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The solar licensed Java Programmer (SCJP) is knowledgeable in regards to the fundamentals of the Java programming language, and certified SCJPs are favourite by using a great range of agencies engaged in application construction. The SCJP examination is too a prerequisite to greater-stage certifications in different Java-related areas, corresponding to internet add-ons, business components, web services and cellular functions.
gaining learning of Paths purchasable via sun, school classes too accessible
Programming languages, firm, math talents, realizing of summary concepts
Median revenue (2015)*
$seventy nine,530 for laptop programmers$98,260 for application functions developers
Job multiply (2014-2024)*
-8% for computer programmers19% for application functions developers
supply: *U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics
sun Microsystems presents a couple of 'learning Paths' to certification, for students with minimal prior journey or these commonplace with other programming languages. Many different institutions, from technical colleges to universities, proffer practising in Java ideas, techniques and construction programs, and extreme of those courses do together the pupil to be a superior Java programmer, and win the solar licensed Java Programmer exam. the two-hour examination must be taken at a licensed testing facility, and there aren't any inevitable must haves.
a company knowing of computer systems, programming languages and advanced programming ideas would do you on the speedy track to a career as a sun certified Java Programmer. college students with itsy-bitsy programming sustain but respectable math aptitude, organizational edge and an figuring out of summary concepts should dependence taking a beginner's even route in laptop ideas earlier than the SCJP working towards. sun offers sun licensed Java affiliate (SCJA) practising for non-technical college students, and different introductory laptop courseware is greatly attainable.
profession and economic Outlook
according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS), the median annual income in 2015 for applications software developers became $ninety eight,260. laptop programmers made a median annual salary of $79,530 in the equal yr, but there become no inevitable records for solar-certified Java programmers. Jobs for laptop programmers will decline by eight% during 2014-2024, whereas utility application developers will see raises of 19% in keeping with the BLS. Programmers and utility builders skilled in a great latitude of applied sciences, peculiarly presently accepted ones fancy Java, may noiseless proceed to occupy the optimal employment potentialities.
This seller-particular Certification is obtainable through:Oracle CorporationRedwood Shores, CA USAPhone: 800-672-2531
skill degree: Intermediate reputation: lively
economical: $300 (shortest track)
abstract:For developers specializing within the utility of JavaServer Pages and servlet technologies used to present web features and dynamic internet content material. This certification became previously referred to as solar certified web ingredient Developer (SCWCD).
initial requirements:You ought to dangle both an Oracle licensed skilled, Java Programmer certification or a solar licensed Java Programmer certification. You should then circulate the Java enterprise web ingredient Developer certified professional exam ($300). The exam has a one hundred fifty minute cut-off date and consists of 69 questions. A passing rating of seventy two% is required. practicing is attainable but now not required.
continuing requirements:None designated
Offline resources:teacher-led classes and commemorate questions are available from solar.
Eclipse GlassFish 5.1 has been released, and in contrast to the modest multiply in version number may indicate, this truly marks a major milestone — no longer only for the GlassFish job itself, but for Java EE and touching Jakarta EE ahead much more.
a glance at the legacy of GlassFish
GlassFish goes back a protracted way. It started with the Kiva commercial enterprise Server, a Java utility server that was launched in January 1996 (for evaluation, Java 1.0 itself become additionally launched in that month!)
A yr later, Netscape obtained Kiva, and the Kiva business Server grew to be called Netscape software Server (NAS), which had its own pre-J2EE proprietary Java web APIs (such because the AppLogic framework, which changed into fancy Servlets and DAE for DB entry). NAS 2.1, which changed into accessible from early 1998, become a particularly common edition. software servers had been quite pricey again then, as Netscape application Server turned into around $35,000 per CPU.
In 1999, sun and Netscape (later AOL) formed an alliance, and Netscape software Server four, which became launched later that 12 months, protected support for an early edition of J2EE (Servlets, EJBs, JSPs, and JDBC). as an instance, JSP aid changed into for the early edition 0.ninety two.
Netscape utility Server four was chosen via the alliance to proceed construction on in its station of merging it with the NetDynamics 5.01 software server sun had received prior. The designation become as soon as once again changed, this time into iPlanet software Server (iAS). It turned into allotment of the iPlanet suite of products jointly developed by using sun and AOL (Netscape).
iAS version 6, from around the year 2000, was a J2EE 1.2-compatible server, aiding issues reminiscent of Servlets 2.2, EJB 1.1, JSP 1.1 (in accordance with Jasper), and JTA 1.0 (based on the Encina transaction video display).
For edition 7, the designation turned into once once more changed, now in complete to "Stanford university network Open web environment software Server," aka sun ONE software Server (S1AS, or SOAS). S1AS 7 was made accessible for no suffuse when it became released in late 2002, even though it was nonetheless closed source. It protected a modified Tomcat 4, which has a long history as neatly. version eight as soon as once more noticed a designation trade, when it grew to be sun Java system application Server (SJSAS) eight, which turned into J2EE 1.4 suitable. around this time duration, sun had additionally crash up off a derived version known as the J2EE SDK (Reference Implementation, or RI), which turned into essentially the core of the complete application server, however in a while, this grew to become the Platform version of SJSAS and the simple RI was handiest made available for TCK testing.
