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310-202 Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, portion ll

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310-202 exam Dumps Source : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, portion ll

Test Code : 310-202
Test cognomen : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, portion ll
Vendor cognomen : SUN
: 558 real Questions

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SUN Certified System Administrator for

Hourly expense for Certification: sun certified device Administrator for Solaris OS | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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sun licensed outfit Administrator: Job Description & necessities | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

licensed Solaris device directors are assistance know-how (IT) specialists who install and retain community servers operating some of the Solaris operating system at the second obtainable during the Oracle supplier. they are continually employed by companies and different agencies with laptop networks that utilize the company's open source software products. As programs administrators, they may additionally besides oversee other IT group of workers and reply to questions and renovation requests from office workers.

education Bachelor's diploma in tips know-how or laptop science suggested Job capabilities Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communique revenue compass (2019)* $61,390 to $one hundred forty five,437 with solar certified gadget Administrator credentials Job boom (2016-2026)** 6% for community and desktop programs directors

supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor information

Required schooling

Most methods directors own achieved a Bachelor of Science in counsel know-how, computing device Science or a related field. Core coursework customarily contains topic matters in programming languages and techniques, networking and techniques design. Solaris certifications are available during the Oracle enterprise in network, protection and systems administration. necessities consist of a passing ranking on an exam, which candidates can prepare for through enrolling in lessons at the Oracle Academy or an accredited working towards center, reviewing seminar packages and taking apply exams.

capabilities Required

techniques directors are analytical thinkers who're in a position to troubleshoot issues for significant businesses of network device clients. traumatic situations require clear, quick thinking, and can contain working lengthy hours until the problem is mounted. The ability to multitask can live valuable when managing more than one task at a time. communication competencies are key when working with nontechnical body of workers members.

career and income Outlook

The U.S. Bureau of Labor records (BLS) anticipated that jobs for gadget directors in typical will raise by using a regular pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. certified gadget administrators will savour stunning job possibilities, as agencies more and more depend on full-time professionals to hold their computing device working systems. in response to, certified techniques directors for Solaris operating methods earned between $sixty one,390 and $145,437 in April 2019.

Educators tout merits of countrywide board certification; studies pomp improved learning | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Mike Yell, a seventh grade convivial experiences teacher at Hudson (Wis.) heart faculty, accomplished certification in 2003 and renewed his certificates in 2013. The Wisconsin educator spoke of he would “strongly recommend countrywide board certification to teachers wishing to ensnare on a rigorous growth challenge as a passage to in the terminate multiply their practice.”

countrywide board certification for academics, governed by passage of the country wide Board for expert instructing specifications in Arlington, Va., has been gaining momentum the previous 25 years. The board presents trainer certification in 16 disciplines and 4 developmental stages to answer the needs of just about any of america’s lecturers, in line with the NBPTS site.

countrywide board certification is a intentional manner that goes beyond entry-level situation certification. apart from maintaining a legitimate situation educating license, candidates for board certification must dangle a bachelor’s degree from an accepted institution and own three or more years of educating adventure.

country wide certification isn't supposititious to change situation teaching licenses, but provides a system of promoting and moneymaking accomplished educating.

every certificate zone has a collection of specifications developed by passage of teachers who're specialists in that zone area and developmental plane and are in accordance with what the countrywide board calls the 5 Core Propositions. The requisites deliver tips about what proficiencies a candidate must exhibit to obtain certification.

Some faculty districts present extra pay or stipends for teachers who earn country wide board certification. Others give these lecturers extra opportunities for management or skilled increase. Some districts present no rewards and teachers are trying to find certification for private factors.

Angie Jorgensen, fourth grade trainer at Pinecrest basic school in Hastings, Minn., stated one rationale she accomplished the process “turned into economic, as a result of in Hastings, we're one of the crucial districts that pay for national board certification.”

She had besides lately entire engaged on her grasp’s degree, so she was in a “rigorous approach,” so stirring on with countrywide boards became “a nice transition.”

Jorgensen credited a bunch of veteran lecturers with assisting her labor during the technique. “a few of them own been closer to retirement, and they saw this probability to are attempting to substitute themselves as country wide board teachers, to accumulate a few of us younger teachers licensed before they left. They were an essential aid.”

Collaboration with other academics is a crucial a portion of the country wide board certification procedure and Mike Fuller, band instructor at Meyer middle faculty in River Falls, Wis., stated that “the more I erudite in regards to the technique worried, the greater fascinated I became in it. I realized of three other zone song lecturers who own been when you deem that working on their country wide boards and the chance to own a built-in network and aid device helped me reach to a determination to head for it.”

other teachers are influenced by means of very own increase.

“i am a lifelong learner,” observed Betsy Weis, math teacher at Farmington (Minn.) elevated college, “and that i wanted to step up to a brand new problem, primarily since I knew it might improve my teaching knowledge.”

lecturers need to utilize the requisites for his or her certificate enviornment to pilot responses to 4 accessories which require candidates to demonstrate content capabilities and instructional methods. Candidates ought to write extensive essays explaining classes in their classrooms, examining their training, and reflecting on the passage to multiply the instructions. They additionally give videos of themselves educating in their classrooms and ensnare a pc-based verify on their topics.

“The NBC questions are unreasonable and require one to contemplate scholar records, instructing follow, leadership, collaboration, community involvement, and expertise use,” Weiss referred to. “I found out new and improved how to improve scholar getting to know.”

The procedure can ensnare as slight as 365 days to comprehensive, however many teachers pick to unfold it out over three years. The difficult nature of the assessments potential that many candidates own to restate materials of the technique as a portion of the getting to know and growth supported by passage of the national board.

“It changed into very time consuming,” eminent Mary Rumpel, math arm head at Ellsworth unreasonable faculty in Pierce County, Wis. “The challenging portion turned into that you just had to clarify why you train in the manner that you simply do. for example, in a separate part, you had to ensnare a few students and the assignments you provide them, and intricate how you accumulate these dynamically distinctive college students to every live taught the discipline area, documenting what you’ve defined.”

She introduced, “it's a huge venture, one as a passage to ensnare lots of self-reflection, loads of trials and error, and loads of weekends to carry out smartly.”

This process additionally requires a monetary dedication. the full manner charges $1,900, and many candidates are able to find aid with this from promises, loans, or school district funds. Others pay the fee themselves.

“greater than a decade of research from across the nation confirms that students taught by passage of board-licensed lecturers learn greater than college students taught by using other academics,” wrote the countrywide board on its site. They encompass links to a few academic experiences about the results of country wide board certification on college students.

“The national boards procedure concerned looking at what i was already doing in the school latitude and explaining its influence on pupil researching,” Fuller observed. That required me to believe an needy lot about my teaching suggestions and accept as factual with how advantageous they own been in helping college students to grow. The 4 papers that candidates are required to write down sequel you articulate why you carry out what you carry out and the passage it positively impacts students.”

up to now named national convivial reviews teacher of the yr, Yell spoke of the “most censorious influence of board certification changed into internalizing the manner of learning and staying on suitable of the scholarship in education in addition to in my content material area, and in the carrying on with process of reflecting on every thing I carry out within the classroom.”

attaining countrywide board certification was no longer an terminate for Rumpel, but a starting.

“I deem by using maintaining the certification, I believe like I can't let the students down,” she referred to. “I need to hold challenging myself each yr and labor out how to maintain getting superior.”

When Tim Collins, superintendent of Hastings Public colleges,interviews new lecturers, he eminent he is attempting to find “a stalwart labor ethic and the covet to grow professionally for a lifetime. academics who reach to a determination to head during the national board certification manner exemplify those two features.”

these teachers frequently supply a positive role mannequin for other teachers of their constructions and districts.

“When an individual grows professionally, they carry that stage of assurance and most fulfilling practices to their colleagues each without slow and not directly,” Collins said. “The system of country wide board certification helps a teacher to become better informed in their follow, reflective in the school room, and typical support their very own teaching innovations.”

