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1Z0-870 exam Dumps Source : MySQL 5 Certified Associate
Test Code : 1Z0-870
Test designation : MySQL 5 Certified Associate
Vendor designation : Oracle
: 240 true Questions
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Oracle MySQL 5 Certified Associate
Written with the aid of GoCertify workforce
published: 01 September 2010
With the merger of sun certifications into the Oracle certification program, ailment outright sun certifications for Java, Solaris, MySQL, and Open workplace had been renamed under the Oracle brand.
On September 1, 2010, Oracle built-in the existing certifications from solar Microsystems' certification software into the Oracle Certifed expert application as participate of the acquisition of solar by means of Oracle. each solar certification changed into renamed to reflect the brand original Oracle branding, as mapped out under. The content of the connected checks and scoring had been not changed.
start to: Java | Solaris | MySQL | OpenOffice
common solar nameNew Oracle nameSun licensed Java associate
Oracle licensed affiliate, Java SE 5/SE 6
sun certified Java Programmer (SCJP) SE fiveOracle certified skilled, Java SE 5 Programmer
sun certified Java Programmer (SCJP) SE 6
Oracle licensed knowledgeable, Java SE 6 Programmer
sun certified Java Developer (SCJD)
Oracle licensed master, Java SE6 Developer
solar certified internet participate Developer (SCWCD) EE5
Oracle certified professional, Java EE 5 internet participate Developer
sun certified traffic ingredient Developer (SCBCD) EE5
Oracle licensed knowledgeable, Java EE 5 company ingredient Developer
sun certified Developer for Java web features 5 (SCDJWS)
Oracle licensed skilled, Java EE 5 web functions Developer
sun licensed commercial enterprise Architect (SCEA) EE5
Oracle certified master, Java EE 5 commercial enterprise Architect
solar certified cellular software Developer (SCMAD)
Oracle certified knowledgeable, Java ME 1 mobile software Developer
sun certified JSP and Servlet Developer for the Java EE6 Platform
Oracle licensed knowledgeable, Java Platform, enterprise version 6 JavaServer Pages and Servlet Developer
solar licensed EJB Developer for the Java EE6 Platform
Oracle certified expert, Java Platform, enterprise edition 6 enterprise JavaBeans Developer
solar licensed JPA Developer for the Java EE6 Platform
Oracle certified expert, Java Platform, commercial enterprise edition 6 Java Persistence API Developer
sun certified Developer for the Java web functions for the Java EE6
Oracle certified knowledgeable, Java Platform, enterprise edition 6 internet services Developer
solar certified Developer for the JSF for the Java EE6 Platform
Oracle certified skilled, Java Platform, traffic version 6 JavaServer Faces Developer
sun certified specialist for NetBeans IDE
Oracle certified knowledgeable, NetBeans built-in development environment 6.1 Programmer
solar certified Integrator for identification manager 7.1
This certification become retired by means of Oracle
solar certified Java CAPS Integrator
This certification turned into retired by course of Oracle
usual solar nameNew Oracle callSun certified Solaris associate (SCSAS)
Oracle licensed affiliate, Oracle Solaris 10 operating equipment
sun certified device Administrator (SCSA) for Solaris OS 10
Oracle certified knowledgeable, Oracle Solaris 10 gadget Administrator
solar certified community Administrator (SCNA) for Solaris OS 10
Oracle licensed knowledgeable, Oracle Solaris 10 network Administrator
sun licensed protection Administrator (SCSECA) for Solaris OS 10
Oracle certified knowledgeable, Oracle Solaris 10 safety Administrator
common solar nameNew Oracle nameSun licensed MySQL 5.0 Database Administrator (SCMDBA)
Oracle certified knowledgeable, MySQL 5.0 Database Administrator
sun certified MySQL 5.0 Developer (SCMDEV)
Oracle certified skilled, MySQL 5.0 Developer
solar licensed MySQL affiliate (SCMA)
Oracle licensed affiliate, MySQL 5.0/5.1/5.5Sun licensed MySQL 5.1 Cluster Database Administrator (SCMCDBA)
Oracle licensed professional, MySQL 5.1 Cluster Database Administrator
original solar callNew Oracle callSun licensed OpenOffice.org Calc expertOracle licensed knowledgeable, OpenOffice.org Calc
solar licensed OpenOffice.org stir expertOracle certified skilled, OpenOffice.org impress
solar licensed OpenOffice.org writer expertOracle licensed expert, OpenOffice.org writer
The individual checks had been renamed as neatly, following the same naming scheme. A pdf version of this list that includes the examination names is attainable on Oracle's blog.
if you're making ready for the Oracle certified Java SE 8 associate exam, often known as OCAJP eight and OCPJP 8 with exam codes 1Z0-808 and searching for an honest online direction to kick delivery your practise, then you definately hold Come to the amend region.
in this article, i will participate probably the most best online courses to prepare for Java SE 8 certifications. first off, a huge congratulations on making the commandeer conclusion to develop into a certified Java developer.
if you're a Java developer, then getting your certification will not only distinguish you from hundreds of thousands of alternative non-licensed Java programmers however additionally enhance your handicap and knowing of Java SE 8.
in case you are searching for a job, then this may champion you to fetch a more robust job, and if you are searching for career increase, e.g. to develop into senior Java developer, these certifications can champion you to fetch that promotion.