Open-supply GlassFish mission
In 2005, the open-source GlassFish mission changed into begun, which was nearly formed by the donation of the source code for SJSAS 9 by using sun and the TopLink persistence supply code via Oracle (for the brand unique JPA implementation in EE 5). In might too 2006, the Java EE 5-suitable and wholly open-supply GlassFish 1.0 turned into released. After some intermediate models, an primary re-architectured version of GlassFish become launched in December 2009, GlassFish three.0. in the GlassFish source code internally, there are noiseless many references to "V3," which refers to this most primary milestone.
Payara Server Is Born
After Oracle got solar, it noiseless released a edition three.1 of GlassFish in early 2011 with construction features equivalent to clustering and cargo balancing, however after that release, it received exceedingly silent. In November 2013, Oracle announced they might nevertheless aid the open supply GlassFish however ended industrial help. In genuine open-supply fashion, this resulted in the Payara Server, which started as a fork of GlassFish and delivered commercial assist, common computer virus fixes, and commonplace allotment updates. GlassFish 4 became launched to assist Java EE 7, however from a server structure aspect of view, it become a comparatively minor replace, with basically the add-ons being updated to their EE 7 models.
GlassFish Is Transferred to the Eclipse foundation
Late 2015/early 2016, it becomes quieter on the GlassFish front, and a number of articles regarded questioning Oracle's hobby in Java EE, principally GlassFish. In August 2017, Oracle indeed introduced that they did not are looking to be basically chargeable for Java EE and GlassFish anymore. a itsy-bitsy later, Oracle announced that Java EE and extreme of the GlassFish code (GlassFish itself and extreme its constituent accessories) may be transferred to the Eclipse basis. The identify of the undertaking would develop into "EE4J," and in early 2018, the supply code starts transferring to the "eclipse-ee4j" repo on GitHub.
As a allotment of the deal between Oracle and Eclipse, it has decided to release GlassFish 5.1, which is absolutely developed via the Eclipse organization from the transferred and relicensed accessories that's thoroughly Java EE 8 certified.
Payara features Involvement
Altogether, this transfer has taken lots of work. Payara services (the business in addition to individuals working for Payara) occupy supported this procedure from its early tiers. It included aid from the preliminary cleansing of a couple of projects for the vetting of the transfer. as an instance, within the Mojarra project, there turned into fairly a bit of of historical code and other artifacts that were removed one by one, as they might occupy been intricate to vet. After the naked source code switch, several alterations were needed to develop the projects cleanly build and afterward to develop them work on the Eclipse Jenkins circumstances (https://jenkins.eclipse.org). For this to occur, a great number of jobs needed to be created, for each and every venture to build, stage, and at ultimate to unlock them to Maven principal. The component tracker at https://wiki.eclipse.org/Eclipse_GlassFish_5.1_Components_Release_Tracker offers some concept of which initiatives were involved.
Payara notably contributed to the transfer of here API tasks and their linked implementations:
Altogether, it became an excellent sustain working on this transfer, however now and then, it turned into too quite a itsy-bitsy of labor, certainly when, within the starting, it wasn't lucid at extreme a course to proceed with obvious issues.
Now, despite the fact, this work is at ultimate carried out! GlassFish is completely developed on the Eclipse infrastructure, and modern day release by means of Eclipse marks a further primary step in GlassFish's lengthy adventure, dawn at Kiva, passing via NetScape, starting to be up at solar, passing through Oracle, and now touchdown at Eclipse.
One Step closer to Jakarta EE 9
however it's no longer most effectual about GlassFish itself. With this switch achieved, and both GlassFish and its accessories available via the Jakarta Maven coordinates, we're one most primary step closer to dawn the work for Jakarta EE 9.
GlassFish 5.1 may too be downloaded perquisite here: https://projects.eclipse.org/tasks/ee4j.glassfish/downloads
The implementation accessories can be establish from the org.glassfish Maven coordinates as before: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/glassfish/main/distributions/glassfish/5.1.0
The API jars now live below the brand unique Jakarta Maven coordinates: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/jakarta/
We at Payara would fancy to thank extreme companions from Jakarta EE who helped with the transfer. particular thanks fade to Dmitry Kornilov for his weariless volume of assist and assistance on every occasion they received stuck on whatever. Thanks, Dmitry!
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Eclipse GlassFish 5.1 has been released, and unlike the modest multiply in version number might suggest, this truly marks a major milestone — not just for the GlassFish project itself, but for Java EE and touching Jakarta EE forward even more.
A explore at the History of GlassFish
GlassFish goes back a long way. It started with the Kiva Enterprise Server, a Java application server that was released in January 1996 (for comparison, Java 1.0 itself was too released in that month!)