For more counsel about national board certification, note the web site for the national Board for knowledgeable instructing specifications at

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Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, portion ll

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Disk Slices | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the book 

Disks are divided into regions called “disk slices” or “disk partitions.” A slice is composed of a separate compass of contiguous blocks. It is a physical subset of the disk (except for slice 2, which represents the entire disk). A UFS or the swap zone is built within these disk slices. The boundaries of a disk slice are defined when a disk is partitioned using the format utility, and the slice information for a particular disk can live viewed by using the prtvtoc command. Each disk slice appears to the OS (and to the system administrator) as though it were a divide disk drive.

Disk slicing differs between the SPARC and x86 platforms. On the SPARC platform, the entire disk is devoted to the OS; the disk can live divided into 8 slices, numbered 0 to 7. On the x86 platform, the disk is divided into fdisk partitions using the fdisk command. The fdisk partition is divided into 10 slices, numbered 0 to 9.

A physical disk consists of a stack of circular platters. Data is stored on these platters in a cylindrical pattern called “cylinders” as illustrated in figure 4-1. Cylinders can live grouped and isolated from one another. A group of cylinders is referred to as a slice. A slice is defined with start and terminate points, starting from the outside of the platters to the heart of the stack of platters, which is called the “spindle.”

For example, a 73GB SCSI disk has 14,087 cylinders, numbered 0 to 14,086. Cylinder 0 is on the outside edge of the platters, and cylinder 14,086 is the closest to the spindle. Disk slices are defined by an offset and a size in cylinders. The offset is the distance from cylinder 0. To define a slice, the administrator provides a starting cylinder and an ending cylinder. A slice spanning from cylinder 0 to 14,086 would utilize the entire disk and is typical of the slicing scheme used on a ZFS boot disk.

When setting up slices, recall these rules:

  • Each disk slice holds only one file system.
  • No file system can span multiple slices without the utilize of a volume manager such as ZFS or SVM.
  • After a file system is created, its size cannot live increased or decreased without repartitioning and possibly destroying the partition directly before or after it.
  • Slices cannot span multiple disks; however, multiple swap slices on divide disks are allowed.
  • When they dispute ZFS in Chapter 5, you’ll learn how to accumulate around some of these limitations in file systems.

    Displaying Disk Configuration Information

    As described earlier, disk configuration information is stored in the disk label. If you know the disk and slice number, you can pomp information for a disk by using the print volume table of contents (prtvtoc) command. You can specify the volume by specifying any slice defined on the disk (for example, /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s2 or /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s*). Regardless of which slice you specify, any slices defined on the disk will live displayed. If you know the target number of the disk but carry out not know how it is divided into slices, you can exhibit information for the entire disk by specifying either slice 2 or s*. The following steps exhibit how you can examine information stored on a disk’s label by using the prtvtoc command.

  • Become the superuser.
  • Type the following text and press Enter.

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    * /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 424 sectors/track * 24 tracks/cylinder * 10176 sectors/cylinder * 14089 cylinders * 14087 accessible cylinders * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * Unallocated space: * First Sector Last * Sector matter Sector * 0 10176 10175 * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector matter Sector Mount Directory 0 2 00 10176 143339136 143349311 2 5 01 0 143349312 143349311
  • The disk described is a SAS disk, target 0 with an SMI VTOC label. The prtvtoc command shows the number of cylinders and heads, as well as how the disk’s slices are arranged.

    The following is an instance of running the prtvtoc command on a SCSI disk with an EFI label:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1<cr> * /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 8385121 sectors * 8385054 accessible sectors * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector matter Sector Mount Directory 0 2 01 34 41006 41039 1 2 00 41040 8327663 8368702 /mnt 8 11 00 8368703 16384 8385086 Using the format Utility to Create Slices: SPARC

    Before you can create a file system on a disk, the disk must live formatted, and you must divide it into slices using the format utility. Formatting involves two divide processes:

  • Writing format information to the disk
  • Completing a surface analysis, which compiles an up-to-date list of disk defects
  • When a disk is formatted, header and trailer information is superimposed on the disk. When the format utility runs a surface analysis, the controller scans the disk for defects. It should live eminent that defects and formatting information reduce the total disk space available for data. This is why a new disk usually holds only 90% to 95% of its capacity after formatting. This percentage varies according to disk geometry and decreases as the disk ages and develops more defects.

    The need to perform a surface analysis on a disk drive has dropped as more manufacturers ship their disk drives formatted and partitioned. You should not need to perform a surface analysis within the format utility when adding a disk drive to an existing system unless you believe disk defects are causing problems. The primary intuition that you would utilize format is if you want to view or change the partitioning scheme on a disk.

    The format utility searches your system for any attached disk drives and reports the following information about the disk drives it finds:

  • Target location
  • Disk geometry
  • Whether the disk is formatted
  • Whether the disk has mounted partitions
  • In addition, the format utility is used in disk repair operations to carry out the following:

  • Retrieve disk labels
  • Repair defective sectors
  • Format and anatomize disks
  • Partition disks
  • Label disks (i.e., write the disk cognomen and configuration information to the disk for future retrieval)
  • The installation program partitions and labels disk drives as portion of installing the Oracle Solaris release. However, you might need to utilize the format utility when doing the following:

  • Displaying slice information
  • Dividing a disk into slices
  • Formatting a disk drive when you believe disk defects are causing problems
  • Repairing a disk drive
  • Changing a disk label from EFI to SMI or vice versa
  • The following instance uses the format utility to create disk slices on a disk.

  • Become the superuser
  • Type “code.”

    The system responds with the following:

    Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c0t0d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@0,0 1. c0t1d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@1,0
  • Specify the disk (enter its number).

    The system responds with the format main menu:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk character - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - depict the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and pomp labels rescue - rescue new disk/partition definitions inquisition - exhibit vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit

    Table 4-4 describes the format main menu items.

    Table 4-4 Format Main Menu detail Descriptions

    Menu Item



    Lists any of the system’s drives. besides lets you pick the disk you want to utilize in subsequent operations. This disk is referred to as the current disk.


    Identifies the manufacturer and model of the current disk. besides displays a list of known drive types. pick the Auto configure option for any SCSI-2 disk drives.


    Creates and modifies slices.


    Describes the current disk (that is, device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and physical device name).


    Formats the current disk using one of these sources of information in this order:

    Information that is found in the format.dat file.

    Information from the automatic configuration process.

    Information that you character at the prompt if no format.dat entry exists.

    This command does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks are preformatted by the manufacturer.


    x86 platform only: Runs the fdisk program to create an Oracle Solaris fdisk partition.


    Used to repair a specific shroud on the current disk.


    Writes a new label to the current disk. This is not the selfsame as labeling the disk with volname.


    Runs read, write, and compare tests.


    Retrieves and displays defect lists. This feature does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks manage defects automatically.


    Searches for backup labels if the VTOC becomes corrupted or gets deleted.


    Displays information about the current disk such as device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and partition table.


    Saves new disk and partition information.


    SCSI disks only: Displays the vendor, product name, and revision plane of the current drive. This will besides pomp the disk’s current firmware.


    Labels the disk with a new eight-character volume cognomen that you specify. This is not the selfsame as writing the partition table to disk using label.


    Exits the format menu. Pressing Ctrl+D will besides exit the format utility from the main menu or from any submenu.

  • Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.

    format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table cognomen - cognomen the current table print - pomp the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
  • Type “print” to pomp the current partition map.

    partition> print<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 24620 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1418 - 9924 11.72GB (8507/0/0) 24576723 1 var wm 9925 - 13469 4.88GB (3545/0/0) 10241505 2 backup wm 0 - 24619 33.92GB (24620/0/0) 71127180 3 swap wu 0 - 1417 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 4 unassigned wm 13470 - 14887 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 5 unassigned wm 14888 - 16112 1.69GB (1225/0/0) 3539025 6 unassigned wm 16113 - 16821 1000.15MB (709/0/0) 2048301 7 home wm 16822 - 23910 9.77GB (7089/0/0) 20480121

    The columns displayed with the partition table are

  • Part: The slice number (0–7).
  • Tag: This is an optional value that indicates how the slice is being used. The value can live any of the following names that best fits the role of the file system you are creating:

    unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates, reserved, system, BIOS_boot

  • Flag: Values in this column can be

  • wm The disk slice is writable and mountable.
  • wu The disk slice is writable and unmountable (such as a swap slice).
  • rm The disk slice is read-only and mountable.
  • ru The disk slice is read-only and unmountable.
  • Cylinders: The starting and ending cylinder number for the disk slice.
  • Size: The slice size specified as

  • mb megabytes
  • gb gigabytes
  • b blocks
  • c cylinders
  • b Blocks
  • e Ending cylinder
  • You can utilize the cognomen and rescue commands in the partition menu to cognomen and rescue a newly created partition table to a file that can live referenced by cognomen later, when you want to utilize this selfsame partition scheme on another disk. When issuing the cognomen command, you’ll provide a unique cognomen for this partition scheme and then issue the rescue command to rescue the information to the ./format.dat file. Normally this file is located in the /etc directory, so provide the full pathname for /etc/format.dat to update the master file.

