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310-231 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Developer for Java Web(R) Services 5
Test Code : 310-231
Test title : Sun Certified Developer for Java Web(R) Services 5
Vendor title : SUN
: 96 existent Questions
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SUN Sun Certified Developer for
SAN RAMON, California, Feb. 4, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The Wi-solar Alliance, a global ecosystem of member corporations in quest of to accelerate the implementation of open requirements-primarily based bailiwick locality Networks (FAN) and the information superhighway of issues (IoT), today introduced that the first wave of members maintain correctly accomplished interoperability checking out to develop into the primary solutions to achieve Wi-solar FAN certification.
"specifications and interoperability are key to persevered increase for the IoT trade," says Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-sun Alliance. "the availability of licensed Wi-solar FAN solutions can provide on their mission to tender utilities, cities and service providers adaptable multi-service networks that will serve ensure interoperability nowadays and for future generations."
The solutions from Cisco, Itron, Nissin systems, Kyoto tuition, Landis+Gyr, Renesas and ROHM wield the needs of utilities, metropolis builders and different service suppliers to simplify and aid large-scale, outdoor networks for sage cities, sage utilities and different IoT rollouts.
Wi-solar FAN is a communications infrastructure for extremely giant-scale networks, enabling many gadgets to interconnect on one common community. All Wi-sun certified products had been carefully confirmed via Allion look at various Labs in Taiwan, the primary examine lab to achieve Wi-solar FAN 1.0 validation, to breathe confident the instruments labored collectively comfortably and securely to ensure quick time to market. Upon a hit check completion, authorized items are approved to monitor the Wi-solar licensed FAN brand, which suggests to users that these items are compliant with open specifications, interoperable, comfy and scalable and may moreover breathe deployed with self assurance. To gain lore of extra about Wi-sun product certification, gladden talk over with http://www.wi-solar.org.
Wi-solar FAN certified products:
Cisco: accomplished the very first Wi-solar FAN 1.0 certification with its IR509 WPAN Industrial Router, which can breathe deployed into a diverse set of internet of issues functions including: smart metering, sensible grids, distribution automation, supervisory control and statistics acquisition, and highway lights. committed to the Wi-solar program, Cisco has contributed numerous verify mattress contraptions for the Wi-sun FAN certification application.
Itron: The Wi-solar FAN licensed Itron Bridge5-WS is a key factor of the Itron community platform that enables cities and utilities to cost-conveniently combine industrial IoT and utility manage and monitoring instruments onto a comfy, reputable and open requisites-based Wi-sun FAN. With this certification, Itron continues its long-time leadership within the Wi-sun Alliance main as much as this milestone, including tremendous contributions to the building of the FAN Technical Profile, Compliance check way and perceive at various mattress.
Nissin systems, Kyoto institution, and ROHM: Collaborated on the building of the EW-WSN BP35C4, which has done Wi-sun FAN certification. The EW-WSN BP35C4 is a multi-aim module compliant with Wi-sun FAN 1.0 router with a UART interface. it is effortless to integrate in sage utilities and a considerable number of IoT instruments.
Landis+Gyr: The N550 network Node is an integral piece of Gridstream® connect, the industry main utility IoT solution that grants flexibility for applications akin to AMI, distribution automation, client engagement, sensible cities, DER integration and greater. For greater information gladden contend with: https://www.landisgyr.com/solution/gridstream-join/
ProCubed: provided check paraphernalia for the certification trying out environment including:
1) ProShark Plus (Wi-solar FAN 1.0 Protocol Analyzer), 2) check bed Controller (seasoned-Si-sun FAN1.0-915-TBC
Renesas: chosen to give some of the interoperability test mattress gadgets for the Wi-sun FAN certification program and accomplished Wi-solar FAN 1.0 certification with its RF (RAA604S00)+ MCU (RX651) wireless answer.
make confident to seek recommendation from us at DistribuTECH 2019The Wi-sun Alliance will present off Wi-sun FAN licensed options from Cisco, Itron, Landis+Gyr, Nissin systems and Renesas at DistribuTECH 2019 in booth 11225.
be piece of the Wi-sun Alliance and utilities Hawaiian electric powered, Xcel power and Avangrid for the smart metropolis/IoT panel session: container locality Networks aid Utility and sensible city Initiatives on Wednesday, February 6th, 2019, from 1:30 p.m. - three:00 p.m. in rooms 280-282.
Panelists will focus on how fanatics are fitting a vital factor in the introduction of sensible cities.
also don't leave out the expanding the Grid lore Hub on the display floor sales space 12031 scheduled for Thursday, February seventh from 10:00 AM -11:00 AM. Iker Urrutia from Iberdrola will focus on interoperability applied to sage metering and the way Wi-solar know-how is the verbal exchange protocol chosen to address the challenge for an upcoming project within the state of gargantuan apple. Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-solar Alliance will supply an silhouette of the Wi-solar Alliance corporation, the specification for bailiwick locality Networks, and an update on certification fame, technical collaborations with different agencies, and plans for the longer term.
about the Wi-sun AllianceThe Wi-sun Alliance is a worldwide non-earnings member-primarily based affiliation made up of commerce leading organizations. Its mission is to drive the international proliferation of interoperable wireless solutions to breathe used in sage cities, smart grids and other information superhighway of issues (IoT) purposes using open international specifications from businesses, reminiscent of IEEE802, IETF, TIA, TTC and ETSI. With more than 200 contributors global, membership of the Wi-sun Alliance is open to complete commerce stakeholders and contains silicon vendors, product providers, functions suppliers, utilities, universities, firms and municipalities and endemic govt organizations.