A year later, Netscape acquired Kiva, and the Kiva Enterprise Server became known as Netscape Application Server (NAS), which had its own pre-J2EE proprietary Java web APIs (such as the AppLogic framework, which was fancy Servlets and DAE for DB access). NAS 2.1, which was available from early 1998, was a particularly accepted version. Application servers were quite pricey back then, as Netscape Application Server was around $35,000 per CPU.
In 1999, Sun and Netscape (later AOL) formed an alliance, and Netscape Application Server 4, which was released later that year, included support for an early version of J2EE (Servlets, EJBs, JSPs, and JDBC). For example, JSP support was for the early version 0.92.
Netscape Application Server 4 was chosen by the alliance to continue development on instead of merging it with the NetDynamics 5.01 application server Sun had acquired earlier. The designation was once again changed, this time into iPlanet Application Server (iAS). It was allotment of the iPlanet suite of products jointly developed by Sun and AOL (Netscape).
iAS Version 6, from around the year 2000, was a J2EE 1.2-compatible server, supporting things such as Servlets 2.2, EJB 1.1, JSP 1.1 (based on Jasper), and JTA 1.0 (based on the Encina transaction monitor).
For version 7, the designation was once again changed, now in complete to "Stanford University Network Open Net Environment Application Server," aka Sun ONE Application Server (S1AS, or SOAS). S1AS 7 was made available for no cost when it was released in late 2002, although it was noiseless closed source. It included a modified Tomcat 4, which has a long history as well. Version 8 once again saw a designation change, when it became Sun Java System Application Server (SJSAS) 8, which was J2EE 1.4 compatible. Around this time period, Sun had too split off a derived version called the J2EE SDK (Reference Implementation, or RI), which was essentially the core of the complete application server, but later on, this became the Platform Edition of SJSAS and the simple RI was only made available for TCK testing.
Open-Source GlassFish Project
In 2005, the open-source GlassFish project was started, which was essentially formed by the donation of the source code for SJSAS 9 by Sun and the TopLink persistence source code by Oracle (for the unique JPA implementation in EE 5). In May 2006, the Java EE 5-compatible and fully open-source GlassFish 1.0 was released. After some intermediate versions, a major re-architectured version of GlassFish was released in December 2009, GlassFish 3.0. In the GlassFish source code internally, there are noiseless many references to "V3," which refers to this major milestone.
Payara Server Is Born
After Oracle acquired Sun, it noiseless released a version 3.1 of GlassFish in early 2011 with production features such as clustering and load balancing, but after that release, it got relatively silent. In November 2013, Oracle announced they would noiseless support the open source GlassFish but ended commercial support. In actual open-source fashion, this led to the Payara Server, which started as a fork of GlassFish and added commercial support, regular bug fixes, and regular component updates. GlassFish 4 was released to support Java EE 7, but from a server architecture point of view, it was a relatively minor update, with mostly the components being updated to their EE 7 versions.
GlassFish Is Transferred to the Eclipse Foundation
Late 2015/early 2016, it becomes quieter on the GlassFish front, and several articles appeared questioning Oracle's interest in Java EE, specifically GlassFish. In August 2017, Oracle indeed announced that they did not want to be primarily amenable for Java EE and GlassFish anymore. A itsy-bitsy later, Oracle announced that Java EE and extreme the GlassFish code (GlassFish itself and extreme its constituent components) will be transferred to the Eclipse Foundation. The designation of the project would become "EE4J," and in early 2018, the source code starts transferring to the "eclipse-ee4j" repo on GitHub.
As allotment of the deal between Oracle and Eclipse, it has decided to release GlassFish 5.1, which is completely built by the Eclipse organization from the transferred and relicensed components that is fully Java EE 8 certified.
Payara Services Involvement
Altogether, this transfer has taken a lot of work. Payara Services (the company as well as individuals working for Payara) occupy supported this process from its early stages. It included lighten from the initial cleaning of several projects for the vetting of the transfer. For instance, in the Mojarra project, there was quite a bit of ancient code and other artifacts that were removed one by one, as they would occupy been difficult to vet. After the bare source code transfer, several adjustments were needed to develop the projects cleanly build and later on to develop them work on the Eclipse Jenkins instances (https://jenkins.eclipse.org). For this to happen, a great number of jobs had to be created, for each project to build, stage, and finally to release them to Maven central. The component tracker at https://wiki.eclipse.org/Eclipse_GlassFish_5.1_Components_Release_Tracker gives some understanding of which projects were involved.
Payara specifically contributed to the transfer of the following API projects and their associated implementations:
Altogether, it was a distinguished sustain working on this transfer, but at times, it was too quite a bit of work, especially when, in the beginning, it wasn't lucid at extreme how to proceed with inevitable things.
Now, however, this work is finally done! GlassFish is fully built on the Eclipse infrastructure, and today's release by Eclipse marks another major step in GlassFish's long journey, starting at Kiva, passing through NetScape, growing up at Sun, passing through Oracle, and now landing at Eclipse.
