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310-013 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade
Test Code : 310-013
Test cognomen : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade
Vendor cognomen : SUN
: 74 actual Questions
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SUN Sun Certified System Administrator
licensed Solaris device administrators are tips technology (IT) experts who installation and hold network servers operating some of the Solaris operating gadget, at the flash purchasable during the Oracle corporation. they're usually employed through agencies and different agencies with desktop networks that spend the company's open supply software products. As techniques administrators, they can too additionally supervise other IT workforce and respond to questions and preservation requests from workplace workers.
Bachelor's degree in guidance know-how or computer science recommended
Troubleshooting, analytical pondering, multitasking, verbal exchange
income latitude (2016)*
$87,four hundred to $104,762 with sun certified gadget Administrator credentials
Job boom (2014-2024)**
eight% for community and laptop systems administrators
source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor facts
Most methods directors fill achieved a Bachelor of Science in information expertise, computing device Science or a connected box. Core coursework customarily contains topic matters in programming languages and approaches, networking and techniques design. Solaris certifications can exist found in the course of the Oracle company in network, security and systems administration. requirements comprehend a passing rating on an examination, which candidates can establish together for by means of enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an accepted working towards center, reviewing seminar applications and taking apply checks.
systems administrators are analytical thinkers who're in a position to troubleshoot issues for huge companies of network system users. worrying instances require clear, speedy considering, and can hold working lengthy hours except the problem is fastened. The faculty to multitask may too exist beneficial when managing more than one mission at a time. verbal exchange handicap are key when working with nontechnical workforce individuals.
profession and revenue Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor records (BLS) predicted that jobs for paraphernalia administrators in prevalent will boost with the aid of a regular pace, 8% from 2014 to 2024. licensed gadget directors will delight in magnificent job possibilities, as companies more and more depend on full-time experts to maintain their computing device working methods. according to Payscale.com, certified programs administrators for Solaris working techniques earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in may additionally 2016.
connected components: Books
This dealer-certain Certification is obtainable through:Oracle CorporationRedwood Shores, CA USAPhone: 800-672-2531
skill stage: Intermediate popularity: energetic
economical: $1465 (shortest tune) working towards Required
abstract:for people who operate essential system administration tactics on the Solaris working device and are liable for administering a networked server working on the Solaris OS. OCP Solaris certification covers system administration talents comparable to configuring network interfaces, managing swap configurations, crash dumps, and core data. This certification turned into formerly known as solar licensed paraphernalia Administrator (SCSA).
preliminary necessities:You fill to complete one of the approved instructor-led online or in-type lessons ($1420/self study - $5000). You fill to then accelerate the Oracle Solaris superior paraphernalia Administrator exam ($245). finally, you ought to finished the direction Submission form.
carrying on with necessities:None certain
OCP Pay Chart:
Offline elements:both instructor-led and CBT lessons can exist found from sun.
See each and every Oracle Certifications
supplier's web page for this certification
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The photo voltaic array is one in each and every a number of at San Francisco Airport with a purpose to aid the firm circulate against a extra sustainable future. The expostulate of the array is to offset the airport’s carbon footprint and to store the airport funds by reducing claim electrical energy charges each and every the course through top usage instances.
The greenhouse fuel emissions offset by course of the device equals 915 metric tons of CO2 each and every yr. this is reminiscent of the greenhouse gas emissions from 1,000,000 lbs. of coal and is the equal of casting off the emissions from 194 passenger automobiles.*
solar gentle & power developed a robust team including MLB power and Liberty electric powered of San Mateo to promote the utilization and participation of endemic organizations on this San Francisco Airport contract.
solar light & vigour’s Chief working Officer, Troy Tyler, spoke of, “we are chuffed to assist San Francisco foreign Airport store electricity, create smartly-paying jobs and reduce the carbon impress of one of the busiest airports on the earth. you can espy the array from the expressway for those who coerce by. So, we’ll fill a sense of satisfaction when seeing it for a long time to near back.”
From preparatory contract signing to significant completion, the challenge took 14 months to complete, in parallel with construction of the parking garage.
About sun mild & vigor
For over 40 years, sun gentle & vigour has delivered wonderful client carrier through designing and structure elevated best photo voltaic thermal and solar vigour methods throughout California. sun gentle & vigor’s crew of worker-owners serve a wide array of industrial, nonprofit, municipal and residential shoppers. sun smooth & punch is among the first organizations in the condition to become included as a profit employer (called a B Corp), and it's considered one of Alameda County’s first licensed green corporations. sun mild & punch grew to exist 100% worker owned (ESOP) in 2018. For extra suggestions, consult with www.SunLightandPower.com.
