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310-065 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform.SE 6.0
Test Code : 310-065
Test denomination : Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform.SE 6.0
Vendor denomination : SUN
: 305 actual Questions
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SUN Sun Certified Programmer for
KYOTO, Japan, Feb. 6, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- instant instruments geared up with the current overseas instant conversation specification Wi-solar FAN (field enviornment network) for the internet of things developed collectively by the research community of Professor Hiroshi Harada of the Graduate faculty of Informatics, Kyoto university (hereinafter Kyoto school), Nissin methods Co., Ltd. (hereinafter Nissin methods), and ROHM Co., Ltd. (hereinafter ROHM) grew to become one of the world's first options to achieve Wi-solar FAN certification.
BackgroundIn order to realize out of doors communication networks such as sensible cities and sensible grids, exceptional, lengthy-distance and relaxed community expertise is required. Wi-solar FAN is a brand current specification of Wi-sun, an international radio communications undertaking this is the most useful suited to the development of IoTs. it is an interoperable communications networking approach for electricity, fuel, and water metering, as well as for sensible cities and smart grids in a considerable number of functions similar to infrastructure and clever transport methods.
This Wi-solar FAN is an interoperable low-vigor IoT wireless communique expertise that makes utilize of low-vigour wireless transmission expertise in keeping with the IEEE 802.15.4g unostentatious and multistage routing know-how based on IPv6. On may 16, 2016, the Wi-sun Alliance, which certifies instant verbal exchange requirements for IoTs, technical compatibility, and interconnectivity, established generic specifications, and on November 11, 2016, the three parties announced that they succeeded in fundamental radio traits suitable with Wi-solar FAN. The Wi-solar Alliance then introduced its Wi-solar FAN certification software on October 3, 2018.
This achievementBased on the results of the simple development of Wi-solar FAN, the three parties developed a radio compatible with Wi-sun FAN technical specifications and certification software, and passed an IP-primarily based certification peer at various the utilize of multi-hop, frequency-hopping, and superior certification safety through the utilize of a plurality of different radios from different organizations. This radio has here features as described in the Wi-sun FAN Technical specifications.
physical layer and MAC layer akin to IEEE 802.15.four/4g/4e required for operation in Japan
Adaptation layer, community layer, and transport layer based by using IETF such as 6LowPAN and IPv6
Multi-hop communique system using RPL
RADIUS/AAA high-degree security
p>With the IEEE802.15.four/4g/4e applied sciences in a position to excellent transmission over 1km below the eastern rules, this radio is equipped with an international typical for information superhighway entry, which has been added in Wi-Fi (TM) systems, and a multi-hop overseas unostentatious that realizes multi-stage relay between radios in accordance with IP. This makes it convenient to connect sensors, meters, and screens that manufacture up sensible cities and sensible metering to the web.
This fulfillment turned into carried out in the Impulsing Paradigm trade via Disruptive applied sciences program (have an sequel on) led by the Council for Science, know-how and Innovation, the cabinet workplace. This application was fashioned by means of a joint business-academia consortium referred to as the subsequent-technology Wi-sun Joint analysis Consortium, Kyoto. The three events, primarily based in Kyoto, are Kyoto institution, which relish a track listing of standardization and edifice of IEEE 802.15.4/4g/4e, Nissin systems, which commercializes Wi-sun-compatible communication middleware, and ROHM, which develops communication modules compatible with the common.
outline of certification acquisition:Date and time of certification acquisition: January 30, 2019Certification authority: Wi-sun AllianceCertified trying out laboratory: Allion Labs, Inc.Certification quantity: WSA 0171
Future developmentIn the long run, the three events will recall piece in an interoperability specification verification event subsidized with the aid of the Wi-solar Alliance to manufacture contributions to checking out for technical conformity and interoperability of the Wi-sun FAN normal, and to promote additional development as industry-academia cooperation projects in Kyoto in an pains to implement this radio in society. The effects relish been additionally displayed at the Wi-sun Alliance booth in DistribuTECH 2019, the greatest vigour industry-linked event within the u.s., which changed into held in current Orleans on February 5.
further details are available at:http://www.dco.cce.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/PL/PL_2019_01.html
View original content:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/kyoto-institution-teaming-with-2-jap-businesses-acquires-world-first-certification-for-wireless-conversation-specification-wi-sun-fan-300790447.html
source Kyoto school; Nissin methods Co., Ltd.; ROHM Co., Ltd.
Copyright (C) 2019 PR Newswire. every lone rights reserved
ATLANTA, Oct. 1, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Landis+Gyr (SWISS: LAND.SW) announced its uphold for the Wi-sun FAN Certification application launched by means of the Wi-solar Alliance previous nowadays. As a Promoter Member of the Wi-sun Alliance that holds a Board of administrators position, Landis+Gyr joins different member groups in promoting the implementation of open, requirements-primarily based bailiwick district network (FAN) and the cyber web of things (IoT).
Utilities relish utilized bailiwick enviornment networks to supply coverage for speaking assets akin to smart meters, sensors and automation instruments throughout their provider territory. With the augment in sensible metropolis purposes, unostentatious requirements for FAN connectivity will develop the selections accessible for functions and devices able to be a piece of the community.
