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310-065 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform.SE 6.0
Test Code : 310-065
Test appellation : Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform.SE 6.0
Vendor appellation : SUN
: 305 true Questions
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Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform.SE 6.0
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A couple of patterns that could intuition Java bank exhaustion were identified from years of research at IBM. One lively scenario was observed when Java applications generated an extravagant amount of finalizable objects whose classes had non-trivial Java finalizers.
What Is a Java Finalizer?A Java finalizer performs finalization tasks for an object. It's the contrary of a Java constructor, which creates and initializes an instance of a Java class. A Java finalizer can be used to achieve postmortem cleanup tasks on an instance of a class or to release system resources such as file descriptors or network socket connections when an remonstrate is no longer needed and those resources gain to be released for other objects. You don't need any controversy or any revert value for a finalizer. Unfortunately the current Java language specification does not define any finalizers for a Java class or interface when a class or interface is unloaded. Let's retract a closer gape at finalize() method of java.lang.Object that provides an instance method, finalize() for finalization:
protected void finalize() throws Throwable
When a Java remonstrate is no longer needed, the space occupied by the remonstrate is suppositious to be recycled automatically by the Java garbage collector. This is one of the significant differences in Java and is not create in most structural programming languages enjoy C. If an instance of a class implements the finalize() method, its space cannot be recycled by the garbage collector in a timely fashion. Worst case, it may not be recycled at all.
Any instances of classes that implement the finalize() method are often called finalizable objects. They will not be immediately reclaimed by the Java garbage collector when they are no longer referenced. Instead, the Java garbage collector appends the objects to a special queue for the finalization process. Usually it's performed by a special thread called a "Reference Handler" on some Java Virtual Machines. During this finalization process, the "Finalizer" thread will execute each finalize() method of the objects. Only after successful completion of the finalize() method will an remonstrate be handed over for Java garbage collection to fetch its space reclaimed by "future" garbage collection. I did not dispute "current," which means at least two garbage collection cycles are required to reclaim the finalizable object. Sounds enjoy it has some overhead? You got it. They need several shots to fetch the space recycled.
Finalizer threads are not given maximum priorities on systems. If a "Finalizer" thread cannot sustain up with the rate at which higher priority threads intuition finalizable objects to be queued, the finalizer queue will sustain growing and intuition the Java bank to fill up. Eventually the Java bank will fetch exhausted and a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError will be thrown.
A Java Virtual Machine will never invoke the finalize() method more than once for any object. If there's any exception thrown by the finalize() method, the finalization of the remonstrate is halted.
You are free to attain virtually anything in the finalize() method of your class. When you attain that, tickle attain not expect the reminiscence space occupied by each and every remonstrate to be reclaimed by the Java garbage collector when the remonstrate is no longer referenced or no longer needed. Why? It is not guaranteed that the finalize() method will complete the execution in timely manner. Worst case, it may not be even invoked even when there are no more references to the object. That means it's not guaranteed that any objects that gain a finalize() method are garbage collected. That's a potential hazard from a reminiscence management perspective and, needless to say, there is considerable overhead for queuing, dequeuing, running the finalize() method, and rescanning the remonstrate in the next garbage collection cycle.
If you want to dash cleanup tasks on objects, account finalizers as a eventual refer and implement your own cleanup method, which will be more predictable. It's very risky to rely on finalizers for postmortem cleanup tasks, especially if your finalizable objects gain references to indigenous resources.
Hands-on sustain with Java FinalizerWe can easily simulate this scenario with a couple of test applications and retract a gape at dumps and traces to discern what's happening inside of the Java bank and threads for hands-on experience.
Let's build a couple of Java classes to recreate typical scenarios.
In ObjectWYieldFinalizer, they can implement the method finalize() with Thread.yield() so that finalize() cannot complete its execution (see Listing 1) (Listings 1-7 can be downloaded here.)
The Thread.yield() method prevents the currently executing thread from running and allows other threads to execute. If the Finalizer thread calls this finalize() method, it will recess its execution.
