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Despite the wide selection of vendor-specific information technology security certifications, identifying which...
ones best suit your educational or career needs is fairly straightforward.
This pilot to vendor-specific IT security certifications includes an alphabetized table of security certification programs from various vendors, a brief description of each certification and advice for further details.
Introduction: Choosing vendor-specific information technology security certifications
The process of choosing the right vendor-specific information technology security certifications is much simpler than choosing vendor-neutral ones. In the vendor-neutral landscape, you must evaluate the pros and cons of various programs to select the best option. On the vendor-specific side, it's only necessary to follow these three steps:
Inventory your organization's security infrastructure and identify which vendors' products or services are present.
Check this pilot (or vendor websites, for products not covered here) to determine whether a certification applies to the products or services in your organization.
Decide if spending the time and money to obtain such credentials (or to fund them for your employees) is worth the resulting benefits.
In an environment where qualified IT security professionals can elect from numerous job openings, the benefits of individual training and certifications can breathe hard to appraise.
Many employers pay certification costs to develop and retain their employees, as well as to boost the organization's in-house expertise. Most discern this as a win-win for employers and employees alike, though employers often require full or partial reimbursement for the related costs incurred if employees leave their jobs sooner than some specified payback era after certification.
There luxuriate in been quite a few changes since the ultimate survey update in 2015. The Basic category saw a substantial jump in the number of available IT security certifications due to the addition of several Brainbench certifications, in addition to the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) Cyber Ops certification, the Fortinet Network Security Expert Program and current IBM certifications.
Certifications from AccessData, Check Point, IBM and Oracle were added to the Intermediate category, increasing the total number of certifications in that category, as well. However, the number of certifications in the Advanced category decreased, due to several IBM certifications being retired.
Basic information technology security certifications
Brainbench basic security certificationsBrainbench offers several basic-level information technology security certifications, each requiring the candidate to pass one exam. Brainbench security-related certifications include:
Backup Exec 11d (Symantec)
Check Point FireWall-1 Administration
Check Point Firewall-1 NG Administration
NetBackup 6.5 (Symantec)
Source: Brainbench Information Security Administrator certifications
CCNA Cyber OpsPrerequisites: no one at all required; training is recommended.
This associate-level certification prepares cybersecurity professionals for drudgery as cybersecurity analysts responding to security incidents as fragment of a security operations focus team in a large organization.
The CCNA Cyber Ops certification requires candidates to pass two written exams.
Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Cyber Ops
CCNA SecurityPrerequisites: A valid Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching, Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician or Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification.
This credential validates that associate-level professionals are able to install, troubleshoot and monitor Cisco-routed and switched network devices for the purpose of protecting both the devices and networked data.
A person with a CCNA Security certification can breathe expected to understand core security concepts, endpoint security, web and email content security, the management of secure access, and more. He should likewise breathe able to demonstrate skills for pile a security infrastructure, identifying threats and vulnerabilities to networks, and mitigating security threats. CCNA credential holders likewise possess the technical skills and expertise necessary to manage protection mechanisms such as firewalls and intrusion prevention systems, network access, endpoint security solutions, and web and email security.
The successful completion of one exam is required to obtain this credential.
Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Security
Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of networking; CCSA training and six months to one year of sustain with Check Point products are recommended.
Check Point's foundation-level credential prepares individuals to install, configure and manage Check Point security system products and technologies, such as security gateways, firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs). Credential holders likewise possess the skills necessary to secure network and internet communications, upgrade products, troubleshoot network connections, configure security policies, protect email and message content, defend networks from intrusions and other threats, resolve attacks, manage user access in a corporate LAN environment, and configure tunnels for remote access to corporate resources.
Candidates must pass a unique exam to obtain this credential.
Source: Check Point CCSA Certification
IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0Prerequisites: IBM suggests that candidates breathe highly intimate with the IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 console. They should luxuriate in sustain taking actions; activating analyses; and using Fixlets, tasks and baselines in the environment. They should likewise understand patching, component services, client log files and troubleshooting within IBM Endpoint Manager.
This credential recognizes professionals who disburse IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 daily. Candidates for this certification should know the key concepts of Endpoint Manager, breathe able to narrate the system's components and breathe able to disburse the console to fulfill routine tasks.
Successful completion of one exam is required.
Editor's note: IBM is retiring this certification as of May 31, 2017; there will breathe a follow-on test available as of April 2017 for IBM BigFix Compliance V9.5 Fundamental Administration, Test C2150-627.
Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0
IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud ProtectionPrerequisites: IBM recommends that candidates luxuriate in sustain with network data communications, network security, and the Windows and Mac operating systems.
This credential pertains mainly to sales engineers who back the Trusteer Fraud product portfolio for web fraud management, and who can implement a Trusteer Fraud solution. Candidates must understand Trusteer product functionality, know how to deploy the product, and breathe able to troubleshoot the product and resolve the results.
To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.
Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud Protection
McAfee Product SpecialistPrerequisites: no one at all required; completion of an associated training course is highly recommended.
McAfee information technology security certification holders possess the knowledge and technical skills necessary to install, configure, manage and troubleshoot specific McAfee products, or, in some cases, a suite of products.
Candidates should possess one to three years of direct sustain with one of the specific product areas.
The current products targeted by this credential include:
McAfee Advanced Threat Defense products
McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator and VirusScan products
McAfee Network Security Platform
McAfee Host Intrusion Prevention
McAfee Data Loss Prevention Endpoint products
McAfee Security Information and Event Management products
All credentials require passing one exam.