For more counsel, gladden contend with: www.wi-solar.org.
Wi-sun Alliance and the Wi-solar Alliance brand are emblems of the Wi-sun Alliance.
supply Wi-solar Alliance
KYOTO, Japan, Feb. 6, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- wireless devices equipped with the brand modern overseas wireless verbal exchange specification Wi-sun FAN (container locality community) for the web of things developed jointly with the aid of the analysis group of Professor Hiroshi Harada of the Graduate college of Informatics, Kyoto university (hereinafter Kyoto school), Nissin techniques Co., Ltd. (hereinafter Nissin methods), and ROHM Co., Ltd. (hereinafter ROHM) grew to breathe one of the crucial world's first options to achieve Wi-sun FAN certification.
BackgroundIn order to know outdoor communication networks reminiscent of smart cities and smart grids, splendid, lengthy-distance and restful community expertise is required. Wi-sun FAN is a modern specification of Wi-solar, an international radio communications assignment it's the optimal applicable to the progress of IoTs. it's an interoperable communications networking mode for electricity, gas, and water metering, in addition to for smart cities and sensible grids in quite a few purposes reminiscent of infrastructure and sagacious transport systems.
This Wi-sun FAN is an interoperable low-power IoT wireless communique expertise that makes exercise of low-energy instant transmission know-how in response to the IEEE 802.15.4g tolerable and multistage routing technology in line with IPv6. On may additionally 16, 2016, the Wi-sun Alliance, which certifies wireless communique standards for IoTs, technical compatibility, and interconnectivity, topic common requisites, and on November 11, 2016, the three parties introduced that they succeeded in primary radio trends compatible with Wi-sun FAN. The Wi-solar Alliance then introduced its Wi-sun FAN certification application on October 3, 2018.
This achievementBased on the consequences of the primary progress of Wi-sun FAN, the three parties developed a radio compatible with Wi-sun FAN technical requirements and certification program, and handed an IP-based certification test the exercise of multi-hop, frequency-hopping, and advanced certification protection by using a plurality of different radios from distinct businesses. This radio has birthright here functions as described within the Wi-sun FAN Technical requirements.
physical layer and MAC layer akin to IEEE 802.15.4/4g/4e required for operation in Japan
Adaptation layer, network layer, and transport layer topic via IETF akin to 6LowPAN and IPv6
Multi-hop communique gadget the exercise of RPL
RADIUS/AAA excessive-degree protection
p>With the IEEE802.15.four/4g/4e technologies able to solid transmission over 1km under the japanese legislation, this radio is geared up with an international tolerable for web entry, which has been delivered in Wi-Fi (TM) methods, and a multi-hop overseas common that realizes multi-stage relay between radios according to IP. This makes it handy to connect sensors, meters, and monitors that invent up sensible cities and smart metering to the internet.
This success became performed in the Impulsing Paradigm exchange through Disruptive technologies program (have an repercussion on) led through the Council for Science, expertise and Innovation, the cupboard workplace. This application changed into formed by a joint industry-academia consortium referred to as the subsequent-technology Wi-solar Joint research Consortium, Kyoto. The three parties, based in Kyoto, are Kyoto school, which maintain a tune list of standardization and construction of IEEE 802.15.four/4g/4e, Nissin techniques, which commercializes Wi-solar-compatible communication middleware, and ROHM, which develops verbal exchange modules suitable with the average.
outline of certification acquisition:Date and time of certification acquisition: January 30, 2019Certification authority: Wi-sun AllianceCertified testing laboratory: Allion Labs, Inc.Certification number: WSA 0171
Future developmentIn the long run, the three events will assume piece in an interoperability specification verification adventure sponsored by means of the Wi-sun Alliance to invent contributions to trying out for technical conformity and interoperability of the Wi-solar FAN commonplace, and to advertise further progress as business-academia cooperation tasks in Kyoto with a purpose to Put into effect this radio in society. The consequences were additionally displayed at the Wi-sun Alliance sales space in DistribuTECH 2019, the largest power trade-linked event in the united states, which was held in modern Orleans on February 5.
further details can breathe establish at:http://www.dco.cce.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/PL/PL_2019_01.html
View habitual content material:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/kyoto-college-teaming-with-2-jap-agencies-acquires-world-first-certification-for-wireless-conversation-specification-wi-sun-fan-300790447.html
source Kyoto school; Nissin programs Co., Ltd.; ROHM Co., Ltd.
Copyright (C) 2019 PR Newswire. complete rights reserved
connected elements: Books
This dealer-certain Certification is obtainable by using:Oracle CorporationRedwood Shores, CA USAPhone: 800-672-2531
ability level: Intermediate repute: lively
low in cost: $1500 (shortest music) practising Required
abstract:For builders who've superior proficiency within the Java programming language the usage of the Java SE. This certification become formerly known as sun licensed Programmer (SCJD).
initial requirements:You maintain to hold both an Oracle certified skilled, Java Programmer certification or a solar licensed Java Programmer certification. subsequent, you maintain to complete one of the most permitted instructor-led online or in-classification courses ($900 - $3250) and the Java common Developer licensed master project ($300). You necessity to then circulate the Java ordinary Developer licensed master Essay exam ($300) and comprehensive the route Submission form.
continuing necessities:None special
online materials:java.sun.com is sun's Java internet site.