Wi-solar's FAN Certification program will provide compliance testing of community accessories and contraptions to a communications profile developed from applicable open standards and certify the product's means to interoperate.
"Landis+Gyr strongly supports this certification pains for the long dash cost it'll add for utility grid modernization and IoT programs," stated Marius Chilom, Senior vice president and Chief expertise Officer of solutions for Landis+Gyr. "The greater the interoperability, the extra advantageous these networks could be for the next wave of sensible grid and smart metropolis functions."
"Certification ensures interoperability, which is essential to the boom of IoT innovation," stated Phil Beecher, President and CEO, Wi-solar Alliance. "we're glad to formally launch the FAN Certification software and are excited for the first wave of FAN-licensed products to be deployed into the market genesis Q1 2019."
The certification software will manufacture positive utilities, cities and service suppliers relish entry to adaptable, multi-service networks that will uphold ensure interoperability into the long run. other key merits for network operators consist of:
simpler comparison of current items, as habits, efficiency and interoperability are neatly-described.
extra alternative of items and providers.
Encourages international edifice of requirements-based mostly items, cutting back the possibility and dear influence of stranded property.
All Wi-sun licensed products are rigorously established by means of a Wi-sun appointed third-party peer at various lab to manufacture positive the contraptions travail collectively quite simply and securely for rapid time to market. certified gadgets consist of a digital certificates to authenticate entry to a Wi-sun FAN, vastly reducing vulnerability to cyber safety threats. under a divorce contract, Wi-sun Alliance has appointed GlobalSign because the third-party service provider of digital certificates for the Wi-solar FAN certification application.
About Landis+GyrLandis+Gyr is the leading global company of integrated energy management solutions for the utility sector. providing one of the crucial broadest portfolios of items and functions to ply intricate industry challenges, the company gives you comprehensive options for the foundation of a wiser grid, including sensible metering, distribution community sensing and automation equipment, load control, analytics and energy storage. Landis+Gyr operates in over 30 international locations across five continents. With income of about USD 1.7 billion, the industry employs c. 6,000 americans with the only actual mission of assisting the realm control power more desirable. extra tips is available at www.landisgyr.com.
concerning the Wi-solar AllianceThe Wi-solar Alliance is a worldwide non-profit member-primarily based association made of industry leading organizations. Its mission is to obligate the world proliferation of interoperable instant options to be used in sensible cities, sensible grids and different cyber web of things (IoT) applications the utilize of open world standards from companies, such as IEEE802, IETF, TIA, TTC and ETSI. With more than a hundred and eighty contributors global, membership of the Wi-solar Alliance is open to every lone industry stakeholders and contains silicon carriers, product providers, features suppliers, utilities, universities, companies and municipalities and local executive groups.For more guidance, delight contend with: www.wi-solar.org.
Wi-sun Alliance and the Wi-solar Alliance emblem are trademarks of the Wi-sun Alliance.
View long-established content material:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/landisgyr-helps-lead-wi-solar-alliances-fan-certification-program-for-tremendous-scale-iot-communication-networks-300721548.html
Paves how to hasten up IoT conclusion gadget Interoperability
SAN RAMON, Calif., Oct. 1, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- The Wi-solar Alliance, a world ecosystem of member organizations searching for to accelerate the implementation of open specifications-primarily based bailiwick enviornment Networks (FAN) and the information superhighway of things (IoT), these days announced its FAN Certification application. FAN is a communications infrastructure for terribly big-scale networks. In the equal means you utilize the internet on a smartphone or desktop, a container enviornment community lets instruments interconnect onto one typical community.
the provision of the FAN Certification software is the sequel of the vision, collaboration and dedication of a number of Wi-solar Member businesses. in the course of the certification program, the Wi-solar Alliance certifies products in keeping with their compliance to a communications profile derived from apropos open specifications and their capability to interoperate with different Wi-sun licensed products.
The FAN Certification software will certify contraptions for utilize through utilities, city developers and other carrier suppliers to simplify and assist massive-scale, outside networks for sensible cities, smart utilities and other IoT rollouts – and to uphold reduce charges and delays. Wi-sun members draw to promulgate licensed items in q4 2018.
Proprietary programs are no longer sufficiently flexible, or as low cost as options in keeping with open specifications, and may rotate into much less valuable within just a few years. Adhering to the Wi-solar FAN profile in accordance with open IEEE and IETF specifications makes it feasible for provider suppliers, sensible cities and utilities to installation adaptable multi-carrier networks and will aid manufacture inevitable interoperability, not simplest these days, however additionally for many years to Come back.
"Wi-sun is silent at the forefront of IoT innovation, and as cities, utilities and the trade grows their IoT networks, they are more and more recognizing that industry-broad open necessities are simple for interoperability and scalability," says Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-sun Alliance. "FAN Certification is an endorsement for governments and the trade that their individuals' products are compliant to these open standards, and safeguards exceptional, interoperability, security, scalability – and eventually gives shoppers a aggressive expertise."
Key merits of FAN Certification consist of:
presents utilities, cities and service providers adaptable multi-service networks so as to aid manufacture positive interoperability nowadays and for future generations.
Reduces the time needed to evaluate current items, as behavior, efficiency and interoperability are smartly described.
Eliminates single-dealer lock-in.