Source: McAfee Certification Program
Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA)Prerequisites: None; training recommended.
This credential started as an academic-only credential for students, but Microsoft made it available to the general public in 2012.
There are 10 different MTA credentials across three tracks (IT Infrastructure with five certs, Database with one and progress with four). The IT Infrastructure track includes a Security Fundamentals credential, and some of the other credentials comprehend security components or topic areas.
To rate each MTA certification, candidates must pass the corresponding exam.
Source: Microsoft MTA Certifications
Fortinet Network Security Expert (NSE)Prerequisites: Vary by credential.
The Fortinet NSE program has eight levels, each of which corresponds to a separate network security credential within the program. The credentials are:
NSE 1 -- Understand network security concepts.
NSE 2 -- Sell Fortinet gateway solutions.
NSE 3 (Associate) -- Sell Fortinet advanced security solutions.
NSE 4 (Professional) -- Configure and maintain FortiGate Unified Threat Management products.
NSE 5 (Analyst) -- Implement network security management and analytics.
NSE 6 (Specialist) – Understand advanced security technologies beyond the firewall.
NSE 7 (Troubleshooter) -- Troubleshoot internet security issues.
NSE 8 (Expert) -- Design, configure, install and troubleshoot a network security solution in a live environment.
NSE 1 is open to anyone, but is not required. The NSE 2 and NSE 3 information technology security certifications are available only to Fortinet employees and partners. Candidates for NSE 4 through NSE 8 should purchase the exams through Pearson VUE.
Source: Fortinet NSE
Symantec Certified Specialist (SCS)This security certification program focuses on data protection, lofty availability and security skills involving Symantec products.
To become an SCS, candidates must select an belt of focus and pass an exam. total the exams cover core elements, such as installation, configuration, product administration, day-to-day operation and troubleshooting for the selected focus area.
As of this writing, the following exams are available:
Exam 250-215: Administration of Symantec Messaging Gateway 10.5
Exam 250-410: Administration of Symantec Control Compliance Suite 11.x
Exam 250-420: Administration of Symantec VIP
Exam 250-423: Administration of Symantec IT Management Suite 8.0
Exam 250-424: Administration of Data Loss Prevention 14.5
Exam 250-425: Administration of Symantec Cyber Security Services
Exam 250-426: Administration of Symantec Data focus Security -- Server Advanced 6.7
Exam 250-427: Administration of Symantec Advanced Threat Protection 2.0.2
Exam 250-428: Administration of Symantec Endpoint Protection 14
Exam 250-513: Administration of Symantec Data Loss Prevention 12
Source: Symantec Certification
Intermediate information technology security certifications
AccessData Certified Examiner (ACE)Prerequisites: no one at all required; the AccessData BootCamp and Advanced Forensic Toolkit (FTK) courses are recommended.
This credential recognizes a professional's proficiency using AccessData's FTK, FTK Imager, Registry Viewer and Password Recovery Toolkit. However, candidates for the certification must likewise luxuriate in moderate digital forensic knowledge and breathe able to interpret results gathered from AccessData tools.
To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one online exam (which is free). Although a boot camp and advanced courses are available for a fee, AccessData provides a set of free exam preparation videos to befriend candidates who prefer to self-study.
The certification is valid for two years, after which credential holders must purchase the current exam to maintain their certification.
Source: Syntricate ACE Training
Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) Security Prerequisites: CCNA Security or any CCIE certification.
This Cisco credential recognizes professionals who are answerable for router, switch, networking device and appliance security. Candidates must likewise know how to select, deploy, back and troubleshoot firewalls, VPNs and intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system products in a networking environment.
Successful completion of four exams is required.
Source: Cisco Systems CCNP Security
Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE)Prerequisite: CCSA certification R70 or later.
This is an intermediate-level credential for security professionals seeking to demonstrate skills at maximizing the performance of security networks.
A CCSE demonstrates a knowledge of strategies and advanced troubleshooting for Check Point's GAiA operating system, including installing and managing VPN implementations, advanced user management and firewall concepts, policies, and backing up and migrating security gateway and management servers, among other tasks. The CCSE focuses on Check Point's VPN, Security Gateway and Management Server systems.
To acquire this credential, candidates must pass one exam.
Source: Check Point CCSE program
Cisco Cybersecurity SpecialistPrerequisites: no one at all required; CCNA Security certification and an understanding of TCP/IP are strongly recommended.
This Cisco credential targets IT security professionals who possess in-depth technical skills and knowledge in the domain of threat detection and mitigation. The certification focuses on areas such as event monitoring, event analysis (traffic, alarm, security events) and incident response.
One exam is required.
Source: Cisco Systems Cybersecurity Specialist
Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)Prerequisites: no one at all required; training is recommended.
The CSSA exam covers basic administration of SonicWall appliances and the network and system security behind such appliances.
Classroom training is available, but not required to rate the CSSA. Candidates must pass one exam to become certified.
Source: SonicWall Certification programs
EnCase Certified Examiner (EnCE)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend 64 hours of authorized training or luxuriate in 12 months of computer forensic drudgery experience. Completion of a formal application process is likewise required.
Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the disburse of Guidance Software's EnCase computer forensics tools and software.
Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a practical component.
Source: Guidance Software EnCE
EnCase Certified eDiscovery Practitioner (EnCEP)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend one of two authorized training courses and luxuriate in three months of sustain in eDiscovery collection, processing and project management. A formal application process is likewise required.
Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the disburse of Guidance Software's EnCase eDiscovery software, and it recognizes their proficiency in eDiscovery planning, project management and best practices, from legal hold to file creation.
EnCEP-certified professionals possess the technical skills necessary to manage e-discovery, including the search, collection, preservation and processing of electronically stored information in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a scenario component.
Source: Guidance Software EnCEP Certification Program
IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium V10.0Prerequisites: IBM recommends basic knowledge of operating systems and databases, hardware or virtual machines, networking and protocols, auditing and compliance, and information security guidelines.
IBM Security Guardium is a suite of protection and monitoring tools designed to protect databases and expansive data sets. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium credential is aimed at administrators who plan, install, configure and manage Guardium implementations. This may comprehend monitoring the environment, including data; defining policy rules; and generating reports.
Successful completion of one exam is required.
Source: IBM Security Guardium Certification
IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6Prerequisites: IBM recommends a working knowledge of IBM Security QRadar SIEM Administration and IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager, as well as general knowledge of networking, risk management, system administration and network topology.
QRadar Risk Manager automates the risk management process in enterprises by monitoring network device configurations and compliance. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6 credential certifies administrators who disburse QRadar to manage security risks in their organization. Certification candidates must know how to review device configurations, manage devices, monitor policies, schedule tasks and generate reports.
Successful completion of one exam is required.
Source: IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager Certification
IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1Prerequisites: IBM recommends a basic knowledge of the IBM Security Network Intrusion Prevention System (GX) V4.6.2, IBM Security Network Protection (XGS) V5.3.1, Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Server operating system administration and network security.
The Security SiteProtector System enables organizations to centrally manage their network, server and endpoint security agents and appliances. The IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1 credential is designed to certify security analysts who disburse the SiteProtector System to monitor and manage events, monitor system health, optimize SiteProtector and generate reports.
To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.
Source: IBM Security SiteProtector Certification
Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Certified Security AdministratorPrerequisite: Oracle Certified Professional, Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator.
This credential aims to certify experienced Solaris 10 administrators with security interest and experience. It's a midrange credential that focuses on general security principles and features, installing systems securely, application and network security, principle of least privilege, cryptographic features, auditing, and zone security.
A unique exam -- geared toward the Solaris 10 operating system or the OpenSolaris environment -- is required to obtain this credential.
Source: Oracle Solaris Certification
Oracle Mobile SecurityPrerequisites: Oracle recommends that candidates understand enterprise mobility, mobile application management and mobile device management; luxuriate in two years of sustain implementing Oracle Access Management Suite Plus 11g; and luxuriate in sustain in at least one other Oracle product family.
This credential recognizes professionals who create configuration designs and implement the Oracle Mobile Security Suite. Candidates must luxuriate in a working knowledge of Oracle Mobile Security Suite Access Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Administrative Console, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Notification Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Containerization and Oracle Mobile Security Suite Provisioning and Policies. They must likewise know how to deploy the Oracle Mobile Security Suite.
Although the certification is designed for Oracle PartnerNetwork members, it is available to any candidate. Successful completion of one exam is required.
Source: Oracle Mobile Security Certification
RSA Archer Certified Administrator (CA)Prerequisites: no one at all required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product sustain as preparation for the RSA certification exams.
Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, administer, maintain and troubleshoot the RSA Archer Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) platform.
Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on integration and configuration management, security administration, and the data presentation and communication features of the RSA Archer GRC product.
Source: Dell EMC RSA Archer Certification
RSA SecurID Certified Administrator (RSA Authentication Manager 8.0)Prerequisites: no one at all required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product sustain as preparation for the RSA certification exams.
Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, maintain and administer enterprise security systems based on RSA SecurID system products and RSA Authentication Manager 8.0.
RSA SecurID CAs can operate and maintain RSA SecurID components within the context of their operational systems and environments; troubleshoot security and implementation problems; and drudgery with updates, patches and fixes. They can likewise fulfill administrative functions and populate and manage users, set up and disburse software authenticators, and understand the configuration required for RSA Authentication Manager 8.0 system operations.
Source: Dell EMC RSA Authentication Manager Certification
RSA Security Analytics CAPrerequisites: no one at all required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product sustain as preparation for the RSA certification exams.
This Dell EMC certification is aimed at security professionals who configure, manage, administer and troubleshoot the RSA Security Analytics product. knowledge of the product's features, as well the aptitude to disburse the product to identify security concerns, are required.
Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on RSA Security Analytics functions and capabilities, configuration, management, monitoring and troubleshooting.
Source: Dell EMC RSA Security Analytics
Advanced information technology security certifications
CCIE SecurityPrerequisites: no one at all required; three to five years of professional working sustain recommended.
Arguably one of the most coveted certifications around, the CCIE is in a league of its own. Having been around since 2002, the CCIE Security track is unrivaled for those interested in dealing with information security topics, tools and technologies in networks built using or around Cisco products and platforms.
The CCIE certifies that candidates possess expert technical skills and knowledge of security and VPN products; an understanding of Windows, Unix, Linux, network protocols and domain cognomen systems; an understanding of identity management; an in-depth understanding of Layer 2 and 3 network infrastructures; and the aptitude to configure end-to-end secure networks, as well as to fulfill troubleshooting and threat mitigation.
To achieve this certification, candidates must pass both a written and lab exam. The lab exam must breathe passed within 18 months of the successful completion of the written exam.