  • After you partition the disk, you must label it by typing label at the partition prompt:

    partition> label<cr>

    You are asked for confirmation on labeling the disk as follows:

    Ready to label disk, continue? y<cr>

    Enter “Y” to continue.

  • After labeling the disk, character “quit” to exit the partition menu or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility:

    partition> quit<cr>
  • Type “quit” again to exit the format utility:

    format> quit<cr>
  • It’s essential to point out a few undesirable things that can occur when defining disk partitions with the format utility if you’re not careful. First, live observant not to squander disk space. Wasted disk space can occur when you reduce the size of one slice and carry out not adjust the starting cylinder number of the adjoining disk slice.

    Second, don’t overlap disk slices. Overlapping occurs when one or more cylinders are allocated to more than one disk slice. For example, increasing the size of one slice without decreasing the size of the adjoining slice will create overlapping partitions. The format utility will not forewarn you of wasted disk space or overlapping partitions.

    The main intuition a system administrator uses the format utility is to divide a disk into disk slices. In Oracle Solaris 11 11/11, for a bootable ZFS root pool, the disks in the pool must contain slices and must live labeled with an SMI label. The simplest configuration would live to set the entire disk capacity in slice 0 and utilize that slice for the root pool. Bootable ZFS root pools are discussed further in Chapter 5.

    I’ll depict how to utilize the SMI label for SPARC-based systems. For example, on a SPARC-based system with a 72GB disk, you would need to own 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. Similarly, on an x86-based system with a 72GB disk, you would besides need to allow 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. A miniature amount of boot information is contained in slice 8. Slice 8 requires no administration and cannot live changed.

    Follow these steps to partition a disk (c2t0d0) to live used as a ZFS boot disk (bootable ZFS root pool) on a SPARC-based system. If the disk has an EFI label, and the firmware has not been upgraded, you must first transfigure it to an SMI label.

    Use the prtvtoc command to verify the disk label as follows:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>

    The system displays

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1 - 14086 68.35GB (14086/0/0) 143339136 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    Notice that slice 2 is labeled “backup” and the slices are numbered 0-7. This is an SMI label.

    The following shows the output that is displayed for a disk with an EFI label:

    Part Tag Flag First Sector Size last Sector 0 usr wm 34 68.36GB 143358320 1 unassigned wm 0 0 0 2 unassigned wm 0 0 0 3 unassigned wm 0 0 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 0 8 reserved wm 143358321 8.00MB 143374704

    Notice there is a slice 8 and slice 2 is NOT labeled “backup.” This is an EFI label and would need to live changed. utilize the following steps to change the label from an EFI label to an SMI label:

  • As root, utilize the format -e command and select the disk to label as follows:

    # format –e<cr>

    The system displays a list of disks. In the example, I selected disk 1 (c2t1d0):

    Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr> selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
  • The main menu is displayed. character “label” to label the disk:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk character - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - depict the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and pomp labels inquisition - exhibit disk ID scsi - independent SCSI mode selects cache - enable, disable or query SCSI disk cache volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit format> label<cr>
  • Select option 1 to label the disk with an SMI label and press Enter when prompted for autoconfiguration:

    [0] SMI Label [1] EFI Label Specify Label type[1]: 0<cr> Auto configuration via format.dat[no]?<cr> Auto configuration via generic SCSI-2[no]?<cr> format>
  • Exit the format utility.

    format> quit<cr>
  • To slice the disk so that it can live used as a ZFS boot disk, supervene these steps:

  • As root, enter the format utility:

    # format<cr> Searching for disks ... done

    Select the disk that is going to live sliced. In the example, I will select disk 1 (c2t1d0):

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr>

    The system responds with

    selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
  • Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.

    format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table cognomen - cognomen the current table print - pomp the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
  • Type “print” to pomp the current partition map.

    partition> print<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    partition> print<cr> Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 25 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 1 swap wu 26 - 51 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 52 - 14086 68.10GB (14035/0/0) 142820160 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
  • Enter “modify” to change the partition table:

    partition> modify<cr>
  • Select option 1 for “All Free Hog” when prompted:

    Select partitioning base: 0. Current partition table (original) 1. any Free Hog Choose ground (enter number) [0]? 1<cr> Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
  • Type “yes” when asked whether to continue:

    Do you wish to continue creating a new partition table based on above table[yes]? yes<cr>

    Type “0” for the Free Hog partition:

    Free Hog partition[6]? 0<cr>
  • The system will prompt you to enter a size for each partition. Press Enter when prompted as follows, and each slice will live 0MB:

    Enter size of partition '1' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '3' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '4' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '5' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '6' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '7' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr>

    Because any of the slices own been set to “0,” the free hog space is the entire disk. This space will live allocated to slice 0 as specified in step 6.

  • When prompted to sequel this the current partition table, press Enter to utilize the default value “yes”:

    Okay to sequel this the current partition table[yes]?<cr>
  • When prompted for a table name, enter “rootdisk.” This cognomen is not significant and can live any name.

    Enter table cognomen (remember quotes): rootdisk<cr>

    Enter “pr” to pomp the new partition table:

    partition> pr<cr> Current partition table (unnamed): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>

    Notice that slice 0 is the entire disk.

  • Enter “quit” or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility.

    partition> quit<cr>
  • Using the format Utility to Create Slices: x86

    As described earlier in this chapter, Oracle Solaris on the x86 platform treats disk drives slightly differently than on the SPARC-based systems. Disks on the x86 platform must own an fdisk partition table. The x86-based systems utilize the fdisk partition table to identify parts of the disk reserved for different OSs and to identify the partition that the system will boot from. This boot partition is referred to as the “active disk” partition. You can allot one fdisk partition on a disk to live used for Oracle Solaris.

    On an x86-based system, once a disk drive has been physically installed and verified as working, you’ll utilize the format command to slice the disk, but first an fdisk partition must live created on the new drive. You can create this fdisk partition using the fdisk command from the command line or through the format utility. The following steps depict how to create a fixed disk partition table on a disk using the format utility:

  • As root, character “format” to accumulate into the format utility.

    # format<cr>

    The following menu appears:

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c1t0d0 <FUJITSU-M1606S-512-6234 cyl 3455 alt 2 hd 6 sec 102> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@0,0 1. c1t1d0 <IBM-DFHSS1W!e-4141 cyl 4071 alt 2 hd 4 sec 135> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@1,0 2. c1t2d0 <DEFAULT cyl 2928 alt 2 hd 6 sec 120> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@2,0 Specify disk (enter its number):
  • Enter the number corresponding to the new drive and the following menu will live displayed:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk character - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - depict the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk fdisk - race the fdisk program repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and pomp labels rescue - rescue new disk/partition definitions inquisition - exhibit vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name5 quit format>
  • Select the fdisk option and the following menu appears:

    The recommended default partitioning for your disk is: a 100% "SOLARIS System" partition. To select this, gladden character "y". To partition your disk differently, character "n" and the "fdisk" program will let you select other partitions.
  • If you wish to utilize the entire drive for Oracle Solaris, enter “Y.” This will recrudesce you to the format menu. If “N” is entered, the fdisk menu will live displayed.

