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310-301 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Security Administrator for the Solaris 9 Operating System
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Few things are as inescapable as the sun rising every morning in the east and setting every evening in the west.
Derrek Vaughn | The Valdosta Daily TimesValdosta has installed solar panels at the site of the stale and the unusual wastewater treatment plants.
The conviction is alluring. If a tiny seed can capture the energy of the sun to grow into a massive tree, then surely people can employ it to power a measure 100 watt light bulb.
Solar energy was once considered to subsist the stuff of science fiction or futuristic thinkers. Burning coal and fossil fuels, structure dams and and even nuclear reactors to produce energy were everything considered viable sources of power generation. But solar power generation is here and here to stay.
Still, like most things, there is a catch.
The Sunlight Project team in Georgia and North Florida took a peep into one of the world’s fastest growing markets.
In Georgia, with more than 197 solar companies at work, investing $79 million for residential and traffic installation, solar energy production can no longer subsist ignored or seen as niche.
According to Solar Energy Industries Association, Georgia produces more than 1,000 megawatts of solar power, which is near to double a typical coal plant. The Peach situation likewise has 167,000 homes powered by solar and nearly 4,000 solar-related jobs. Clearly, it's not just eco-friendly people jumping on the solar-power bandwagon.
James LaValley, a Valdosta resident, wanted to invest in his home — not for himself but for his children. In 2015, the 74-year-old retired unusual Yorker decided he would travel solar. After a quick internet search, he organize a traffic in Vidalia, known more for its onions than solar power, that would approach to his position in Valdosta to install solar panels to his roof.
“The way this guy set it seemed to me like a no-brainer,” LaValley said. “Looked to me like I wouldn’t subsist paying any energy bill at all.”
Installation took two weeks. It cost LaValley $30,000, but with federal tax breaks, he only ended up $20,000 in the hole. The cost didn’t bother him. It was worth the investment, he thought and he said he was told his investment would subsist paid back in less than five years.
The useful life of a solar panel is estimated at 20 to 30 years.
LaValley didn’t remark a downside. He believed his energy bill would travel from $170 a month to as low as $15, maybe $10. After the panels were up and running, he became excited when he saw they were producing more energy than his house was using.
“It was great. I thought my bill would travel even lower,” LaValley said. “I was happy, then I saw the actual bill and it was like I was struck in the heart.”
His bill went down but not by as much as he wanted it to — as he needed it to. When LaValley brought this up to the installer, who was likewise a lawyer, he told LaValley it was proper and this was a battle he had been fighting in court for years.
“I felt ripped off, like I had been taken handicap of,” LaValley said.
His solar panels were soundless producing way more energy than he was using but his energy wasn’t worth as much as he was told it would be. His next step was to find a local professional to manage his solar panels.
LaValley turned to Ron Jackson, project manager of South Georgia Solar Power. Jackson said solar power has benefited the utility companies at the expense of homeowners who suffer high-cost panels installed.
He said people such as LaValley invest their own money, feeding the energy into a utility provider’s grid only to subsist compensated a fraction of the amount utility companies suffuse for the selfsame power.
Energy that LaValley sells to a utility company such as Georgia Power is purchased for less than the cost of the energy Georgia Power sells back to LaValley.
For example, Georgia Power can buy any power LaValley doesn’t employ for five cents per unit and sell it back to him at 15 cents.
“He is making energy for them and not seeing any benefit,” Jackson said. “He should subsist getting $20 a month from them not a bill.”
The problem in LaValley’s situation has to achieve with energy storage. He is producing too much energy and has nowhere to set it except into Georgia Power’s grid. He could buy a Tesla Powerwall, a giant battery meant for storing solar energy, but those can cost about $5,000.
For LaValley, that’s more money then he bargained for, and the situation he is in is why Georgia Power, the largest subsidiary of Southern Company, one of the nation's largest generators of electricity, recommends for people to converse to them before investing in solar power.
John Kraft, Georgia Power representative, said the company is aware of situations such as LaValley’s. The company offers tremendous aid to those interested in solar, he said. Georgia Power will drudgery with them and even forward representatives to their home to peep into the matter.
“What we’re really doing is trying to find out why they want solar,” Kraft said. “There can subsist a number of reasons, like for the environment or for a cheaper electric bill. Sometimes they suffer to counsel them that there are cheaper ways to lower your electric bill than installing solar panels.”
Kraft said he sees a lot of customers thinking they can install solar panels and never pay an electric bill again. However, unless someone has a position to set the power, they will continue paying power bills.
The person will suffer to sell their unused power back to a utility company and buy back power during times when the panels aren’t generating power, at night or early in the morning, for instance.