One Step Closer to Jakarta EE 9
But it's not only about GlassFish itself. With this transfer completed, and both GlassFish and its components available via the Jakarta Maven coordinates, we are one major step closer to starting the work for Jakarta EE 9.
GlassFish 5.1 can be downloaded here: https://projects.eclipse.org/projects/ee4j.glassfish/downloads
The implementation components are available from the org.glassfish Maven coordinates as before: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/glassfish/main/distributions/glassfish/5.1.0
The API jars now live under the unique Jakarta Maven coordinates: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/jakarta/
We at Payara would fancy to thank extreme partners from Jakarta EE who helped with the transfer. Special thanks fade to Dmitry Kornilov for his weariless amount of lighten and advice whenever they got stuck on something. Thanks, Dmitry!
This chapter discusses the JBoss JNDI-based naming service, JBossNS, and the role of JNDI in JBoss and J2EE. It too provides an introduction to the basic JNDI API and common usage conventions.
This chapter is from the bespeak
In This Chapter
An Overview of JNDI
The JBossNS Architecture
This chapter discusses the JBoss JNDI-based naming service, JBossNS, and the role of JNDI in JBoss and J2EE. It too provides an introduction to the basic JNDI API and common usage conventions. In this chapter, you'll too learn about the JBoss-specific configuration of J2EE component-naming environments defined by the measure deployment descriptors. The final topic in this chapter is the configuration and architecture of the JBoss naming service.
The JBoss naming service plays a key role in J2EE because it provides a naming service that allows a user to map a designation to an object. This is a fundamental necessity in any programming environment because developers and administrators want to be able to advert to objects and services by recognizable names. A suitable instance of a pervasive naming service is the Internet's Domain designation System (DNS). DNS allows you to advert to hosts by using ratiocinative names rather than their numeric Internet addresses. JNDI serves a similar role in J2EE by enabling developers and administrators to create name-to-object bindings for expend in J2EE components.
JNDI is a measure Java API that is bundled with JDK 1.3 and higher. JNDI provides a common interface to a variety of existing naming services: DNS, LDAP, energetic Directory, RMI registry, COS registry, NIS, and file systems. The JNDI API is divided logically into a client API that is used to access naming services and a service provider interface (SPI) that allows the user to create JNDI implementations for naming services.
The SPI layer is an abstraction that naming service providers must implement to enable the core JNDI classes to expose the naming service, using the common JNDI client interface. An implementation of JNDI for a naming service is referred to as a JNDI provider. JBoss naming is an instance of JNDI implementation, based on the SPI classes. Note that J2EE component developers enact not necessity the JNDI SPI.
For a thorough introduction and tutorial on JNDI, which covers both the client and service provider APIs, see Sun’s tutorial at http://java.sun.com/products/jndi/tutorial/.
The JNDI API
The main JNDI API package is the javax.naming package. It contains 5 interfaces, 10 classes, and several exceptions. There is one key class, InitialContext, and there are 2 key interfaces, Context and Name.
Names in JNDI
The notion of a designation is of fundamental weight in JNDI. The naming system determines the syntax that the designation must follow. The syntax of the naming system allows the user to parse string representations of names into its components. A designation is used with a naming system to locate objects. In the simplest sense, a naming system is just a collection of objects that occupy unique names. To locate an protest in a naming system, you provide a designation to the naming system, and the naming system returns the protest store under the name.
For example, account the Unix file system’s naming convention. Each file is named from its path, relative to the root of the file system, with each component in the path separated by the forward slash character (/). The file’s path is ordered from left to right. The pathname /usr/jboss/readme.txt, for example, names the file readme.txt in the directory jboss, under the directory usr, located in the root of the file system. JBoss naming uses a Unix-style namespace as its naming convention.
The javax.naming.Name interface represents a generic designation as an ordered sequence of components. It can be a composite designation (one that spans multiple namespaces) or a compound designation (one that is used within a sole hierarchical naming system). The components of a designation are numbered. The indexes of a designation with N components range from 0 up to, but not including, N. The most significant component is at index 0. An empty designation has no components.
A composite designation is a sequence of component names that span multiple namespaces. An instance of a composite designation is the hostname and file combination commonly used with Unix commands such as scp. For example, the following command copies localfile.txt to the file remotefile.txt in the tmp directory on host ahost.someorg.org:
A compound designation is derived from a hierarchical namespace. Each component in a compound designation is an atomic name—that is, it is a string that cannot be parsed into smaller components. A file pathname in the Unix file system is an instance of a compound name. ahost.someorg.org:/tmp/remotefile.txt is a composite designation that spans the DNS and Unix file system namespaces. The components of the composite designation are ahost.someorg.org and /tmp/remotefile.txt. A component is a string designation from the namespace of a naming system. If the component comes from a hierarchical namespace, that component can be further parsed into its atomic parts by using the javax.naming.CompoundName class. The JNDI API provides the javax.naming.CompositeName class as the implementation of the designation interface for composite names.