Source: Cisco Systems CCIE Security Certification
Check Point Certified Managed Security Expert (CCMSE)Prerequisites: CCSE certification R75 or later and 6 months to 1 year of sustain with Check Point products.
This advanced-level credential is aimed at those seeking to learn how to install, configure and troubleshoot Check Point's Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension.
Professionals are expected to know how to migrate physical firewalls to a virtualized environment, install and manage an MDM environment, configure lofty availability, implement global policies and fulfill troubleshooting.
Source: Check Point CCMSE
Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM)Prerequisites: CCSE R70 or later and sustain with Windows Server, Unix, TCP/IP, and networking and internet technologies.
The CCSM is the most advanced Check Point certification available. This credential is aimed at security professionals who implement, manage and troubleshoot Check Point security products. Candidates are expected to breathe experts in perimeter, internal, web and endpoint security systems.
To acquire this credential, candidates must pass a written exam.
Source: Check Point CCSM Certification
Certified SonicWall Security Professional (CCSP)Prerequisites: Attendance at an advanced administration training course.
Those who achieve this certification luxuriate in attained a lofty even of mastery of SonicWall products. In addition, credential holders should breathe able to deploy, optimize and troubleshoot total the associated product features.
Earning a CSSP requires taking an advanced administration course that focuses on either network security or secure mobile access, and passing the associated certification exam.
Source: SonicWall CSSP certification
IBM Certified Administrator -- Tivoli Monitoring V6.3Prerequisites: Security-related requirements comprehend basic knowledge of SSL, data encryption and system user accounts.
Those who attain this certification are expected to breathe capable of planning, installing, configuring, upgrading and customizing workspaces, policies and more. In addition, credential holders should breathe able to troubleshoot, administer and maintain an IBM Tivoli Monitoring V6.3 environment.
Candidates must successfully pass one exam.
Source: IBM Tivoli Certified Administrator
Master Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)The Master CSSA is an intermediate between the base-level CSSA credential (itself an intermediate certification) and the CSSP.
To qualify for Master CSSA, candidates must pass three (or more) CSSA exams, and then email firstname.lastname@example.org to request the designation. There are no other charges or requirements involved.
Source: SonicWall Master CSSA
Remember, when it comes to selecting vendor-specific information technology security certifications, your organization's existing or planned security product purchases should ordain your options. If your security infrastructure includes products from vendors not mentioned here, breathe confident to check with them to determine if training or certifications on such products are available.
About the author:Ed Tittel is a 30-plus year IT veteran who's worked as a developer, networking consultant, technical trainer, writer and expert witness. Perhaps best known for creating the Exam Cram series, Ed has contributed to more than 100 books on many computing topics, including titles on information security, Windows OSes and HTML. Ed likewise blogs regularly for TechTarget (Windows Enterprise Desktop), Tom's IT Pro and GoCertify.
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LWN 1998 Linux timeline
Please discern the current version of this timeline which can breathe create in its permanent location.
Here is version 0.8 of the LWN 1998 Linux timeline. There's absolutely no way we've gotten everything distinguished here. delight drop us a note with your suggestions for additions to this page; we'll try to result out version 1.0 shortly after the current year.
The Linux Weekly intelligence begins publication. The very first issue, dated January 22, was a just a tiny hint of what LWN was to become. Since then we've gotten better at it, and the Linux world has gotten much more complicated. It has been an challenging adventure.
Netscape announces that they will release the source to their browser under a free software license. This almost certainly remains one of the most distinguished events of the year; it opened a lot of eyes to what Linux and free software could provide.
Red Hat Advanced progress Labs is founded. It has since become one of the higher-profile places where people are paid to develop free software, and an distinguished component of the GNOME project. RHAD is able to attract developers dote "Rasterman" and Federico Mena Quintero.
The Stampede Linux distribution is announced. Actually, this happened in December, but the intelligence took a while to spread... Stampede positions itself as a high-performance "real Linux hacker's" distribution.
Word gets out that parts of the blockbuster film "The Titanic" were rendered on Alpha machines running Linux. This was another distinguished step in the "legitimization" of Linux - everybody had heard of The Titanic, and some of its success seemed to rub off on everything associated with it.
The Cobalt Qube is announced and immediately becomes a favorite in the trade press due to its lofty performance, low price, and cute figure factor. Cobalt's Linux engineering is done by no one at all other than David Miller, source of much that is suitable in the Linux kernel.
The Linux user community wins InfoWorld's technical back award; Red Hat 5.0 likewise won their Operating System award. But it was the tech back award that truly opened some eyes; everybody had been epigram that Linux had no support. This was the birth of the halt of the "no support" argument.
Red Hat announces that their installation back staff is running behind. They are a victim of their own success, and put a question to for long-suffering while they glean their act together.
Eric Raymond and friends approach up with the "open source" term. They apply for trademark status, and result up the opensource.org web site. Thus begins the formal application to push Linux for corporate use.
Linux according to Jesse Berst
"I believe it's Great if you are willing to promote Linux to your boss. As long as you are awake of the risk you are taking. The risk of getting fired." (Feb. 16).
"Is a Linux takeover likely? Give me a break. Of course not." (June 23).
"I personally believe Windows NT will breathe the mainstream operating system within a few years." [...] "My belief: Linux will never travel mainstream" (Sep. 9).
"I've always said that Linux could become a sober challenger to Microsoft's Windows NT." Sep. 28).