Encourages the development of a world ecosystem of requisites-based products, cutting back the chance and expensive relish an impact on of stranded belongings.
All Wi-sun certified items are fastidiously verified by using an authorized Wi-solar appointed third-celebration test lab to be inevitable the contraptions travail collectively readily and securely for rapid time to market. certified devices encompass a digital certificates to authenticate entry to a Wi-sun FAN network, tremendously cutting back vulnerability to cyber security threats. under a divorce settlement, Wi-solar has chosen GlobalSign to supply certificate Authority (CA) functions to Wi-solar Alliance member companies.
Third birthday celebration feedback:
Alex Davies, Senior Analyst, Rethink technology research and Editor of climb up: "Open requisites are one of the greatest how you can be positive mass adoption of a expertise. As with WiFi and the 3GPP mobile protocols, Wi-solar's FAN is delivering diverse selections for machine and expertise suppliers to facilitate customer interest. energy suppliers and grid operators are worried about seller lock-in, notably because of the long being cycles of their deployments. To this end, Wi-sun should give an concede to their mission-critical problems that different LPWAN alternatives can't. It opens the door for them to extend into different IoT markets, with sensible cities an huge chance."
Iker Urrutia, manager, sensible Grids, Avangrid: "IoT networking options in line with open specifications and authorized to the Wi-solar FAN profile can be essential in acquiring proper interoperability for utility purposes, corresponding to AMI, accelerating the digitization of the grid in a expense useful means."
Colton Ching, Senior vice chairman of Planning & know-how at Hawaiian electric: "We continue to peer Wi-solar expertise as a huge enabler for significant-scale IoT functions during Hawaii with the supply of its FAN Certification software. The Wi-solar Alliance and its members relish taken an incredible step forward in bringing multi-dealer, interoperable solutions to fruition."
FAN Certification Availability: The FAN Certification software has been developed through the collaboration of Wi-solar member businesses, including product carriers and collaborators participating in interoperability routine to parade the requirements and certification check program. the following are amongst probably the most groups who were actively main a artery to certification: Analog contraptions, Cisco, EPRI, Itron, Kyoto school/Nissin programs, Landis+Gyr, ProCubed, Renesas and ROHM Europe.
To learn greater about a artery to Put up your items to be certified, delight hunt counsel from http://www.wi-sun.org
ensuring a product is compliant will furthermore be intricate so the Wi-solar Alliance is keen to uphold and address any considerations. delight associate Wi-sun for an upcoming webinar on Oct 16, 2018 at 8AM PT. during this webinar they are able to deliver a top even view of the significance of certification and how to navigate the procedure to obtain FAN Certification. For more counsel and to register delight click on here https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/9187903284805872385.
concerning the Wi-solar AllianceThe Wi-solar Alliance is a world non-earnings member-based mostly association made of trade leading businesses. Its mission is to power the world proliferation of interoperable instant solutions to be used in smart cities, sensible grids and different web of issues (IoT) applications using open world requirements from agencies, comparable to IEEE802, IETF, TIA, TTC and ETSI. With greater than 180 members international, membership of the Wi-solar Alliance is open to every lone industry stakeholders and includes silicon companies, product vendors, features suppliers, utilities, universities, agencies and municipalities and aboriginal government businesses.
For extra suggestions, delight contend with: www.wi-sun.org.
Wi-sun Alliance and the Wi-sun Alliance logo are emblems of the Wi-solar Alliance.
source Wi-solar Alliance
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Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform.SE 6.0
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A brace of patterns that could cause Java stack exhaustion were identified from years of research at IBM. One bewitching scenario was observed when Java applications generated an immoderate amount of finalizable objects whose classes had non-trivial Java finalizers.
What Is a Java Finalizer?A Java finalizer performs finalization tasks for an object. It's the contradictory of a Java constructor, which creates and initializes an instance of a Java class. A Java finalizer can be used to achieve postmortem cleanup tasks on an instance of a class or to release system resources such as file descriptors or network socket connections when an remonstrate is no longer needed and those resources relish to be released for other objects. You don't requisite any controversy or any recrudesce value for a finalizer. Unfortunately the current Java language specification does not define any finalizers for a Java class or interface when a class or interface is unloaded. Let's recall a closer peer at finalize() routine of java.lang.Object that provides an instance method, finalize() for finalization:
protected void finalize() throws Throwable
When a Java remonstrate is no longer needed, the space occupied by the remonstrate is reputed to be recycled automatically by the Java garbage collector. This is one of the significant differences in Java and is not found in most structural programming languages like C. If an instance of a class implements the finalize() method, its space cannot be recycled by the garbage collector in a timely fashion. Worst case, it may not be recycled at all.
Any instances of classes that implement the finalize() routine are often called finalizable objects. They will not be immediately reclaimed by the Java garbage collector when they are no longer referenced. Instead, the Java garbage collector appends the objects to a special queue for the finalization process. Usually it's performed by a special thread called a "Reference Handler" on some Java Virtual Machines. During this finalization process, the "Finalizer" thread will execute each finalize() routine of the objects. Only after successful completion of the finalize() routine will an remonstrate be handed over for Java garbage collection to procure its space reclaimed by "future" garbage collection. I did not Tell "current," which means at least two garbage collection cycles are required to reclaim the finalizable object. Sounds like it has some overhead? You got it. They requisite several shots to procure the space recycled.