Contexts The javax.naming.Context interface is the primary interface for interacting with a naming service. The Context interface represents a set of name-to-object bindings. Every context has an associated naming convention that determines how the context parses string names into javax.naming.Name instances. To create a name-to-object binding, you invoke the bind manner of a context and specify a designation and an protest as arguments. You can later retrieve the protest by using its name, via the Context lookup method. A context typically provides operations for binding a designation to an object, unbinding a name, and obtaining a listing of extreme name-to-object bindings. The protest you bind into a context can itself be of nature Context. The Context protest that is bound is referred to as a subcontext of the context on which the bind manner was invoked.
For example, account a file directory that has a pathname /usr and is a context in the Unix file system. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (commonly referred to as a subdirectory). A file directory with the pathname /usr/jboss names a jboss context that is a subcontext of usr. As another example, a DNS domain, such as org, is a context. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is another instance of a subcontext. In the DNS domain jboss.org, the DNS domain jboss is a subcontext of org because DNS names are parsed perquisite to left.
Obtaining a Context by Using InitialContext extreme naming service operations are performed on some implementation of the Context interface. Therefore, you necessity a course to obtain a Context for the naming service you are interested in using. The javax.naming.InitialContext class implements the Context interface and provides the starting point for interacting with a naming service.
When you create an InitialContext, it is initialized with properties from the environment. JNDI determines each property’s value by merging the values from the following two sources, in order:
The first episode of the property from the constructor’s environment parameter and (for usurp properties) the applet parameters and system properties
All jndi.properties resource files establish on the classpath
For each property establish in both of these two sources, the property’s value is determined as follows. If the property is one of the measure JNDI properties that specify a list of JNDI factories, extreme the values are concatenated into a sole colon-separated list. For other properties, only the first value establish is used. The preferred manner of specifying the JNDI environment properties is through a jndi.properties file, which allows the code to externalize the JNDI provider-specific information so that changing JNDI providers will not require changes to the code or recompilation.
The Context implementation used internally by the InitialContext class is determined at runtime. The default policy uses the environment property java.naming.factory.initial, which contains the classname of the javax.naming.spi.InitialContextFactory implementation. You obtain the designation of the InitialContextFactory class from the naming service provider you are using.
Listing 3.1 gives a sample jndi.properties file that a client application would expend to connect to a JBossNS service running on the local host at port 1099. The client application would necessity to occupy the jndi.properties file available on the application classpath. These are the properties that the JBoss JNDI implementation requires. Other JNDI providers occupy different properties and values.
Listing 3.1 A Sample jndi.properties File
### JBossNS properties
J2EE and JNDI: The Application Component Environment
JNDI is a fundamental aspect of the J2EE specifications. One key usage of the JNDI is to segregate J2EE component code from the environment in which the code is deployed. expend of the application component’s environment allows the application component to be customized without the necessity to access or change the application component’s source code. The application component environment is referred to as the enterprise naming context (ENC). It is the responsibility of the application component container to develop an ENC available to the container components in the figure of the JNDI Context interface. The participants involved in the life cycle of a J2EE component utilize the ENC in the following ways:
The component provider uses the measure deployment descriptor for the component to specify the required ENC entries. The entries are declarations of the information and resources the component requires at runtime. Application component business logic should be coded to access information from its ENC.
The container provides tools that allow a deployer of a component to map the ENC references made by the component developer to the deployment environment entity that satisfies the reference.
The component deployer utilizes the container tools to ready a component for final deployment.
The component container uses the deployment package information to build the complete component ENC at runtime.
The complete specification regarding the expend of JNDI in the J2EE platform can be establish in section 5 of the J2EE 1.4 specification, which is available at http://java.sun.com/j2ee/download.html.
An application component instance locates the ENC by using the JNDI API. An application component instance creates a javax.naming.InitialContext protest by using the no argument constructor and then looks up the naming environment under the designation java:comp/env. The application component’s environment entries are stored directly in the ENC or in its subcontexts. Listing 3.2 illustrates the prototypical lines of code a component uses to access its ENC.
An application component environment is a local environment that is accessible only by the component when the application server container thread of control is interacting with the application component. This means that an EJB Bean1 cannot access the ENC elements of EJB Bean2 and vice versa. Similarly, web application Web1 cannot access the ENC elements of web application Web2—or Bean1 or Bean2, for that matter. Also, whimsical client code, whether it is executing inside the application server VM or externally, cannot access a component’s java:comp JNDI context. The purpose of the ENC is to provide an isolated, read-only namespace that the application component can dependence on, regardless of the nature of environment in which the component is deployed. The ENC must be isolated from other components because each component defines its own ENC content. Components A and B, for example, may define the identical designation to advert to different objects. For example, EJB Bean1 may define an environment entry java:comp/env/red to advert to the hexadecimal value for the RGB color for red, while web application Web1 may bind the identical designation to the deployment environment language locale representation of red.