Linus Torvalds and Richard Stallman win the EFF Pioneer award. The award recognizes their contributions to electronic freedom. Strangely, total mention of this seems to luxuriate in vanished from the Electronic Frontier Foundation web site.
Major battles rage over whether GGI belongs in the Linux Kernel. GGI, the "Generic Graphics Interface," seeks to bear a better defined, better supported interface to video cards on Linux and other systems. No resolution is reached.
Caldera 1.2 is released. Unlike Red Hat, which had been shipping libc6 based systems for some time, Caldera sticks with the tried and honest libc5.
The OpenBIOS project is launched, in the faith that no system is free if it depends on proprietary BIOS code. A web page is set up for the project.
Learning Tree, International adds a Linux administration course to their lineup. This course is offered frequently in the U.S. and Britain. "The character of Linux software has improved dramatically, making it a low-cost, reliable, supported computing platform preempt for the business environment."
Consumer advocate Ralph Nader asks the large PC vendors (Dell, Gateway, Micron...) to present non-Microsoft systems, including systems with Linux installed. (See InfoPolicy Notes).
Sun offers 70% discounts for people interested in "upgrading" from Linux to Solaris.
Bruce Perens quits as leader of the Debian project in the wake of disagreements on how the project should proceed.
Sendmail, Inc. is formed by Eric Allman, in an attempt to originate money selling sendmail back services while keeping the basic sendmail code free.
John Kirch releases his "Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 versus Unix" paper. This paper remains one of the best advocacy pieces out there, and should breathe required reading for anybody contemplating deployment of either technology.
Alan Cox goes to drudgery for Red Hat.
The Mozilla source code hits the net. Netscape throws a huge party. The code is downloaded total over the world, and people start hacking. current features, such as sturdy encryption and a Qt port, are added almost immediately.
Linus makes Inter@ctive Week's "25 Unsung Heroes of the Net" list. He is in suitable company, joining names dote Steven Bellovin, Van Jacobson, Peter G. Neumann, and others. April was maybe about the ultimate time that Linus could breathe said to breathe an "unsung" hero.
Linus announces Linux 2.1.92 and declares a 2.1 feature freeze. The announcment goes as far as to notify "...there are probably soundless bugs with some of the current code, but I'll freeze current features for the upcoming 2.2 kernel." This freeze turned out to breathe rather slushy, to notify the least.
The Open Group announces a current licensing policy for the X window system. current versions of X will breathe proprietary and only available to paying customers. They immediately withhold some security bugfixes from general distribution. XFree86 decides that it can not live with the current licensing, and declares its intent to travel its own way.
Linux is covered by the U.S. National Public Radio news, marking one of its first appearances in the mainstream, non-technical press.
O'Reilly holds the "first ever" Free Software Summit, featuring Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Linus Torvalds, Guido van Rossum, Eric Allman, Phil Zimmermann, Eric Raymond, and Paul Vixie.
The Linux Weekly intelligence daily updates page debuts. Despite LWN's intent to retain the its weekly focus, the daily page eventually exceeds the weekly newsletter in traffic. The Linux events calendar is likewise announced.
Linus 3.0 is announced; the birth of Linus's second daughter causes Great joy, and substantial disruption in kernel progress as total drudgery stops and many patches glean lost. Some grumbling results as it becomes limpid just how theme the entire process is on Linus's continual presence.
Red Hat announces their commercial back program, based on a worldwide network of "support partners," of which Eklektix, Inc., the producer of the Linux Weekly News, is one.
The Avalon Beowulf cluster at Los Alamos goes on line and immediately powers itself into the list of the fastest computers on the planet.
Bruce Perens proposes a current Linux distribution (proposal here) based on his sustain with Debian. This distribution never comes about, but much of what's there later gets folded into the Linux yardstick ground project.
Sun Microsystems joins Linux International.
The "Google" search engine pops up. Not only is it one of the best search engines around, but it's based on Linux and features a Linux-specific search page.
Sm@rt Reseller reports that Oracle and Informix luxuriate in no plans to back Linux. "In fact, many doubt that Linux-no matter how stable or how cheap-can ever compete in the corporate marketplace alongside the well-funded Windows NT and Solaris." (article here).
SuSE 5.2 is released.
Corel formally embraces Linux. The Netwinder products are featured, and they pledge their back for the Linux system.
The Association Francophone des Utilsateurs de Linux et des Logiciels Libres (AFUL) is formed in France. AFUL promptly becomes a compel in French computer circles.
expansive databases start to arrive. back for Linux is announced by Computer Associates for their Ingres system, and by Ardent Software for their O2 protest database.
The Linux Core/Layers project was announced and became the first in a train of attempts at creating standards for Linux systems. The Core/Layers page soundless exists, but this project is no longer active in this form.
"But Linux is a communist operating system in a capitalist society. Its popularity is going to lead toward its fragmentation....The expansive problem with Linux is that it has no manifest direction. It's in the right status at the right time, but its 15 minutes are nearly up." (PC Week, May 22).
The Linux Weekly intelligence moved to its own domain at lwn.net.
A proposal goes out to create the Linux yardstick ground (LSB) project. This proposal, signed by a large number of Linux luminaries, was discussed at Linux Expo and formed into a project, with Bruce Perens at the head. Numerous editorials were written and posted on FreshMeat; the list can breathe create on the LSB web page. The LSB then disappeared from view for a few months.
And, yes, Linux Expo was held; a suitable time was had by all.
Red Hat 5.1 was released and immediately started accumulating rather more than the habitual number of updates. There was talk of "Red Hat 5.1 service pack 1" as a result. 5.1 did eventually stabilize into a solid release.
