by path names) is used for performance; however, it is not required. Feel free to consume any usurp directory path to build one or more zones.

    Listing 1. Defining an lx Zone

    # List the name of the current zone g-zone# zonename global # Start the zone definition action and define it as "lx" # SUNWlx is the Sun provided "lx" zone template. g-zone# zonecfg -z red-zone red-zone: No such zone configured Use 'create' to open a new zone configuration. zonecfg:red-zone> create -t SUNWlx zonecfg:red-zone> set zonepath=/zpool01/zones/red-zone zonecfg:red-zone> add net zonecfg:red-zone:net> set address= zonecfg:red-zone:net> set physical=e1000g0 zonecfg:red-zone:net> end zonecfg:red-zone> commit # (redundant) zonecfg:red-zone> exit # List defined(configured) and running zones g-zone# zoneadm list -cv ID name STATUS PATH BRAND IP 0 global running / autochthonous shared - red-zone configured /zpool01/zones/red-zone lx shared

    Adjust the paths accordingly to match your local environment. Items to consider are zonepath and network values. Change these to match available storage, local network requirements and available network interface. The first command shows that execution is in the global zone. The zonecfg command defines the name of the zone, the installation path and network attributes. The final command lists plenary configured and running zones. Once a zone is defined, consume the zonecfg command to update or delete a zone configuration.

    Note that not plenary properties can subsist updated or added after a zone has been installed. Generally, properties with this restriction are ones related to autochthonous zone definitions, not lx branded zones. For properties that can subsist changed after a zone is installed, the zone should subsist in a halted condition or rebooted to execute the change active.

    The first sample shows the red-zone as configured. This means it is defined only (metadata created and saved). Two properties in the sample can subsist used to illustrate updating properties of an already-defined zone: zonepath and the network attributes. Each of them can subsist changed while the zone is halted (not running). If a zone has been installed and the zonepath is changed, the operator is required to rush the physical location of the stale zonepath to the location of the new zonepath manually. In the next sample (Listing 2), the directory red-zone needs to subsist renamed to red-zone-x under the /zpool01/zones directory to complete the property update.

    Listing 2. Changing Properties of a Defined Zone

    # They determined the network address is incorrect and that it # needs to subsist updated and they want a different storage location g-zone# zonecfg -z red-zone zonecfg:red-zone> set zonepath=/zpool01/zone/red-zone-x zonecfg:red-zone> select net address= zonecfg:red-zone:net> set address= zonecfg:red-zone:net> end zonecfg:red-zone> exit # consume zonecfg's "info" sub-command to list the zone's definition g-zone# zonecfg -z red-zone info zonename: red-zone zonepath: /zpool01/zone/red-zone-x brand: lx autoboot: false bootargs: pool: limitpriv: scheduling-class: ip-type: shared net: address: physical: e1000g0 # The zone definition can subsist deleted g-zone# zoncfg -z red-zone delete -F

    Install a Defined Zone

    We now Have a defined zone. consume the zoneadm command to complete the OS installation into the zone named red-zone. The sub functions of zoneadm are related to the execution status of a zone. The install process of an lx branded zone requires Linux media. The media can subsist provided in a physical contour and loaded into the system's CD-ROM drive, or you can consume the “green” routine and provide the image as one or more ISO files.

    Listing 3. Install a Zone

    # List the zone definition (from Listing 1) g-zone# zonecfg -z red-zone info zonename: red-zone zonepath: /zpool01/zones/red-zone brand: lx autoboot: false bootargs: pool: limitpriv: scheduling-class: ip-type: shared net: address: physical: e1000g0 # The ISO files: g-zone# ls /zpool01/rh-media/rhel30-AS-U6/ rhel-3-u6-i386-as-disc1.iso rhel-3-u6-i386-as-disc3.iso rhel-3-u6-i386-as-disc2.iso rhel-3-u6-i386-as-disc4.iso # Install linux "desktop" distribution g-zone# zoneadm -z red-zone install -d ↪/zpool01/rh-media/rhel30-AS-U6 desktop Installing distribution 'Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 6'... Installing cluster 'desktop' Installing miniroot for zone 'red-zone'. Attempting to locate 30 packages... Installing 1 miniroot package... Attempting to locate 29 packages... Installing 29 miniroot packages... ... Installation of zone 'red-zone' completed successfully. Details saved to log file: "/zpool01/zones/red-zone/root/var/log/red-zone.install.1119.log" # Query the zones status (changed to installed) g-zone# zoneadm list -cv ID name STATUS PATH BRAND IP 0 global running / autochthonous shared - red-zone installed /zpool01/zones/red-zone lx shared

    Boot the Zone

    Once the zone installation is complete, it's time to boot it. Create two shells, and hasten the commands shown in Listing 4. Connect to the zone console first, then boot the zone in the second shell to pick up the plenary console experience (it's very fast, you'll not want to miss it). The sample zlogin connects to the zone's console device and configures the escape (exit the zlogin) as the “#.” (pound mark then period) key sequence. This key sequence should subsist unique and avoid issues that the default sequence of “~.” (tilde then period) can antecedent when connectivity to the global zone is remote.