Finalizer threads are not given maximum priorities on systems. If a "Finalizer" thread cannot preserve up with the rate at which higher priority threads cause finalizable objects to be queued, the finalizer queue will preserve growing and cause the Java stack to fill up. Eventually the Java stack will procure exhausted and a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError will be thrown.
A Java Virtual Machine will never invoke the finalize() routine more than once for any object. If there's any exception thrown by the finalize() method, the finalization of the remonstrate is halted.
You are free to achieve virtually anything in the finalize() routine of your class. When you achieve that, delight achieve not anticipate the remembrance space occupied by each and every remonstrate to be reclaimed by the Java garbage collector when the remonstrate is no longer referenced or no longer needed. Why? It is not guaranteed that the finalize() routine will complete the execution in timely manner. Worst case, it may not be even invoked even when there are no more references to the object. That means it's not guaranteed that any objects that relish a finalize() routine are garbage collected. That's a potential hazard from a remembrance management perspective and, needless to say, there is considerable overhead for queuing, dequeuing, running the finalize() method, and rescanning the remonstrate in the next garbage collection cycle.
If you want to dash cleanup tasks on objects, deem finalizers as a terminal go and implement your own cleanup method, which will be more predictable. It's very risky to depend on finalizers for postmortem cleanup tasks, especially if your finalizable objects relish references to aboriginal resources.
Hands-on suffer with Java FinalizerWe can easily simulate this scenario with a brace of test applications and recall a peer at dumps and traces to observe what's happening inside of the Java stack and threads for hands-on experience.
Let's build a brace of Java classes to recreate typical scenarios.
In ObjectWYieldFinalizer, they can implement the routine finalize() with Thread.yield() so that finalize() cannot complete its execution (see Listing 1) (Listings 1-7 can be downloaded here.)
The Thread.yield() routine prevents the currently executing thread from running and allows other threads to execute. If the Finalizer thread calls this finalize() method, it will respite its execution.
In ObjectWExceptionFinalizer, the finalizer() routine immediately throws a java.lang.IndexOutOfBoundsException. If the Finalizer thread calls this finalize() method, the remonstrate finalization won't be completed because of the exception and there's no second chance to dash the finalize() routine (see Listing 2).
In ObjectWEmptyFinalizer, they don't implement any code in the finalize() routine (see Listing 3). ObjectWOFinalizer doesn't relish any finalize() routine (see Listing 4).
Let's dash each of the classes to observe what happens. Sun's Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can be used with the following options for the class TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.
/sun1.6.0_10/bin/java -Xmx50m -verbosegc -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError TestObjectWYieldFinalizer > verbosegc.txt
It looks very complicated. Why achieve they requisite those command-line options? Well, without those options, they only procure a tiny information about Java garbage collection activities like this:
[Full GC 50815K->45644K(50816K), 0.2276940 secs][Full GC 48780K->46415K(50816K), 0.2233279 secs][Full GC 49551K->49551K(50816K), 0.2396315 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1886312 secs][Full GC 50815K->49219K(50816K), 0.1964926 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1865343 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1836961 secs]
We only procure a character of garbage collection (Full GC), total Java stack usage before garbage collection (50,815K), total Java stack usage after garbage collection (45,644K), a elevated watermark of total Java stack (50,816K), and time spent in the garbage collection (0.2276940 secs).
High watermark is the size of the current Java heap. The Java stack can expand its size up to a maximum size or condense to manage Java stack effectively.
The -XX:+PrintGCDetails option lets the JVM provide information on each generation in the Java heap.
We can observe Java stack usage and the time (in seconds) spent in Java garbage collection of each current generation, tenured generation, and permanent generation with the -XX:+PrintGCDetails option in the following example:
[GC [DefNew: 3520K->3520K(3520K), 0.0001143 secs][Tenured: 43897K->47295K(47296K), 0.2110999 secs] 47417K->47415K(50816K), [Perm : 17K->17K(12288K)], 0.2115593 secs][Times: user=0.22 sys=0.00, real=0.22 secs]
In tenured generation, Java stack usage was 43,897KB before this Java garbage collection. Java stack usage reached 47,295KB after Java garbage collection; 47296K is the size of the elevated watermark of the tenured generation; 0.2110999 second was spent to collect the tenured generation. Unfortunately they achieve not observe the maximum size of each generation with the -XX:+PrintGCDetails option alone.
With -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps, they can procure a timestamp for each garbage collection like this:
1.393: [GC 1002K->106K(5056K), 0.0001036 secs]
This garbage collection started 1.393 seconds after the JVM started.
The -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC option provides extensive information about each Java garbage collection (see Listing 5).
We can even observe the address reach of each generation. Unfortunately there's no timestamp for each garbage collection with -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC option alone.
The terminal option, -XX:-HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError allows the JVM to dump the Java stack to a file when an allocation from the Java stack cannot be satisfied or a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError is thrown. This option was introduced in Sun Java 1.4.2 update 12 and Sun Java 5.0 update 7.
If you want to experiment with IBM's Java Virtual Machine, every lone you requisite is a -verbosegc command-line option. You achieve not requisite any of these: -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC, or -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError.