The Oracle licensed associate examination (required for outright Oracle Certification) can likewise breathe intricate to move, even for experienced Java builders. I actually hold viewed many Java developers having 2 to 4 years of event in Java going into an exam with out guidance and coming returned either with a very low rating or failing the exam.
One intuition for it really is the scholarship stage of the examination is slightly deep. It makes a speciality of details that many Java builders hold no idea, although they've labored in Java for years. that is why coaching is awfully crucial.
A developer once talked about, "failing to apportion together means getting ready to fail."
So breathe positive you disburse some time to reckon the top-rated course to apportion together for Java certifications. The commandeer practise now not simplest helps you flood the examination but likewise ranking over ninety %, which gives you an extra aspect over other candidates outright through any job search or advertising dialogue.
I actually hold shared my event, advice, and components love books, free tests, simulators, and answering questions for Java developers making ready for OCAJP and OCPJP. that you would breathe able to likewise search through here to locate about greater elements and FAQs about these certifications.
without additional ado, birthright here is my record of one of the crucial choicest on-line Java certification lessons that you can rob to kick-birth your training.
for the intuition that both OCAJP and OCPJP require a abysmal understanding of exam topics, it breathe a advantageous conviction to dawn with a training direction after which comply with-up with a certification bespeak love Mala Gupta's OCAJP eight book.
this fashion, you'll now not most efficient breathe trained more advantageous however additionally bear in intelligence improved, as exam certification ebook presents questions within the identical structure of the even examination.
1. comprehensive Java SE 8 Developer Bootcamp - OCA Prep covered
here's an valuable on-line practicing course for a beginner who's gaining scholarship of Java SE eight and desires to become a certified developer, love sparkling graduates who wish to start a career in utility development or builders who wish to increase their marketability by course of discovering the nuts and bolts of Java.
This direction teaches you Java SE 8 within the boot camp vogue where the focal point is to supply palms-on advantage. On the manner, you profit a solid realizing of the themes covered within the exam to become an Oracle-licensed associate, Java SE 8 Programmer (Java SE eight Programmer I 1Z0-808)
2. Oracle Java Certification — pass the associate 1Z0-808 exam
this is a further splendid on-line course for Java builders preparing for the OCAJP 8 exam.
it is going to train you every shrimp thing you deserve to recognize become an Oracle licensed affiliate Java 8 Programmer.
The teacher, Goran Lochert, is a certified Java developer himself and an authority, with decades of programming event in Java.
Goran knows first hand what is required to fling the examination as a result of he has performed it himself. he will rob you via each and every and each topic you deserve to master to breathe able to flood the exam and receive your reputable Oracle certification.
three. The complete Java Masterclass
here's likely the foremost course to breathe taught Java in prevalent but it surely additionally lets you apportion together for OCAJP 8 theme matters. i recommend this on-line route to any one who's researching Java and necessity to pass a 1Z0-808 certification exam.
This training path isn't most efficient regarding OCAJP themes however you should breathe sensible of Java earlier than you revise these themes and that's the intuition where this course excel.
After completing this course, you hold got a decent abilities of Java and you'll fill the gaps between your talents and exam issues through analyzing a very advantageous OCAJP certification bespeak love this one.
4. First Oracle Certification: develop into a licensed Java Engineer
if you’re a newbie looking to study Java or an experienced programmer trying to find an internet practicing direction to prepare for Oracle's Java certification e.g. OCAJP 8 or 1Z0-808 examination, then here's the birthright path for you.
This path additionally covers outright exam issues, and after this route, college students should breathe in a position to pass the Oracle licensed affiliate, Java SE 8 Programmer (1Z0-808) exam.
5. Java Certification: OCA (1Z0-808) ensue test
This online course covers outright OCAJP 8 issues and additionally contains apply checks comprising of 260+ numerous alternative questions to verify Oracle certified affiliate, Java SE eight Programmer I instruction.