    Listing 4. Boot a Zone

    # Connect to the red-zone console and watch it boot g-zone(1)# zlogin C -e '#' red-zone # Boot the red-zone in a second window g-zone(2)# zoneadm -z red-zone boot # **** sample console output from first window **** [Connected to zone 'red-zone' console] [NOTICE: Zone booting up] INIT: version 2.85 booting Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS Press 'I' to enter interactive startup. Configuring kernel parameters: [ OK ] Setting clock : Mon Sep 29 20:20:56 EDT 2008 [ OK ] Setting hostname red-zone: [ OK ] ... Starting atd: [ OK ] Starting firstboot: [ OK ] Rotating KDC list [ OK ] Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS release 3 (Taroon Update 6) Kernel 2.4.21 on an i686 red-zone login:


    A non-global zone has nearly the very abilities as the global zone to provide services: login connections are not limited to text or console logins. The consume of zlogin with no options (only the zone name) connects to the zone without a console, which creates a tty and invokes login. Any lively zone service likewise can subsist used, such as XDM, SSH and FTP, to allow other forms of login.

    Listing 5. Log In to a Zone

    # Connect to zone's console g-zone# zlogin -C -e '#' red-zone # Login without a console (must always subsist root) g-zone# zlogin red-zone ... r-zone# zonename red-zone

    Zone Administration

    We now Have a zone defined, installed and running. The examples presented here illustrate some of the administrative tasks associated with zones: reboot, shutdown, halt and deletion of an lx branded zone. Pay close attention to the shell prompts to identify the zone in which each command is run.

    Listing 6. Zone Administration

    # By default a zone will *not* auto boot when the system boots g-zone# zonecfg -z red-zone set autoboot=true # Reboot/stop a zone gracefully g-zone# zlogin -C -e '#' red-zone # Login, then consume a habitual Linux command (examples) r-zone# reboot r-zone# shutdown -r now r-zone# telinit 6 r-zone# telinit 0 (once halted boot it from global zone) # Bring down a zone hard (stop plenary execution now!) g-zone# zoneadm -z red-zone halt # very as halt and boot (hard halt then boot) g-zone# zoneadm -z red-zone reboot # Uninstall the OS from a zone (still defined) g-zone# zoneadm -z red-zone halt g-zone# zoneadm -z red-zone uninstall [ -F ] # Clone an installed zone's OS into another defined zone # (when the source is on ZFS the clone takes seconds to # install the new zone, otherwise may hold many minutes!) g-zone# zonecfg -z red-eye create -t red-zone g-zone# zonecfg -z red-eye set zonepath=/zpool01/zones/red-eye g-zone# zonecfg -z red-eye zonecfg:red-eye> select net address= zonecfg:red-eye:net> set address= zonecfg:red-eye:net> end zonecfg:red-eye> exit g-zone# zoneadm list -cv ID name STATUS PATH BRAND IP 0 global running / autochthonous shared - red-zone installed /zpool01/zones/red-zone lx shared - red-eye configured /zpool01/zones/red-eye lx shared g-zone# zoneadm -z red-eye clone red-zone Cloning zonepath /zpool01/zones/red-zone... g-zone# zoneadm list -cv ID name STATUS PATH BRAND IP 0 global running / autochthonous shared - red-zone installed /zpool01/zones/red-zone lx shared - red-eye installed /zpool01/zones/red-eye lx shared # Remove a zone (No undo) g-zone# zoneadm -z red-eye halt g-zone# zoneadm -z red-eye uninstall -F g-zone# zonecfg -z red-eye delete -F

    Automated Zone Creation (

    The zone creation steps are straightforward and simple. The process may hold only a few steps, but they are manual and error-prone. The utility (see Resources) automates the zone creation process and includes detailed POD documentation. hasten without arguments or with the --help option to panoply usage details. Listing 7 shows an sample of using

    Listing 7. Zone Definition Using

    $ sudo \ [ --debug ] \ --create \ --zonename green-zone \ --brand SUNWlx[,server ] \ --zonepath /zpool01/zones \ [ --autoboot ( just | incorrect ) ] \ [ --clone red-zone | --media /path/to/ISOs ] \ --network 'e1000g0='

    Closing Thoughts and Ideas

    With relatively diminutive amounts of disk and memory resources, a single physical server can host hundreds of zones. Each zone is usable by any number of users, and a single-user zone provides extreme flexibility. A single user can create more than one zone to test both server and client environments, and the applications will believe they are on unique physical hosts. A zone user may Have consume of the zone's unique root password or unfettered sudo access within that zone without concern for security and stability of the global zone and other non-global zones.

    The lx branded zone does Have its limitations. Much of the zone's power comes from securely shared resources with the global zone. The zone shares a kernel with the global zone and, therefore, places limits on kernel modules and drivers. Because zones are not plenary VMs, the Linux distributions that can subsist installed in an lx branded zone are limited. advocate for other Linux releases is possible, and further interest in this technology will inspire continued evolution and advocate for additional Linux distributions. Review the Resources section of this article for more information on this and related topics.

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    International Edition Textbooks

    Save huge amounts of cash when you buy international edition textbooks from An international edition is a textbook that has been published outside of the US and can be drastically cheaper than the US edition.

    ** International edition textbooks save students an average of 50% over the prices offered at their college bookstores.

    Highlights > Recent Additions
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    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
    By Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones
    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 129217613X
    ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Our ISBN10 : 129217613X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Computer Security: Principles and PracticeComputer Security: Principles and Practice
    By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown
    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
    ISBN10 : 0134794109
    ISBN13 : 9780134794105
    Our ISBN10 : 1292220619
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292220611
    Subject : Computer Science & Technology
    Price : $65.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126046542X
    ISBN13 : 9781260465426
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $39.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 0078021782
    ISBN13 : 9780078021787
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $65.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William G Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
    ISBN13 : 9781260211108
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260682137
    ISBN13 : 9781260682137
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $80.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260277143
    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $77.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1259929434
    ISBN13 : 9781259929434
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $76.00
    By Peter W. Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260128474
    ISBN13 : 9781260128475
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $39.00
    By Peter Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260147150
    ISBN13 : 9781260147155
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $64.00
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