Let's recall a peer at what happened to the class while they talked about Sun JVM's command-line option. We've got java.lang.OutOfMemoryError from TestObjectWYieldFinalizer:
Exception in the thread "main" java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java stack spaceat java.lang.ref.Finalizer.register(Finalizer.java:72)at java.lang.Object.<init>(Object.java:20)at ObjectWYieldFinalizer.<init>(ObjectWYieldFinalizer.java:2)at TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.main(TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.java:11)
"java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java stack space." That means they got Java stack space exhaustion. The JVM could not earmark any more Java stack while running the routine java.lang.ref.Finalizer.register(), which is on line 72 of Finalizer.java. Finalizer.java? Of course, they did not write Finalizer.java. That's a piece of the JVM. They can furthermore check verbosegc.txt to which they redirected the garbage collection trace (see Listing 6).
About 3.711 seconds after the JVM started, they got java.lang.OutOfMemoryError. The Java stack dump is written to pid124.hprof.
Analysis of Java Garbage Collection TracesWe can utilize a utensil to dissect this trace. The IBM Pattern Modeling and Analysis utensil for Java Garbage Collector (PMAT) is one of top five technologies at alphaWorks. I relish implemented patented algorithms to predict future failures related to Java stack exhaustion in this tool. delight refer to United States Patent No. 7,475,214 if you are interested in the algorithms. Although they don't requisite these algorithms to investigate simple problem like this, you might be able to find situations where you could procure some insight from fortune tellers. They can procure a copy of the utensil here.
PMAT parses verbose garbage collection (GC) trace, analyzes Java stack usage, and recommends feasible solutions based on pattern modeling of Java stack usage.
The following features are included:
GC table view
Allocation failure summary
GC usage summary
GC duration summary
GC graph view
GC pattern analysis
Zoom in/out/selection/center of chart view
The utensil can furthermore parse Sun's Java garbage collector traces, including the following:
We can start version 3.2 of the utensil with a jar file in the download package. (V3.2 was the latest version when this article was written.)
# /usr/java5/bin/java -Xmx200m -jar ga32.jar
The utensil provides a headless mode but let's bring up the graphical user interface mode for smooth demonstration. They can click on the "N" icon to open Sun's trace file. They can click on "I" for IBM's trace file as seen in pattern 1.
We can observe in pattern 2 the analysis result and recommendation virtually instantly.
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Language and Runtime Support
Java. Developed in 1995 by Sun. every lone code is compiled into bytecode and interpreted by a virtual machine (JVM). May furthermore be selectively JIT compiled, depending on the JVM, or fully natively compiled with ancillary products (such as JOVE). Can dash on any platform that supports a JVM. IBM supports v1.3 of the J2SE SDK.
VBScript and JScript for Web pages and any COM-based language for server components (typically VB or VC++). Scripts are interpreted, while components are natively compiled. VB code furthermore requires a runtime DLL (MSVBMxx.DLL). VBScript and JScript came into utilize in 1997, while COM grew out of OLE in 1993.
Any language that supports the Common Language Runtime (20-plus in development). Initially compiled to an intermediate language (MSIL) and then JIT compiled to aboriginal code by the CLR at runtime or natively compiled (PreJit) at install time. Code written for the CLR is referred to as managed code. uphold for the CLR will be shipped with future OSes starting with Windows XP Server released by the respite of 2001.
Standard Java classes found in the J2SE, plus the APIs (JDBC, JSP, EJB, JMS, JAXP, JCA, JFC, JNDI, and so on, as defined in the J2EE specification). In addition, vendors embrace their own extensions to J2EE for integration and differentiation in the marketplace.
Win32, COM, MFC, ATL, and ASP. Five primary programming models that accommodate APIs that developers utilize in edifice solutions.
Services Framework. A hierarchical set of managed classes arranged in namespaces. Provides a consistent programming model and unifies the APIs needed to build solutions.
Java Package. Collection of Java classes assembled as a unit and arranged hierarchically. debilitated versioning. Server-based deployment uses XML-based deployment descriptors, which are read and handled differently by each vendor's implementation. WebSphere includes an application assembly utensil to ply this process.
DLL, EXE. DLLs accommodate a collection of functions with debilitated versioning. EXEs portray an executable program with debilitated versioning. COM components are housed in DLLs, depend on the registry, and uphold immutable interfaces but no runtime version checking. Server-based installation accomplished through third-party utilities such as InstallShield.
Assembly. Unit of deployment, security, and versioning. Includes built-in PKI uphold and metadata to tightly control binding of assemblies at runtime. uphold exists in the class loader of the CLR for consistency and version checking. Server-based deployment can be done in a no-impact fashion by simply copying the relative paths that accommodate the application. Applications furthermore can explicitly share components. uphold for the Windows Installer included in VS.NET.
Active Server Pages (ASP 2.0). Technology introduced by MSFT in 1997 in which pages containing server-side code are interpreted by an ISAPI server extension and can utilize simple HTTP caching through headers. No aboriginal uphold exists for different devices, and there are no client-state services other than cookies. ASP runs primarily on IIS 4.0/5.0 but has been ported to other platforms (see Chili!Soft, purchased by Sun). Performance of JSP and ASP is similar on similar hardware platforms.