These are hand-picked questions that mimic the actual certification exam and are time-sure, which will champion you fetch prepared for the leading exam atmosphere.
this is outright for now on one of the vital most desirable online courses to prepare for Oracle's Java affiliate and professional Certifications. if in case you hold registered for the 1Z0-808 or 1Z0-809 exam, then you can rob these classes to delivery your certification adventure. in case you are searching for greater efficient supplies, e.g. books and examination simulators, then that you can try my following articles.
Thanks for studying this article! in case you find these Java certification online working towards classes advantageous, delight participate along with your friends and colleagues. if in case you hold any query or doubt, then drop a word below.
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today, with possibly a bit of smaller enthusiasm, a opt for few can likewise breathe maintained of a rare and robust method—Oracle Database Administrator Certification. It quiet gives handsomely, however you needn't sit down on a tripod in an ancient temple to employ it. Receiving it, youngsters, is outright the time a trip.
1) manufacture Lighted Early
If the ultimate purpose is Oracle DBA Certification, you hold first to test to breathe an Oracle certified associate (OCA). This components fully takes time and a lot of training. you are taking two examinations and qualify to travail as participate of a team on junior DB management.
both examinations latest alternate options. which you can rob and pellucid anyone of these three:
· Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals 1Z0-061—can you create, improve, manage and edit information in a database? attain you know, and might you employ, SQL? You might breathe asked to application in SQL
· Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals-I 1Z0-051—this more or less succeeds “Introduction to Oracle9i SQL” with sixty four questions to reply in 2 hours. Questions hold presenting statistics from diverse tables; recuperating, sorting and restraining information; creating schema objects; and coping with set operators.
To hold a brilliant probability of clearing anyone of these, rob capabilities of oraclestudy.com or fetch hold of a necessary a participate of this training as a component of an undergraduate diploma software in database programming. you're going to additionally require passing the Oracle Database 11g: Administration-I 1Z0-052 examination.
The Oracle Database 11g: Administration-I 1Z0-052 examination is a ninety-minute examine by which you install DB environments, developing and keeping diverse Oracle instances. Configure and restful these conditions, exhibit the potential of database backup and restoration, and administrate and control storage arrangements. You necessity to now not most efficient breathe sensible of the commandeer reply but the amend flood for answering the issue.
2) understand the distinction between OCD and OCP
It is birthright that a variety of database directors manufacture the most of performing to hold obsessive-compulsive ailment (OCD) however to fetch to the heights of Oracle DB Administrator certification, you ought to become an Oracle licensed knowledgeable (OCP). This aspect suggests (after already being an OCA) taking two courses and passing an examination in either DB 11g or DB 12c.
The route preference between 11g and 12c is dazzling. These courses must breathe tutor-led, a virtual classification, or practicing on claim situations.
3) convert your self to master
master certification is the Oracle belfry. An Oracle licensed master (OCM) can travail at superior tiers in IT departments nearly any place, dealing with gentle data, explaining complex challenges, and getting elevated salaries.
The requirement for OCM is OCA and OCP. comprehensive two additional lessons (akin to the coursework for OCP) that are instructor-led, digital, or working towards-on-demand. also, submit outcomes of a primitive session, then opt for the Oracle Database 11g: certified master examination 11G (OCM). to cite from Oracle’s website:
members scored on their capability to complete indicated initiatives and to recuperate from a number of database flop scenarios. statistics from every participant's environment is obtained on the conclusion of every condition and used to examine the ultimate score. In some scenes, individuals might likewise receive partial credit, youngsters the inability to fetch well from a failure scenario results in zero self faith for a gross state of affairs.
four) earnings from DB certification
when you are downhearted as you scale these boundaries of Oracle Database Administrator Certification necessities and assessments, breathe trained what may additionally eye ahead to you: improved earnings. in keeping with Oracle’s earnings Survey, among North American members, the pay contrast for general revenue is enjoyable:
· Oracle licensed: $ninety nine,190
· Non-certified: $ninety two,276
The Bureau of Labor data (BLS)—maybe a much less biased journalist than Oracle itself notes that the median annual wage for outright DB administrators, as of might likewise 2016, was $84,950, with an predicted 10 p.c job growth through 2024.
5) instruct your self
a pretty advantageous vicinity to delivery the pilgrim’s path to Oracle Database Administrator Certification is through taking on-line ensue exams provides via oraclestudy.com with a attention in Database Programming. argue with oracle study nowadays to learn what the the next day may dangle for you! It may well breathe the most efficient conclusion You Ever Make!
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MySQL 5 Certified Associate
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Written by Yves Trudeau
Ever since MySQL replication has existed, people hold dreamed of a advantageous solution to automatically split read from write operations, sending the writes to the MySQL master and load balancing the reads over a set of MySQL slaves. While if at first it seems easy to solve, the reality is far more complex.
First, the tool needs to manufacture positive it parses and analyses correctly outright the forms of SQL MySQL supports in order to sort writes from reads, something that is not as easy as it seems. Second, it needs to rob into account if a session is in a transaction or not.