In ObjectWExceptionFinalizer, the finalizer() method immediately throws a java.lang.IndexOutOfBoundsException. If the Finalizer thread calls this finalize() method, the remonstrate finalization won't be completed because of the exception and there's no second haphazard to dash the finalize() method (see Listing 2).
In ObjectWEmptyFinalizer, they don't implement any code in the finalize() method (see Listing 3). ObjectWOFinalizer doesn't gain any finalize() method (see Listing 4).
Let's dash each of the classes to discern what happens. Sun's Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can be used with the following options for the class TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.
/sun1.6.0_10/bin/java -Xmx50m -verbosegc -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError TestObjectWYieldFinalizer > verbosegc.txt
It looks very complicated. Why attain they need those command-line options? Well, without those options, they only fetch a limited information about Java garbage collection activities enjoy this:
[Full GC 50815K->45644K(50816K), 0.2276940 secs][Full GC 48780K->46415K(50816K), 0.2233279 secs][Full GC 49551K->49551K(50816K), 0.2396315 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1886312 secs][Full GC 50815K->49219K(50816K), 0.1964926 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1865343 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1836961 secs]
We only fetch a character of garbage collection (Full GC), total Java bank usage before garbage collection (50,815K), total Java bank usage after garbage collection (45,644K), a lofty watermark of total Java bank (50,816K), and time spent in the garbage collection (0.2276940 secs).
High watermark is the size of the current Java heap. The Java bank can expand its size up to a maximum size or shrink to manage Java bank effectively.
The -XX:+PrintGCDetails option lets the JVM provide information on each generation in the Java heap.
We can discern Java bank usage and the time (in seconds) spent in Java garbage collection of each unique generation, tenured generation, and permanent generation with the -XX:+PrintGCDetails option in the following example:
[GC [DefNew: 3520K->3520K(3520K), 0.0001143 secs][Tenured: 43897K->47295K(47296K), 0.2110999 secs] 47417K->47415K(50816K), [Perm : 17K->17K(12288K)], 0.2115593 secs][Times: user=0.22 sys=0.00, real=0.22 secs]
In tenured generation, Java bank usage was 43,897KB before this Java garbage collection. Java bank usage reached 47,295KB after Java garbage collection; 47296K is the size of the lofty watermark of the tenured generation; 0.2110999 second was spent to collect the tenured generation. Unfortunately they attain not discern the maximum size of each generation with the -XX:+PrintGCDetails option alone.
With -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps, they can fetch a timestamp for each garbage collection enjoy this:
1.393: [GC 1002K->106K(5056K), 0.0001036 secs]
This garbage collection started 1.393 seconds after the JVM started.
The -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC option provides extensive information about each Java garbage collection (see Listing 5).
We can even discern the address compass of each generation. Unfortunately there's no timestamp for each garbage collection with -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC option alone.
The eventual option, -XX:-HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError allows the JVM to dump the Java bank to a file when an allocation from the Java bank cannot be satisfied or a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError is thrown. This option was introduced in Sun Java 1.4.2 update 12 and Sun Java 5.0 update 7.
If you want to experiment with IBM's Java Virtual Machine, any you need is a -verbosegc command-line option. You attain not need any of these: -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC, or -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError.
Let's retract a gape at what happened to the class while they talked about Sun JVM's command-line option. We've got java.lang.OutOfMemoryError from TestObjectWYieldFinalizer:
Exception in the thread "main" java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java bank spaceat java.lang.ref.Finalizer.register(Finalizer.java:72)at java.lang.Object.<init>(Object.java:20)at ObjectWYieldFinalizer.<init>(ObjectWYieldFinalizer.java:2)at TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.main(TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.java:11)
"java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java bank space." That means they got Java bank space exhaustion. The JVM could not designate any more Java bank while running the method java.lang.ref.Finalizer.register(), which is on line 72 of Finalizer.java. Finalizer.java? Of course, they did not write Finalizer.java. That's a Part of the JVM. They can moreover check verbosegc.txt to which they redirected the garbage collection trace (see Listing 6).