The utility company offers to pay the producer only as much as it costs to produce solar power. If a utility company can produce solar energy at a solar farm for 5 cents per unit, it isn’t going to pay a residential producer a higher rate for energy it doesn’t need.
From LaValley’s point of view, this isn’t fair.
He is producing Georgia Power energy and thinks he is not getting a just rate. However, why should Georgia Power pay him more for something it already produces for less?
Local, situation and federal governments struggle with how to regulate the solar power industry while not stifling its growth.
The Sunlight Project looked into city and county laws regulating solar power across the coverage area — Valdosta, Dalton, Thomasville, Milledgeville, Tifton and Moultrie, Ga., and Live Oak, Jasper and Mayo, Fla., along with the surrounding counties.
Submitted PhotoAmanda and Corey Reed's chicken coop for AJ Farm with solar panels attached in Mayo, Fla.
Regulating the Sun
Thomas County commissioners broached the thought of solar-panel legislation last year. In October, they approved a 30-day moratorium on solar installations that in November was extended to six months.
The county lifted the moratorium in late April, two weeks ahead of its scheduled end. Commissioners suffer set in position a $1,000 zoning application fee for solar facilities.
Earlier this year, commissioners approved an amendment that split solar employ into two categories — one for installations at homes and businesses that would provide power to locations and another for solar farms that would generate power to subsist sold to utility companies.
Solar farms of more than 200 acres would subsist considered commercial ventures and permitted in industrial and commercial land employ districts and as conditional employ in agricultural districts. They would not subsist permitted in residential zones.
Solar farms of 200 acres or fewer will subsist classified as a conditional employ in agricultural districts and topic to approval on a case-by-case basis. Setbacks for the location of solar facilities are 100 feet from everything property lines, with 500-foot setbacks from residences and residential land employ districts.
Another provision requires applicants for solar facilities to provide a performance guarantee in the profile of a bond, irrevocable letter of credit or other financial security acceptable to Thomas County in the amount of 125 percent of the estimated decommissioning cost, minus the salvageable value, or $50,000, whichever is greater.
Thomas County Commission Chairman Ken Hickey said additional tweaks to legislation might subsist needed, including a consideration of necessary variances for installers.
“With the solar ordinance, I’ve said everything the time, there is no one size fits all. everything the land is different. The contours are different. The acreage is different. The topography is different. Everything is different. You need this kindly of variance so you can drudgery with people on their projects. Whether you pick to or not, the option will subsist there," he said.
Grady County likewise enacted moratoriums while discussing potential solar facilities.
"One prospective solar farm developer had plans for a very great solar farm that could suffer great impacts on the county," Grady County Administrator Carlos Tobar said of the moratoriums. "I wanted to create positive the board of commissioners was aware of such a great development. They everything agreed that they should address such a project with an ordinance."
The first moratorium, 60-days long, was enacted in February and the second brief moratorium was enacted in May. The Grady County Commission approved an ordinance for solar farms, which falls under the county's land employ regulations, in early June.
Grady's land employ ordinances, now including solar farms, require an opaque vegetative buffer along everything property lines. Setbacks involve 35 feet from everything property lines and 300 feet from homes, churches or businesses. The ordinance likewise includes decommissioning specifics for the solar facility owner if the facility discontinues operation.
"We certainly know from their neighboring counties that solar farms generate significant tax revenue for a community," Tobar said. "That reduces the tax visitation on their property owners and that is a grandiose thing."
One solar farm is under construction in Grady County — diminutive enough that the previous administration did not address it legislatively, Tobar said.
Colquitt County has approved three solar projects so far this year. The first was a 10-acre Hannah Solar project. Hannah Solar is a North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners certified solar power company. The site produces 2 megawatts and is up and running, said Justin Cox, director of the county's compliance office
The county faced an influx of permit requests near the deadline for bids to Georgia Power. Commissioners enacted a 90-day moratorium while it studied the issue and drafted a solar ordinance.
Since the moratorium was lifted, two potential projects suffer been permitted, Cox said. One is a great 95.9-megawatt development covering 420 acres on eight parcels of land issued to eagle Solar in May.
The other, permitted in April to Odom Solar, would suffer 260 acres of panels producing 20 megawatts.
Both were among the compress bids to Georgia Power.
"Both had special-use permits granted," Cox said. "Whether they're going to proceed with them, that's unknown."
Two other companies suffer requested permit documents.
"They've got the paperwork but they haven't turned anything in," Cox said.
The City of Valdosta has no local ordinances that directly regulate the employ of solar power, said Sementha Mathews, the city public information officer.