There are three commonly used levels of naming scope in JBoss: names under java:comp, names under java:, and any other names. As discussed, the java:comp context and its subcontexts are available only to the application component associated with that particular context. Subcontexts and protest bindings directly under java: are visible only within the JBoss server virtual machine and not to remote clients. Any other context or protest binding is available to remote clients, provided that the context or protest supports serialization. You’ll see how the isolation of these naming scopes is achieved in the next section.
An instance of where restricting a binding to the java: context is useful is a javax.sql.DataSource connection factory that can be used only inside the JBoss server where the associated database pool resides. On the other hand, an EJB home interface would be bound to a globally visible designation that should be accessible by remote clients.
ENC Usage Conventions
JNDI is used as the API for externalizing a distinguished deal of information from an application component. The JNDI designation that the application component uses to access the information is declared in the measure ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor for EJB components and the measure web.xml deployment descriptor for web components. Several different types of information can be stored in and retrieved from JNDI, including the following:
Environment entries, as declared by the env-entry elements
EJB references, as declared by ejb-ref and ejb-local-ref elements
Resource manager connection factory references, as declared by the resource-ref elements
Resource environment references, as declared by the resource-env-ref elements
Each nature of deployment descriptor ingredient has a JNDI usage convention with respect to the designation of the JNDI context under which the information is bound. Also, in addition to the measure deploymentdescriptor element, there is a JBoss server-specific deployment descriptor ingredient that maps the JNDI designation as used by the application component to the deployment environment JNDI name.
Environment Entries Environment entries are the simplest figure of information stored in a component ENC, and they are similar to operating system environment variables, fancy those establish on Unix or Windows. An environment entry is a name-to-value binding that allows a component to externalize a value and advert to the value by using a name.
You declare an environment entry by using an env-entry ingredient in the measure deployment descriptors. The env-entry ingredient contains the following child elements:
An optional description ingredient that provides a description of the entry
An env-entry-name ingredient that gives the designation of the entry relative to java:comp/env
An env-entry-type ingredient that gives the Java nature of the entry value, which must be one of the following:
An env-entry-value ingredient that gives the value of the entry as a string
Listing 3.3 shows an instance of an env-entry fragment from an ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor. There is no JBoss-specific deployment descriptor ingredient because an env-entry is a complete designation and value specification. Listing 3.4 shows a sample code fragment for accessing the maxExemptions and taxRate env-entry values declared in the deployment descriptor.
Listing 3.3 An instance of an ejb-jar.xml env-entry Fragment
<!-- ... -->
<!-- ... -->
<description>The maximum number of tax exemptions allowed </description>
<description>The tax rate </description>
<!-- ... -->
Listing 3.4 An ENC env-entry Access Code Fragment
InitialContext iniCtx = unique InitialContext();
Context envCtx = (Context) iniCtx.lookup("java:comp/env");
Integer maxExemptions = (Integer) envCtx.lookup("maxExemptions");
Float taxRate = (Float) envCtx.lookup("taxRate");
EJB References It is common for EJBs and web components to interact with other EJBs. Because the JNDI designation under which an EJB home interface is bound is a deployment time decision, a component developer needs to occupy a course to declare a reference to an EJB that will be linked by the deployer. EJB references meet this requirement.
An EJB reference is a link in an application component-naming environment that points to a deployed EJB home interface. The designation used by the application component is a ratiocinative link that isolates the component from the actual designation of the EJB home in the deployment environment. The J2EE specification recommends that extreme references to Enterprise Beans be organized in the java:comp/env/ejb context of the application component’s environment.
An EJB reference is declared using an ejb-ref ingredient in the deployment descriptor. Each ejb-ref ingredient describes the interface requirements that the referencing application component has for the referenced Enterprise Bean. The ejb-ref ingredient contains the following child elements:
An optional description ingredient that provides the purpose of the reference.
An ejb-ref-name ingredient that specifies the designation of the reference relative to the java:comp/env context. To station the reference under the recommended java:comp/env/ejb context, you expend the figure ejb/link-name for the ejb-ref-name value.
An ejb-ref-type ingredient that specifies the nature of the EJB. This must be either Entity or Session.
A home ingredient that gives the fully qualified classname of the EJB home interface.
A remote ingredient that gives the fully qualified classname of the EJB remote interface.
An optional ejb-link ingredient that links the reference to another Enterprise Bean in the identical EJB JAR or in the identical J2EE application unit. The ejb-link value is the ejb-name of the referenced bean. If there are multiple Enterprise Beans with the identical ejb-name, the value uses a pathname that specifies the location of the ejb-jar file that contains the referenced component. The pathname is relative to the referencing ejb-jar file. The application assembler appends the ejb-name of the referenced bean to the pathname, separated by #. This allows multiple beans with the identical designation to be uniquely identified.