About 3.711 seconds after the JVM started, they got java.lang.OutOfMemoryError. The Java bank dump is written to pid124.hprof.
Analysis of Java Garbage Collection TracesWe can employ a tool to analyze this trace. The IBM Pattern Modeling and Analysis tool for Java Garbage Collector (PMAT) is one of top five technologies at alphaWorks. I gain implemented patented algorithms to call future failures related to Java bank exhaustion in this tool. tickle refer to United States Patent No. 7,475,214 if you are interested in the algorithms. Although they don't need these algorithms to investigate simple problem enjoy this, you might be able to find situations where you could fetch some insight from fortune tellers. They can fetch a copy of the tool here.
PMAT parses verbose garbage collection (GC) trace, analyzes Java bank usage, and recommends possible solutions based on pattern modeling of Java bank usage.
The following features are included:
GC table view
Allocation failure summary
GC usage summary
GC duration summary
GC graph view
GC pattern analysis
Zoom in/out/selection/center of chart view
The tool can moreover parse Sun's Java garbage collector traces, including the following:
We can start version 3.2 of the tool with a jar file in the download package. (V3.2 was the latest version when this article was written.)
# /usr/java5/bin/java -Xmx200m -jar ga32.jar
The tool provides a headless mode but let's bring up the graphical user interface mode for smooth demonstration. They can click on the "N" icon to open Sun's trace file. They can click on "I" for IBM's trace file as seen in device 1.
We can discern in device 2 the analysis result and recommendation virtually instantly.
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Language and Runtime Support
Java. Developed in 1995 by Sun. any code is compiled into bytecode and interpreted by a virtual machine (JVM). May moreover be selectively JIT compiled, depending on the JVM, or fully natively compiled with ancillary products (such as JOVE). Can dash on any platform that supports a JVM. IBM supports v1.3 of the J2SE SDK.
VBScript and JScript for Web pages and any COM-based language for server components (typically VB or VC++). Scripts are interpreted, while components are natively compiled. VB code moreover requires a runtime DLL (MSVBMxx.DLL). VBScript and JScript came into employ in 1997, while COM grew out of OLE in 1993.
Any language that supports the Common Language Runtime (20-plus in development). Initially compiled to an intermediate language (MSIL) and then JIT compiled to indigenous code by the CLR at runtime or natively compiled (PreJit) at install time. Code written for the CLR is referred to as managed code. advocate for the CLR will be shipped with future OSes starting with Windows XP Server released by the quit of 2001.
Standard Java classes create in the J2SE, plus the APIs (JDBC, JSP, EJB, JMS, JAXP, JCA, JFC, JNDI, and so on, as defined in the J2EE specification). In addition, vendors comprehend their own extensions to J2EE for integration and differentiation in the marketplace.
Win32, COM, MFC, ATL, and ASP. Five primary programming models that contain APIs that developers employ in building solutions.
Services Framework. A hierarchical set of managed classes arranged in namespaces. Provides a consistent programming model and unifies the APIs needed to build solutions.
Java Package. Collection of Java classes assembled as a unit and arranged hierarchically. fragile versioning. Server-based deployment uses XML-based deployment descriptors, which are read and handled differently by each vendor's implementation. WebSphere includes an application assembly tool to handle this process.
DLL, EXE. DLLs contain a collection of functions with fragile versioning. EXEs portray an executable program with fragile versioning. COM components are housed in DLLs, rely on the registry, and advocate immutable interfaces but no runtime version checking. Server-based installation accomplished through third-party utilities such as InstallShield.
Assembly. Unit of deployment, security, and versioning. Includes built-in PKI advocate and metadata to tightly control binding of assemblies at runtime. advocate exists in the class loader of the CLR for consistency and version checking. Server-based deployment can be done in a no-impact fashion by simply copying the relative paths that contain the application. Applications moreover can explicitly share components. advocate for the Windows Installer included in VS.NET.
