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Test Code : 310-110
Test appellation : Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0
Vendor appellation : SUN
: 340 real Questions

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Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0 education

Java 2 Platform safety | 310-110 real Questions and VCE drill Test

This chapter explains the Java 2 platform architecture and its protection facets as they apply to building Java purposes. In certain, it describes the quite a lot of Java structures and the core security points that do a contribution to the end-to-conclusion security of Java-based mostly applications running on a variety of techniques—from servers to stand-on my own computer systems, computers to contraptions, and gadgets to smart cards.

This chapter is from the e-book 

topics during this Chapter

  • Java protection structure
  • Java Applet protection
  • Java internet birth security
  • Java safety administration tools
  • J2ME security structure
  • Java Card safety architecture
  • Securing the Java Code
  • sun's Java philosophy of "Write as soon as, speed anyplace" has been an evolving success record considering the fact that its inception, and it has revolutionized the computing industry with the aid of supplying to us probably the most ready platform for constructing and running a expansive range of functions and functions. In generic, the Java platform offers a common-aim object-oriented programming language and a common runtime atmosphere for establishing and delivering secure, cross-platform software solutions that can live accessed and dynamically loaded over the network or speed locally.

    With the unlock of the Java 2 Platform, sun classified the Java applied sciences below three key most essential variants with a view to simplify utility building and deployment. The Java 2 common edition (J2SE) offers the runtime atmosphere and API applied sciences for developing and executing fundamental Java purposes, and it additionally serves because the at ease groundwork for operating Java industry functions. The Java 2 commercial enterprise edition (J2EE), or the J2EE Platform, is a set of requirements and API technologies for constructing and deploying multi-tier industry applications. To assist Java on microdevices and embedded programs, Java 2 Micro edition (J2ME) gives the runtime ambiance and API applied sciences for addressing the wants of buyer electronics and contraptions. With its frequent adoption, nowadays Java know-how is enabled and done from sensible cards to microdevices, handhelds to computers, workstations to commercial enterprise servers, mainframes to supercomputers, and so forth.

    To facilitate end-to-end security of the Java platform-based mostly utility options, the Java runtime ambiance (JRE) and the Java language provide a superior protection basis from the floor up with the aid of imposing efficient structure and structural constraints on the code and its execution atmosphere. This distinguishes the Java platform from different software programming languages—it has a well-defined protection architectural model for programming Java-based solutions and their cozy execution.

    during this chapter, they will explore the various Java systems and the elaborate particulars of their protection structure that contribute to the conclusion-to-conclusion protection of Java-primarily based utility options. In specific, they can study Java security and the inherent aspects of the following technologies:

  • J2SE protection
  • Java applet security
  • Java web nascence safety
  • Java security management tools
  • J2ME protection
  • Java Card security
  • Java Code obfuscation
  • safety has been an integral Part of Java expertise from day one. protection is additionally an evolving design purpose of the Java neighborhood—building and operating cozy and powerful Java-based mostly community functions. The basic antecedent of Java's success today as a cozy execution ambiance is the intrinsic security of its architectural basis—the Java virtual computer (JVM) and the Java language. This groundwork achieves the basic Java security end and its definitive techniques for extending security capabilities to do inescapable elements akin to confidentiality, integrity, trust, and so on. A 2nd understanding behind its success is its potential to convey an interoperable and platform-neutral protection infrastructure that can furthermore live integrated with the safety of the underlying operating system and functions.

    The Java virtual laptop (JVM)

    The JVM is an summary computing engine that resides on a bunch computer. it is the execution atmosphere for the Java programming language and has the fundamental accountability for executing the compiled code via interpreting it in a laptop-impartial and move-platform trend. The JVM is regularly spoke of as the Java runtime environment. whereas executing a Java application running on proper of the JVM, the JVM insulates the application from the underlying modifications of the working techniques, networks, and gadget hardware, consequently guaranteeing cross-platform compatibility among everything of the implementations of the Java platform.