From a zoning standpoint, the city simply looks at the employ of solar arrays in one of two different categories: “individual use” to augment a particular development, or “solar farm” for the primary purpose of generating electricity to subsist sold back to the grid.
If a solar panel is attached to a building, the city considers it allotment of the building. If a solar panel is freestanding, it is considered the selfsame as any other freestanding accessory structure. If it is a solar electric generating facility, it is treated similarly to other such electric-generating facilities.
“The City of Valdosta is leading the situation and this allotment of the country with their commitment to renewable energy resources,” Mathews said.
Sites located within the city limits or on city-owned property are 11 acres of land for Mud Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant; five acres for unusual Withlacoochee Wastewater Treatment Plant; eight acres at a closed landfill located on Val Tech Road, adjacent to the Valdosta situation Prison, along with another 3.5 acres near the shooting purview on Val Tech Road.
In the City of Valdosta, sites for solar panels are chosen when the lands no longer suffer a public use, such as an stale landfill.
“The employ of Solar PD installations is an innovative way for the City of Valdosta to subsist in the renewable energy game and likewise generate capital assets off of land that could not subsist developed for anything else,” Mathews said.
As for Lowndes County, officials said they are supportive of solar energy but the county does not suffer an energetic solar power generation program, said Paige Dukes, county clerk. Lowndes County likewise does not suffer any laws discouraging or incentivizing solar power.
Neither the City of Tifton nor Tift County has established any moratorium on solar farms.
Derrek Vaughn | The Valdosta Daily TimesSolar panels were installed at the site of the stale Withlacoochee Wastewater Treatment Plant as the land can not subsist used for any other purpose.
Who Is Using Solar Power?
When it comes to using solar power, bigger is better. It’s likewise cheaper.
In 2017, Georgia Power has been looking to boost sun-based generation.
Kraft said the company has made a huge commitment to renewable energy, looking to boost capacity through a fuse of solar, wind and biomass by some 1,200 megawatts through its Renewable Energy development Initiative. This included a bidding process for 525 megawatts that ended earlier this year and an equal amount to subsist bid in 2019. Of the total of 1,050 megawatts, up to 300 are expected to subsist generated by wind.
One megawatt is defined as the amount of electricity that will power some 1,000 homes. For example, a typical coal plant is about 600 MW in size, according to the Union of Concerned Scientists.
"We suffer one of the biggest willing solar expansions in the nation," Kraft said.
He contrasted this willing expansion to some states that mandated rapid ramping up of solar earlier, which locked in higher costs before technology improved and cost of production dropped. Currently, the company's fuse includes about 4 percent renewable sources, including hydroelectric, solar and other renewables. About 47 percent is generated with natural gas, 29 percent with coal, and 20 percent nuclear.
Kraft said hydro and other renewables represent 8 percent of total capacity, but solar energy is limited in that it is only made while the sun shines. Georgia Power is diversifying its renewable energy source by buying 250 megawatts of wind power generated in Oklahoma.
Georgia Power's parent company Southern Company has a research project in Northwest Georgia involving storing power generated through solar for later employ with the Electric Power Research Institute. Georgia Power likewise has a diminutive research project on the roof of its headquarter's parking facility, where various types of solar panels are tested.
"Here in the Southeast, they salvage a lot of cloud cover, a lot of rain and humidity," Kraft said. "We're looking at which panels drudgery best in the Southeast. That's an ongoing project."
In this environment, the best solar generation is realized in the spring and tumble when humidity drops, he said.
"Solar panels are most efficient when it's cool," Kraft said.
Currently, the manner used to store energy from nuclear plants, which produce a constant output when operating, accounts for nearly everything storage that can subsist set into the system when needed. During times when excess power is generated, water is pumped into storage facilities. When more electricity is needed, the water is released to speed downhill to revolve turbines.
Georgia Power has designed its enlarge in renewable generation sources. It only adds more when the cost of production is at or below the cost of generating non-renewable sources of electric power, Kraft said.
In 2015, Tifton granted approvals to Sparrow Hawk Renewable Energy and United Renewable Energy to build a solar farm on 7.11 acres. The application asked for the acreage to subsist rezoned from multiple residential to suburban agriculture.
The solar farm was built as allotment of the Georgia Power Renewable Energy project and provides electricity for approximately 125 to 150 homes.
More recently, the unusual Veterans Affairs Clinic had solar panels installed on its roof.
In Milledgeville and Baldwin County, private solar panels are few and far between. However, the proliferation of solar energy into Georgia’s infrastructure has already hit near to home.