Active Server Pages (ASP 2.0). Technology introduced by MSFT in 1997 in which pages containing server-side code are interpreted by an ISAPI server extension and can employ simple HTTP caching through headers. No indigenous advocate exists for different devices, and there are no client-state services other than cookies. ASP runs primarily on IIS 4.0/5.0 but has been ported to other platforms (see Chili!Soft, purchased by Sun). Performance of JSP and ASP is similar on similar hardware platforms.
ASP.NET. ASP.NET pages are compiled into MSIL either statically or on the coast when a request is made. Server control architecture allows abstraction for different devices and status storage across HTTP POST events. Server controls allow developers to create "adaptive controls" to render HTML, WML, and so on as confiscate for the client platform. Runs on IIS 4.0/5.0. Beta performance tests witness a 200–300% improvement over JSP and ASP.
Web Server Processing
HttpServlets provide a request/response model available to Java classes in addition to session-state services keyed with a client cookie. JSPs often summon servlets as the controller that acts as the broker between presentation and traffic service layers to provide separation between the HTML and Java code. Because of the complexity of writing servlets many "two-tier Web apps" simply gain the servlets execute direct calls to the underlying database via JDBC. This leads to spaghetti code that is difficult to debug and maintain. The servlet engine is included in WAS and includes a JDBC connection manager that handles database connection pooling. WAS 4.0 is v2.2–compliant.
The ASP runtime implemented in the ISAPI server extension provides a request/response model in addition to session- (keyed with a client cookie) and application-state services. ASP pages often summon traffic services directly implemented as COM components, although many "two-tier Web apps" simply gain the ASP pages execute direct calls to the database via ADO. This leads to spaghetti code that is difficult to debug and maintain.
The HTTP Runtime in ASP.NET provides an extensible mechanism by which developers can hook into the processing of resources on the Web server through HTTP Modules. Provides very taut integration with the Web server. moreover supports a request/response model and application- and session-state services. Session-state services can be deployed on a divorce server to extend scalability. Provides a sophisticated caching mechanism for pages and programming code. Provides complete separation of HTML code and programming logic through code behind.
Enterprise Java Beans (EJB). Part of the original J2EE specification in 1998. Java classes that are deployed in component-oriented middleware (a container) that provides interception and adds services such as distributed transactions (using the Java Transaction Service [JTS] based on the OMG and using IIOP), security, and database connectivity. The container can dash on the selfsame server or remotely. EJBs promote in two flavors: entity beans and session beans. Entity beans map to the status of an remonstrate as represented by a row in a database. Entity beans provide the mapping to the database and caching of the entity. Entity beans promote in two styles: Container Managed Persistence (CMP) and Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). CMP beans allow the container to manage loading and saving the database information, whereas BMP beans provide methods for the developer to insert JDBC code directly. Session beans promote in two flavors: stateful and stateless. Stateful beans maintain a conversation with a unique client, whereas stateless beans can be reused by multiple clients, with the container handling the allocation. WAS 4.0 is EJB 1.1–compliant.
Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS). Provides component-oriented middleware for COM components introduced in 1996. Provides interception and adds distributed transactions through the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator service (MSDTC), security, and remonstrate activation support. Objects can be both stateful and stateless, depending on administrative settings. Programmers retract odds of MTS services through the employ of an API. Only components built in VC++ are free-threaded and thus achieve better. No advocate for automatically mapping database rows to remonstrate instances exists.
Component Services (COM+ 1.0). Released with Windows 2000 in 2000 and provides component-oriented middleware for COM components. Provides interception and adds distributed transactions, security, remonstrate construction, remonstrate pooling, queued components (for asynchronous integration with MSMQ), loosely coupled events for publishing and subscribing to components, and activation support. Objects can be both stateful and stateless, depending on administrative settings. Although built for COM, .NET programmers create serviced components in .NET by deriving their class from a system class and decorate it with attributes to rehearse the services that it uses. The system class then communicates with COM+ via Win32 and COM APIs. No advocate for automatically mapping database rows to remonstrate instances exists. (The IMDB product that was removed from prerelease versions of COM+ would gain served a similar purpose as entity beans, although the ADO.NET DataSet remonstrate serves a similar purpose.)