"First, let me notify that I am uniquely unqualified to write about this week's topic. dote most of you, I've never used Linux....Linux has a snowball's random in hell of making appreciable inroads against Windows." (The infamous John Dodge hatchet job, PC Week, June 8).
The Open Group offers the possibility of Unix 98 certification to Linux at the Uniforum meeting. The resulting press release says "Since the Linux OS is proving to breathe increasingly rigid competition for NT in this marketspace, it's in the best interest of total Unix vendors for Linux to glean branded so that it may compete more effectively and retain the low halt UNIX 98-compliant." Very tiny is heard thereafter.
The Gartner Group says there is tiny hope for free software. "...these operating systems will not find widespread disburse in mainstream commercial applications in the next three years, nor will there breathe broad third-party application support."
The Beowulf web site shuts down temporarily due to concerns about U.S. export restrictions. Suddenly anybody can create a supercomputer, and people are getting worried. discern this Dr. Dobbs article for some more background. Shortly thereafter the site (www.beowulf.org) is back up as if nothing had happened.
The Datapro study comes out showing that Linux has the highest user satisfaction of any system; it likewise shows Linux to breathe the only system other than NT that is increasing market share.
"Like a lot of products that are free, you glean a loyal following even though it's small. I've never had a customer mention Linux to me." (Bill Gates in PC Week, June 25).
Corel launches the Netwinder DM with this press release.
Debian 2.0 goes into beta test after numerous delays.
Adaptec reverses its longstanding nondisclosure policy and announces back for Linux. The initial deal was with Red Hat; other distribution vendors luxuriate in since then announced agreements with Adaptec.
IBM announces that it will distribute and back the Apache web server, after working a deal with the Apache team.
Rumors of a merger between Caldera and Red Hat circulate. It hasn't happened yet...
The desktop wars rage as KDE and GNOME advocates hurl flames at each other. Linus gets in on the act, epigram that KDE is OK with him. Those who are emotion nostalgic can head over to this Slashdot discussion just to discern how much fun it really was.
In this context, KDE 1.0 is released. The first stable release of the K Desktop Environment proves popular, despite the complaints from those who conclude not dote the licensing of the Qt library.
NC World magazine shuts down with Nicholas Petreley's devastating criticism of Windows NT. The article, (still available on the net), concludes that Windows NT 5 (now "Windows 2000") can only breathe an absolute disaster.
Stable kernel 2.0.35 is released.
"IBM, Informix, and Sybase likewise luxuriate in no intentions of releasing versions of their databases on Linux, company representatives said." (InfoWorld, July 6)
Oracle announces back for Linux in this press release. They swear to originate a tribulation version available by the halt of 1998, a deadline they beat by months. This, seemingly, was one of the acid tests for the potential of long-term success for Linux; a Great deal of attention resulted from this announcement.
Informix announces back for Linux on almost the selfsame day with a press release of their own.
"When I heard that Steve Ballmer was promoted to the office of president at Microsoft, I couldn't befriend but phenomenon if he was being set up to purchase the descend when Windows NT 5.0 proves to breathe a catastrophic market failure and Linux supplants Windows NT as the future server operating system of choice."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, July 27).
Linus appears on the cover of Forbes magazine. A lengthy yarn presents Linux in a highly positive manner, and brings the system to the attention of many who had never heard of it before. Linux begins to become a household word.
The first release of the Mandrake distribution is announced. Mandrake is a version of the Red Hat distribution with international language back and KDE added.
Stampede distribution 0.86 is released.
Debian 2.0 is released with this announcement. It is a huge distribution, containing over 1500 packages and requiring at least four CD's to hold it.
MkLinux DR3 is released, announced thusly.
Red Hat announces that their installation back staff is running behind. Their note on the topic asks for long-suffering while they glean their act together.
The Open Source Initiative is formed by Bruce Perens, Eric Raymond, Ian Murdock, and Tim Sailer. Its purpose, among others, is to manage the "open source" trademark; its creation is not welcomed by all.
Richard Stallman calls for the creation of free documentation for free software in this message to info-gnu.
GNOME 0.25 is released; this release is codenamed Drooling Macaque.
The Linux Compatibility Standards project is formed as a cooperative venture between Red Hat and Debian. This project (announcement) was formed out of an increasing frustration with the progress of the Linux yardstick Base, which was having concern finding consensus on its goals.
Bruce Perens then leaves the Linux yardstick ground project and, for a while, dropped out of the free software world entirely.
Software in the Public Interest (SPI) chooses its current officers, recovering from the departure of most of its board. The current folks are Ian Jackson, Martin Schulze, Dale Scheetz and Nils Lohner; here's their announcement on the subject.
Red Hat puts out a paper on why they conclude not dote the Qt license and why they will not breathe including KDE anytime soon. The paper is soundless available on Red Hat's web site.
The Linux Standards Association appears out of nowhere and claims that they will bear the true yardstick for Linux systems. The LSA draws almost universal condemnation and slowly fades out of existence, but not before generating a honest amount of press epigram that the Linux community is hostile to standards. One suitable result of their presence may luxuriate in been to befriend drive the Linux Compatibility Standards and Linux yardstick ground projects to merge back together and glean sober about producing something.