At the Central situation Hospital campus, the CSH Local Redevelopment Authority has approved three divorce projects to bring solar energy to the hospital grounds. While the projects will not technically fulfill the agency’s stated goal of bringing unusual jobs to southern Milledgeville, the three mini-farms stand to power the campus’s massive Bobby E. Parham Kitchen and bring the campus $50,000 in payments to rent out the needed space.
The first project is a blueprint by Atlanta-based Hannah Solar to build more than 14,000 solar panels on top of a closed landfill on the CSH campus and the energy gathered will subsist sold to Georgia Power as allotment of its solar buyback program.
Hannah has likewise planned another 2.2 acre, 1,678-panel farm to subsist built on top of the Parham structure to power its newly revitalized kitchen (which at one time was touted as the largest commercial kitchen in the world).
The third project is a blueprint by Birmingham-based Allied Energy to convert roughly 15 acres of non-developed hillside land into 9,375 panels, likewise to subsist sold to Georgia Power via the solar buyback. While the Hannah landfill and Allied Energy hillside projects are soundless awaiting approval by Georgia Power, CSHLRA Director Mike Couch said he believes everything three projects can subsist completed by the cessation of the year.
Couch said a company as successful as Georgia Power would not shift from fossil-fuel-based energy to what he calls “passive energy,” if there wasn’t value in it.
“The other side of it to me is that it’s just the kindly of thing they ought to subsist working on anyway,” Couch said. “As I understand, the science is only getting better as far as battery storage capability and the lifespan of the panels, so to me they ought to subsist engaged in that, and it helps us as they approach businesses everything over the country.”
Europe is ahead of the game, he said. He lived there for 10 years in the 1980s and '90s and saw the countryside littered with wind turbines and solar panels.
Thomas Lynn | The Valdosta Daily TimesRon Jackson, South Georgia Solar Power project manager, and James LaValley in front of LaValley's solar panels at his house in Valdosta. Jackson did not install his panels, but maintains them for LaValley.
Solar Programs that Work
Amanda and Corey Reed in Mayo, Fla., just wanted to find a way to reduce the cost of their electric bill.
As poultry farmers, they often receive bills upwards of $3,000.
“A third of their annual income was spent on energy consumption,” Amanda Reed said.
Reed said she had been looking into solar power for several years but it was so expensive to salvage started. She knew there were programs for inescapable farmers to salvage financial aid to employ solar power but there was nothing for poultry farmers.
“The cost of production was killing us,” Reed said.
Three years ago, Reed reached out to the Florida Department of Agriculture, Department of Energy, Congressman Ted Yoho and Representative Halsey Beshears to find options.
Reed’s hard drudgery and persistence paid off.
The poultry farm is now allotment of a pilot program for the Department of Agriculture to remark if solar power is a viable option for poultry farmers.
“We are the guinea pigs,” Reed said.
Solar panels that supply the farm with approximately half of its annual energy were installed at the farm. As allotment of the program, Reed will collect data for a year and compare it to the previous year to bespeak how much the farm saved with solar power.
They turned on the solar panels in February and the savings suffer been tremendous, she said.
“Our bill last month was $25 compared to last year’s $1,200 bill,” Reed said.
The $25 was the cost of using Suwannee Valley Electric Cooperation’s meter, not energy consumption. Reed said the pilot program is going phenomenally.
She believes solar power is the future for farmers. The cost of production is forcing many farms out of traffic and solar power could subsist a way to save farming and agriculture.
Once a year, data is collected, and Reed and the Department of Agriculture blueprint to present it to the state. They hope to salvage a vouchsafe or cost-sharing program started for other poultry farmers.
Across the SunLight Project coverage area — Valdosta, Dalton, Thomasville, Milledgeville, Tifton and Moultrie, Ga., and Live Oak, Jasper and Mayo, Fla., along with the surrounding counties — there are a number of programs available for residents to capture the power of the sun without spending an arm and a leg to install solar panels to the roof of their home.
The Reeds, for example, are allotment of the 33 SVEC members that suffer solar panels connected to the SVEC system, or what the co-op calls member-owned solar.
Through the program, SVEC allows members to generate power for their use. Using net metering, SVEC compares the amount of power it provides to the amount the member provides the co-op. In months when the member’s solar power system provides more energy than the member uses, SVEC credits the excess power.
The credits are carried over to the next month’s bill. At the cessation of a year, the credit can subsist paid out with the tariff to the member or, if the member desires, SVEC will credit the dollar amount to the next year’s first billing.
Seminole Electric Cooperative, which provides power to SVEC and eight other co-ops, and the nine not-for-profit co-ops are likewise looking into providing cooperative solar.