While in a transaction, the default transaction isolation even in InnoDB, Repeatable-read, and the MVCC framework insure that you’ll fetch a consistent view for the duration of the transaction. That means outright statements executed inside a transaction must elope on the master but, when the transaction commits or rollbacks, the following select statements on the session can breathe again load balanced to the slaves, if the session is in autocommit mode of course.
Then, what attain you attain with sessions that set variables? attain you restrict those sessions to the master or you replay them to the slave? If you replay the set variable commands, you necessity to associate the client connection to a set of MySQL backend connections, made of at least a master and a slave. What about temporary objects love with “create temporary table…”? How attain you deal when a slave lags behind or what if worse, replication is broken? Those are just a few of the challenges you kisser when you want to build a tool to achieve read/write splitting.
Over the ultimate few years, a few products hold tried to tackle the read/write split challenge. The MySQL_proxy was the first attempt I am sensible of at solving this problem but it ended up with many limitations. ScaleARC does a much better job and is very usable but it stills has some limitations. The latest contender is MaxScale from MariaDB and this post is a road fable of my first implementation of MaxScale for a customer.
Let me first interpose what is MaxScale exactly. MaxScale is an open source project, developed by MariaDB, that aims to breathe a modular proxy for MySQL. Most of the functionality in MaxScale is implemented as modules, which includes for example, modules for the MySQL protocol, client side and server side.
Other families of available modules are routers, monitors and filters. Routers are used to determine where to route a query, Read/Write splitting is accomplished by the readwritesplit router. The readwritesplit router uses an embedded MySQL server to parse the queries… quite clever and hard to beat in term of query parsing.
There are other routers available, the readconnrouter is basically a round-robin load balancer with optional weights, the schemarouter is a course to shard your data by schema and the binlog router is useful to manage a big number of slaves (have a eye at Booking.com’s Jean-François Gagné’s talk at PLMCE15 to survey how it can breathe used).
Monitors are modules that maintain information about the backend MySQL servers. There are monitors for a replicating setup, for Galera and for NDB cluster. Finally, the filters are modules that can breathe inserted in the software stack to manipulate the queries and the resultsets. outright those modules hold well defined APIs and thus, writing a custom module is rather easy, even for a non-developer love me, basic C skills are needed though. outright event handling in MaxScale uses epoll and it supports multiple threads.
Over the ultimate few months I worked with a customer having a challenging problem. On a PXC cluster, they hold more than 30k queries/s and because of their write pattern and to avoid certification issues, they want to hold the possibility to write to a unique node and to load equilibrium the reads. The application is not able to attain the Read/Write splitting so, without a tool to attain the splitting, only one node can breathe used for outright the traffic. Of course, to manufacture things easy, they employ a lot of Java code that set tons of sessions variables. Furthermore, for ISO 27001 compliance, they want to breathe able to log outright the queries for security analysis (and likewise for performance analysis, why not?). So, elevated query rate, Read/Write splitting and replete query logging, love I said a challenging problem.
We experimented with a few solutions. One was a hardware load balancer that failed miserably – the implementation was just too simple, using only regular expressions. Another solution they tried was ScaleArc but it needed many rules to whitelist the set session variables and to repeat them to multiple servers. ScaleArc could hold done the job but outright the rules increases the CPU load and the cost is per CPU. The queries could hold been sent to rsyslog and aggregated for analysis.
Finally, the HA implementation is rather minimalist and they had some issues with it. Then, they tried MaxScale. At the time, it was not GA and was (is still) young. Nevertheless, I wrote a query logging filter module to route outright the queries to a Kafka cluster and they gave it a try. Kafka is extremely well suited to record a big flood of queries love that. In fact, at 30k qps, the 3 Kafka nodes are barely affecting with cpu under 5% of one core. Although they encountered some issues, recall MaxScale is very young, it appeared to breathe the solution with the best potential and so they moved forward.
The folks at MariaDB behind MaxScale hold been very responsive to the problems they encountered and they finally got to a very usable point and the test in the pilot environment was successful. The solution is now been deployed in the staging environment and if outright goes well, it will breathe in production soon. The following design is simplified view of the internals of MaxScale as configured for the customer:
The blocks in the design are nearly outright defined in the configuration file. They define a TCP listener using the MySQL protocol (client side) which is linked with a router, either the readwritesplit router or the readconn router.
The first step when routing a query is to apportion the backends. This is where the read/write splitting conclusion is made. Also, as participate of the steps required to route a query, 2 filters are called, regexp (optional) and Genlog. The regexp filter may breathe used to inflamed patch a query and the Genlog filter is the logging filter I wrote for them. The Genlog filter will route a json string containing about what can breathe establish in the MySQL general query log plus the execution time.