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Helmet Safety Standards 2019: Times – and Standards – They are a-changin’
“There is no remedy for brain injury. A brain injury is forever. They can discipline someone strategies for dealing with the handicaps, but the only effectual approach in dealing with head injury is prevention…not to let the injury occur in the first place.”
-William D. Singer, M.D., Harvard Medical School, as quoted in UNECE report #29 entitled, “The United Nations Motorcycle Helmet Study” 2016. (ISBN 978-92-1-117107-5)
Back in 2013, they offered you a comprehensive perceive at some of the most common helmet safety standards that manufacturers using to certify the safety of their products.
That article has been the topic of a lot of reader interest, and they hope it has been helpful to motorcycle riders considering their helmet options.
Helmet certification update 2019: Helmets can qualify for more than one certification: (L) the Icon Alliance has ECE 22.05 and DOT, the Joe Rocket Speedmaster Carbon has DOT and Snell under the M2010 standards.
For 2019, quite a few things maintain changed and others maintain stayed the same. Now there may breathe a entire modern factor for potential helmet-buyers to consider.
With that said it may breathe a marvelous time to give the topic of helmet safety standards a fresh look. It is valuable to recall that not complete standards discussed here are mandatory, and any given helmet may breathe certified under more than one yardstick allowing it to breathe sold in a ambit of countries around the world as well as in the United States.
The most notable recent progress in the progression of helmet safety performance standards is the entry of the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) into the mingle of organizations promulgating helmet standards for exercise in MotoGP, Moto2 and Moto3 and complete other FIM-sanctioned competition, starting with circuit racing in 2019.
Beginning with stakeholder meetings held in Germany in 2016, the FIM Helmet Certification Programme (FHCP) proposal was presented. progress of the technical details continued from that point on.
The FHCP was established, with the collaboration of the helmet manufacturers and other stakeholders in order to define a modern test yardstick that goes above and beyond existing ones (e.g. UN ECE 22.05, Snell M2015, JIS T8133), which FIM has recognized for exercise in competition previously.
Note that the U.S. federal helmet safety yardstick referred to as “DOT” based on Federal Motor Vehicle Safety yardstick 218 (FMVSS 218) was not included as it has never been recognized by FIM for competition use.
Interestingly, the FIM test protocols borrow from the other sets of standards for various aspects of homologation testing. The FIM explains the program this way:
“In order to assume account of a more complete and demanding evaluation of performance, and give specific and exclusive recognition to helmets that meet more demanding criteria, the FIM Technical and Circuit Racing Commissions maintain now launched a pioneering and unique program, the FIM Racing Homologation Program for helmets (FRHPhe), which features the latest state of the technique methods of testing.
“Under this program, the FIM grants helmets a homologation certificate and labels, which are a mandatory prerequisite to breathe entitled to access FIM Circuit Racing competitions.
“The FIM Homologation Label to breathe affixed to the helmet’s chin strap will uniquely identify each helmet approved for exercise in FIM grand Prix competitions with a serial number and will breathe verified by FIM Technical Stewards. By scanning the label QR code, information relative to the helmet features and the validity of the homologation will breathe immediately accessible. A link to the manufacturer webpage will breathe moreover available for redirection to the advertising and the web services offered by each manufacturer. The 3D FIM hologram will add a lofty security value to the label to invent exercise of any helmet not actually approved under the FIM standards difficult.
“To obtain such homologation, the helmet has to meet the lofty performance and trait yardstick set by the FIM, in addition to being approved according to selected international standards.
“The helmet properties are evaluated through a test protocol which aims to trigger the progress of helmets offering an optimal protection for riders. An optimal protection is understood as providing a minimized risk of skull fracture and of the multiple forms of brain damage, as well as a measured and controlled mechanical performance of the protective padding and the shell.”
Suomy SR Sport
The following helmets are eligible for qualification under the FIM yardstick (Note that this indicates the FIM yardstick aligns with several of the existing standards in various aspects of testing, but each nature listed would noiseless maintain to breathe submitted for individual helmet make/model testing by FIM’s designated test lab before it could breathe approved for exercise in FIM-sanctioned competition):
ELIGIBLE FIM HELMETS
UNECE 22.05 nature P (full-face)
Snell M 2015 compliant
JIS T8133 2015 nature 2 plenary face
Protective lower countenance cover: not detachable and not moveable and made of the very material as the shell
Retention system with strap and double D-ring closure
Helmets submitted for testing must moreover embrace any accessories intended to breathe used with the helmet in competition. At present, the testing regime does not embrace any testing of the countenance shield under the FIM standard, however countenance shield testing is included under ECE 22.05.
The qualification testing utilizes a random sampling of ten production helmets as described by FIM to include:
FIM Helmet Sampling Test
Samples #1, #2 and #3: Conditioning, Weight, Linear repercussion tests
Samples #4 and #5: Conditioning, Weight, Oblique repercussion tests
Sample #6: Conditioning, Weight, Penetration tests
Sample #7: Storage
Sample #8, #9 and #10: Conditioning, Weight, Extra tests if needed
The helmets are homologated per size and per declared combination of accessories (e.g. aerodynamic devices).
FIM Helmet Linear repercussion Test
The FIM test approach first assesses the helmet response to very lofty and medium-low severity linear impacts, randomly in 13 out of 22 pre-established locations distributed complete over the helmet surface. This aims at evenly assessing the flat of protection against skull fracture and at assessing the mechanical properties of the protective padding (or liner).