According to Ryan Hart, Seminole’s manager of corporate communication and energy policy, the large-scale solar project is a result of cooperatives listening to their members and taking action.
Construction began on the solar plant in August 2016, When the program is ready to start energy output from the facility, it will subsist allotted to the member cooperatives. The cooperatives will then suffer the choice to add the power to their energy portfolio or sell individual units to their member consumers.
SVEC was allotted 144 solar blocks from the project. The blocks sold out within four hours, according to SVEC’s Jon Little, who said members were allowed to purchase two blocks.
While Seminole and SVEC are looking to add solar power as a source of energy for their member consumers, Duke Energy is looking to Suwannee County as a source of solar power. The company retired the Suwannee River Power Plant in December after 63 years of service.
In January, Duke announced plans for an 8.8-megawatt solar plant to subsist built on 70 acres of land just east of the existing plant. The Suwannee Solar Facility, which Duke hopes to suffer in operation by the cessation of the year, will subsist able to power about 1,700 average homes at peak production.
"We are committed to expanding clean energy in Florida," said Harry Sideris, Duke Energy situation president – Florida. "Retiring older units like those at Suwannee River and structure unusual solar power plants provides the greatest amount of renewable energy for customers, in the most economical way.”
What are Electric Membership Corporations?
For some Georgia electric membership corporations, not-for-profit consumer-owned electric distribution systems, customers suffer an option for purchasing green energy, but it is not available for Colquitt EMC customers.
The company purchases electricity generated at solar facilities and is allotment of a group using power generated by burning waste gas from the landfill in Lowndes County, said Charlie Tucker, Colquitt EMC's manager of engineering.
Snapping Shoals EMC in Covington has a program that allows customers to buy blocks of solar energy produced at a 17-acre facility. Customers can purchase up to two blocks at a cost of $20 each per month.
Green Power EMC, a cooperative of participating Georgia EMCs created in 2001, has a 52-megawatt solar farm near Hazelhurst with 630,000 solar panels covering 480 acres on a 942-acre site. It began operating last year and has a generating capacity to power about 8,500 households.
A second 89,000-panel array covering half of a 270-acre site provides enough energy for about 3,000 homes.
"We're just putting solar directly into their mix," Tucker said. "It has gotten a lot more competitive over the last couple of years."
Like Georgia Power, Colquitt EMC will consult with consumers looking to install residential panels.
"We're more involved in the safety aspects of getting (the excess generation) back on line," he said.
Colquitt EMC purchases that excess energy generated beyond a resident's own use. Tucker estimated that less than 2 percent of the power it sells comes from purchasing solar and its landfill gas project.
EMC members in the county are not exactly banging down the door at this point.
"We haven't had a lot of interest in this allotment of the state," Tucker said. "We probably salvage a couple of calls a month about it."
He estimated there are about 14 customers who are selling power back to the EMC. He said there are others with solar installations who are using the electricity generated but not producing any extra to sell but he had no appraise of how many customers tumble into that category.
In Grady County, a two megawatt solar farm will travel online within the next few weeks, according to Grady EMC President and generic Manager Bo Rosser. The facility, a partnership with Grady EMC, Cairo Solar Farm LLC and Green Power EMC, will service approximately 350 homes.
Along with the incoming facility, Grady EMC likewise boasts a diminutive two kilowatt system for testing and analysis and serves eight to 10 solar photovoltaic systems — affirming the stance of the company on solar power.
"At Grady EMC, they are very committed to solar because of the significance of having diverse power generation sources and considering options that will subsist beneficial to their members," Rosser said. "More sources subsist necessary more reliable, affordable power in the long speed and your system will subsist better able to proper to unforeseen changes in the power grid."
Rosser said advancements in solar power suffer made it a more viable option on both the individual and utility level.
"We are working hard to ensure their members suffer options if either they want to participate on their own in a private system or with Grady EMC through a cooperative solar arrangement they blueprint to offer," he said.
The costs of solar power are based on numerous factors, Rosser said, such as initial size of system, fixed or tracking systems, roof mounting and nature of roof, among others.
"The solar industry indicates prices suffer dropped since their initial offerings, and the solar panels suffer become more efficient,” Rosser said. "The financial feasibility naturally rests with the individual making that determination.”
In Putnam County, the Tri-County Electric Membership Corporation has invested roughly $2 million to create a one-megawatt solar power site to provide electricity to its 21,000 customers in eight Middle Georgia counties.
The project is known as “ourSolar.”