Authentication attempts are likewise logged but the process is not illustrated in the figure. A key point to note, the authentication information is cached by MaxScale and is refreshed upon authentication failure, the refresh process is throttled to avoid overloading the backend servers. The servers are continuously monitored, the interval is adjustable, and the server status are used when the conclusion to apportion a backend for a query is done.
In term of HA, I wrote a simple Pacemaker resource agent for MaxScale that does a few fancy things love load balancing with IPTables (I’ll talk about that in future post). With Pacemaker, they hold a replete fledge HA solution with quorum and fencing on which they can rely.
Performance wise, it is very advantageous – a unique core in a virtual environment was able to read/write split and log to Kafka about 10k queries per second. Although MaxScale supports multiple threads, they are quiet using a unique thread per process, simply because it yields a slightly higher throughput and the custom Pacemaker agent deals with the employ of a clone set of MaxScale instances. recall they started early using MaxScale and the beta versions were not dealing gracefully with threads so they built around multiple unique threaded instances.
So, since a conclusion is needed, MaxScale has proven to breathe a very useful and resilient tool that allows to intricate solutions to problems that were very hard to tackle before. In particular, if you necessity to achieve read/write splitting, then, try MaxScale, it is best solution for that purpose I hold establish so far. champion in touch, I’ll surely write other posts about MaxScale in the near future.
First Look: MySQL 5.1 Open Source Database
MySQL 5.1 was released by Sun Microsystems in April, but I decided to test it out this month. I downloaded the Windows version of this open source database management app and gave it a spin.
The setup script added the MySQL server component with minimal interaction on my part. A wizard helped me achieve the initial configuration and define a root password. After that, MySQL was fully functional and I was able to fetch to travail birthright away.
I tested MySQL with a GUI frontend. Database operations were very fleet during my test run, even with my larger databases. I did not encounter any bugs or problems during the tests.
I was extremely impressed with how easy it was to deploy MySQL 5.1 on a Windows system. In contrast, installation on other platforms (such as Linux) has typically been much more difficult.
MySQL 5.1 includes extensive documentation, with a SQL language reference in addition to MySQL troubleshooting tips. The language reference is an exceptional addition to the package, since many software manuals only school the user how to operate the software itself.
By default, MySQL 5.1 uses a command line environment for running SQL statements. SQL code must by typed directly into the terminal by the user. When SELECT and pomp queries are executed on the command line, the data are presented in a nice tabular format. However, distortion can occur if your terminal window is not wide enough. It can occasions the text to wrap to the next line.
Expert users may prefer the command line. Other users may wish to install a front-end, such as phpMyAdmin or HeidiSQL, which can manufacture working with databases and tables easier. MySQL has powerful server-side and clustering functionality. However, it is likewise very useful on the client side for smaller applications, especially when combined with a GUI front-end.
MySQL 5.1 is definitely worth a try, with its many original features listed here . The database app works with Windows x64, Mac OS X and various forms of Linux and UNIX OSes. You can download Version 5.1 at this link .
This chapter is from the bespeak
This section discusses some of the valuable original features that are being developed in MySQL 5.0:
These are outright recent additions, so this section is relatively brief to provide just an overview. Because the capabilities described here are new, you may encounter limitations. However, development is ongoing, so as these features age and restrictions are eased, their usefulness will increase.
A view is a virtual table. That is, it acts love a table but actually contains no data. Instead, it is defined in terms of tables (or other views) and provides alternative ways to eye at table data. Often this can simplify applications. Views were introduced in MySQL 5.0.1.
A simple view can breathe nothing more than a course to select a subset of a table's columns. Suppose that you often want to select only the last_name, first_name, city, and state columns from the president table, but you don't want to write out outright the columns love this:
SELECT last_name, first_name, city, state FROM president;
Nor attain you want to employ SELECT *. That's easier to write, but * retrieves columns that you don't want. The solution is to define a view that retrieves only the desired columns:
CREATE VIEW vpres AS
SELECT last_name, first_name, city, state FROM president;
Now the view acts as a "window" into just those columns that you want to see. This means that you can employ SELECT * with the view and fetch back only the columns named in the view definition:
mysql> SELECT * FROM vpres;
| last_name | first_name | city | state |
| Washington | George | Wakefield | VA |
| Adams | John | Braintree | MA |
| Jefferson | Thomas | Albemarle County | VA |
| Madison | James | Port Conway | VA |
| Monroe | James | Westmoreland County | VA |
If you comprise a WHERE clause, MySQL adds it to the view definition when executing the statement to further restrict the result:
mysql> SELECT * FROM vpres WHERE last_name = 'Adams';
| last_name | first_name | city | state |
| Adams | John | Braintree | MA |
| Adams | John Quincy | Braintree | MA |
The same is even if you add ORDER BY, LIMIT, and so forth.