Helmet sample #1 (HIGH accelerate UNECE POINTS—Points refers to repercussion points on the helmet shell)
As defined in UNECE 22.05 (Impact-absorption test, more on the ECE 22.05 test specs follow), with flat anvil only
UNECE points B, X, P, R: repercussion velocity: 8.2 (+0.15, -0.0) m/s (meters per second)
UNECE point S: repercussion velocity: 6.0 (+0.15, -0.0) m/s
Helmet sample #2 (HIGH accelerate EXTRA POINTS)
As defined in UNECE 22.05 (Impact-absorption test), with flat anvil only
3 “extra” points (selected among 12 pre-defined points): repercussion velocity: 8.2 (+0.15, -0.0) m/s
Helmet sample #3 (LOW accelerate UNECE POINTS)
As defined in UNECE 22.05 (Impact-absorption test), with flat anvil only
UNECE points B, X, P, R, S: repercussion velocity: 5.0 (+0.15, -0.0) m/s
The test criterion that is unique to the FRHPhe homologation requirements is the addition of oblique or angular repercussion testing. This aspect of testing is intended to address the helmet’s effectiveness in mitigating rotational repercussion forces. FIM criteria record it as follows:
FIM Helmet Oblique repercussion Test
“The FIM test procedure pioneers the assessment of the helmet response to medium severity oblique impacts, aiming at evaluating the flat of protection against brain injuries generated by faultfinding rotational accelerations.
“The oblique test constitutes the most novel and modern aspect of the methods of testing and reflects a very common scenario occurring in existent world accidents, although never addressed in international standards so far.”
Helmet sample #4 (points 45, 180 and 270 degrees)
Helmet sample #5: points 0 and 135 degrees
As defined in UNECE 22.05 (Impact-absorption test), with: platinum remedy silicone coated headform (µ = 0.78), “oblique anvil”: 45º plane, abrasive paper to breathe substituted after significant damage, repercussion velocity 8.00 (+0.15, -0.00) m/s. The test is intended to impart rotational constrain and measure its severity as transferred to the headform inside the helmet.
FIM Helmet Penetration Test
In addition, a penetration test is included in the protocol and used to check the shell resistance to impacts against acute objects.
As defined in JIS T8133: 2007 5.2 and 7.5 (Type 2), with:
dropping height: 2m
2 penetration sites, above the Snell “test line”, at least 75 mm separated
Performance Thresholds under FIM Standards:
Samples #1 and #2 (Linear impact)
Peak linear acceleration ≤275 g (g = constrain caused by acceleration/deceleration—less is best inside your lid)
HIC ≤2400 (HIC is “head injury criterion” used to quantify the likelihood of head injury resulting from sudden deceleration and repercussion force. The lower the value, the higher the helmet’s performance.)
Sample #3 (Linear impact)
Peak linear acceleration ≤208 g (goes to ≤160 g in 2020)
HIC ≤1300 (goes to HIC ≤1000 in 2020)
Sample #4 and #5 (Oblique impact)
Peak linear acceleration ≤208 g (goes to ≤160 g in 2020)
HIC ≤1300 (goes to HIC ≤1000 in 2020)
Peak rotational acceleration ≤10400 rad/s2 (2020: goes to ≤8000 rad/s2)
BrIC ≤0.78 (goes to BrIC ≤0.6 in 2020)
Sample #6 (Shell penetration)
No contact between striker tip and support surface
Unlike U.S. DOT FMVSS 218, no “self-certification” is allowed. complete helmets must breathe tested by a public or private independent testing lab assigned by the FIM. At present, the only testing lab recognized by the FIM is the repercussion Laboratory of the Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (University of Zaragoza) in Spain.
A number of helmet manufacturers maintain already completed the approval process, maintain completed testing and approval is pending or maintain testing in progress:
FIM Helmet Certification label: This modern helmet certification label will distinguish helmets approved under the FIM’s modern FRHPhe standards from those that are not. (Image courtesy FIM)
FIM homologation completed (as of January 25, 2019)
Shark Race R Pro GP sizes XS-XL FRHPhe-01 2018
Bell Pro Star ECE sizes S, M, L FRHPhe-01 2018
AGV Pista GP R sizes S to MS FRHPhe-01 2018
Passed homologation tests – FIM homologation pending (as of January 25, 2019)
ARAI – RX-7 Racing (without aero-device) – sizes XS, S, M, L
HJC – RPHA 01R – sizes XXS, XS, M
KABUTO – RT-33 – sizes M, L, XL
SCORPION – EXO-R1 FIM Racing #1 – size S
SHOEI – X-Fourteen – sizes XS, S, M
Homologation tests pending (as of January 25, 2019)
ARAI (RX-7 Racing with aero-device and RX-7V Racing)
HJC (size S)
FIM-Sanctioned events where exercise of FRHPhe helmet homologation is required:
FIM grand Prix World Championship
FIM Superbike World Championship
FIM Supersport World Championship
FIM Sidecar World Championship
Red Bull FIM MotoGP Rookies Cup
FIM Supersport 300 World Championship
FIM CEV Repsol Moto3 Junior World Championship
FIM World Record Attempts
FIM Drag Bike World Cup
FIM Endurance World Championship
FIM Endurance World Cup
Perhaps the most useful information to assume away from this quick overview is how the FRHPhe helmet homologation standards will reduce the allowable amount of repercussion (g) force—deceleration—to compass the wearer and moreover call for reduced head injury criterion (HIC) values in linear and oblique repercussion testing.