    Total disk size is 4073 cylinders Cylinder size is 540 (512 byte) blocks Cylinders Partition Status character Start terminate Length ========= ====== ======== ===== === ====== === THERE ARE NO PARTITIONS CURRENTLY DEFINED SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. Create a partition 2. Change lively (Boot from) partition 3. Delete a partition 4. Exit (Update disk configuration and exit) 5. Cancel (Exit without updating disk configuration) Enter Selection:
  • Choose 1 to create an fdisk partition. This is not the selfsame as a slice.
  • After creating the partition, pick 4 to exit and save. The format menu will return.
  • Choose partition and supervene the procedure for formatting a disk on page 272, nascence at step 4.
  • Disks on x86-based systems can live divided into 10 slices labeled slice 0 through slice 9. On Oracle Solaris 11/11, slices 0 through 7 are used for the selfsame purposes as disk slices found on SPARC-based systems. Slice 2 represents any of the space within the fdisk partition. As stated earlier, slices 8 and 9 are used for purposes specific to x86-based hardware. You cannot modify slices 8 and 9 using the format utility. nascence with Oracle Solaris 11.1, the boot disk on an x86-based system can contain an EFI label, and the partition scheme is slightly different than the SPARC system. Slice 0 is reserved for the BIOS_boot information. I’ll depict this more in the next chapter.

    Here’s an instance of the partition table on an IDE or SATA disk on an x86-based system running Oracle Solaris 11/11, as displayed by the format utility:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 alternates wm 1 - 2 15.69MB (2/0/0) 32130

    In the previous example, notice that slice 9 is defined and tagged as the alternates slice.

    The next instance shows the partition table for a SCSI disk attached to an x86-based system. Notice that partition 8 is assigned, but slice 9 is not used:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    One more detail of note: On benchmark UFSs, don’t change the size of disk slices that are currently in use. When a disk with existing slices is repartitioned and relabeled, any existing data will live lost. Before repartitioning a disk, first copy any of the data to tape or to another disk.

    You can besides create the fixed disk partition table on an x86-based system disk from the command line using a separate command as follows:

    # fdisk –B c1t0d0<cr>

    The –B option creates a separate fixed disk partition that spans the entire disk. The following 36GB disk was formatted using the fdisk –B command:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 4695 35.97GB (4696/0/0) 75441240 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    The fdisk –B command can besides live used to transfigure a disk label from an EFI to SMI.

    To verify that a disk contains a fixed disk partition table, issue the following command:

    # fdisk -v -W - /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p<cr>

    The system displays the fdisk table for disk c3t0d0:

    * /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p0 default fdisk table * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 63 sectors/track * 255 tracks/cylinder * 2088 cylinders * * systid: * 1: DOSOS12 * 2: PCIXOS * 4: DOSOS16 * 5: EXTDOS * 6: DOSBIG * 7: FDISK_IFS * 8: FDISK_AIXBOOT * 9: FDISK_AIXDATA * 10: FDISK_0S2BOOT * 11: FDISK_WINDOWS * 12: FDISK_EXT_WIN * 14: FDISK_FAT95 * 15: FDISK_EXTLBA * 18: DIAGPART * 65: FDISK_LINUX * 82: FDISK_CPM * 86: DOSDATA * 98: OTHEROS * 99: UNIXOS * 100: FDISK_NOVELL2 * 101: FDISK_NOVELL3 * 119: FDISK_QNX4 * 120: FDISK_QNX42 * 121: FDISK_QNX43 * 130: SUNIXOS * 131: FDISK_LINUXNAT * 134: FDISK_NTFSVOL1 * 135: FDISK_NTFSVOL2 * 165: FDISK_BSD * 167: FDISK_NEXTSTEP * 183: FDISK_BSDIFS * 184: FDISK_BSDISWAP * 190: X86BOOT * 191: SUNIXOS2 * 238: EFI_PMBR * 239: EFI_FS * Id Act Bhead Bsect Bcyl Ehead Esect Ecyl Rsect Numsect 191 128 0 1 1 254 63 1023 16065 33527655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

    When there are multiple disks of the selfsame character (manufacturer, model, size, and geometry) to live sliced, you can rescue time by copying the label from a source disk over to a target disk without going through any of the steps using the format utility. utilize the prtvtoc command to accumulate the partition table from the source disk (c0t0d0) and write the table to the target disk (c0t1d0) using the fmthard command as follows:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard –s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2<cr>

    Windows To Go: How to Install and race Windows 10 from a USB Drive | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Did you know that a full copy of Windows can live installed and race from a USB drive? Microsoft introduced "Windows To Go" with Windows 8 Enterprise and has continued supporting the feature in Windows 10, which can live kept on a pen drive in your pocket as a portable operating system.

    This feature is intended as a convenient passage for workers to carry their corporate environments with them, but having your own copy of Windows on a thumb drive could live handy for backup purposes, too, or if you frequently utilize public machines that want your preferences/applications or that own a restricted OS.

    For a long time this was a tidy thing you could carry out with many Linux distros (we blueprint to cover Linux Live on a divide article soon), but barring driver complications and hardware limitations, a Windows To fade drive should boot from "most" computers.

    Booting a Windows 10 "To Go" drive on a modern machine that shipped with Windows 10 is likely to labor fine, and because performance if often of the essence, a USB 3.0 port is always desirable. Older systems that originally sold with Vista or XP may work, too, but will own reduced processing power and slower USB ports, import they might not meet the minimum hardware requirements, listed below:

  • The ability to boot from a USB drive
  • USB 2.0 ports or better
  • A 1GHz+ processor
  • 2GB of RAM, and...
  • DirectX 9 with WDDM 1.2 or greater
  • Microsoft's To fade documents note that a process called "respecialize" identifies and loads drivers for a specific machine during the first boot-up, along with disabling drivers that aren't required. This profile is remembered and automatically selected on subsequent boot-ups. "In generic this feature is dependable and efficient when roaming between PCs of widely varying hardware configurations," the company says, and that's a "generally fair" statement based on their observations from testing.

    On the upper side of performance, running Windows 10 To fade from a 32GB USB 3.1 glint drive was quite usable for generic computing/basic productivity on an veteran desktop and a modern laptop. However, they besides experienced various complications when creating and booting different versions of Windows To Go...

    Hardware and software configurations tested

    Before they accumulate to creating a Windows To fade drive, here's an overview of the testing that was performed using a variety of hardware and software combinations as well as some recommendations and considerations about configuring a portable Windows drive.

    Systems used for testing

  • An veteran Core i5 Lynnfield-based enthusiast desktop PC with USB 2.1 ports
  • A new Dell XP3 13 9370 laptop with USB-C ports & USB 3.1 adapter
  • As a side note, the desktop besides has a USB 3.1 PCIe adapter card, but the motherboard's BIOS can't note or boot from drives attached to this device. This is typical for USB expansion cards and worth mentioning in the event that you attempt to boot from one. Here is more information on how to boot from a USB drive if the topic is unfamiliar to you.

    USB drives tested

    None of these are officially "certified" for Windows To Go. Besides being fleet enough to race an operating system, certified USB drives are designed to issue as fixed instead of removable devices when plugged into Windows. Both types of drives can technically live used for Windows To Go, but only fixed ones will labor with the creation appliance built into Windows 10 Pro and Enterprise.

    We'll intricate on this later, but note that despite not being an official Windows To fade drive, the Corsair glint Voyager GTX does issue to Windows as a fixed drive, it certainly meets the precipitate requirements, and is considerably cheaper than ~$200 "certified" options such as the Kingston Data Traveler Workspace, Kanguru Mobile Workspace and Super Talent Express RC4.

    The ancient Patriot drive was included out of curiosity and its performance was as needy as you'd expect. Running Windows 10 on the 16GB USB 2.0 drive wasn't what we'd deem usable and no greater success was had with Windows 7 or 8. Sometimes the initial setup process for Windows 10 would BSOD or fail some other way, and when the process did complete, the performance was tedious to convey the least, taking upwards of 30 seconds to open a menu for instance -- if it would open at all. This configuration might only live useful for a recovery environment if you had no other option, though a lightweight Linux distro might sequel more sense on such a tedious drive.