JDBC. Data Access API that allows SQL access to a tabular data source via drivers (there are currently 159 listed on Sun's site under 4 different types, ranging from JDBC to ODBC bridges to fully native-protocol Java implementations). Various drivers advocate connection pooling, distributed transactions, and rowsets, and some are J2EE-certified. The API is similar to the Win32 implementation of ODBC. JDBC 2.0 is the spec under J2EE 1.2, but 3.0 has been defined. Note that when using entity beans with CMP, the container provides the mapping to the database tables through a vendor-specific mechanism. WAS 4.0 supports JDBC core v2.1 and Extensions 2.0. WAS includes providers for DB2, MSSQL, Oracle, Informix, and Sybase.
ADO/OLE DB. OLE DB is both a specification for COM interfaces that database vendors implement (OLE Providers) and a set of services (such as cursor processing and connection pooling) implemented in Windows to provide data access to a variety of data sources. ADO is a simplified automation layer that sits on top of OLE DB to provide data access to scripting languages and COM-based languages such as VB. Although typically used for tabular data access, both ADO and OLE DB can be used to access nonstructured data such as email and XML. OLE DB moreover can be used to access data through the plethora of available ODBC drivers.
ADO.NET. A set of managed classes that provides access to data sources through what are called managed providers. These comprehend TDS (SQL Server), OLE DB providers, and ODBC drivers. Each managed provider implements connections and connection pooling, commands/parameters, forward-only cursor processing, transaction processing, and error handling. ADO.NET moreover includes a middle-tier data cache remonstrate called a DataSet that provides an XML-based cache of data that can be used to bind to controls and synchronize changes to a data source through an adapter remonstrate implemented by the managed provider. Designed to advocate a loosely connected model with built-in XML representation of the data and XSD representation of the schema. Developers can drudgery with relational data as XML data, and vice versa through the XMLDataDocument class.
Java Messaging Services (JMS). JMS is a set of client interfaces to message-oriented middleware (MOM) products that supports both message queues and publish-and-subscribe metaphors. MOM vendors implement JMS providers. JMS includes a specification for a unique character of EJB, message beans. WAS includes the (WebSphere MQ) MQSeries JMS provider. WAS 4.0 is compliant with the 1.0.2 specification and includes advocate for JMS-XA distributed transactions across MQSeries-enabled systems and databases. need to obtain WebSphere MQ separately.
Microsoft Message Queue Server (MSMQ). A MOM server product running on NT 4 and W2K that supports message queues but does not comprehend a publish-and-subscribe feature built into the product. The product includes a COM-based API for sending and receiving messages and administering queues. Supports distributed transactions through MSDTC. MSMQ is built into Windows NT 4.0 Server.
System.Messaging. A set of managed classes that provide the administrative and client APIs for working with MSMQ servers. MSMQ is built into Windows 2000 Server. It should be noted that developers can access MSMQ through queued components (QC) supported by COM+ 1.0. QC acts as an abstraction layer to allow clients to asynchronously execute method calls on components that are backed by MSMQ.
Java Foundation Classes (JFC). JFC includes the Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) and oscillate as Java APIs for building GUII applications. oscillate is a more abstract API and includes a "look and feel" for developing the selfsame GUI on multiple platforms or adhering to a platform standard. Advanced graphics can be created with the Java2D and 3D APIs. GUI apps dash as standalone applications or applets running in a browser.
Win32/ActiveX. Applications written in VB, VC++, or other Windows progress tools. Ultimately these tools execute calls to the Win32 API for the underlying window management. ActiveX is a COM-based technology for building reusable binary visual components (.ocx) across progress environments. Applications dash as standalone applications or as ActiveX controls hosted in MSIE. Advanced graphics are available through the DirectX set of COM-based APIs.
Windows Forms. Set of managed classes that allow for the creation of forms-based applications. Takes odds of unique Windows 2000 features such as nonrectangular forms. Includes a managed control architecture to build reusable visual controls. Third parties will provide wrappers for DirectX functionality. Windows Forms–based applications can dash as standalone applications or can be hosted in MSIE on clients with the CLR installed.