    The Java language permits advent of popular-purpose courses known as Java courses that represent a Java application or an application. The Java courses assemble into a layout called Java's executable bytecodes, which can live quite similar to the computer language that can speed on precise of a JVM. The JVM additionally allows clients to download and execute untrusted programs and purposes from far flung materials or over a network. To assist nascence of Java accessories over the community, the JVM controls the simple safety layer with the aid of preserving users and the ambiance from malicious classes. To permit protection, the JVM enforces stringent measures guaranteeing systems protection on the host client laptop and its goal server environments.

    Distributing the executable Java bytecode over a network or running instantly inner an internet browser or a consumer's computer leads to different security hazards and attacks, akin to disclosure of the target atmosphere to the untrusted functions and wound or change of the client's private suggestions and information. for instance, Java applets downloaded from a community are not allowed to contain entry to, examine from, or write to a native file device. they're furthermore no longer allowed to create network connections to any host system apart from the one where they are deployed. nevertheless, stand-alone Java purposes that live and speed in the community as trusted purposes don't appear to live subjected to these safety aspects. the key hardship is that permitting untrusted purposes similar to Java applets to live downloaded from a network by the employ of a web browser and allowing them to entry inescapable resources on the host computing device paves the route for protection breaches and turns into a potential avenue for the unfold of viruses. To wait away from close safety breaches and threats, the JVM offers a built-in Java safety architecture model, configurable protection guidelines, access control mechanisms, and security extensions. as a result of the built-in JVM safeguard facets, Java classes can speed safely and are greater securely covered from common vulnerabilities.

    The Java Language

    Java is a regularly occurring-purpose object-oriented programming language similar to C++. It promises platform-neutral compiled code that may furthermore live carried out the employ of a JVM and is intended for employ in distributed utility environments, heterogeneous techniques, and several network environments. The Java language is furthermore designed to give for the protection and integrity of the software and its underlying programs in any respect ranges—from the Java language constructs to the JVM runtime and from the class library to the comprehensive software.

    The a few inherent aspects of the Java language that provide for the relaxed Java platform are as follows:

  • The language defines everything primitives with a particular size and everything operations are defined to live in a specific order of execution. for that reason, the code achieved in distinctive JVMs will no longer range from the circumstantial order of execution.
  • The language provides entry-handle functionality on variables and methods within the expostulate via defining appellation space management for category and manner names. This secures the application via limiting access to its faultfinding objects from untrusted code. as an example, access is restricted with the aid of qualifying the classification contributors as public, protected, private, package, and many others.
  • The Java language does not enable defining or dereferencing pointers, which means that programmers can not forge a pointer to the recollection or create code defining offset points to reminiscence. everything references to strategies and illustration variables within the classification file are done by the employ of symbolic names. The removing of pointers helps to avoid malicious courses enjoy computing device viruses and misuse of pointers equivalent to gaining access to deepest strategies at once by using a pointer starting from the item's pointer, or running off the conclusion of an array.
  • The Java expostulate encapsulation helps "programming by contract," which permits the reuse of code that has already been tested.
  • The Java language is a strongly typed language. throughout assemble time, the Java compiler does wide nature checking for class mismatches. This mechanism ensures that the runtime information class variables are suitable and in step with the collect time assistance.
  • The language permits declaring courses or methods as ultimate. Any courses or methods that are declared as remaining cannot live overridden. This helps to protect the code from malicious attacks corresponding to creating a subclass and substituting it for the common nature and override methods.
  • The Java rubbish assortment mechanism contributes to secure Java programs by route of presenting a transparent storage allocation and getting better unused reminiscence in its region of deallocating the recollection the employ of manual intervention. This ensures application integrity privilege through execution and prevents programmatic entry to unintended and wrong freeing of reminiscence resulting in a JVM crash.
  • With these elements, Java fulfills the plight of proposing a cozy programming language that offers the programmer the liberty to write down and execute code in the neighborhood or distribute it over a network.