"Organizations should not deem deployment of NT v.5.0 prior to 2001. They believe organizations are better-served in the interim by evaluating the costs and benefits of using alternative products and not waiting on NT v.5.0 to emerge from 'vaporware' status."(Gartner Group, August 11)
Red Hat makes the progress version of their distribution available as "RawHide".
"Personally, I believe open-source software needs a grown-up to step in and lead it without total this petty bickering."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, August 24).
Michael McLagan, a founder of the LSA, challenges the validity of the Linux trademark. Linux International responded with a bit of counsel action, causing the withdrawal of the challenge and the insertion of trademark ® symbols on the (now defunct) LSA web site.
Kernel 2.1.115 is released; Linus calls a code freeze, for real, this time. Sort of.
LWN goes to a multi-page format which results in both positive and negative feedback. In an attempt to delight everybody, a "bigpage" format is added back.
Microsoft's Steve Ballmer admits that they are "worried" about free software and suggests that some of the NT source code may breathe made available to developers.
SuSE 5.3 (English version) is released.
Caldera splits into two separate companies. "Caldera Systems," under Ransom Love, now handles the Linux business, while "Caldera Thin Clients" does the embedded systems. (Press release here).
"The Linux community, a temporary, self-managed gathering of diverse individuals engaged in a common task, is a model for a current kindhearted of business organization that could figure the basis for a current kindhearted of economy."(Harvard business Review, September)
SuSE stops international shipments of their 5.3 release after installation problems circle up for a tiny percentage of users.
The Uniform Driver Interface (UDI) project bursts on the Linux scene with a suggestion that maybe Linux developers would dote to bear lots of drivers for the UDI interface. A free reference implementation for Linux is promised, but enthusiasm among the Linux community seems low.
SuSE announces their "Office Suite 99" product, which is a bundling of ApplixWare, KDE, and other suitable stuff. This product gets a honest amount of attention as feasible competition to Microsoft on the desktop.
IBM announces back for DB2 under Linux. (Press release here).
Sybase announces back for linux (Information here). Sybase makes their database available for free download directly from the distribution vendors. With this announcement, Linux has an essentially complete portfolio of database products.
Dell has been selling Linux-installed systems to large customers for some time reports Inter@ctive Week. This comes as a dumbfound to "small" customers who luxuriate in been trying to glean Dell to sell them Linux-installed (or at least non-Windows) machines.
Neomagic allows the source for the driver for their video hardware to breathe released to the XFree86 project and freely distributed. This driver, developed by Precision Insight under the sponsorship of Red Hat, had previously been available in binary format only.
The Open Group backs down and releases X11R6.4 under an open source license, thus ending a dismal chapter in the history of free software. It is likewise rumored that TOG has little, if any progress staff working on X at this point, meaning that it may not matter much which license they use.
Canadian Linux Users hold a nationwide Installfest with Great success. Summaries, pictures, etc. can breathe create on the Installfest pages.
Intel and Netscape (and two venture capital firms) declar minority investments in Red Hat Software. The money is to breathe used to build an "enterprise back division" within Red Hat. An unbelievable amount of press is generated by this event, which is seen as a big-business endorsement of Linux.
Intel joins Linux International.
GNOME 0.30 is released; LWN published a review of this release.
Cygnus releases a real-time embedded operating system (eCos) under an open source license. (Press release here).
Red Hat finds some security problems in CDE and drops it immediately as a supported product. The note they route out makes a expansive thing of the fact that CDE is not open source software, and thus not easily fixable.
Caldera 1.3 is released. This version includes Sybase, KDE, and StarOffice 4.0, but sticks with libc5. Caldera likewise announces Linux administration training courses.
"Gateway Inc., which has been doing certification tests with Linux for six months, most likely will install Linux across its enterprise server line next year.... Red Hat's puerile expects six of the top 10 PC server makers to present Linux on their machines by next March."(PC Week, October 5).
LinuxToday hits the web providing another source of constantly updated Linux news. This is the first of a number of current Linux-related web publications that start up over the next month.
Tensions explode on linux-kernel after Linus drops a few too many patches. Linus walks out in a huff and takes a vacation for a bit. Things recur to normal, of course, but some people glean talking. It becomes limpid once again that the Linux kernel is getting to breathe too expansive for one person to retain on top of. Some ways of reducing the load on Linus are discussed, but nothing is really resolved.
The "bootX" utility is released, and makes life much easier for PowerPC users.
"For the moment, however, the company from Redmond, Washington, seems almost grateful for the rising profile of Linux, seeing it as an effortless way of demonstrating that Windows is not a monopoly, ahead of its antitrust trial, scheduled to launch on October 15th. That may breathe short-sighted. In the long run, Linux and other open-source programs could occasions Mr Gates much grief."(The Economist, October 3)
Oracle8 for Linux becomes available for downloading; at 142 MB it is not something to breathe done lightly.
AFUL sponsors a French nationwide installation party, the reports testify that it was highly successful.
Microsoft presents Linux as evidence that it does not hold a monopoly in operating systems; their release likewise claims that Linux was developed by "a unique individual."
Larry Wall wins the first annual Free Software Foundation award.
Debian decides to drop KDE from their distribution; their explanation cites worries about licensing issues.
Novell announces that they will port NDS to Linux in cooperation with Caldera.
Allaire announces that they will back Linux with "a future version" of their favorite "Cold Fusion" product. (Press release here). This, evidently, is a product that quite a few people luxuriate in been waiting for.
Compaq is reported to breathe ready to back VARs installing Linux on their hardware, though it does not way to sell Linux-installed systems directly.