    Conversely, the faster 200MB/s reads on Samsung's drive proved to live very usable for generic computing/basic productivity on a Windows 10 To fade drive, excluding the occasional spot of lag. They purchased this drive at the recommendation of a reader. Again, this model technically isn't certified for Windows To fade and has relatively tedious ~30MB/s write performance, which might matter depending on your utilize case. For reference, the write precipitate on a conventional hard drive is around 70MB/s.

    Considering the fact that Samsung's drive only costs about $10, it's a imposing budget solution if you want to create a Windows To fade drive for basic use, although live cognizant that you'll own to utilize third party tools instead of the one built into Windows 10 -- they cover both in this article.

    From what we've seen, USB drives that are certified for WTG attend to own read performance starting around the selfsame precipitate as Samsung's drive along with equally fleet write speeds (~200MB/s). However, as mentioned before, this plane of performance is available for considerably less money on "non-certified" USB drives, which can still live used for Windows To fade via third party tools. Microsoft's official utility has other limitations as well and they imagine most of you will wind up using third-party tools.

    Here are some additional non-certified drives that they recommend based on their cost and advertised precipitate (the first two are removable and not fixed, the third should live fixed):

  • $29 64GB Kingston DataTraveler Elite G2 - up to 180MB/s reads and 70MB/s writes
  • $52 128GB SanDisk Extreme Pro - up to 420MB/s reads and 380MB/s writes
  • $198 1TB Samsung T5 Portable SSD - advertises up to 540MB/s reads and writes
  • Compared to the Samsung drive already discussed, the Kingston unit trades a few MB/s on reads for a few MB/s on writes, which should live better balanced performance-wise, at least on paper anyway.

    Like the glint Voyager GTX they tested, the SanDisk Extreme Pro should liquidate any questions or concerns about the capacity and precipitate of your Windows To fade drive. These models are around the selfsame cost per gig (prices change a lot) but again, the Corsair drive appears to Windows as fixed and not removable, which is benchmark for a Windows To fade drive.

    The best value WTG-certified drive they found was the 64GB Kingston DataTraveler Micro Duo USB 3 Type-C (not USB Type-A) for $21, though this drive's 100MB/s reads and 15MB/s writes are slower than the non-certified Kingston drive listed above for $29.

    Lastly, if you were thinking about spending $200 on a faster certified Windows To fade drive, the Samsung T5 Portable SSD has 1TB of storage for the selfsame cost instead of only 64-128GB, is only a slight larger than a thumbdrive, touts read/write rates of up to 540MB/s and should issue to Windows as a fixed device.

    Windows versions tested as portable

    Although the 32-bit version of Windows 10 (build 1803) occupied around 3GB less than the 64-bit version, 64-bit managed to load Wi-Fi and touchpad drivers for their XPS 13 while 32-bit didn't. If they had to guess, you are more likely to encounter 64-bit-capable machines than 32-bit-exclusive machines at this point. There may live more 32-bit systems in existence overall, but most of them are besides outdated.

    We don't suggest using Windows 7 or Windows 8 To fade unless you're certain they'll boot on the systems you'll live using. Both generations BSOD'd during the initial setup on the XPS 13 9370 and even failed to load on their enthusiast PC from that era. Third-party Windows To fade creation tools besides tended to fail more frequently when using Windows 7 and 8 images, which are less supported in general.

    Windows 10 64-bit should own the best driver compatibility on the machines that you are most likely to use, especially if they are on the newer side.

    Running Windows 10 64-bit from the ~$10 Samsung drive plugged into a USB 3.1 port was particularly usable. Booting the selfsame configuration from USB 2.0 often saw a second or two of unexpected lag when opening menus or applications -- performance that we'd depict as "usable enough" if necessary for creating documents, browsing the web and so on.

    Meanwhile, running Windows 10 on the Corsair Voyager was essentially indistinguishable from using Windows on any other SSD thanks to the drive's advertised 440MB/s read & write performance.

    Creating a Windows To fade USB drive

    Windows' built-in appliance for making Windows To fade drives is currently supported on Windows 10 Pro, Enterprise and Education builds. And while the creation appliance is available on Pro, it still requires an Enterprise image file to create the Windows To fade drive -- among other limitations.

    Fortunately, there are several ways to accumulate an Enterprise image. Microsoft offers a direct download of Windows 10 Enterprise ISO for evaluation after you fill out a form, and you can download an Enterprise install.esd file directly from them as well.

    You'll besides own to extract the install.wim file that's inside a Windows 10 Enterprise ISO (in the Sources folder) or transfigure install.esd to .wim because the built-in Windows To fade appliance only recognizes .wim files, not ISOs or other formats.

    Install.wim and .esd are image files with system data that can live used for a Windows installation. You can transfigure .esd to/from .wim using DISM++, a third-party graphical user interface for Microsoft's DISM (Deployment Image Servicing and Management), which you can besides utilize directly from the Command Prompt.

    Even if you own an Enterprise image however, the autochthonous Windows To fade utility won't labor with most USB drives, including two out of three of the ones they used for testing. As we've been saying, the built-in appliance only works with select USB drives that issue to Windows as "fixed" and not "removable." This is a hardware ascribe of the drives.

    Historically, the main disagreement here is that Windows can't mount multiple partitions at once on removable drives (only the first primary partition is mounted), yet Windows installation drives attend to own at least two partitions: one with boot info, another with the operating system. However, as of the Windows 10 Creators Update, the operating system can mount multiple partitions on removable USB drives, and in testing they were besides able to create a bootable Windows To fade drive with only one partition.

    Regardless, although the 32GB Samsung drive is recognized by the built-in Windows To fade tool, the software explains that the device is removable and thus not compatible.

    While the Corsair Voyager isn't certified for WTG either, this drive is fixed instead of removable and does labor with autochthonous utility, though the software recognizes that the device technically isn't certified. Again, most USB sticks are configured as removable, certified Windows To fade drives are set as fixed, while some non-certified USB drives are besides configured as fixed and cost much less than WTG branded drives -- as is the case with their recommended Corsair Voyager XT.

    You can determine if a drive is fixed or removable from Disk Management (search Start or race for diskmgmt.msc). peek at the squares toward the bottom left where the drive descriptions convey "Basic" or "Removable."

    You can besides check by entering these two commands into Command Prompt:

    wmiclogicaldisk accumulate caption,drivetype

    The output should live a list of drives with numbers next to them: 0 = Unknown, 1 = No Root Directory, 2 = Removable Disk, 3 = Local Disk, 4 = Network Drive, 5 = Compact Disk, 6 = RAM Disk

    If you own a fixed USB drive and an install.wim file extracted from an Enterprise ISO, the built-in Windows To fade appliance should labor largely as you'd expect: you pick a drive, pick an image and wait for the process to complete.

    Making a removable drive issue as fixed

    With some pains and risk, there are several methods you can try to sequel your removable drive issue as fixed, though there's not much intuition to mess with this setting when third-party Windows To fade tools will labor with non-fixed drives.

    We aren't recommending these approaches but confess there are various methods around the web that can either flip the removable media bit on your glint drive or install a filter driver on Windows so the OS determines the drive as fixed. Proceed at your own risk, namely a bricked USB drive or blue screening Windows, the latter of which they experienced when testing filter drivers and had to restore from a recovery image.

    Third-party Windows To fade creation tools

    Rufus is probably the most well-liked appliance that can create a Windows To fade drive for Windows 8 and 10, though it may not live so obvious at first glance. Here's a quick pilot on the Windows To fade creation process from Rufus 3.3.1. This worked for both the removable and fixed USB drives that they used for testing:

  • Select a drive and ISO like you were creating a bootable OS drive any other time
  • Click the dropdown menu and pick Windows To fade instead of benchmark installation
  • Choose your desired boot sector info (using MBR + UEFI throughout testing was fine)
  • Windows 8, 8.1 and 10 are supported (not Windows 7). However, Rufus 3.3.1 doesn't list the Windows To fade option when using a Windows 10 1809 ISO while an 1803 ISO works fine.