ASP.NET. ASP.NET pages are compiled into MSIL either statically or on the Fly when a request is made. Server control architecture allows abstraction for different devices and status storage across HTTP POST events. Server controls allow developers to create "adaptive controls" to render HTML, WML, and so on as commandeer for the client platform. Runs on IIS 4.0/5.0. Beta performance tests betoken a 200–300% improvement over JSP and ASP.
Web Server Processing
HttpServlets provide a request/response model available to Java classes in addition to session-state services keyed with a client cookie. JSPs often convene servlets as the controller that acts as the broker between presentation and industry service layers to provide separation between the HTML and Java code. Because of the complexity of writing servlets many "two-tier Web apps" simply relish the servlets manufacture direct calls to the underlying database via JDBC. This leads to spaghetti code that is difficult to debug and maintain. The servlet engine is included in WAS and includes a JDBC connection manager that handles database connection pooling. WAS 4.0 is v2.2–compliant.
The ASP runtime implemented in the ISAPI server extension provides a request/response model in addition to session- (keyed with a client cookie) and application-state services. ASP pages often convene industry services directly implemented as COM components, although many "two-tier Web apps" simply relish the ASP pages manufacture direct calls to the database via ADO. This leads to spaghetti code that is difficult to debug and maintain.
The HTTP Runtime in ASP.NET provides an extensible mechanism by which developers can hook into the processing of resources on the Web server through HTTP Modules. Provides very tense integration with the Web server. furthermore supports a request/response model and application- and session-state services. Session-state services can be deployed on a divorce server to augment scalability. Provides a sophisticated caching mechanism for pages and programming code. Provides complete separation of HTML code and programming logic through code behind.
Enterprise Java Beans (EJB). piece of the original J2EE specification in 1998. Java classes that are deployed in component-oriented middleware (a container) that provides interception and adds services such as distributed transactions (using the Java Transaction Service [JTS] based on the OMG and using IIOP), security, and database connectivity. The container can dash on the same server or remotely. EJBs Come in two flavors: entity beans and session beans. Entity beans map to the status of an remonstrate as represented by a row in a database. Entity beans provide the mapping to the database and caching of the entity. Entity beans Come in two styles: Container Managed Persistence (CMP) and Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). CMP beans allow the container to manage loading and saving the database information, whereas BMP beans provide methods for the developer to insert JDBC code directly. Session beans Come in two flavors: stateful and stateless. Stateful beans maintain a conversation with a lone client, whereas stateless beans can be reused by multiple clients, with the container handling the allocation. WAS 4.0 is EJB 1.1–compliant.
Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS). Provides component-oriented middleware for COM components introduced in 1996. Provides interception and adds distributed transactions through the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator service (MSDTC), security, and remonstrate activation support. Objects can be both stateful and stateless, depending on administrative settings. Programmers recall handicap of MTS services through the utilize of an API. Only components built in VC++ are free-threaded and thus achieve better. No uphold for automatically mapping database rows to remonstrate instances exists.
Component Services (COM+ 1.0). Released with Windows 2000 in 2000 and provides component-oriented middleware for COM components. Provides interception and adds distributed transactions, security, remonstrate construction, remonstrate pooling, queued components (for asynchronous integration with MSMQ), loosely coupled events for publishing and subscribing to components, and activation support. Objects can be both stateful and stateless, depending on administrative settings. Although built for COM, .NET programmers create serviced components in .NET by deriving their class from a system class and decorate it with attributes to characterize the services that it uses. The system class then communicates with COM+ via Win32 and COM APIs. No uphold for automatically mapping database rows to remonstrate instances exists. (The IMDB product that was removed from prerelease versions of COM+ would relish served a similar purpose as entity beans, although the ADO.NET DataSet remonstrate serves a similar purpose.)
JDBC. Data Access API that allows SQL access to a tabular data source via drivers (there are currently 159 listed on Sun's site under 4 different types, ranging from JDBC to ODBC bridges to fully native-protocol Java implementations). Various drivers uphold connection pooling, distributed transactions, and rowsets, and some are J2EE-certified. The API is similar to the Win32 implementation of ODBC. JDBC 2.0 is the spec under J2EE 1.2, but 3.0 has been defined. Note that when using entity beans with CMP, the container provides the mapping to the database tables through a vendor-specific mechanism. WAS 4.0 supports JDBC core v2.1 and Extensions 2.0. WAS includes providers for DB2, MSSQL, Oracle, Informix, and Sybase.
ADO/OLE DB. OLE DB is both a specification for COM interfaces that database vendors implement (OLE Providers) and a set of services (such as cursor processing and connection pooling) implemented in Windows to provide data access to a variety of data sources. ADO is a simplified automation layer that sits on top of OLE DB to provide data access to scripting languages and COM-based languages such as VB. Although typically used for tabular data access, both ADO and OLE DB can be used to access nonstructured data such as email and XML. OLE DB furthermore can be used to access data through the plethora of available ODBC drivers.
ADO.NET. A set of managed classes that provides access to data sources through what are called managed providers. These embrace TDS (SQL Server), OLE DB providers, and ODBC drivers. Each managed provider implements connections and connection pooling, commands/parameters, forward-only cursor processing, transaction processing, and oversight handling. ADO.NET furthermore includes a middle-tier data cache remonstrate called a DataSet that provides an XML-based cache of data that can be used to bind to controls and synchronize changes to a data source through an adapter remonstrate implemented by the managed provider. Designed to uphold a loosely connected model with built-in XML representation of the data and XSD representation of the schema. Developers can travail with relational data as XML data, and vice versa through the XMLDataDocument class.