About REC community:situated in Norway in 1996, REC community is a number one vertically integrated solar energy enterprise. via integrated manufacturing from silicon to wafers, cells, considerable panels and increasing to photo voltaic solutions, REC group provides the world with a professional source of cleanly power. REC’s prominent product considerable is supported through the lowest warranty claims rate in the trade. REC neighborhood is a Bluestar Elkem enterprise with headquarters in Norway and operational headquarters in Singapore. REC community employs 2,000 people worldwide, producing 1.5 GW of photo voltaic panels annually.
Media Contact sun mild & vigor:Nancy Summersnsummers@sunlightandpower.comMobile or text: 813-335-4756www.sunlightandpower.com
Media Contact REC group:Melissa WatsonMelissa.Watson@recgroup.comwww.recgroup.com
picture caption: The solar array installed atop the parking storage at San Francisco overseas Airport with the aid of solar light & punch aspects REC photo voltaic panels.
source: sun mild & power
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Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade
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Certified Solaris system administrators are information technology (IT) professionals who install and maintain network servers running one of the Solaris operating system, currently available through the Oracle Corporation. They are usually employed by businesses and other organizations with computer networks that spend the company's open source software products. As systems administrators, they may too supervise other IT staff and respond to questions and maintenance requests from office workers.
Bachelor's degree in information technology or computer science recommended
Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communication
Salary scope (2016)*
$87,400 to $104,762 with Sun Certified System Administrator credentials
Job Growth (2014-2024)**
8% for network and computer systems administrators
Source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Most systems administrators fill completed a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field. Core coursework typically includes topics in programming languages and procedures, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle Corporation in network, security and systems administration. Requirements comprehend a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an approved training center, reviewing seminar packages and taking exercise exams.
Systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are able to troubleshoot issues for large groups of network system users. Stressful situations require clear, quickly thinking, and can involve working long hours until the problem is fixed. The faculty to multitask can exist helpful when managing more than one project at a time. Communication skills are key when working with nontechnical staff members.
Career and Salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that jobs for system administrators in generic will enlarge by an middling pace, 8% from 2014 to 2024. Certified system administrators will delight in excellent job prospects, as businesses increasingly depend on full-time professionals to maintain their computer operating systems. According to Payscale.com, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating systems earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in May 2016.
Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration files; adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account commands in Solaris 8.
This sample chapter is excerpted from Sun Certified System Administrator for Solaris 8 Study Guide, by Peter Gregory.
This chapter is from the reserve
After completing this chapter, you'll exist able to
Identify the following login procedures: log into a system, log out of a system, and change login passwords.
State the command used to identify which users are currently logged into the system.
State the steps required to create user accounts on the local system using the admintool utility.
State the command syntax to add, modify, or delete user/group accounts on the local system with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.
Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization files used to set up a user's work environment at login.
To fulfill these objectives, this chapter discusses:
User account configuration files;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;
User shells; and
User account commands.
Three principal files define the identity of a user account: the password file, the shadow file, and the group file.
The Password File
The password file contains the basic identifying information for each user allowed to access a system. The system location of the password file is /etc/passwd. The format of the password file is:
These fields are:
username—the cognomen that identifies the user account.
password—in Solaris 8 an "x" in this realm signifies that the corresponding shadow file contains the encrypted password string.
uid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the account. The maximum value for UID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to spend values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with each and every of the tools that are used to manage accounts or display information that includes usernames.
gid—the primary (default) numerical group ID assigned to the account. relish the UID field, the maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.
gcos-field—this is the user's actual cognomen (the term "gcos-field" is the historical term for this field).
home-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this usually contains the user's own files and directories.
login-shell—the initial shell that is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this realm is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.
The password file can exist read by anyone on the system. There is no information that must exist kept surreptitious in this file. A sample password file looks relish this:
lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp:
Fields in the password file are delimited by colons (":"), and blank fields are signified by two adjacent colons ("::"). For instance, note that the account cognomen realm for daemon is blank—just two colons. Also, daemon has no shell entry, so the last character for daemon is the colon delimiter.
The colon delimiter is too used in the shadow and group files, which are discussed in a later section.
It is workable and permissible to create more than one username in the password file with the selfsame UID. Each username will fill its own unique password. However, tools such as ls and ps, when used with options displaying username, will display the first username found in the password file matching the UID.
When a novel account is added, changed, or removed with the useradd, usermod, or userdel commands (which are discussed later in this chapter), the system creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.