When you employ a view, you can mention only to those columns named in the view definition. That is, you cannot mention to a column that is not participate of the view:
mysql> SELECT * FROM vpres WHERE suffix <> '';
ERROR 1054 (42S22): Unknown column 'suffix' in 'where clause'
The column names for a view by default are those named in the output column list of its SELECT statement. To provide column names explicitly, add a list of names in parentheses following the view designation in the view definition:
mysql> CREATE VIEW vpres2 (ln, fn) AS
-> SELECT last_name, first_name FROM president;
Now when you mention to the view, you must employ the given column names rather than the names in the SELECT:
mysql> SELECT last_name, first_name FROM vpres2;
ERROR 1054 (42S22) at line 1: Unknown column 'last_name' in 'field list'
mysql> SELECT ln, fn FROM vpres2;
| ln | fn |
| Washington | George |
| Adams | John |
| Jefferson | Thomas |
| Madison | James |
| Monroe | James |
A view can breathe used to achieve calculations automatically. In Chapter 1, they developed a statement that determines the age of presidents at death. The same calculation can breathe incorporated into a view definition:
mysql> CREATE VIEW pres_age AS
-> SELECT last_name, first_name, birth, death,
-> (YEAR(death) - YEAR(birth))
-> - IF(RIGHT(death,5) < RIGHT(birth,5),1,0)
-> AS age
-> FROM president;
This view includes an age column that is defined as a calculation, and selecting that column from the view retrieves the results of the calculation:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pres_age;
| last_name | first_name | birth | death | age |
| Washington | George | 1732-02-22 | 1799-12-14 | 67 |
| Adams | John | 1735-10-30 | 1826-07-04 | 90 |
| Jefferson | Thomas | 1743-04-13 | 1826-07-04 | 83 |
| Madison | James | 1751-03-16 | 1836-06-28 | 85 |
| Monroe | James | 1758-04-28 | 1831-07-04 | 73 |
By including the age calculation in the view definition, it's no longer necessary to write out the formula to survey the age values. The view hides the details.
A view can mention to multiple tables, which makes it easier to elope queries that involve joins. The following view looks up scores, joining them with student and grade event information:
mysql> CREATE VIEW vstudent AS
-> SELECT student.student_id, name, date, score, category
-> FROM grade_event, score, student
-> grade_event.event_id = score.event_id
-> AND score.student_id = student.student_id;
When you select from the view, MySQL executes the link and returns information from multiple tables:
mysql> SELECT * FROM vstudent;
| student_id | designation | date | score | category |
| 1 | Megan | 2004-09-03 | 20 | Q |
| 3 | Kyle | 2004-09-03 | 20 | Q |
| 4 | Katie | 2004-09-03 | 18 | Q |
| 5 | Abby | 2004-09-03 | 13 | Q |
| 6 | Nathan | 2004-09-03 | 18 | Q |
| 7 | Liesl | 2004-09-03 | 14 | Q |
| 8 | Ian | 2004-09-03 | 14 | Q |
The view makes it petty to retrieve the scores for a particular student by name:
mysql> SELECT * FROM vstudent WHERE designation = 'emily';
| student_id | designation | date | score | category |
| 31 | Emily | 2004-09-03 | 11 | Q |
| 31 | Emily | 2004-09-06 | 19 | Q |
| 31 | Emily | 2004-09-09 | 81 | T |
| 31 | Emily | 2004-09-16 | 19 | Q |
| 31 | Emily | 2004-09-23 | 9 | Q |
| 31 | Emily | 2004-10-01 | 76 | T |
Some views are updatable, which means that you can insert, update, and delete rows in the underlying table by means of operations on the view. Here is a simple example:
mysql> CREATE TABLE t (i INT);
mysql> INSERT INTO t (i) VALUES(1),(2),(3);
mysql> CREATE VIEW v AS SELECT i FROM t;
mysql> SELECT i FROM v;
| i |
| 1 |
| 2 |
| 3 |
mysql> INSERT INTO v (i) VALUES(4);
mysql> DELETE FROM v WHERE i < 3;
mysql> SELECT i FROM v;
| i |
| 3 |
| 4 |
mysql> UPDATE v SET i = i + 1;
mysql> SELECT i FROM v;
| i |
| 4 |
| 5 |
For a view to breathe updatable, it must map directly onto a unique table, it must select only columns that are simple references to table columns (not capricious expressions), and any operation on a view row must correspond to an operation on a unique row in the underlying table. For example, if a view involves a summary calculated using an aggregate function, each view row can breathe based on multiple underlying table rows. In this case, the view is not updatable because there is no course to advise which underlying table row should breathe updated.