Java Messaging Services (JMS). JMS is a set of client interfaces to message-oriented middleware (MOM) products that supports both message queues and publish-and-subscribe metaphors. MOM vendors implement JMS providers. JMS includes a specification for a current character of EJB, message beans. WAS includes the (WebSphere MQ) MQSeries JMS provider. WAS 4.0 is compliant with the 1.0.2 specification and includes uphold for JMS-XA distributed transactions across MQSeries-enabled systems and databases. requisite to obtain WebSphere MQ separately.
Microsoft Message Queue Server (MSMQ). A MOM server product running on NT 4 and W2K that supports message queues but does not embrace a publish-and-subscribe feature built into the product. The product includes a COM-based API for sending and receiving messages and administering queues. Supports distributed transactions through MSDTC. MSMQ is built into Windows NT 4.0 Server.
System.Messaging. A set of managed classes that provide the administrative and client APIs for working with MSMQ servers. MSMQ is built into Windows 2000 Server. It should be famed that developers can access MSMQ through queued components (QC) supported by COM+ 1.0. QC acts as an abstraction layer to allow clients to asynchronously manufacture routine calls on components that are backed by MSMQ.
Java Foundation Classes (JFC). JFC includes the Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) and vibrate as Java APIs for edifice GUII applications. vibrate is a more abstract API and includes a "look and feel" for developing the same GUI on multiple platforms or adhering to a platform standard. Advanced graphics can be created with the Java2D and 3D APIs. GUI apps dash as standalone applications or applets running in a browser.
Win32/ActiveX. Applications written in VB, VC++, or other Windows development tools. Ultimately these tools manufacture calls to the Win32 API for the underlying window management. ActiveX is a COM-based technology for edifice reusable binary visual components (.ocx) across development environments. Applications dash as standalone applications or as ActiveX controls hosted in MSIE. Advanced graphics are available through the DirectX set of COM-based APIs.
Windows Forms. Set of managed classes that allow for the creation of forms-based applications. Takes handicap of current Windows 2000 features such as nonrectangular forms. Includes a managed control architecture to build reusable visual controls. Third parties will provide wrappers for DirectX functionality. Windows Forms–based applications can dash as standalone applications or can be hosted in MSIE on clients with the CLR installed.
J2EE Connector (JCA). JCA is a specification based on the IBM Common Connector Framework (CCF). WAS contains WAS adapters used to connect to packaged applications such as JDEdwards, SAP, Peoplesoft, and so on. These are JCA-compliant and are shipped with VisualAge for Java. You can furthermore build current adapters using the MQSeries adapter offerings. WAS AE multiserver version only.
SNA Server 4.0. Server product that includes OLE DB and ODBC uphold for AS/400 and DB2. furthermore includes COM Transaction Integrator (COMTI) for working with CICS and IMS transactions as if they were COM objects. Includes MSMQ-MQSeries bridge and host printing services, among others. Basically, this is COM-based integration, and there are furthermore connectors to packaged products such as the SAP DCOM Connector.
Host Integration Server 2000. Update of SNA Server. furthermore includes integration with Commerce Server, BizTalk, vigorous Directory, and Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). BizTalk furthermore supports application-integration components (AIC) that can be built to integrate with packaged applications; for example, there is a SAP R/3 AIC available.
Java API for XML Parsing (JAXP). An API and abstraction layer to deal with various XML parsers. Not included in the J2EE 1.2, but 1.0 is in 1.3. v1.1 supports XSLT and DOM even 2 and SAX v2.0. IBM has a 100% Java validating XML parser with JAXP uphold available on its Web site. WAS includes uphold for DOM 1.0, SAX 1.0, and XSLT 1.0.
MSXML. Microsoft's COM-based XML parser, included as a standalone addition to the OS and in products such as MSIE. Version 3.0 sp1 is the current version, with v4.0 as a technology preview on the MSDN Web site. V3.0 supports XSLT, XPath, and SAX2. Implements much of the DOM functionality specified by the WS3C, in addition to SAX uphold for event-based processing of large XML documents.
System.Xml. A set of managed classes that implement the DOM, XSLT, and XPath specifications by the W3C. Supports both a tree-based model (DOM) and an innovative stream-based approach for parsing XML documents. furthermore contains a class that maps XML documents to the ADO.NET DataSet class to provide XML-based access to relational data.
WAS ships with the Apache SOAP 2.2 utensil support. The toolkit is SOAP 1.1–compliant. Can expose Java classes, EJBs, BSF scripts, or DB2-stored procs as a Web Service. Includes a command-line utility to publish EJBs as SOAP services. development tools accommodate wizards to create WSDL from an existing Java application or read WSDL to create a server stub or client proxy. UUDI4J uphold is furthermore included for client-side interaction with UDDI registries.
SOAP Toolkit 2.0. Downloadable. Current release is sp2. Provides a COM wrapper for implementing Web Services. Wizard exposes COM objects as a Web Service using ASP or IIS ISAPI extensions. uphold for WSDL 1.1. A divorce UDDI SDK is available for download, and provides a COM API for edifice and querying a UDDI registry. The toolkit integrates into VS 6.0 so that creating Web Services from COM components is straightforward.