Customers who buy in suffer the option to rent up to 16 panels from the company’s 10-acre, 4,200-panel site, which cost $25 per 4-panel obstruct per month. Energy generated from each obstruct replaces customers’ proper intake from the Tri-County grid at no additional cost and the company says each obstruct generates roughly 160-250 kilowatt hours per month.
Unfortunately for environmentally conscious customers, the U.S. Energy Information Administration lists the average monthly kilowatt hours intake per customer at more than 900, making the purchase of multiple blocks necessary for most of those who want to completely cover their usage.
More than 60 percent of the site’s 850 available blocks suffer been reserved since the project’s announcement last July.
Installing Panels at Home
While renting a panel obstruct from an existing solar farm is relatively inexpensive, installing a power system for one’s home can cost many thousands of dollars.
Even with numerous loans, tax credits and incentives, including the federal Investment Tax Credit that returns up to 30 percent of the cost of a system, the average homeowner will need to operate the system for several years before seeing a return on the investment, industry representatives suffer said.
For residences and businesses looking to purchase sun power, Georgia Power offers its Simple Solar program where customers pay an extra penny per kilowatt hour per month. The program replaced the Green Energy program, which was discontinued at the cessation of 2016.
Later this year, Georgia Power will interlard its community solar program, where customers can purchase off-site solar panels maintained by the company. Customers will receive the capitalize of the power generated by the panels.
Georgia Power likewise gives extensive advice to homeowners looking to install rooftop-solar on their homes, said John Kraft, a Georgia Power representative. That includes a representative meeting with the homeowner to discuss a project through installation, if the customer chooses.
The advice covers such aspects as the practicality — a mostly shaded roof would not subsist a excellent candidate for an expensive solar installation. Other considerations involve the age of the roof; installing solar panels on a roof that is likely to need replacing in a few years could subsist a destitute choice, Kraft said.
In some instances, the advice may subsist to supersede an stale central air system with a newer, more efficient one, where the project could pay for itself in less than five years versus 12 years for solar, he said.
Putting solar panels on a house should subsist seen as a staid investment and not as a quick way to reduce a power bill, experts said.
For homeowners only motivated by a wish to reduce monthly energy costs, going solar is not a quick retort — yet.
The SunLight Project team of journalists who contributed to this report includes Patti Dozier, Thomas Lynn, Charles Oliver, Will Woolever, Alan Mauldin and Eve Guevara, along with the writer, team leader John Stephen. To contact the team, email email@example.com.
Thomas Lynn is a government and education reporter for The Valdosta Daily Times. He can subsist reached at (229)244-3400 ext. 1256
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On November 9, Oracle officially launched Solaris 11, the latest generation of the operating system it acquired with Sun Microsystems. Oracle is hyping the latest version of Solaris as the "first Cloud OS" and the "first fully virtualized operating system." Regardless of the marketing, the question remains whether this release of Solaris—over a year after it was first previewed—is enough to boost self-confidence in the future of the operating system and create it a contender beyond Oracle's Sparc platform.
Oracle CEO Larry Ellison made strong statements about his company's commitment to Solaris when Oracle acquired Sun, and the company's executives suffer made a point of emphasizing the investment that Oracle has made in developing Solaris for both Sparc and x86 platforms. The company's Move to cessation the OpenSolaris project, the open-source community distribution of the Solaris platform that was launched by Sun in an pains to compete with Linux and to drive community development around emerging Solaris technologies, was explained by Oracle as allotment of an pains to focus investment on development of Solaris 11 on Intel. Ironically, some of the features that stand out in Solaris 11 are technologies that were kicked off at Sun as allotment of OpenSolaris.
Solaris 11 improves on the "Solaris Zones" virtualization technology that Sun introduced in Solaris 10, including the"branded zones" that were allotment of OpenSolaris. Solaris zones are isolated virtual servers running within a single instance of the Solaris operating system. This allows multiple applications to speed within the selfsame operating system within isolated containers to guarantee there's no interaction between them, and the failure of one zone has no impact on the other virtual servers running within Solaris. The handicap of zones is that there's no need to speed additional copies of the operating system within each virtual server, saving overhead and potentially reducing the number of physical servers required to speed a set of workloads in comparison to a hypervisor environment. Sun claims that Solaris Zones suffer 15 times less overhead than VMware.
Another enhancement introduced in Solaris 11 is its internal network virtualization capabilities, which allow the creation of virtual network switches, load balancers, and other infrastructure within a Solaris server to simplify the configuration of virtual server instances. Those features were initiated as "Project Crossbow" in OpenSolaris 2009.06. And it's these technologies, along with the Solaris ZFS network file system, that Oracle is using to position Solaris 11 as a "cloud OS" and as a competitor to VMware's virtualization environments.