The lower those values are, the more repercussion energy the helmet has absorbed, preventing it from being transmitted to the wearer’s brain and the lower the potential for brain injury. The repercussion energy attenuation standards shown for implementation in 2020 are by far the most aggressive performance standards in any of the systems to date.
Stay tuned to Ultimate Motorcycling for continuing updates and details as the modern FRHPhe helmet homologation standards creep into the implementation phase. It is valuable to recall that for helmet buyers, the modern FRHPhe is not mandatory unless you are planning to participate in FIM-sanctioned racing events. In that case, you must maintain a helmet the bears the FRHPhe label.
Reference: FIM: http://www.fim-live.com/en/
DOT (U.S. Department of Transportation FMVSS 218)
If you are in the market for a helmet in the U.S. and some parts of Canada for exercise on public roads, any helmet sold for that purpose must stand the latest version of the DOT certification label.
Indeed, miniature apart from those label requirements that were revised in 2013 in the hope of making sale of non-DOT approved helmets more difficult, has really changed with the requirements for performance in the DOT standards.
Shoei Neotec II
The repercussion attenuation performance, retention system and other requirements maintain not changed since 2013 although a clarification on helmet retention strap testing mode was issued in 2015.
In an endeavor to invent counterfeit labeling of non-compliant helmets more difficult and legally risky to those who Do it, the DOT label displayed on the back of the helmet was changed to embrace the following, in order from top to bottom:
The manufacturer’s name
Model number or name
“DOT” below the manufacturer’s name
“FMVSS 218” centered below DOT
The word “Certified” below FMVSS 218
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has enforcement authority for the DOT certification requirement, which applies to helmets intended to breathe sold for on-road use. Of course, using a helmet certified under at least one of the sets of standards for off-road purposes or in competition makes sense.
Unlike FIM, ECE and Snell, NHTSA does not test helmets against the DOT standards, nor does the regulation require the manufacturer to submit production helmets to any independent test lab for evaluation before they can pretense DOT standards compliance.
Each helmet manufacturer marketing their helmets for road exercise in the U.S. is allowed to test and self-certify the models they want to sell and then permanently affix the “DOT” emblem signifying compliance with FMVSS 218. NHTSA enforces the standards by having a third-party testing lab acquire samples of selected products to verify compliance. Penalties to manufacturers for marketing non-compliant products can breathe steep—up to $5,000 per helmet.
If self-certification sounds a bit weak, there is no set minimum number of helmets specified in the DOT yardstick that must breathe tested by NHTSA’s contracted lab from each manufacturer, either.
In December, 2018, ACT Lab, a California-based independent ISO 17025 accredited laboratory that conducts safety and compliance testing for the motorcycle, bike and outdoor industries, was awarded a 5-year shrink from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) to conduct helmet testing.
ACT Lab then purchases specific helmets identified by NHTSA through retail channels. This is to purge any possibility of manufacturer sample selection. ACT Lab tests them, and provides results data to NHTSA—not the manufacturer. This is what is known as “post-marketing” testing, and while it may lead to removal of non-compliant helmets after they compass some consumers, the approach does not preclude that from happening in the first place.
FMVSS 218 sets standards in three areas of helmet performance: repercussion attenuation (energy absorption); penetration resistance; and finally the retention system effectiveness. The yardstick requires peripheral vision to breathe not less than 105° from the helmet midline. Projections from the surface of the helmet (snaps, rivets, etc.) cannot exceed 5 mm.
Nexx Xt1: The external visor of plenary countenance helmets is topic to testing in most systems, but the internal sun visor is not.
As is the case with other test systems, repercussion testing measures acceleration of a headform inside the helmet when it is dropped from a fixed height onto a spherical and flat surfaced anvil. The yardstick allows a peak acceleration energy of 400 G (G being “gravity constant” or an acceleration value of ft. per second x seconds). Accelerations in excess of 200g shall not exceed a cumulative duration of 2.0 milliseconds; and accelerations in excess of 150g shall not exceed a cumulative duration of 4.0 milliseconds.
The penetration test involves dropping a piercing test striker onto the helmet from a fixed height. The striker must not penetrate profound enough to contact the headform.
The retention system test involves placing the helmet’s retention straps under load in tension. For this test the load is progressive; first a load of 50 lb. is applied for 30 seconds, then it is increased to 250 lb. for 120 seconds, with measurement of the stretch or displacement of a fixed point on the retention strap from the apex of the helmet.
Reference: NHTSA, https://www.nhtsa.gov/
United Nations ECE yardstick 22.05
ECE stands for “Economic Commission for Europe,” which was created under a United Nations agreement in 1958. In their 2013 coverage of helmet safety standards, they included fairly circumstantial information about how helmets were tested for compliance with that standard.
Below is a common description of the most recent updates to ECE 22.05 standards as presented in the UNECE report #29 entitled, “The United Nations Motorcycle Helmet Study” 2016. (ISBN 978-92-1-117107-5). The ECE 22.05 yardstick is now recognized by 62 countries around the world including many outside the European Union, but not by the United States.