    Java built-in security model

    within the frail two sections, they in brief looked on the primary safety elements provided through the JVM and the Java language. As a Part of its security architecture, Java has a built-in coverage-pushed, domain-based safety model. This enables enforcing security guidelines, maintaining/controlling access to resources, rule-based category loading, signing code and assigning levels of potential, and retaining content material privacy.

    in the first unencumber of the solar Java Platform, the Java progress paraphernalia 1.0.x (JDK) introduced the suggestion of a sandbox-primarily based safety mannequin. This essentially helps downloading and running Java applets securely and avoids any erudition dangers to the user's supplies. With the JDK 1.0 sandbox safety model, everything Java applications (apart from Java applets) carried out in the community can contain replete access to the supplies purchasable to the JVM. software code downloaded from remote resources, comparable to Java applets, will contain access simplest to the limited components provided within its sandbox. This sandbox protection protects the Java applet consumer from potential risks because the downloaded applet can not entry or alter the consumer's elements beyond the sandbox.

    The unlock of JDK 1.1.x introduced the thought of signed applets, which allowed downloading and executing applets as trusted code after verifying the applet signer's advice. To facilitate signed applets, JDK 1.1.x added steer for cryptographic algorithms that deliver digital signature capabilities. With this support, a Java applet class may live signed with digital signatures within the Java archive layout (JAR file). The JDK runtime will employ the trusted public keys to verify the signers of the downloaded applet and then deal it as a trusted native utility, granting access to its supplies. pattern three-1 indicates the representation of a sandbox in the JDK 1.1 safety model.

    Java 2 safety mannequin

    The liberate of J2SE [J2SE] brought a couple of massive enhancements to JDK 1.1 and introduced such facets as protection extensions proposing cryptographic services, digital certificate administration, PKI administration, and related tools. probably the most most essential alterations within the Java 2 security structure are as follows:

  • policy-driven limited entry control to JVM substances.
  • suggestions-based mostly classification loading and verification of byte code.
  • device for signing code and assigning ranges of capacity.
  • coverage-driven access to Java applets downloaded through an internet browser.
  • within the Java 2 security structure, everything code—inspite of even if it's speed locally or downloaded remotely—can live subjected to a protection policy configured by means of a JVM consumer or administrator. everything code is configured to do employ of a specific district (similar to a sandbox) and a safety coverage that dictates even if the code may furthermore live speed on a specific domain or no longer. determine three-2 illustrates the J2SE protection structure and its simple aspects.


    determine three-2 Java 2 safety structure and basic facets

    Let's seize a extra specific examine those core points of the Java 2 security architecture.

    insurance mode Domains ( ): In J2SE, everything local Java applications speed unrestricted as relied on applications via default, but they could even live configured with access-manage guidelines similar to what is described in applets and far off functions. this is performed by configuring a ProtectionDomain, which enables grouping of courses and situations after which associating them with a set of permissions between the materials. protection domains are commonly labeled as two domains: "gadget domain" and "software domain." everything covered external materials, such as the file methods, networks, etc, are purchasable only by route of device domains. The substances which are a Part of the sole execution thread are regarded an application area. So basically, an utility that requires entry to an exterior resource may furthermore contain an utility district in addition to a system domain. whereas executing code, the Java runtime maintains a mapping from code to protection domain and then to its permissions.

    protection domains are determined with the aid of the existing security policy defined for a Java runtime ambiance. The domains are characterized the employ of a group of permissions associated with a code supply and location. The class encapsulates the characteristics of a blanketed domain, which encloses a set of courses and its granted set of permissions when being carried out on behalf of a person.

    Permissions ( ): In essence, permissions verify even if access to a useful resource of the JVM is granted or denied. To live extra specific, they give unique supplies or courses operating in that instance of the JVM the capacity to enable or gainsay lucid runtime operations. An applet or an software using a safety manager can gain access to a system aid handiest if it has permission. The Java safety API defines a hierarchy for license courses that can furthermore live used to configure a safety policy. on the root, is the summary class, which represents access to a goal aid; it could possibly additionally include a set of operations to assemble access on a particular resource. The license class contains several subclasses that characterize access to different types of components. The subclasses belong to their own packages that symbolize the APIs for the particular useful resource. one of the crucial approved license courses are as follows:

    For wildcard permissions

    For named permissions

    For file gadget

    For network

    For homes


    For runtime supplies


    For authentication

    For graphical materials


    illustration 3-1 suggests a route to give protection to entry to an expostulate the employ of permissions. The code indicates the caller utility with the required license to entry an object.

    example 3-1. the usage of Java permissions to present protection to entry to an object // Create the thing that requires insurance plan String protectedObj = "For depended on eyes only"; // create the necessary license which will // present protection to the item. // preserve, represents an expostulate that is used to present protection to // entry to an additional object. preserve myGuard = new PropertyPermission ("java.domestic", "examine"); // Create the defend GuardedObject gobj = new GuardedObject(protectedObj, myGuard); // find the guarded object are trying expostulate o = gobj.getObject(); seize (AccessControlException e) // can't access the object

    Permissions can even live described the employ of protection policy configuration info (java.coverage). as an instance, to outfit access to study a file in "c:\temp\" (on home windows), the FilePermission may furthermore live described in a protection policy file (see illustration 3-2).

    instance 3-2. atmosphere Java permissions in policy configuration file provide license "c:\\temp\\testFile", "read"; ;

    policy: The Java 2 safety policy defines the insurance policy domains for everything running Java code with access privileges and a collection of permissions such as read and write access or making a connection to a bunch. The policy for a Java utility is represented through a coverage object, which offers a means to declare permissions for granting entry to its required components. In normal, everything JVMs contain safety mechanisms built in that succor you define permissions via a Java protection coverage file. A JVM makes employ of a policy-driven access-control mechanism by route of dynamically mapping a static set of permissions defined in a sole or more policy configuration data. These entries are often called vouchsafe entries. A person or an administrator externally configures the policy file for a J2SE runtime atmosphere the employ of an ASCII text file or a serialized binary file representing a coverage classification. In a J2SE environment, the default device-wide security policy file java.policy is located at <JRE_HOME>/lib/protection/ directory. The policy file location is defined within the protection properties file with a surroundings, which is located at <JRE_HOME>/lib/protection/

    instance 3-three is a policy configuration file that specifies the license for a signed JAR file loaded from "*" and signed by using "javaguy," and then grants read/write entry to everything info in /export/home/verify.

    instance three-3. atmosphere codebase and permissions in coverage configuration file provide signedBy "javaguy", codebase "*" license "/export/domestic/look at various/*", "examine,write"; ;

    The J2SE ambiance furthermore offers a GUI-primarily based device known as "policytool" for editing a safety coverage file, which is institute at "<JAVA_HOME>/bin/policytool."

    by default, the Java runtime uses the policy data observed in:

    $java.home/jre/lib/safety/java.policy $user.domestic/.java.coverage

    These coverage info are specified within the default safety file:


    The useful coverage of the JVM runtime environment should live the union of everything permissions in everything coverage info. To specify an additional coverage file, you could set the device property on the command line:

    java MyClass

    to ignore the guidelines within the file and only employ the custom policy, employ '==' in its region of '=':

    java MyClass

    SecurityManager ( java.lang.SecurityManager ): each Java application can contain its own safety supervisor that acts as its primary security shield towards malicious assaults. The safety manager enforces the mandatory security policy of an software through performing runtime exams and authorizing access, thereby conserving elements from malicious operations. under the hood, it uses the Java safety policy file to conclude which set of permissions are granted to the courses. despite the fact, when untrusted courses and third-celebration purposes employ the JVM, the Java security manager applies the safety coverage linked to the JVM to identify malicious operations. in many cases, where the chance mannequin doesn't encompass malicious code being speed in the JVM, the Java security manager is mindless. In cases the region the SecurityManager detects a safety coverage violation, the JVM will hurl an AccessControlException or a SecurityException.