While these technologies predate the Oracle acquisition of Sun, it's transparent that Oracle has invested significantly in making them into actual products—products that integrate tightly with everything else Oracle sells. One of the features of Solaris 11 is the Oracle Enterprise Manager Ops Center, a built-in set of tools that pulls together the management of everything of the virtual and physical computing, storage and networking resources in Solaris servers and the application stack running within them.
Oracle clearly has its sights set on the increasingly x86-driven world of cloud infrastructure with Solaris 11. The question is how much impact the OS will suffer outside Oracle's own vertically-integrated product line. While zones may subsist more efficient than VMware virtual machines, they're soundless running Solaris, and that's not exactly a ample win for would-be customers who suffer already invested in applications on some other OS. For a diminutive set of customers who want Solaris security and are willing to pay a premium for a cloud based on it, the unusual features in Solaris 11 may create that determination a bit more palatable.
By Isaac Anumihe
Captain Temilola Okesanjo is the Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer of NLNG Ship Management Limited (NSML). He joined Nigeria LNG Limited (NLNG) in April 1999. By dint of hard work, he worked his way up from Head of Shipping Operations to Manager, Shipping in 2002. In 2005, he was promoted to generic Manager, Shipping from where he climbed to the position of Managing Director, NSML in 2017.
“In my previous role, I had the chance of kick-starting the shipping activities of Nigeria LNG in 1999, developing everything it took to commence NLNG Shipping Operations at the inception of Cargo Production in September, 1999 . I led major shipping activities and developments in NLNG, from the Nigerianisation programme, right up to the conceptual development, construction and chartering of six newly built Dual Fuel Diesel Engine (DFDE) LNG Carriers,” he said.
Okesanjo is likewise the brain behind the setting up of the Maritime Centre of Excellence (MCOE) which has been certified as well-equipped maritime research and development centre. He made other disclosures.
When I talk about Nigerianisation, I am talking about what it takes for the ships, owned by Bonny Gas Transport (BGT), BW Gas and Nippon Yusen Kaisha (NYK) and chartered to NLNG, to subsist manned by Nigerians who are trained right from cadetship stage up to captain and chief engineer levels. It goes beyond this to developing these people into what they convoke Superintendents for the purpose of managing ships; one of those things they acquired as allotment of their capacity development drive. Some of them suffer already grown into managers in the office. Through different interventions, including Ship Management knowledge Transfer, Nigerians are today manning NSML, right from the managing director to the vessels. Not only achieve they manage ships, they likewise manage terminals. The Bonny terminal, where they load Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and condensate, is managed by Nigerians. These are professionals who are thoroughly accomplished in marine activities and who suffer acquired the capacity to create positive things are speed and cargos delivered safely to customer terminals everything around the world.
Who were managing them before now?
These two activities, terminal management and ship management, were done by one of the shareholders of NLNG. Whichever way you peep at it, with the aid and advocate of shareholders, they suffer been able to acquire this capacity. Today, they are proud that they speed terminals, they manage ships and they overlook the construction of their ships. That is what I subsist necessary by Nigerianisation.
How many people suffer undergone the training?
When you peep at officers and cadets that suffer undergone this training, you will subsist looking at about 500 of them. When you peep at personnel like ratings or cadets, they are between 700 and 800.
Do you train them from the scratch?
When they started the training programme, everything they did was to identify people who suffer been given initial college training by maritime college or Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN), Oron. Then, they sent them to reputable colleges in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe for some training and international certification because, sadly, MAN does not suffer international certification. But, it is something that can subsist corrected. Within that context, these individuals were trained both at the college and at sea, and they continued on their career path to advocate and grow NLNG and the industry.
What is Maritime Centre of Excellence?
The Maritime Centre of Excellence (MCOE) is an outfit which they created for the purpose of domiciling everything the knowledge that they at NLNG suffer acquired overtime. In the process of chartering ships, creating commercial activities, constructing ships and managing terminals, Nigerians in NLNG suffer acquired knowledge and participated actively in these areas. They deemed it necessary to maintain the knowledge acquired from these activities in-house and grow it in such a way that they can employ their expertise to continuously grow more people in the sector and employ that knowledge to ameliorate for the purpose of revolutionising the Nigerian shipping industry. MCOE carries out a lot of activities. Some of them involve things which travel beyond simulation of maritime activities, such as running courses which involve maritime training, electronic chart parade (ECDIS), lofty voltage training, ship-handling, marine pilotage and vessel traffic management systems (VTMS). They likewise carry out bespoke training services. Apart from maritime training, MCOE likewise carries out research and consultancy. They can optimise the running of equipment onboard a ship and thus reduce the operating expenses of the ship owners. They can speed model testing of ships that are going to subsist constructed. They provide maritime financial appraisal. So, if you want to build or charter ships, they can conduct a maritime appraisal of that traffic which you can remove to the bank or financiers. We achieve “Quality, Health & Safety Manual” development and provide maritime measure services. They can likewise conduct technical evaluations in terms of Ship Registry & Flag situation requirement; something that they suffer done for Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA) before.