The Shadow File
The shadow file contains each user account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The system location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:
These fields are:
username—this is the selfsame username found in the password file.
password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this realm contains a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.
lastchg—date of last password change (literally the number of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password was last changed).
min—minimum number of days allowed before the password can exist changed.
max—maximum number of days allowed before the password expires.
warn—the number of days prior to expiration that the user is warned.
inactive—the number of days of inactivity allowed for the account before the account is automatically locked.
expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.
flag—a realm reserved for future use.
The shadow file is restricted so that only the system administrator can read it. This is because an intruder could execute a "dictionary attack," using guessable passwords in an attempt to determine the passwords for one or more accounts. Programs that "crack" account passwords are available for this purpose; thus, the shadow file is not publicly readable.
A sample shadow file looks relish this:
Note that some of the accounts in the sample shadow file fill "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are just two ways of signifying that the accounts are locked against login. There is nothing really magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one course of easily showing that these accounts are locked and going to wait that way. You could establish other text in the password realm to suit your needs; for instance, a helpdesk ticket number or a date.
When a user changes his or her password, the system creates a backup copy of the shadow file, called /etc/oshadow. This too occurs if root changes a user's password.
Think About It . . .
Why are encrypted passwords found in /etc/shadow and not in /etc/passwd?
For many commands (ps, ls, etc.) to work properly, /etc/passwd must exist world readable. Prior to the spend of /etc/shadow, each and every users' encrypted password strings were too publicly readable. This gave people with "password cracking" programs an occasion to learn other users' passwords. By moving the encrypted password strings to /etc/shadow (which can exist read only by root), the faculty to access encrypted passwords is eliminated.
First, a bit of history. Older versions of UNIX did not fill a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string was found in the password file, in the second realm that is usually filled with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris soundless supports the encrypted password appearing in the password file, although this is not advisable, since the password file is publicly readable.
Older versions of UNIX with no shadow file too had no password-aging capability.
The Network Information System (NIS) subsystem was designed around the faded shadow-less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it uphold password aging.
The Group File
The group file contains a listing of each and every of the groups on the system, along with each group's numeric groupid and a list of each of the usernames that are secondary members of each group. The location of the group file is /etc/group. The format of the group file is:
These fields are:
groupname—this is the cognomen of the group.
password—this is an optional password for the group.
gid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the group. The maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to spend values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with each and every of the tools that are used to manage accounts or display information that includes group names.
user-list—a comma-separated list of users allowed in the group. These groups are users' secondary group IDs.
A sample group file follows.
Note the password realm in the group "staff." Groups can exist password protected by putting a password string into the password field. Note, though, that this is a completely manual process; there are no tools provided to establish the group password in for you.
Hint: You can hoist a password string from the shadow file and spend the vi editor to splice it into the group file. The group password will exist the selfsame as the account password from the shadow entry where you took the password string.
When a group is password protected, anyone who is not a member of the group will exist challenged for the group's password when they fill entered the newgrp command.
Primary and Secondary Groupids
Each user account has one primary groupid—this is the group defined in the password file. When a user logs on, this is his or her associated groupid.
Each user account too has zero or more secondary groupids. A user's secondary groups are those group entries that comprehend the username in their lists of members.
There are some useful limitations of groupids. For example, each user account can exist in no more than 16 groups, and a line in the group file cannot exceed 512 characters (including the newline character).
What happens if you exigency to add so many members to a group that you exceed the 512-character entry limit? You simply create another duplicate group entry—same cognomen and group number—and list the additional members there.
The primary and secondary groupids directly impact file system access permissions, which is explored fully in Chapter 10.
Think About It . . .
What would exist the effect if a username were added to a group file entry when that group was the user's primary group?
The additional entry would fill no effect, since the user is already configured for the primary group membership in the /etc/passwd file.
The Root Account
The root account has special privileges on a system: Root is permitted to read and write every file on a system, regardless of the file's ownership and consent settings. System administrators log in with the root account so that they can execute administrative tasks.
The root account gets its power and privilege from the value of its user number: Root is user number zero, defined in the password file.
Think About It . . .
What would exist the effects of changing an ordinary user's user number to zero? What handicap might there exist of putting root's entry at the halt of the passwd file (instead of the beginning)?
Changing an ordinary user's user number to zero gives the user root privileges.
One handicap of putting root at the halt of the password file is that if an intruder is able to modify the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands such as ls and ps would clarify that other user as the owner of root processes and files.