    The software might besides send a warning if you aren't using a fixed drive, though the resulting portable OS drive still works and in fact Rufus provided the best overall performance of any the Windows To fade creation tools they tested, generally having less errors/failures.

    "You are trying to install Windows To Go, but your target drive doesn't own the fixed attribute. Because of this Windows will most likely freeze during boot, as Microsoft hasn't designed it to labor with drives that instead own the removable attribute. carry out you still want to proceed? Note: The fixed/removable ascribe is a hardware property that can only live changed using custom tools from the drive manufacturer. However those tools are almost never provided to the public."

    While Rufus is the most commonly available third-party appliance they can recommend for creating an "unofficial" Windows To fade drive, the software lacks some features that others provide, such as the ability to export your currently running operating system onto a portable USB drive, though this is generally locked behind a paid license.

    Here are many other tools that can sequel a portable Windows drive:

  • WinToUSB - This appliance is dedicated to creating Windows To fade drives and has already received an update to labor with the latest build of Windows 10 (1809).
  • Getting started: Select a Windows image file (.iso, .wim, .esd, .swm) and continue with the prompts. The MBR + UEFI boot configuration requires a $30 upgrade, as does the ability to export your current OS (tools > Windows To fade Conversion).
  • Aomei Partition second - Along with being able to create Windows To fade drives from image files (.iso, .wim and .esd), this software includes a full drive partitioning suite in the selfsame 11MB package -- convenient given the task at hand.
  • Getting started: Click the "Windows To fade Creator" on the left and supervene the prompts. The option to export your current OS is besides in this wizard, but only the paid Professional edition (~$50) has this feature enabled.
  • FlashBoot - Has a variety of features for USB drives, including the ability to create one that will boot independently from your primary operating system. Again though, only the Pro version ($30) can clone your current OS as a Windows To fade drive.
  • Getting started: Click full OS > USB, select whether to prepare the drive for UEFI or MBR-based systems and then you can pick a .iso or .esd file. The software can besides utilize the .esd file on your current installation (C:\ESD\Windows\Sources\install.esd) without downloading any additional OS data.
  • Note: Perhaps any of the third-party tools carry out this, but FlashBoot's website mentions that by using registry/driver tweaks the software "will sequel removable USB thumb drives always issue as fixed to Windows To Go."

    Creation methods that are more hands-on

    Before there were so many third-party tools to build a Windows To fade drive, the commonly recommended approach was to:

  • Prepare the USB drive yourself from DiskPart in a Command Prompt.
  • Use a appliance to extract/install the install.wim or .esd file from a Windows ISO.
  • Create boot entries on the USB drive, again using the Command Prompt.
  • Useful downloads for manual creation: DISM++ | GImageX

    Preparing the USB drive for Windows To fade from Disk Management or DiskPart is simple: Delete the previous volume(s), create a new volume, format that volume, give the partition a letter and then sequel that partition active.

    At this point, the USB drive should live ready for you to install the operating system files from one of the aforementioned archive files.

    Install.wim and install.esd contain compressed OS data that can live used to create a Windows installation or a To fade drive. Your Windows ISO will own one or the other -- you only need one of them and you can transfigure .wim or .esd files back and forth with DISM++ (GImageX requires a .wim file).

    GImageX can apply the install.wim to a USB drive and this software is portion of Microsoft's Windows Automated Installation Kit, though the full toolkit is more than 1GB to download whereas GImageX itself is only around 350KB (not MB).

    Quick instructions for GImageX: fade to the Apply tab > pick a source install.wim file and the destination USB drive > click Apply.

    After copying the system files, you'll besides own to create the boot data via Command Prompt using the OS files that you just copied to the portable drive.

    Enter the following line from an admin Command Prompt, where G: is your USB drive (this should only own one partition if you followed their steps, but if there is a divide partition for boot files then utilize that drive letter in set of the second G:).

    bcdboot.exe G:\Windows /s G: /f ALL

    If those methods aren't hands-on enough, Microsoft provides step-by-step instructions for creating a Windows To fade drive entirely from PowerShell commands, while this pilot includes a customizable PowerShell script to automate some of the process along with extra features such as the ability to inject drivers and patches.

    Export your current OS to a USB drive

    This process is automated by many third-party Windows To fade creation tools, but the feature typically costs money. Not wanting to pay for premium licenses, they tested various ways to manually export their current OS from an SSD to a USB drive using a few free utilities and the Disk Management software already on Windows (diskmgmt.msc via Start or Run).

    Useful downloads for a manual export: Disk2VHD | HDD Raw Copy Tool

    Here's an overview of the process they used to clone their actively running copy of Windows 10 Pro to a thumbdrive:

  • Use Disk2VHD to create a VHD (virtual hard disk) image file of your OS drive. This is a full copy of the drive in one file so you'll need enough storage for that.
  • Mount that VHD file with a drive letter in Windows: Either right-click the file and pick Mount or open Disk Management and fade to Action > Attach VHD.
  • With the VHD mounted, HDD Raw Copy appliance can clone the virtual drive to a physical drive (whether fixed or removable, including regular USB drives).
  • The USB drive might boot after cloning the VHD, though several times during testing they had to reapply boot information to the drive from an admin Command Prompt. You'll besides want Disk Management open to note how many partitions are on the drive and what letters are assigned to them.

    Entering the following line into an elevated Command Prompt will apply the boot information (I:\Windows is where the boot data is being copied from while H: is where the data is being copied to).

    You'll want to apply the boot data to/from the Windows partition(s) that own been cloned to your USB drive, not C:\Windows. If there are two partitions on your USB drive, apply the boot files to the smaller one, while if there is only a separate partition then you can apply the boot data there.

     bcdboot.exe I:\Windows /s H: /f ALL

    Using "/f ALL" with that command includes files for both UEFI/MBR BIOS.

    Throughout testing, they besides successfully made Windows To fade drives by manually creating a 500MB partition for boot files on the USB drive along with an OS partition via Disk Management.

    Then they mounted the VHD as described but used File Explorer to copy any the files in the VHD to the USB drive's OS partition (this was much slower than cloning with HDD Raw Copy appliance and didn't labor as reliably -- you can apply the boot data to the first partition via the system mentioned above).

    Note that the free version of WinToUSB automates the creation of a Windows To fade drive using VHD files (VHDX requires a license) and the resulting drive boots directly from the VHD file.

    However, their Windows To fade drive loaded to a blue screen mistake that read "VHD Boot Host Volume Not Enough Space" and required a registry modification to the system inside the virtual hard drive, making as much or more labor out of the WTG creation process than their manual system above.

    If you are going this route, you might as well change the registry setting on your system before creating the VHD so you don't own to load the registry hive separately afterward. You want to change the following registry key so the DWORD value is 4 instead of 1 to preclude the virtual disk from expanding when mounted.

    With this setting applied, the VHD-based drive created by WinToUSB finally booted:

    [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\FsDepends\Parameters] "VirtualDiskExpandOnMount"=dword:4

    We besides noticed that DISM++ can create a .wim file of your currently running copy of Windows with the "System Backup" option, and this could presumably live applied to a USB drive, though they didn't supervene through on this system because the operation was taking considerably longer to complete than creating a VHD and cloning that.

    Additionally, note that Rufus can copy VHD files to USB drives, though you might own to configure the boot data beyond the command mentioned above (links at the terminate of the article should accumulate you started).

    Also, Disk Management can create an barren VHD file (Action > Create VHD) where you can apply an install.wim file along with boot data, at which point you can clone this virtual drive to a USB drive as a Windows To fade workspace.

    Best practices and configuration tips

    From the user's perspective, the first time Windows To fade is booted it performs some initial configuration before presenting the familiar setup process that you fade through on any fresh Windows installation (creating a user account essentially). After that, the operating system loads up as if it were installed on any other drive.

    For the most part, this is a full Windows installation, though there are a few differences in configuration and usage practices.