Helmet configurations under the ECE 22.05 approval regime are designated by the following codes:
“J” if the helmet does not maintain a lower countenance cover (3/4 coverage open countenance & half-helmets)
“P” if the helmet has a protective lower countenance cover (full-face fixed chin bar and modular), or
“NP” if the helmet has a non-protective lower countenance cover. If fitted with a non-protective lower countenance cover the outer surface of the cover must breathe marked “Does not protect chin from impacts” and/or with a symbol indicating the lower countenance cover does not tender any protection against impacts to the chin.
The common requirements include:
Requirements on the basic structure, visors, peaks and the necessity to identify non-protective chinstraps;
Much more circumstantial requirements concerning the extent of the helmet’s head coverage;
The very requirements remain in effect for hearing and ventilation;
The introduction of shear testing for helmet shell surface irregularities of over 2 mm in height, requirements to smooth projections, and controls on the interior surface of the helmet shell (i.e. no projections);
For chinstraps there are requirements regarding protection from abrasion, the minimum width of the chinstrap, adjustment devices, positioning of the fastening/tensioning devices, and latching and release of fastening systems. The requirements moreover ban chin cups;
The extent of peripheral vision (105° from the helmet midline), which should breathe tested by a bailiwick of vision test;
Requirements for material durability;
General specifications for the visor, e.g. removability, specifications for devices for lifting the visor out of the line of sight with one hand;
Provisions for child helmets (introduced in 1983 with 2002 progression of amendments).
Airoh Terminator Monster: If the helmet is intended to breathe equipped with a spoiler, peak or voice paraphernalia it will breathe tested with those items in place.
Specific tests for the helmet maintain been updated and modern tests added as follows:
Conditioning procedures maintain been extended to embrace ultraviolet conditioning and solvent conditioning (for hydrocarbons, cleaning fluids, paints, transfers or other extraneous additions that may strike the shell material);
The impact-absorption test is based on the measurement of the deceleration of a head. The Head Injury Criterion (HIC) is calculated for five specific test points (including the protective chinstrap) using a guided free descend helmet drop test. The absorption efficiency shall breathe considered adequate where the resultant acceleration measured at the focus of gravity of the headform (placed inside the helmet to simulate the wearer’s head) at no time exceeds 275 g, and the Head Injury Criterion does not exceed 2400.
The modern test for surface friction measures the rotation-inducing forces created by projections, e.g. visor fittings, studs, etc., and friction with other surfaces. The rotation-inducing forces caused by projections on the helmet and friction against the outer surface of the helmet which occur when a helmeted headform is dropped vertically on to an inclined anvil are measured in the longitudinal axis of the anvil. The drop height is such that the unit constituted by the headform and helmet falls on the test anvil at a velocity which, immediately before impact, is equal to 8.5 m/s.
The rigidity test remains the same. The helmet is placed between two parallel plates and a known load is applied along the longitudinal axis or the transverse axis. An initial load of 30 N (Newtons) is applied, at a minimum plates accelerate of 20 mm/min, and after two minutes the distance between the two plates is measured. The load shall then breathe increased by 100 N, at a minimum plates accelerate of 20 mm/min, and then wait for two minutes. This procedure is repeated until the application of a load of 630 N is reached. In the test along each axis, the deformation measured under the 630 N load must not exceed that measured under the initial 30 N load by more than 40 mm.
The modern dynamic test of the retention system assesses the displacement of the retention system under a dynamic and then, over time, a static load;
The modern retention (detaching) test checks whether the helmet is likely to “roll” forward and off the head if struck from behind;
The modern test for the micro-slip of the chinstrap checks how much slip occurs when the strap and fastening are placed under variable loads (as when wearing the helmet);
The rend test of the strap has been replaced by an abrasion test in which after an abrading procedure, the strap is tested under tension;
For the modern quick-release mechanisms, tests are performed for adventitious operation, ease of release, and durability. This includes a test where the release is closed and locked. Then the procedure is to apply a loading constrain of 20 ” 1 N in the direction in which the mechanism is designed to stand load, then unlock and disengage the mechanism under load. This cycle is completed in not less than 2 sec and is repeated 5,000 times. For mechanisms containing metal components, this test is conducted after exposing the release mechanism to a corrosive solution for a prescribed amount of time.
With the introduction of visors, a modern progression of tests was developed:
Prior to any other tests a common ultraviolet conditioning test should breathe performed;
The mechanical repercussion visor test checks for acute splinters after impact—the test specifications even define how to determine if a splinter is “sharp”;
Light transmission through the visor is tested and there are specifications for tinted visors that may only breathe used in daytime;
Light diffusion, i.e. the disperse of light towards the eye, is checked as are spectral transmittance and refractive powers;
The scratch resistance test measures the light diffusion after the surface has been abraded, e.g. the “starring effect” from headlamps;
Recognition of signal lights (not necessary if the transmittance value is very high);
Mist retardant (anti-fogging) properties, if the visor has been so treated, are measured by the degree of light transmission lost due to misting. (Misting has always been a phenomenon with full-face helmets, which is why these kinds of coatings are used and why it must breathe simple to boost the visor out of the bailiwick of vision).
To ensure simple availability of the following information to the helmet user, UN Regulation No. 22 requires the helmets to breathe labelled with:
The size and maximum mass;
Information on the proper attachment and fitting of the helmet
A reminder to supplant the helmet after a violent impact
A warning against using of a helmet coming into contact with petrol, paints and solvents
The types of visors approved for exercise with the helmet.
Non-protective chinstraps must breathe marked, thus indicating that they maintain not been tested or maintain failed to meet the requirements. Visors maintain to breathe labelled with the nature of helmet to which they can breathe fitted and they shall breathe accompanied by information on cleaning, exercise at night and in impecunious visibility, and any mist retardant properties.