    In a Java application, the security supervisor is determined by route of the setSecurityManager formulation in nature device. And the latest protection manager is bought via the getSecurityManager formula (see instance three-four).

    example 3-four. using SecurityManager SecurityManager mySecurityMgr = gadget.getSecurityManager(); if (mySecurityMgr != null) mySecurityMgr.checkWrite(name);

    The class java.lang.SecurityManager consists of a few checkXXXX strategies enjoy checkRead (String file) to investigate access privileges to a file. The examine methods appellation the SecurityManager.checkPermission formula to locate even if the calling application has permissions to discharge the requested operation, in line with the security policy file. If no longer, it throws a SecurityException.

    if you wish to contain your purposes employ a SecurityManager and protection coverage, start up the JVM with the option and you can furthermore specify a safety policy file the usage of the policies in the option as JVM arguments. in case you permit the Java protection supervisor on your utility however enact not specify a safety policy file, then the Java safety manager makes employ of the default security policies defined in the java.coverage file in the $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/safety listing. instance three-5 programmatically allows the protection supervisor.

    example 3-5. the usage of SecurityManager for limiting access manage // earlier than the security manager is enabled, // this appellation is possible device.setProperty("java.edition","Malicious: Delete"); are trying // allow the security manager SecurityManager sm = new SecurityManager(); equipment.setSecurityManager(sm); capture (SecurityException se) // SecurityManager already set // After the security manager is enabled: // This call is not any longer feasible; // an AccessControlException is thrown device.setProperty ("java.edition", "Malicious: Delete");

    The protection manager can even live installed from the command-line interface:

    java <ClassName>

    AccessController ( ): The access controller mechanism performs a dynamic inspection and decides no matter if the access to a particular resource can furthermore live allowed or denied. From a programmer's standpoint, the Java entry controller encapsulates the place, code source, and permissions to discharge the particular operation. In a measure technique, when a application executes an operation, it calls in the course of the protection supervisor, which delegates the request to the entry controller, after which finally it receives access or denial to the components. within the class, the checkPermission formulation is used to investigate even if the access to the mandatory resource is granted or denied. If a requested access is granted, the checkPermission components returns genuine; otherwise, the components throws an AccessControlException.

    as an instance, to investigate read and write license for a listing in the file gadget, you possibly can employ the code proven in instance 3-6.

    example 3-6. the employ of AccessController are attempting AccessController.checkPermission (new FilePermission("/var/temp/*", "examine,write")); trap (SecurityException e) // does not contain license to entry the directory

    Codebase: A URL location of class or JAR information are inescapable the usage of codebase. The URL may quest counsel from a district of a directory within the native file system or on the internet. instance three-7 retrieves the entire permissions granted to a specific classification that is been loaded from a code base. The permissions are efficient best if the security manager is installed. The loaded category uses these permissions by means of executing type.getProtectionDomain() and coverage.getPermissions().

    illustration 3-7. using codebase type URL codebase = null; are trying // find permissions for a URL codebase = new URL(""); trap (MalformedURLException e) seize (IOException e) // assemble a code source with the code base CodeSource cs = new CodeSource(codebase, null); // find everything granted permissions PermissionCollection pcoll = policy.getPolicy().getPermissions(cs); // View every license within the license assortment Enumeration enum = pcoll.elements(); for (; enum.hasMoreElements(); ) license p = (Permission)enum.nextElement(); system.out.println("Permission " + p);

    To check instance 3-7, instance 3-8 is the policy file (examine.coverage), which gives license to examine everything gadget homes.

    example three-eight. coverage file for checking out permissions to a codebase vouchsafe codebase "" // supply license to read everything device homes license java.util.PropertyPermission "*", "examine"; ;

    to ignore the default guidelines in the file, and best employ the distinctive coverage, employ '==' as an alternative of '='. With the policy just introduced, you may additionally speed privilege here:

    java TestClass

    CodeSource: The CodeSource allows for illustration of a URL from which a category become loaded and the certificates keys that contain been used to mark that classification. It provides the equal concept as codebase, nonetheless it encapsulates the codebase (URL) of the code where it's loaded and additionally the certificates keys that were used to determine the signed code. The CodeSource classification and its two arguments to specify the code location and its associated certificate keys are as follows:

    CodeSource(URL url, certs[]);

    To construct a code supply with the code basis and without the usage of certificates, you could employ the following:

    CodeSource cs = new CodeSource(codebase, null);

    Bytecode verifier: The Java bytecode verifier is a vital Part of the JVM that performs the faultfinding position of verifying the code prior to execution. It ensures that the code became produced per standards by route of a staunch compiler, confirms the structure of the classification file, and proves that the progression of Java byte codes are felony. With bytecode verification, the code is proved to live internally constant following many of the suggestions and constraints defined by the Java language compiler. The bytecode verifier can furthermore additionally keep inconsistencies involving lucid circumstances of array bound-checking and object-casting through runtime enforcement.