SANTA CLARA, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Sun Microsystems, Inc. (NASDAQ:JAVA) today announced novel and significant developments in its cross-platform virtualization initiatives with Microsoft Corp. Making it simple to integrate and interoperate with Sun's xVM portfolio, Sun has made key pieces of its virtualization software available in open source via the OpenxVM.org community – http://www.openxvm.org.
As fraction of Sun's participation in Microsoft's Server Virtualization Validation Program, the Sun xVM Server software, an open, springy and datacenter-grade hypervisor, will exist validated to work with Microsoft Windows Server 2008 and prior versions. Microsoft and Sun customers will profit from stronger interoperability and a joint uphold flavor for virtual infrastructure deployments. In addition, Sun and Microsoft are working together to proffer customers the Solaris(TM) Operating System (OS) as a certified guest on Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V. Additionally, Sun is expanding its uphold for Microsoft technologies by providing Sun Ray(TM) thin client customers the faculty to access Windows as a guest OS running on Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V.
“Sun is committed to offering interoperability with Microsoft's products, so that their mutual customers can race their election of operating systems on any virtualization platform on Windows-compatible x64 servers from Sun,” said Steve Wilson, vice president of xVM, Sun Microsystems. “From the desktop to the datacenter, Sun offers a broad portfolio of products pattern for virtualization. By collaborating with Microsoft, they are delivering on the plight of cross-platform virtualization and most importantly, helping customers garner the replete benefits of their virtualization investments.”
“Interoperability is an vital requirement for customers to adopt virtualization for their datacenters and desktops," said Bob Kelly, corporate vice president of infrastructure server marketing within Microsoft’s Server and Tools Business. “Together with Sun, they are equally committed to ensuring Windows Server runs well on Sun's virtualization products, and that the selfsame is legal for the Solaris operating system running on Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V.”
Sun Ray thin client customers can now spend Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V to host user desktops originating on Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows XP Professional, and display these desktops on Sun Ray thin client devices over the network. With the Windows-client OS being supported, customers who pick to deploy Microsoft server-based computing technologies with Sun Ray thin clients will no longer exist limited to applications that only race seamlessly in a Windows Server Terminal Services environment, including web and enterprise applications.
As fraction of Sun and Microsoft's collaboration efforts, the two companies design to integrate Sun(TM) xVM Ops headquarters with Microsoft System headquarters Configuration Manager 2007, offering customers the faculty to update and manage Windows guest operating systems in the second half of 2008. With this addition, Sun customers will exist able to spend a solitary management framework to manage their election of operating systems from Solaris and Windows to Linux as well as monitor physical and virtual environments.
Avanade, a global IT and traffic solutions company and Sun partner, chose the Sun Fire(TM) x4150 server, based on the Intel® Xeon® processor 5400 series, to deploy Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V for their internal datacenter. “Sun is changing the game with its novel line of x86 systems -- a considerable platform to hoist handicap of the novel features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V,” said Dale Christian, chief information officer, Avanade.
Sun's collaboration with Microsoft continues to clarify Sun's commitment to maximize flexibility and deliver value for its minuscule and medium traffic and enterprise customers. Sun x64 customers can now race Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V. As a Windows Server OEM, Sun sells and supports Windows Server products on certified x64 servers and blades, and offers Windows Server utilities and value-added software. Sun additionally provides solutions to enable major TCO savings for customers, such as Sun's Infrastructure Solution for Microsoft Exchange Server. To find out more information, visit: http://www.sun.com/storagetek/exchange/index.jsp
Sun will exist showcasing virtualization demos at the Microsoft 'Get Virtual Now’ customer event in Bellevue, Wash. on September 8, 2008 at booth P9. For more information on Sun and Microsoft's offerings, visit: http://www.sun.com/windows.
Sun's Virtualization Products and Services
Sun offers a complete desktop-to-datacenter virtualization product portfolio and comprehensive set of virtualization service offerings to aid customers deploy novel services faster, maximize the utilization of system resources, and more easily monitor and manage virtualized environments. Sun's virtualization products provide unified software management tools and virtualization capabilities across operating systems, servers, storage, desktops and processors. For more information, visit http://www.sun.com/virtualization.
ABOUT SUN MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
Sun Microsystems develops the technologies that power the global marketplace. Guided by a singular vision -- "The Network is the Computer(TM)" -- Sun drives network participation through shared innovation, community development and open source leadership. Sun can exist found in more than 100 countries and on the Web at http://www.sun.com.
Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo, Java, Sun Ray, Sun Fire, Solaris, and “The Network Is The Computer” are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. Intel(R) Xeon(R) is a trademark or registered trademark of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.