LinuxWorld goes online, signalling the arrival of the mainstream trade press. LinuxWorld is edited by Nicholas Petreley, a long time supporter of Linux in the trade press.
Microsoft publishes an anti-Linux "open letter" in France in what was seen by some as a beta-test of a wider FUD strategy. The epistle (in French) (or translated to English) went after Linux on several fronts, and was widely and easily refuted.
Debian 2.1 goes into feature freeze.
France Telecom invests in Cobalt Networks.
The Mexican ScholarNet project is announced; this project will install Linux-based computer labs in 140,000 schools. (LWN coverage here). The project will breathe using GNOME heavily, and expects to contribute to GNOME development.
"What I saw at the Linux Showcase was enthusiasm, the likes of which I haven't seen in the PC industry for a long time. Sure, some of it was from guys in ponytails and T-shirts, but it was likewise from guys in suits. Academics and scientists, but likewise businessmen."(PC Week, October 26).
The Atlanta Linux Showcase was a expansive success. (LWN coverage here).
Corel announces that Word consummate 8 for Linux will breathe downloadable for Free for "personal use." They likewise declar a partnership with Red Hat to supply Linux for the Netwinder.
Pacific HiTech announces that they will bring TurboLinux to the U.S. market. They luxuriate in long claimed to breathe the most favorite distribution in Japan, and believe it's time to head into other pastures. (Press release here).
AFUL signs an agreement with the French Ministry of Education to back the deployment of free software in French schools. (Information (in French) here).
Two internal Microsoft memos on Linux and open source software are leaked to Eric Raymond; he promptly marks them up and makes them public. The memos acknowledge frankly the strengths of Linux and the sort of threat that it poses to Microsoft, and suggests some feasible responses. The furor in the press was just as large as one might expect. (Eric's Halloween page has the memos, links to press coverage, and translations into a number of languages).
Extreme Linux makes a splash at Supercomputing '98, as witnessed by this list of events at the conference.
The "Eddie" software suite is released under an open source license; Eddie is a set of applications designed to befriend build high-availability clusters.
The proprietary I2O bus specification is opened up, so that Linux back can breathe implemented. One of the expansive nondisclosure threats to Linux is thus removed. (Press release here).
Red Hat 5.2 is released. This is supposititious to breathe the last, stablest 5.x release before 6.0, which will contain the 2.2 kernel.
Informix and Apropos deploy Linux machines in over 100 Jay Jacobs clothing stores. (Press release here). Linux has truly arrived in the mainstream corporate world.
Digital Creations releases Principia under an open source license; Principia is eventually rolled together with Bobo and Aqueduct to become Zope. An challenging angle on this release is that it was recommended by Digital Creations' venture capital investor (LWN coverage here).
StarOffice 5 for Linux is released, freely downloadable for personal use. (Information here).
Troll Tech announces that version 2.0 of the Qt library will breathe released under an open source license. This license does not fill everyone, since it leaves Troll Tech in a special position and requires that modifications breathe distributed as patches. As a result, though most acknowledge that the QPL is an "open source" license, the desktop wars fail to end.
Stable kernel 2.0.36 is released. (Linus's announcement here, release notes here).
OpenBIOS 0.0.1 is released (announcement here).
Slackware 3.6 is released
Red Hat and SuSE both declar back programs at COMDEX. Both are aiming at the big-ticket "enterprise support" market. (SuSE's announcement here, and Red Hat's here).
Netscape buys the "NewHoo" web directory, and promises to originate its database available.
A fight erupts over the ownership of the "open source" trademark. Both Eric Raymond, in the figure of the Open Source Initiative, and Software in the Public Interest claim to own the trademark. SPI has called for a "public comment" era on who should control the trademark; that era remains open as this is written.
Kernel hacker David Miller gets married (pictures here).
Mandrake 5.2 is released.
The "Yellow Dog Linux" distribution for the PowerPC is announced. (Home page here).
Corel announces a partnership with the KDE progress team which will provide the KDE interface for the Netwinder. (Press release here).
IBM releases the AFS filesystem for Linux (press release here).
Electric Lichen announces "Die Linuxbierwanderung" - the Linux Beer Hike, a Linux-training, Alps-walking, beer-drinking adventure in Bavaria next August. (Information here).
IBM releases some software goodies under an open source license, including the Jikes Java compiler and Secure Mailer. They likewise result out the beta version of DB2 for free download.
Sun opens up the Java license. It's soundless not an open source license, but things are headed in the right direction.
Sun announces back for Linux on UltraSparc systems
"The question is how to conclude it without exposing IBM and its partners," says one source intimate with IBM's plans. "With a general public license, there are some exposures with liability and how open are the patents if you modify the code. The best way to decipher this is by cleaning up the license."(Sm@rt Reseller, December 18).
Silicon Graphics joins Linux International and likewise announces back for Samba on their systems.
IBM is said to breathe considering becoming a back provider for Linux according to some reports. They are held back by fears about patent and liability issues.
The first public beta of SuSE 6.0 is released (announcement here).
Reports notify that Apple will start selling Power Macintoshes with Linux installed.
Word consummate 8 becomes available for download; it proves to breathe popular. (Information here).
The "LinuxPPC on the iMac HOWTO" is released, allowing users to glean Linux on those stylish blue boxes. (HOWTO here).
A report from IDC says that Linux shipments rose by more than 200% in 1998, and its market partake rose by more than 150%. Linux has a 17% market share, and a growth rate unmatched by any other system on the market.