An EJB reference is scoped to the application component whose declaration contains the ejb-ref element. This means that the EJB reference is not accessible from other application components at runtime and that other application components may define ejb-ref elements with the identical ejb-ref-name without causing a naming conflict. Listing 3.5 provides an ejb-jar.xml fragment that illustrates the expend of the ejb-ref element. Listing 3.6 provides a code sample that illustrates accessing the ShoppingCartHome reference declared in Listing 3.5.
Listing 3.5 An instance of an ejb-jar.xml ejb-ref Descriptor Fragment
<description>This is a reference to the store products entity </description>
<description>The Product entity bean </description>
Listing 3.6 An ENC ejb-ref Access Code Fragment
InitialContext iniCtx = unique InitialContext();
Context ejbCtx = (Context) iniCtx.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb");
ShoppingCartHome home = (ShoppingCartHome) ejbCtx.lookup("ShoppingCartHome");
EJB References with jboss.xml and jboss-web.xml The JBoss-specific jboss.xml EJB deployment descriptor affects EJB references in two ways. First, the jndi-name child ingredient of the session and entity elements allows the user to specify the deployment JNDI designation for the EJB home interface. In the absence of a jboss.xml specification of the jndi-name for an EJB, the home interface is bound under the ejb-jar.xml ejb-name value. For example, the session EJB with the ejb-name of ShoppingCart-Bean in Listing 3.5 would occupy its home interface bound under the JNDI designation ShoppingCartBean in the absence of a jboss.xml jndi-name specification.
The second expend of the jboss.xml descriptor with respect to ejb-refs involves the setting of the destination to which a component’s ENC ejb-ref refers. The ejb-link ingredient cannot be used to advert to EJBs in another enterprise application. If an ejb-ref needs to access an external EJB, you can specify the JNDI designation of the deployed EJB home by using the jboss.xml ejb-ref/jndi-name element.
The jboss-web.xml descriptor is used only to set the destination to which a web application ENC ejb-ref refers. The content model for the JBoss ejb-ref includes the following:
An ejb-ref-name ingredient that corresponds to the ejb-ref-name ingredient in the ejb-jar.xml or web.xml measure descriptor
A jndi-name ingredient that specifies the JNDI designation of the EJB home interface in the deployment environment
Listing 3.7 provides an instance jboss.xml descriptor fragment that illustrates the following usage points:
Listing 3.7 An instance of a jboss.xml ejb-ref Fragment
<!-- ... -->
<!-- ... -->
<!-- ... -->
EJB Local References EJB 2.0 added local interfaces that enact not expend RMI call-by-value semantics. These interfaces expend a call-by-reference semantic and therefore enact not incur any RMI serialization overhead. An EJB local reference is a link in an application component-naming environment that points to a deployed EJB local home interface. The designation used by the application component is a ratiocinative link that isolates the component from the actual designation of the EJB local home in the deployment environment. The J2EE specification recommends that extreme references to Enterprise Beans be organized in the java:comp/env/ejb context of the application component’s environment.
You declare an EJB local reference by using an ejb-local-ref ingredient in the deployment descriptor. Each ejb-local-ref ingredient describes the interface requirements that the referencing application component has for the referenced Enterprise Bean. The ejb-local-ref ingredient contains the following child elements:
An optional description ingredient that provides the purpose of the reference.
An ejb-ref-name ingredient that specifies the designation of the reference relative to the java:comp/env context. To station the reference under the recommended java:comp/env/ejb context, you expend an ejb/link-name figure for the ejb-ref-name value.
An ejb-ref-type ingredient that specifies the nature of the EJB. This must be either Entity or Session.
A local-home ingredient that gives the fully qualified classname of the EJB local home interface.
A local ingredient that gives the fully qualified classname of the EJB local interface.
An ejb-link ingredient that links the reference to another Enterprise Bean in the ejb-jar file or in the identical J2EE application unit. The ejb-link value is the ejb-name of the referenced bean. If there are multiple Enterprise Beans with the identical ejb-name, the value uses the pathname that specifies the location of the ejb-jar file that contains the referenced component. The pathname is relative to the referencing ejb-jar file. The application assembler appends the ejb-name of the referenced bean to the pathname, separated by #. This allows multiple beans with the identical designation to be uniquely identified. An ejb-link ingredient must be specified in JBoss to match the local reference to the corresponding EJB.
An EJB local reference is scoped to the application component whose declaration contains the ejb-local-ref element. This means that the EJB local reference is not accessible from other application components at runtime and that other application components may define ejb-local-ref elements with the identical ejb-ref-name without causing a naming conflict. Listing 3.8 provides an ejb-jar.xml fragment that illustrates the expend of the ejb-local-ref element. Listing 3.9 provides a code sample that illustrates accessing the ProbeLocalHome reference declared in Listing 3.8.
Resource Manager Connection Factory References Application component code can advert to resource factories by using ratiocinative names called resource manager connection factory references. Resource manager connection factory references are defined by the resource-ref elements in the measure deployment descriptors. The deployer binds the resource manager connection factory references to the actual resource manager connection factories that exist in the target operational environment, using the jboss.xml and jboss-web.xml descriptors.