In addition, they achieve maritime project management. They can overlook vessel constructions, dehydrate dock for you if you want to repair and/ or lay up your vessel if there is no activity for it.
So, the Maritime Centre of Excellence was established to domicile everything the experiences that they suffer gotten as professionals and to utilise it for the purpose of growing the Nigerian shipping industry.
What is the project cost?
To set a cost to Maritime Centre of Excellence will depend on which cost you are considering. Is it the cost of the people who I convoke the software or the cost of the hardware? The hardware are the simulator. The simulators averagely cost some $5 million. Is it the cost of the building? They inherited the structure and renovated it. It goes beyond $2 million. The one I cannot quantify is the people trained right from cadetship to acquire a lot of knowledge and capacity. That you cannot set monetary value to.
For us at NLNG and NSML, their vision remains helping to build a better Nigeria. And within that context, they are always prepared to advocate any initiative that will aid create this vision a reality. NLNG has supported MAN, Oron in the past. They gave them some equipment and helped to ameliorate their syllabuses and courses. They likewise facilitated a collaboration between the college and Warsash Maritime Academy in the UK. The collaboration led to the training of 500 Nigerian ratings which were certified by Warsash and Oron. Within that context, they are always prepared, as excellent Nigerian corporate citizens, to help in developing Nigerian maritime industry. The MCOE will subsist in the vanguard of that drive. Where there is need for support, subsist assured that they will not subsist organize wanting.
To subsist clear, MCOE is not a training institute for cadets. So, they will not train people from cadets to become captains. There are institutions which are designated for that purpose. MCOE is a research centre and likewise a developmental centre for people who suffer gone through institutions which are saddled with the responsibility of training mariners.
We likewise present statutory courses under the Standards of Training, Certification & Watchkeeping (STCW) and those certifications involve electronic chart display, voltage course, ship handling, marine piloting, vessel trafficking information and a string of other specialties. They are likewise pursuing certification from the Marine and Coastguard Agency (MCA) in the UK. They are likewise looking at getting certification from NIMASA.
Can you aid Oron in the area of acquiring sea time experience?
If you recall, I did mention that the source of their cadetship programme used to subsist the maritime college. But there is a limit to the number of cadets they can remove for their own purpose.
I subsist necessary providing sea time for a fee?
We cannot initiate that process. If we are approached for the purpose of providing services, it is something they can remove to the table for discussion but, they can’t initiate that process on their own.
How many ships does NLNG suffer in its fleet?
NLNG fleet consists of 23 LNG carriers as at today. Six of these ships are state-of-the-art, dual fuel diesel electric engine (DFDE) vessels with the capacity of about 178,000 cubic metres. These ships are currently settling down into the fleet and as you know, they suffer a very lofty safety record. They continue to tranverse the oceans of the world without any incident or problem and making positive that their people provide the required advocate to the international maritime committee.
We achieve search and rescue for other communities and other nations. They create positive that they carry out their contributions within the context of the global maritime industry. So, for us as professionals, it is their pride that they contribute to the international maritime industry, in addition to the services they provide for NLNG.
The challenges emanate from operating and maintaining these vessels. Maintaining these lofty class vessels require a flush of technical knowhow. And you will correspond with me that when it comes to looking for spare parts which are not available in Nigeria, they suffer to salvage most of them by bringing them in from their stock abroad. This stock could well easily subsist on Bonny Island but they suffer customs restrictions. Things like these are no issues in other countries. To employ those spare parts in Nigeria, they suffer to store them at the depot in France; something they could otherwise easily achieve here.
Another challenge is that the Nigerian waters have been declared a lofty risk area (HRA). It has been so for the past 10 years. So, they suffer to set a lot of efforts into ensuring safe passage of their ships. They had some advocate from the Navy and they suffer had to acquire some security vessels at significant cost. They paid higher insurance premium for protecting their people on board the ships. These challenges suffer always come and they suffer always organize a way to mitigate them. They can’t articulate they are challenge-free; However, what is remedy is that they always organize ways to surmount them.