The helmet shall carry the nature approval impress as specified in ECE 22. This impress shows which nature approval authority granted the helmet type, the status of the Regulation when it was approved (in the first two digits of the approval number), subtypes and a serial number. The approval impress provides immediate evidence that the helmet has been nature approved.
Unlike the DOT system, where the product is not topic to third-party testing prior to sale, the ECE system requires batch sampling when production begins, submission of up to 50 sample helmets/visors to a designated laboratory working for the government that uses the ECE standards under the United Nations agreement prior to helmets being offered for sale as compliant with ECE standards and verification of trait control during on-going production.
Reference: UNECE, http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs.html
Snell Memorial Foundation M2020D and M2020R
The Snell Memorial Foundation is not a helmet manufacturer, retailer or regulator. It is a non-profit organization established in 1957 to serve drive on-going improvement in helmet safety performance through the progress of consistent standards and testing methods. Snell certification is deliberate and is not required by federal or international authorities, but may breathe required by some competition sanctioning bodies.
The M designation on the Snell Standards refers to the standards applicable to helmets for exercise with motorcycle helmets. The M2020, of August 2018, updates to the Snell standards does create some alignment with other standards, specifically the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) standards in FMVSS 218 and the United Nations ECE 22.05. Snell Foundation information explains it this way:
“This M2020 revision of the Snell Foundation yardstick for motorcycle helmets allows two distinct options: the first is a continuation of the requirements which had been set for M2010 and for M2015. It is designated M2020D indicating compatibility with DOT. It demands the premium levels of repercussion energy management currently required in M2015. The second incorporates modifications to the repercussion test requirements to accommodate the greater repercussion attenuation demanded by European standards. It is designated M2020R indicating compatibility with ECE Regulation 22.”
Scorpion Covert helmets: Helmets with a countenance piece like these Scorpion Covert models that is not piece of the helmet shell can breathe certified but the countenance piece must breathe marked as “non-protective.”
In introducing this approach, the Snell Foundation creates a mode that is flexible in allowing helmet manufacturers to design products that will meet applicable standards for marketing their helmets in both the United States and Europe as well as other countries outside the E.U. that recognize ECE 22.05 but not DOT standards.
The conundrum faced by helmet manufacturers by the differences in the applicable performance standards is summed up in Snell Foundation information:
“Only a lone helmet maker has been able to obtain European homologation for its Snell M2015 certified helmets while other manufacturers protest that they cannot bear helmets meeting Snell requirements which will moreover breathe eligible for exercise in Europe. Therefore, M2020R is formulated to identify helmets with a premium of protective performance in areas where ECE Regulation 22 homologation is required. It is hoped M2020R will moreover enable some reasonable compatibility with FIM FRHPhe-01 repercussion test requirements. The roll-back in test severity enables this compatibility but to assure compatibility, this yardstick will moreover impose a HIC criterion in the evaluation of the M2020R repercussion tests. Although the Snell Foundation’s directors firmly believe that HIC has miniature value in assessing helmet protective capability, its inclusion in ECE and FIM helmet standards decree that a HIC criterion breathe included in M2020R in order to assess compatibility with these mandatory requirements.”
Philosophical differences about the value of HIC criteria in assessing helmet performance aside, the creep by Snell signals that even as the ambit of helmet certification options has widened, the alignment of those standards has a casual to improve.
Snell Foundation testing evaluates each helmet model in several areas and specifications for pre-test environmental conditioning of helmets are used. As with the other systems, 105° of peripheral vision from the midline is required.
There are common requirements for the construction of the helmet. The assembled helmet must maintain smooth external and internal surfaces. Any feature projecting more than 7 mm beyond the outer surface must breathe designed to allow it to readily shatter away; complete other projections on the outer surface must breathe smoothly faired and tender minimal frictional resistance to tangential repercussion forces.
Rivets and similar projections into the helmet interior must not present a laceration or puncture hazard. Rivet heads cannot project more than 2 mm above the helmet’s surface. Restraint clips may breathe used at the rear or on the side of the helmet. The helmet must provide as nearly uniform repercussion protection over the entire protected locality as is possible. The standards Do not embrace any requirements or restrictions as to interior helmet ventilation, internal sun shades, finish colors or reflective surfaces or lights that may breathe included.
The retention system is tested by first applying a 23 kg (50.6 lb.) tension load to the fastened chin strap for one minute, then simultaneously removing that load and imparting a 38 kg (83.6 lb.) guided descend load to the closed strap system. Breakage or deflection of the strap in excess of 30 mm results in failure of the test.
Impact absorption testing is done in similar style to ECE and DOT, using a free-fall drop test from a height necessary to attain the specified repercussion velocity with a head contour in the helmet to measure repercussion energy transferred to the interior of the helmet when dropped on to a fixed anvil. repercussion velocities ambit from 4.84 m/s to 7.75 m/s for M2020D and 4.82 m/s to 8.20 m/s for M2020R.
Three different anvil shapes are used in the testing. The peak acceleration energy allowed ranges from 243 to 275 G with no HIC confine specified for M2020D testing and from 257 g to 275g with HIC confine of 2880 specified for M2020R testing. The height the helmet is dropped from varies; the velocity reached by the repercussion point is what is specified in the test specifications. repercussion testing on full-face helmets is done on the chin bar, as well as other points on the shell and modular helmets are tested with the chin bar locked down and embrace frontal and lateral impacts.