Each resource-ref ingredient describes a sole resource manager connection factory reference. The resource-ref ingredient consists of the following child elements:
An optional description ingredient that provides the purpose of the reference.
A res-ref-name ingredient that specifies the designation of the reference relative to the java:comp/env context. (The resource type–based naming convention for which subcontext to station the res-ref-name into is discussed shortly.)
A res-type ingredient that specifies the fully qualified classname of the resource manager connection factory.
A res-auth ingredient that indicates whether the application component code performs resource sign-on programmatically or whether the container signs on to the resource based on the principal mapping information supplied by the deployer. It must be either Application or Container.
An optional res-sharing-scope element. This currently is not supported by JBoss.
The J2EE specification recommends that extreme resource manager connection factory references be organized in the subcontexts of the application component’s environment, using a different subcontext for each resource manager type. The recommended resource manager type-to-subcontext designation mapping is as follows:
JDBC DataSource references should be declared in the java:comp/env/jdbc subcontext.
JMS connection factories should be declared in the java:comp/env/jms subcontext.
JavaMail connection factories should be declared in the java:comp/env/mail subcontext.
URL connection factories should be declared in the java:comp/env/url subcontext.
Listing 3.10 shows an instance of a web.xml descriptor fragment that illustrates the resource-ref ingredient usage. Listing 3.11 provides a code fragment that an application component would expend to access the DefaultMail resource declared by the resource-ref.
Resource Manager Connection Factory References with jboss.xml and jboss-web.xml
The purpose of the JBoss jboss.xml EJB deployment descriptor and jboss-web.xml web application deployment descriptor is to provide the link from the ratiocinative designation defined by the res-ref-name ingredient to the JNDI designation of the resource factory, as deployed in JBoss. This is accomplished by providing a resource-ref ingredient in the jboss.xml or jboss-web.xml descriptor. The JBoss resource-ref ingredient consists of the following child elements:
A res-ref-name ingredient that must match the res-ref-name of a corresponding resource-ref ingredient from the ejb-jar.xml or web.xml measure descriptors
An optional res-type ingredient that specifies the fully qualified classname of the resource manager connection factory
A jndi-name ingredient that specifies the JNDI designation of the resource factory, as deployed in JBoss
A res-url ingredient that specifies the URL string in the case of a resource-ref of nature java.net.URL
Listing 3.12 provides a sample jboss-web.xml descriptor fragment that shows sample mappings of the resource-ref elements given in Listing 3.10.
Resource Environment References A resource environment reference is an ingredient that refers to an administered protest that is associated with a resource (for example, JMS destinations), using a ratiocinative name. Resource environment references are defined by the resource-env-ref elements in the measure deployment descriptors. The deployer binds the resource environment references to the actual administered object’s location in the target operational environment by using the jboss.xml and jboss-web.xml descriptors.
Each resource-env-ref ingredient describes the requirements that the referencing application component has for the referenced administered object. The resource-env-ref ingredient consists of the following child elements:
An optional description ingredient that provides the purpose of the reference.
A resource-env-ref-name ingredient that specifies the designation of the reference relative to the java:comp/env context. Convention places the designation in a subcontext that corresponds to the associated resource factory type. For example, a JMS queue reference named MyQueue should occupy a resource-env-ref-name of jms/MyQueue.
A resource-env-ref-type ingredient that specifies the fully qualified classname of the referenced object. For example, in the case of a JMS queue, the value would be javax.jms.Queue.
Listing 3.13 provides an instance resource-ref-env ingredient declaration by a session bean. Listing 3.14 provides a code fragment that illustrates how to explore up the StockInfo queue declared by the resource-env-ref.
Listing 3.13 An instance of an ejb -jar.xml resource-env-ref Fragment
<description>This is a reference to a JMS queue used in the
processing of Stock info
<!-- ... -->
Listing 3.14 An ENC resource-env-ref Access Code Fragment
InitialContext iniCtx = unique InitialContext();
javax.jms.Queue q = (javax.jms.Queue)
Resource Environment References with jboss.xml and jboss-web.xml The purpose of the JBoss jboss.xml EJB deployment descriptor and jboss-web.xml web application deployment descriptor is to provide the link from the ratiocinative designation defined by the resource-env-ref-name ingredient to the JNDI designation of the administered protest deployed in JBoss. This is accomplished by providing a resource-env-ref ingredient in the jboss.xml or jboss-web.xml descriptor. The JBoss resource-env-ref ingredient consists of the following child elements:
A resource-env-ref-name ingredient that must match the resource-env-ref-name of a corresponding resource-env-ref ingredient from the ejb-jar.xml or web.xml measure descriptors
A jndi-name ingredient that specifies the JNDI designation of the resource, as deployed in JBoss
Listing 3.15 provides a sample jboss.xml descriptor fragment that shows a sample mapping for the StockInfo resource-env-ref.
Listing 3.15 A Sample jboss.xml resource-env-ref Descriptor Fragment
<!-- ... -->
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