.NET Framework. SOAP 1.1 is implemented in a variety of the groundwork class libraries and, therefore, is very tightly integrated from both consumer and implementer perspectives. Allows individual methods in managed classes to be exposed as Web Services through an credit of the framework. Automatic creation of WSDL from XSD schemas and managed classes. Automatic creation of managed client proxies from WSDL through the command line and UI in VS.NET with plenary Intellisense. A divorce UDDI SDK is available for download that provides managed classes for edifice and querying a UDDI registry.
Remote routine Invocation (RMI)-Internet InterORB Protocol (IIOP). Provides the programming model (RMI) and the protocol layer for (CORBA IIOP) Java-to-Java communication. Servlets and applets communicate with EJBs via RMI. Assumes a tightly bound model that creates firewall issues and is not well suited to the Internet.
DCOM. Extension of COM for component communication across the network using any of the Windows NT network protocols. Includes remote activation and security features. Remoting of remonstrate instances must be specifically programmed into the COM objects themselves. Assumes a tightly bound model that creates firewall issues and is not well suited to the Internet.
.NET Remoting. Implemented in a set of managed classes. Allows managed code to communicate across app domain boundaries. Can communicate via HTTP or TCP channels. Supports remoting of remonstrate instances via binary or SOAP protocols. Supports singletons and client activation. The utilize of HTTP and SOAP promotes a loosely coupled architecture that does not incur firewall problems.
Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). Programming interface that provides access to directory services such as DNS, LDAP, Novell (NDS), and CORBA COS through vendor-specific providers.
WAS 4.0 is JNDI 1.2–compliant for EJB lookup. The IBM SecureWay Directory 3.2.1 product is included in WAS for access to vigorous Directory, Lotus Domino, and NDS.
Active Directory Services Interface (ADSI). COM programming interface that supports access to NT, LDAP, and Novell (NDS) directory services through vendor-specific providers.
Active Directory and System.DirectoryServices namespace. Windows 2000 Server includes the distributed directory used in a Windows 2000 domain while the managed classes, in DirectoryServices provide a wrapper around the ADSI interfaces to programmatically access a directory.
WebSphere Studio, Visual Age for Java. Both ship with WAS. Studio is used to build the visual representation of Web pages and JSPs, while Visual Age is used for Java coding of servlets, beans, and EJBs.
Visual Studio 6.0, released in 1998 (three IDEs). divorce IDEs exist for VC++/Visual Interdev for ASP development, and VB for contour and component development. Graphical Web development.
Visual Studio.NET. lone IDE that supports unified debugging, project management, Intellisense, Server Explorer, graphical editor for the Web and forms, class view, dynamic help, add-ins, and scripting. Can be used to build console applications, Windows Forms, Web Forms, Web Services, Windows Services, and components. Third-party compiler vendors can plug into VS.NET.
ebXML. An industry specification (not a shipping product) for performing business-to-business transactions using XML and the Web. Includes some uphold for SOAP. Not implemented in WAS. Would requisite to roll your own infrastructure perhaps using Web Services.
No uphold on NT 4. Would requisite to roll your own infrastructure using the SOAP Toolkit and Windows services.
BizTalk Server 2000, released in 2000. A divorce server product that provides a messaging/scheduling engine and industry process orchestration facilities. Messaging includes uphold for EDI, SOAP, and Rosettanet grammars, in addition to others.
For organizations that must relish platform neutrality, J2EE is the only alternative. The Java language is becoming more widely accepted. Vendors such as IBM present a single-vendor solution when dealing with legacy applications. Separation of application logic and presentation exists, although, in practice, this is underutilized. EJB model includes automatic database-mapping facilities through CMP.
Large groundwork of VB/ASP developers, resulting in reduced costs. Runs on commodity servers that can be scaled out. Software costs are low. Multiple language uphold through COM. tense integration with the paramount client platform (Windows).
Multiple languages supported with a common set of class libraries. Unified programming model with the Services Framework. elevated productivity development environment. Web application performance. Runs on commodity servers that can be scaled out. Separation of application logic and presentation exists. Greater integration with XML and Web Services protocols. tense integration with the paramount client platform (Windows).
Single-language solution. Smaller groundwork of developers. EJBs are intricate and not widely used. Thus, JSPs are overused, resulting in spaghetti code. Varying levels of J2EE conformance across vendors. The requisite to utilize vendor-specific features leads to vendor lock-in. Performance varies due to vendor-specific implementations. Software cost is generally higher, developer costs are higher, and deployment time is increased.
Highly fragmented programming model. COM infrastructure is unwieldy, leading to DLL hell and versioning problems. ASP pages that achieve not utilize COM for industry and data-access services lead to spaghetti code. Single-vendor solution.
Not a shipping product. OO nature of CLR makes development initially more complicated for VB/ASP developers. Single-vendor solution. Does not uphold an automatic mapping of database rows to objects as with CMP, although there is widespread disagreement within the industry as to whether entity beans are desirable because they achieve not promote transactional consistency and are questionable in terms of performance. For more information, observe Roger Session's Web site.