    Disabled functionality on Windows To Go:
  • Internal disks are offline. This prevents data from being exchanged between the Windows To fade drive and those in the host machine. These drives can live enabled but it's not recommended because if the host machine is hibernating, you'll delete that user situation and any unsaved data along with it. This may besides corrupt the host PC's operating system.
  • Hibernate is disabled by default. Hibernation can live re-enabled on the WTG drive, though there isn't much sense in hibernating on one machine/configuration and then attempting to reload that session on another system. Hibernation besides occupies a significant amount of storage.
  • Trusted Platform Module (TPM) isn't used. When using BitLocker Drive Encryption, a pre-operating system boot password will live used for security instead of TPM, which is bound to a specific computer and Windows To fade drives will coast between computers.
  • Windows Recovery Environment is excluded. Microsoft says you should re-image the Windows To fade drive instead. Likewise, refreshing/resetting is disabled (resetting to an OEM's benchmark doesn't apply for Windows To Go).
  • Upgrading a Windows To fade workspace besides isn't supported. Older Windows 8 or Windows 8.1 Windows To fade workspaces can't live upgraded to Windows 10 workspaces, nor can Windows 10 WTG live upgraded to future versions of Windows 10. For new versions, the drive needs to live re-imaged with a fresh copy of Windows. They did not test the software, but Hasleo (the WinToUSB developer) has a Windows To fade Upgrader.
  • Best practice suggestions for using Windows To Go:
  • Always shut down Windows and wait for shutdown to complete before removing the Windows To fade drive.
  • Don't insert the Windows To fade drive into a running computer.
  • Don't boot the Windows To fade drive from a USB hub. Because of power requirements, always insert the Windows To fade drive directly into a port on the computer.
  • If available, utilize a USB 3.0/3.1 port with Windows To Go.
  • Do not install non-Microsoft core USB drivers on Windows To Go.
  • Suspend BitLocker on Windows 7 host computers before changing the BIOS settings to boot from USB and then resume BitLocker protection.
  • If you unplug the drive while Windows To fade is running, Windows will freeze and you own 60 seconds to plug the drive back in. After 60 seconds, the computer will shut down and your session will live lost.
  • After removing the drive without shutting down properly, it's suggested that you not plug the WTG drive into another system for risk of corrupting censorious system files.
  • Closing remarks & configurations

    Ideally, network drivers will live automatically loaded when you first boot into Windows To Go, at which point any other drivers can live downloaded from Windows Update or elsewhere.

    After installing a few applications on a fresh WTG drive they started receiving notifications from Windows about the 32GB Samsung drive running low on space, though there was still around 10GB free. Considering hibernation and system restore are already disabled by default, there aren't many options for saving space on a stock Windows To fade install.

    If storage capacity is a concern, you may want to create your drive with the Enterprise LTSC build of Windows 10, which excludes bloat such as Cortana, the Windows Store and virtually every other pre-installed application -- including Microsoft Edge (we installed Iridium).

    We reclaimed an additional 2.55GB of space on a fresh Enterprise LTSC install by compressing the operating system with the following line from an administrator Command Prompt:

    Compact.exe /CompactOS:always

    While the LTSC build of Windows 10 is already pretty barebones, more built-in applications, drivers, updates and other operating system components can live added or removed to an installation image by loading the install.wim or .esd into NTLite, which can live used to create a Windows 10 ISO as scrawny as 700MB. If you're going this route, here's another circumstantial pilot on configuring Windows 10 components.

    Getting started in NTLite: Add a .wim or .esd file. birthright click that file when it appears in the software and pick "load." When the loading process completes, you should note options on the left column.

    Depending on the precipitate of your drive and host system, you might besides want to disable animations for menus and windows, which can improve performance on lower-end machines and Windows is visually snappier without these settings enabled.

    How to find these performance settings:

  • From the Control Panel: System > Adjust the appearance and performance of Windows > Visual Effects tab...
  • From This PC: birthright click This PC > Properties > Advanced system settings > Advanced tab > Performance Settings...
  • The gif above demonstrates the precipitate disagreement of opening and closing OpenShell with and without one of these performance animation settings enabled ("Fade or coast menus into view").

    After you've configured your Windows To fade installation, you might want to sequel a backup image of the drive so the operating system can live reapplied with your customizations (hint: Rufus can create an image with the rescue icon next to your USB drive).

    Some parting commands and other useful resources:
  • SFC /scannow | Performs an integrity check and replaces corrupt system files.
  • DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth | Runs a similar system repair scan.
  • C:\Windows\System32\sysprep\sysprep.exe /oobe /generalize /shutdown | Removes PC-specific information such as installed drivers, shuts down and reruns the initial setup process on the next boot-up.
  • slmgr.vbs -rearm | Rearms the Windows tribulation period and lets you access any the features on a non-activated copy of Windows -- useful if not cloning your activated OS.
  • Easy2Boot | Software that can apply a boot menu to your USB drive which among other features can directly boot from many of the image file types mentioned in this article (.iso, .wim, .vhd).
  • Windows Download appliance | Provides an interface for downloading original Windows ISOs directly from Microsoft's servers, including Windows 7/8.1, Insider Preview/Developer/Enterprise builds and veteran versions of Windows 10.
  • Here are Microsoft's own guides on structure a Windows To fade drive, autochthonous booting from VHDs on a USB drive, as well as editing Windows boot files with BCDBoot and operating DISM via Command Prompt.
  • More Useful Tips

    Flashback botnet: The terminate of the Mac’s malware immunity? | real questions and Pass4sure dumps


    For the better portion of two decades, Mac users own believed themselves largely immune to the trojans, worms, and malware that plague the Windows world. However, Macs own never been fundamentally more secure than any other computer, and now the community’s collective complacency may finally live set to the test.

    Computer security firm Dr. Web reports that a recent variant on the Flashback malware has successfully exploited a previously unpatched Java vulnerability to infect as many as 600,000 Mac computers around the world. Although other security firms aren’t publishing estimates of infection rates, companies like Sophos, Intego, and F-Secure back up the tocsin cry: the Flashback variant is real, and in some cases it can install itself without any user intervention when a user visits a specially crafted Web page. It’s the sort of doomsday scenario Mac users own never really seen before: malware that can infect a Mac just by loading a Web page.

    Dr Web Flashback mac botnet infection map April 4 2012

    However, it’s not (currently) the terminate of the world. Not any Macs are vulnerable, a patch is available, and there are simple things users can carry out to protect themselves and determine if they’re already infected. But if you’re a Mac user, the current Flashback scare merits a few minutes of your attention, at the very least.

    Am I Infected?

    Users of Intel-based Macs are potentially vulnerable to the Flashback malware. The malware is sophisticated, however, so determining whether a Mac is infected is a tad complicated.

    First, launch the Terminal application (in /Applications/Utilities, or just carry out a Spotlight search for “Terminal” and launch it from there). You’ll note a window with a Unix command line prompt. (It’s OK, it won’t bite.) Copy and paste the following command at the prompt, then press Return.

    defaults read /Applications/ LSEnvironment

    If you note a two-line response and the second line is “The domain/default pair of (/Applications/, LSEnvironment) does not exist,” then copy and paste the following command at the prompt and press Return:

    defaults read ~/.MacOSX/environment DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES

    Again, you want to note a two-line response. If the second line ends with “does not exist,” your Mac is not infected. character “exit” at the prompt and quit the Terminal application.

    If you note responses from either of these commands that testify data was found, your Mac may live infected, and you’ll want to ensnare steps to remove malware from your system. For the technically expert (it involves more Terminal commands), F-Secure has posted a set of manual removal instructions. Less technically-inclined may wish to download a free removal appliance from Sophos or ClamXav or accumulate someone else to perform the removal. Some of the steps below on how to protect your Mac may besides help.

    How does this version of Flashback work?

    Flashback installer (faking Adobe Flash, not Java)Flashback isn’t new: it’s a entire family of malware variants that first appeared back in September 2011. However, the initial versions of the malware appeared as bogus Adobe glint Player installers. When users loaded a Web page mien the malware, they’d note something that looked like a glint error. Clicking it would bring up a prompt to install something that looked like Adobe Flash. (That’s how they cognomen “FlashBack” got attached.) Infection depended on tricking people into downloading, accepting an self-signed certificate purporting to live from Apple, and installing the malware. Trojans that depend on convivial engineering aren’t anywhere near as common on the Mac as on Windows, but FlashBack wasn’t exactly new under the sun. Unfortunately, Flashback was Mac-savvy: once installed, early versions tried to assassinate off Apple’s barebones XProtect anti-malware protection system present in Snow Leopard and Lion.