J2EE Connector (JCA). JCA is a specification based on the IBM Common Connector Framework (CCF). WAS contains WAS adapters used to connect to packaged applications such as JDEdwards, SAP, Peoplesoft, and so on. These are JCA-compliant and are shipped with VisualAge for Java. You can moreover build unique adapters using the MQSeries adapter offerings. WAS AE multiserver version only.
SNA Server 4.0. Server product that includes OLE DB and ODBC advocate for AS/400 and DB2. moreover includes COM Transaction Integrator (COMTI) for working with CICS and IMS transactions as if they were COM objects. Includes MSMQ-MQSeries bridge and host printing services, among others. Basically, this is COM-based integration, and there are moreover connectors to packaged products such as the SAP DCOM Connector.
Host Integration Server 2000. Update of SNA Server. moreover includes integration with Commerce Server, BizTalk, dynamic Directory, and Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). BizTalk moreover supports application-integration components (AIC) that can be built to integrate with packaged applications; for example, there is a SAP R/3 AIC available.
Java API for XML Parsing (JAXP). An API and abstraction layer to deal with various XML parsers. Not included in the J2EE 1.2, but 1.0 is in 1.3. v1.1 supports XSLT and DOM smooth 2 and SAX v2.0. IBM has a 100% Java validating XML parser with JAXP advocate available on its Web site. WAS includes advocate for DOM 1.0, SAX 1.0, and XSLT 1.0.
MSXML. Microsoft's COM-based XML parser, included as a standalone addition to the OS and in products such as MSIE. Version 3.0 sp1 is the current version, with v4.0 as a technology preview on the MSDN Web site. V3.0 supports XSLT, XPath, and SAX2. Implements much of the DOM functionality specified by the WS3C, in addition to SAX advocate for event-based processing of large XML documents.
System.Xml. A set of managed classes that implement the DOM, XSLT, and XPath specifications by the W3C. Supports both a tree-based model (DOM) and an innovative stream-based approach for parsing XML documents. moreover contains a class that maps XML documents to the ADO.NET DataSet class to provide XML-based access to relational data.
WAS ships with the Apache SOAP 2.2 tool support. The toolkit is SOAP 1.1–compliant. Can expose Java classes, EJBs, BSF scripts, or DB2-stored procs as a Web Service. Includes a command-line utility to publish EJBs as SOAP services. progress tools contain wizards to create WSDL from an existing Java application or read WSDL to create a server stub or client proxy. UUDI4J advocate is moreover included for client-side interaction with UDDI registries.
SOAP Toolkit 2.0. Downloadable. Current release is sp2. Provides a COM wrapper for implementing Web Services. Wizard exposes COM objects as a Web Service using ASP or IIS ISAPI extensions. advocate for WSDL 1.1. A divorce UDDI SDK is available for download, and provides a COM API for building and querying a UDDI registry. The toolkit integrates into VS 6.0 so that creating Web Services from COM components is straightforward.
.NET Framework. SOAP 1.1 is implemented in a variety of the basis class libraries and, therefore, is very tightly integrated from both consumer and implementer perspectives. Allows individual methods in managed classes to be exposed as Web Services through an credit of the framework. Automatic creation of WSDL from XSD schemas and managed classes. Automatic creation of managed client proxies from WSDL through the command line and UI in VS.NET with full Intellisense. A divorce UDDI SDK is available for download that provides managed classes for building and querying a UDDI registry.
Remote method Invocation (RMI)-Internet InterORB Protocol (IIOP). Provides the programming model (RMI) and the protocol layer for (CORBA IIOP) Java-to-Java communication. Servlets and applets communicate with EJBs via RMI. Assumes a tightly bound model that creates firewall issues and is not well suited to the Internet.
DCOM. Extension of COM for component communication across the network using any of the Windows NT network protocols. Includes remote activation and security features. Remoting of remonstrate instances must be specifically programmed into the COM objects themselves. Assumes a tightly bound model that creates firewall issues and is not well suited to the Internet.