Using Stored Procedures
Beginning with MySQL 5.0.0, it is feasible to define stored routines. These are functions and procedures that are stored on the server side and that can breathe invoked later. Stored functions recrudesce a result and can breathe included in expressions just love built-in functions. Stored procedures attain not recrudesce a result directly. However, they champion parameter types that can hold their values set in the carcass of the procedure such that the values can breathe accessed by the caller after the procedure finishes.
Generally, you employ a office to reckon a value to breathe returned to the caller for employ in expressions. employ a procedure if you necessity only to invoke a routine to relent an consequence or action without returning a value. These are guidelines, not hard and fleet rules. For example, if you necessity to recrudesce more than one value, you cannot employ a function. But you can define a procedure that has OUT parameters that can breathe used in expressions after the procedure returns.
Stored routines provide the following benefits and capabilities:
They extend SQL syntax to comprise looping and branching statements. (The syntax for outright stored routine statements is given in Appendix E.)
They provide a mechanism for handling errors.
Because they are stored on the server side, outright the code needed to define them necessity breathe sent over the network only once at routine creation time, not each time you invoke them. This reduces overhead.
They provide a means to standardize computational operations. By providing a set of stored routines as a "library" that many applications can use, those applications outright achieve the operations in the same way.
To create a stored office or procedure, employ a CREATE office or CREATE PROCEDURE statement. The following case creates a function. In the preceding section on views, they defined a view that included a column that performed an age calculation for the rows in the president table. If you want to employ such a calculation more generally than in the context of a particular view, define the calculation as a office so that you can invoke it in capricious expressions.
mysql> delimiter $
mysql> CREATE office age (date1 DATE, date2 DATE)
-> RETURNS INT
-> DECLARE age INT;
-> SET age = (YEAR(date2) - YEAR(date1))
-> - IF(RIGHT(date2,5) < RIGHT(date1,5),1,0);
-> recrudesce age;
mysql> delimiter ;
The office begins with a RETURNS clause to testify the data sort of its recrudesce value. This is followed by the office body. Because the carcass consists of multiple statements, they're enclosed within a BEGIN/END block. The carcass declares a local variable, assigns the result of the calculation to it, and returns it as the office value. A office carcass must comprise at least one recrudesce statement to recrudesce a value to the caller. (This office could hold been written more concisely to employ recrudesce the calculation result directly from the recrudesce statement, but I wanted to illustrate variable declaration and use.)
The age() office takes two DATE arguments and can breathe invoked love any built-in function:
mysql> SELECT first_name, last_name, birth, death, age (birth, death)
-> FROM president;
| first_name | last_name | birth | death | age(birth, death) |
| George | Washington | 1732-02-22 | 1799-12-14 | 67 |
| John | Adams | 1735-10-30 | 1826-07-04 | 90 |
| Thomas | Jefferson | 1743-04-13 | 1826-07-04 | 83 |
| James | Madison | 1751-03-16 | 1836-06-28 | 85 |
| James | Monroe | 1758-04-28 | 1831-07-04 | 73 |
Actually, there is one contrast between how you mention to stored functions and built-in functions. For a stored function, the opening parenthesis necessity not immediately ensue the office name. In fact, if you give a stored office the same designation as a built-in function, you must hold a space between the designation and the parenthesis (both when you define the office and when you invoke it).
In the preceding example, notice the delimiter commands surrounding the office definition statement. If a routine carcass consists of a unique statement, you can write it at the discontinuance of the CREATE office or CREATE PROCEDURE statement with no special treatment. However, if a routine carcass consists of multiple statements, each must breathe terminated by semicolon (';'). That likewise is the default statement terminator for the mysql program, which introduces a conflict. To deal with this, employ the delimiter command to redefine mysql's statement delimiter to a character or string that does not appear in the routine definition. That causes mysql not to interpret semicolons as terminators and to pass the entire definition to the server as a unique statement. You can redefine the terminator to semicolon again after defining the routine.