    To manually manage the stage of bytecode verification, the alternatives to the Java command with the V1.2 JRE are as follows:

  • -Xverify:far off runs verification technique on courses loaded over community (default)
  • -Xverify:all verifies everything classes loaded
  • -Xverify:none does no verification
  • ClassLoader: The ClassLoader plays a lucid duty in Java safety, since it is primarily accountable for loading the Java courses into the JVM and then changing the uncooked statistics of a class into an inside records structure representing the category. From a safety standpoint, class loaders can live used to establish safety guidelines before executing untrusted code, to examine digital signatures, etc. To enforce protection, the class loader coordinates with the protection manager and entry controller of the JVM to verify the protection guidelines of a Java application. The nature loader extra enforces security with the aid of defining the namespace separation between courses that are loaded from several areas, together with networks. This ensures that courses loaded from numerous hosts will not communicate inside the equal JVM area, thus making it impossible for untrusted code to find suggestions from trusted code. The nature loader finds out the Java utility's entry privileges using the security manager, which applies the necessary safety coverage based on the requesting context of the caller software.

    With the Java 2 platform, everything Java purposes contain the faculty of loading bootstrap classes, system classes, and application courses at first the usage of an interior category loader (also referred to as primordial category loader). The primordial classification loader uses a unique nature loader SecureClassLoader to protect the JVM from loading malicious courses. This classification has a covered constructor that buddies a loaded category to a insurance mode area. The SecureClassLoader furthermore makes employ of permissions set for the codebase. for example, URLClassLoader is a subclass of the SecureClassLoader. URLClassLoader permits loading a category or district specified with a URL.

    confer with illustration 3-9, which suggests how a URLClassLoader can furthermore live used to load courses from a listing.

    instance three-9. the employ of URLClassLoader // Create a File expostulate on the basis of the // listing containing the category file File file = new File("c:\\myclasses\\"); are trying // transfigure File to a URL URL url = file.toURL(); URL[] urls = new URL[]url; // Create a new nature loader with the directory ClassLoader myclassloader = new URLClassLoader(urls); // Load in the classification; // MyClass.type should quiet live observed in // the directory file:/c:/myclasses/com/security nature myclass = myclassloader.loadClass(""); trap (MalformedURLException e) capture (ClassNotFoundException e)

    Keystore and Keytool: The Java 2 platform gives a password-blanketed database facility for storing trusted certificate entries and key entries. The keytool permits the users to create, manipulate, and administer their personal public/private key pairs and linked certificates that are meant for employ in authentication features and in representing digital signatures.

    we can seize a spy in more suitable component at the utilization of the Java keystore and keytool and the route these tools champion Java safety within the Part entitled "Java safety management tools," later during this chapter.

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    Highlights > Recent AdditionsShowing Page 1 of 5
    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
    By Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones
    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 129217613X
    ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Our ISBN10 : 129217613X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Computer Security: Principles and PracticeComputer Security: Principles and Practice
    By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown
    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
    ISBN10 : 0134794109
    ISBN13 : 9780134794105
    Our ISBN10 : 1292220619
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292220611
    Subject : Computer Science & Technology
    Price : $65.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126046542X
    ISBN13 : 9781260465426
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $39.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 0078021782
    ISBN13 : 9780078021787
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $65.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William G Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
    ISBN13 : 9781260211108
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260682137
    ISBN13 : 9781260682137
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $80.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260277143
    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $77.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1259929434
    ISBN13 : 9781259929434
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $76.00
    By Peter W. Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260128474
    ISBN13 : 9781260128475
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $39.00
    By Peter Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260147150
    ISBN13 : 9781260147155
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $64.00
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