.NET Remoting. Implemented in a set of managed classes. Allows managed code to communicate across app domain boundaries. Can communicate via HTTP or TCP channels. Supports remoting of remonstrate instances via binary or SOAP protocols. Supports singletons and client activation. The employ of HTTP and SOAP promotes a loosely coupled architecture that does not incur firewall problems.
Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). Programming interface that provides access to directory services such as DNS, LDAP, Novell (NDS), and CORBA COS through vendor-specific providers.
WAS 4.0 is JNDI 1.2–compliant for EJB lookup. The IBM SecureWay Directory 3.2.1 product is included in WAS for access to dynamic Directory, Lotus Domino, and NDS.
Active Directory Services Interface (ADSI). COM programming interface that supports access to NT, LDAP, and Novell (NDS) directory services through vendor-specific providers.
Active Directory and System.DirectoryServices namespace. Windows 2000 Server includes the distributed directory used in a Windows 2000 domain while the managed classes, in DirectoryServices provide a wrapper around the ADSI interfaces to programmatically access a directory.
WebSphere Studio, Visual Age for Java. Both ship with WAS. Studio is used to build the visual representation of Web pages and JSPs, while Visual Age is used for Java coding of servlets, beans, and EJBs.
Visual Studio 6.0, released in 1998 (three IDEs). divorce IDEs exist for VC++/Visual Interdev for ASP development, and VB for configuration and component development. Graphical Web development.
Visual Studio.NET. unique IDE that supports unified debugging, project management, Intellisense, Server Explorer, graphical editor for the Web and forms, class view, dynamic help, add-ins, and scripting. Can be used to build console applications, Windows Forms, Web Forms, Web Services, Windows Services, and components. Third-party compiler vendors can plug into VS.NET.
ebXML. An industry specification (not a shipping product) for performing business-to-business transactions using XML and the Web. Includes some advocate for SOAP. Not implemented in WAS. Would need to roll your own infrastructure perhaps using Web Services.
No advocate on NT 4. Would need to roll your own infrastructure using the SOAP Toolkit and Windows services.
BizTalk Server 2000, released in 2000. A divorce server product that provides a messaging/scheduling engine and traffic process orchestration facilities. Messaging includes advocate for EDI, SOAP, and Rosettanet grammars, in addition to others.
For organizations that must gain platform neutrality, J2EE is the only alternative. The Java language is becoming more widely accepted. Vendors such as IBM offer a single-vendor solution when dealing with legacy applications. Separation of application logic and presentation exists, although, in practice, this is underutilized. EJB model includes automatic database-mapping facilities through CMP.
Large basis of VB/ASP developers, resulting in reduced costs. Runs on commodity servers that can be scaled out. Software costs are low. Multiple language advocate through COM. taut integration with the preeminent client platform (Windows).
Multiple languages supported with a common set of class libraries. Unified programming model with the Services Framework. lofty productivity progress environment. Web application performance. Runs on commodity servers that can be scaled out. Separation of application logic and presentation exists. Greater integration with XML and Web Services protocols. taut integration with the preeminent client platform (Windows).
Single-language solution. Smaller basis of developers. EJBs are knotty and not widely used. Thus, JSPs are overused, resulting in spaghetti code. Varying levels of J2EE conformance across vendors. The need to employ vendor-specific features leads to vendor lock-in. Performance varies due to vendor-specific implementations. Software cost is generally higher, developer costs are higher, and deployment time is increased.
Highly fragmented programming model. COM infrastructure is unwieldy, leading to DLL hell and versioning problems. ASP pages that attain not utilize COM for traffic and data-access services lead to spaghetti code. Single-vendor solution.
Not a shipping product. OO nature of CLR makes progress initially more complicated for VB/ASP developers. Single-vendor solution. Does not advocate an automatic mapping of database rows to objects as with CMP, although there is widespread disagreement within the industry as to whether entity beans are desirable because they attain not promote transactional consistency and are questionable in terms of performance. For more information, discern Roger Session's Web site.