Protection provided by the helmet shell from penetration is tested by dropping a 3 kg (6.6 lb.) pointed striker on the helmet at a velocity of 7.45 m/s. The helmet fails the test if the striker penetrates the helmet shell making contact with a “tell-tale” markable material applied to the headform.
Arai Corsair X-RC
Full countenance helmets are tested for power of the chin bar by mounting the helmet chin bar facing up in a jig and dropping a 5 kg (11 lb.) weight with a flat surface onto the chin bar midpoint at a velocity of 3.5 m/s and measuring the amount of deflection the repercussion causes. Deflection of 60 mm (2.3 in.) or more or failure of the chin bar likely to result in injury to the wearer means failure of the test.
Positional stability or “roll-off” is tested using a 4 kg (8.8 lb.) weight attached to first rear edge of the helmet by a cord with the helmet positioned and properly strapped on a headform facing downward at a 135° angle such that when the weight is released for a free-fall height of 0.6 m, it would mind to try to dislodge the helmet from its reform position on the head form. Then the helmet is rotated 180°, the weight is attached to the front edge of the helmet opening and the test repeated. Failure occurs if the helmet rolls off the head form.
The countenance shield, if applicable, is tested for penetration resistance by being shot in three spots along the centerline with an air rifle using a soft lead pellet weighing 1.0g with a diameter of 5.5mm at a velocity of approximately 500 kph. Penetration of the shield means failure.
A recent criterion is removability in an emergency. The helmet removability test determines whether the helmet can breathe removed from an unconscious victim without resorting to any buckles, clasps or other mechanisms which may breathe rendered non-functional by repercussion stresses. The helmet is placed on the largest commandeer complete ISO head contour with complete the closures and retention systems engaged.
A technician must remove the helmet from the head contour using simple, common hand tools but without accessing any of the helmet mechanisms. The hand tools for this test are limited to shears, simple edged tools and flat bladed screw drivers. The operation must not require more than thirty seconds.
Post-testing disassembly and inspection is moreover performed on at least one of a set of sample helmets that maintain passed complete the foregoing tests. If structural failures that are “not colorable for inclusion in a production helmet” the model will breathe rejected, despite having passed the tests.
These are the helmet performance standards you are most likely to encounter in shopping for a helmet these days. They are fairly complicated in their details, but fairly simple in their common goal: to give you the best protection from potentially devastating head injuries possible. Now complete you maintain to Do is decide which one(s) is best for what you necessity your helmet to do.
Reference: Snell Memorial Foundation, http://www.smf.org/
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Wages growth for tech jobs in the US was stagnant in 2018, rising just 0.6 percent from 2017 to an tolerable of $93,244 for the year, accord to Dice's 2019 tech salary report.
Average tech wages haven't increased since 2015, when the tolerable was actually higher than today at $93,328, according to Dice's data, and that's despite historically low levels of unemployment in the sector.
However, there are a few specialized skills and roles that maintain seen higher than tolerable growth, which could motivate some into making a career pivot.
Dice's survey of 10,780 technology professionals finds that 68 percent would jump ship to rep a higher wage, compared with 47 percent who would Do it for better working conditions, like remote travail and more flexible hours.
As expected, the top-paying tech jobs are held by C-level execs and directors, whose tolerable annual salary grew 3.9 percent over the year to $142,063.
Salaries for software engineers grew 5.1 percent to $110,898, while technology strategist and architect wages grew eight percent to $127,121.
Database administrators on tolerable received $103,473 per year but wages grew only 0.2 percent. Meanwhile, web developer and programmer salaries grew 11.6 percent to $82,765. Even technical-support wages saw decent growth of 6.8 percent to $60,600.
Average wages for software engineers grew 5.1 percent to $111,000, while app-developer wages grew 7.6 percent to $105,200. Other roles that paid between $100,000 to $115,000 embrace DevOps engineer, hardware engineer, project manager, and security analyst.
SEE: How to build a successful developer career (free PDF)
Looking at the most lucrative skills, Dice finds that programmers using Google-developed Go, or Golang, earned the highest on tolerable at $132,827, while programmers using Apache Kafka earned an tolerable of $127,554.
Skillsets where tolerable annual wages exceeded $120,000 embrace Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon Redshift, Apache Cassandra, Elasticsearch, RabbitMQ, MapReduce, and SAP HANA.
Some skills saw significant declines in tolerable wages. The tolerable wage for those skilled in the iOS graph design app declined 12.1 percent to $107,061, while wages for those skilled in Rackspace technology slipped 7.1 percent to $104,782.
Others broadly defined skills where tolerable wages declined by more than five percent but noiseless exceeded $100,000 embrace infrastructure as a service, pure Storage, NetApp, Fortran, 3Par, software-defined networks, Informix, Siebel, unified communications, Compellent, Glassfish, Sun, Objective-C, and IBM's Infosphere Data Stage.
The top-paying location is Silicon Valley, where tolerable wages for tech jobs rose 3.2 percent to $118,306. Other cities where tolerable wages are between $105,000 and $100,000 embrace Seattle, San Diego, Minneapolis, Boston, Baltimore, Portland, and modern York.
However the best cities, adjusted for the local cost of living, are Minneapolis, Portland, Tampa, Charlotte, and Seattle.
Dice finds that programmers using Google-developed Go, or Golang, earned the most on tolerable at $132,827.
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