    Then, around late February of this year, FlashBack shifted to a new trick, leveraging two vulnerabilities in Java to attempt to install itself without any user intervention at all. Although the threat no longer poses as Adobe Flash, the malware under the hood appears to live the selfsame — and that’s why it’s kept the FlashBack name. The malware installation will prompt for an administrator password, but it doesn’t actually need administrator authorization to infect a Mac — the malware uses a two-pronged approach. The one with the admin password is a bit cleaner; the one without is bestial force.

    Once on a user’s Mac, if a user gives their admin password, the software checks to note if particular apps (like Apple’s XCode evolution environment and common antivirus and security tools) are installed; if so, it deletes itself, presumably to avoid detection. Otherwise, the infection connects out to command-and-control servers to download the malware payload: this is the actual FlashBack engine, and the malware operators can change or update it at any time. Current versions of the malware appear focused on collecting passwords for services like Google, PayPal, and banking sites, presumably to accumulate credentials that can live used by cybercriminals to ensnare over email and online accounts or drain bank accounts.

    If a user does not give their administrator password, the infection loader tries to insert itself into essentially any app a user might race (with exceptions for Microsoft Word, Office 2008/2011, and Skype, which are apparently incompatible). Once the infection is installed and a user runs an app, it will attempt to connect to the command-and-control servers and download the payload. This infection system is effective, but very raw and likely not compatible with any apps: users might easily notice that some programs start crashing or behaving unpredictably.

    Didn’t Apple ditch Java?

    Apple Java iconApple shipped Java for Intel-based Macs as portion of Mac OS 10.4 (Tiger), 10.5 (Leopard), and 10.6 (Snow Leopard); however, Apple deprecated Java as of Mac OS X 10.6.3, and stopped including Java at any with Mac OS 10.7 (Lion). Lion users will only own Java if they upgraded from a previous system to Mac OS X 10.7, or if they explicitly downloaded and installed Java themselves. If Lion users try to race a Java app, Mac OS X will put a question to if users want to download and install Java from Apple.

    Apple’s Java situation is a slight peculiar. Apple originally wanted Mac OS X to live a top-tier Java evolution and runtime platform. The company intrepidly developed its own Java runtime for Mac OS X and had it certified by Sun, Java’s creator. But that pattern meant Apple’s Java always lagged substantially behind official Java releases, and that lag increased substantially when Oracle acquired Sun in 2009. A year later, Apple basically said it wasn’t going to preserve updating Java, and removed it from Mac OS X’s default installation. This set Java into limbo on the Mac.

    Oracle patched the key Java vulnerability exploited by Flashback on February 14. Apple, on the other hand, only released an updated version of Java with that patch (and eleven other Java security fixes) on April 3 — a lag of six weeks.

    The vulnerability isn’t Mac-exclusive: the selfsame Java pocket can live used to beset Linux and Windows systems. Mozilla Firefox took the unusual step of blocking older versions of Java in Windows versions of its Web browser to protect users.

    So how can I protect my Mac?

    Here are the simplest ways to protect your Mac from the current Flashback malware threat:

    If you own Java, update it

    Apple has released an updated version of Java that patches the vulnerability exploited by Flashback. If you’re running Mac OS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard) or 10.7 (Lion) and you own Java installed, the update should issue automatically when you race Software Update (Apple menu > Software Update), or you can accumulate it yourself from Apple’s support downloads site (for Snow Leopard or Lion)

    If you own an Intel-based Mac and you’re running Mac OX 10.5 or earlier, you can note if you own Java installed using the Terminal. Launch Terminal (in /Applications/Utilities/) and paste in the following command:

    java -version

    If you note the message “No Java runtime support, requesting install,” you carry out not own Java installed. If you note a version number less than 1.6.0_31 (and you will, if you own any Java at all), your system is potentially vulnerable. Apple won’t live releasing a patched version of Java for Mac OS X 10.5 or earlier. utilize the other steps below to protect yourself.

    Disable Java in Web browsers Java never really took off as a mainstream platform for Web content, so most users don’t need to enable Java in their Web browsers. Disabling Java will shroud Flashback’s “drive-by” attack, and is the most efficacious passage for earlier users of Mac OS X to protect themselves.
  • Safari—Go to Preferences > Security, and uncheck “Enable Java.” (While you’re in there, fade to Preferences > generic and sequel certain “Open ‘Safe’ files after downloading” is unchecked.)
  • Firefox—Choose Tools > Add-ons, select the Plug-ins Tab, and click the “Disable” button next to Java Plug-in.
  • Chrome — character chrome://plugins in Chrome’s address bar. A list of available plug-ins will appear. Find Java and click the “Disable” link beneath it.
  • This doesn’t remove Java from your system, it just prevents Web browsers from launching or running Java apps. That’s enough to protect you from the drive-by nature of the Flashback attack. You’ll still live able to race desktop applications that require Java — a common instance is things like Citrix’s GoToMeeting — but you may find you need to selectively re-enable Java in a browser to log in to services or download updates. In that case, you can selectively re-enable Java to accumulate an app running, then disable it again when you’re done.

    Consider antivirus software If you’re in a situation where you can’t update Java or can’t disable a vulnerable version of Java, you should deem antivirus software to protect your Mac. ClamXav makes a free antivirus package for Mac users; similarly, Sophos has a Mac antivirus package free for non-commercial use. Commercial antivirus packages are besides available for Mac OS X from the likes of Intego and Symantec; F-Secure besides has a beta Mac OS X security product. Does your Mac need antivirus software?

    virus attackThe days of the Mac’s immunity from malware issue to live at an end: last year saw the MacDefender scare (and Apple’s brief tit-for-tat battle with its perpetrators), and now there’s a genuine drive-by infection threat to the Mac — even though it doesn’t depend on technology exclusive to Mac OS X. Although the malware situation on Mac OS X is still several orders of magnitude less stern that that for Windows, the writing is on the wall: as the Mac platform gains adherents, it’s going to start attracting sophisticated malware authors.

    What about GateKeeper, the new protection technology that’s due to arrive with Mac OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion? Mac user shouldn’t depend on GateKeeper to protect them: the technology will enable users to determine they only want to race applications that reach from Apple and/or the Mac App store, and developers who own identified themselves to Apple, or (like now) race any application from any source. GateKeeper will not protect Mac users from vulnerabilities in applications or system components — which means a problem with a Web browser plug-in or a low-level component like Java is out of GateKeeper’s purview — and Mountain Lion users would live just as vulnerable to something like Flashback’s drive-by beset as anyone else.

    For the time being, it’s probably too early to recommend any Mac OS X users install and race antivirus software: the best case for running AV software on a Mac is still to immaculate Windows-based viruses and malware out of files and documents Mac users might live passing along to hapless Windows users. But the day may reach — soon — when the Mac malware universe warrants widespread utilize of high-quality antivirus software.

    Lead image on Mac screen via Sebastian Kaulitzki/Shutterstock

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    Highlights > Recent Additions
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    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
    By Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones
    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 129217613X
    ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Our ISBN10 : 129217613X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Computer Security: Principles and PracticeComputer Security: Principles and Practice
    By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown
    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
    ISBN10 : 0134794109
    ISBN13 : 9780134794105
    Our ISBN10 : 1292220619
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292220611
    Subject : Computer Science & Technology
    Price : $65.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126046542X
    ISBN13 : 9781260465426
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $39.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 0078021782
    ISBN13 : 9780078021787
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $65.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William G Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
    ISBN13 : 9781260211108
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260682137
    ISBN13 : 9781260682137
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $80.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260277143
    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $77.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1259929434
    ISBN13 : 9781259929434
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $76.00
    By Peter W. Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260128474
    ISBN13 : 9781260128475
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $39.00
    By Peter Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260147150
    ISBN13 : 9781260147155
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $64.00
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