A stored procedure is similar to a stored function, but it doesn't recrudesce a value. Therefore, it does not comprise a RETURNS clause or any recrudesce statements. Here is a simple stored procedure that takes one argument, a year, and displays information for presidents born in that year:
mysql> DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS born_in_year;
mysql> CREATE PROCEDURE born_in_year (year_of_birth INT)
-> SELECT first_name, last_name, birth, death
-> FROM president
-> WHERE YEAR(birth) = year_of_birth;
In this case, the carcass of the routine consists of a unique statement, so no delimiter commands are necessary. The procedure issues a SELECT statement. The results of this statement are not returned as the procedure value, but instead are passed as a result set to the client. To survey this, invoke the procedure, which is done by using CALL:
mysql> convoke born_in_year(1908);
| first_name | last_name | birth | death |
| Lyndon B. | Johnson | 1908-08-27 | 1973-01-22 |
mysql> convoke born_in_year(1913);
| first_name | last_name | birth | death |
| Richard M | Nixon | 1913-01-09 | 1994-04-22 |
| Gerald R | Ford | 1913-07-14 | NULL |
The case illustrates one thing that stored procedures can attain that stored functions in MySQL currently cannot: Procedures can access tables. This prohibition on referring to tables in stored functions presumably will breathe lifted in the future. As a workaround for this limitation on functions, you can define a procedure that performs the required table operation, and comprise in the definition an OUT or INOUT parameter to route back as the procedure "value" when the procedure returns. This technique likewise can breathe useful if you necessity to recrudesce more than one value, because functions recrudesce only a unique value.
By default, a procedure parameter is an IN parameter. The caller passes a value, and it can breathe modified within the procedure, but any changes are not visible to the caller after the procedure returns. An OUT parameter is the opposite. The procedure assigns a value to the parameter, which can breathe accessed by the caller after the procedure returns. An INOUT parameter allows the caller to pass in a value, and to fetch a value back.
The following case is similar to the preceding one, but instead of displaying columns from president table rows, it simply counts the number of rows and assigns the count to an OUT parameter. The caller gets the count from that parameter after invoking the procedure.
mysql> delimiter $
mysql> CREATE PROCEDURE count_born_in_year
-> (year_of_birth INT, OUT how_many INT)
-> DECLARE c CURSOR FOR
-> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM president WHERE YEAR(birth) = year_of_birth;
-> OPEN c;
-> FETCH c INTO how_many;
-> near c;
mysql> delimiter ;
mysql> convoke count_born_in_year(1908, @count);
mysql> SELECT @count;
| @count |
| 1 |
mysql> convoke count_born_in_year(1913, @count);
mysql> SELECT @count;
| @count |
| 2 |
The procedure does not simply invoke the SELECT statement and apportion the value of the COUNT(*) column to a variable. If it did that, the result of the statement would breathe displayed to the client directly. To stifle this display, the procedure sets up a cursor and uses it to execute the SELECT statement. This course the result of the SELECT goes to the procedure itself so that it can process the result directly.
To employ a cursor, declare it to associate it with the statement to breathe executed. Then open the cursor, fetch the rows of the statement, and near the cursor. In many applications, the FETCH statement will appear inside some benign of a loop construct such as a repeat statement. However, in the count_born_in_year() procedure, the SELECT returns only a unique row and there is no necessity for a loop.
To invoke the procedure, pass a year value as the first parameter, and provide a variable into which the count should breathe placed as the second parameter. After the procedure returns, the variable value will hold the count.
Trigger champion is available as of MySQL 5.0.2. A trigger can breathe defined to activate for INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE statements for a table, and can breathe set to activate either before or after each row processed by the statement. The trigger definition includes a statement that executes when the trigger activates. Currently, there are no trigger-specific privileges, so you must hold the SUPER privilege to define a trigger.
Triggers in MySQL currently hold the same limitation as stored functions that they cannot mention to tables in general. They can mention only to the values in the current row being modified in the table that is associated with the trigger. This lessens the usefulness of triggers for inescapable applications. For example, you cannot achieve change logging by recording deletes, inserts, and updates for a table to maintain a change history. Nevertheless, even in their current early implementation, triggers present some valuable features:
A trigger can examine the current contents of a row before it is deleted or updated.
A trigger can examine original data values to breathe inserted or used to update a row.
In a BEFORE trigger, the trigger can change the original values before they are stored in the database, which enables you to achieve data filtering.
The following case shows a trigger for INSERT statements for a table t. It is a BEFORE trigger so that it can examine data values before they are inserted into the table. The trigger performs two actions:
The trigger checks for attempts to insert negative numbers into the table's integer column and converts them to zero instead.
The trigger automatically provides a value of NOW() for the DATETIME column. In effect, this works around the limitation that a column's default value must breathe a constant, and implements TIMESTAMP-like automatic initialization for a DATETIME column.
mysql> CREATE TABLE t (i INT, dt DATETIME);
mysql> delimiter $
mysql> CREATE TRIGGER t_ins BEFORE INSERT ON t
-> FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
-> SET NEW.dt = CURRENT_TIMESTAMP;
-> IF NEW.i < 0 THEN SET NEW.i = 0; discontinuance IF;
mysql> delimiter ;
mysql> INSERT INTO t (i) VALUES(-2),(0),(2);
mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
| i | dt |
| 0 | 2005-01-23 12:14:11 |
| 0 | 2005-01-23 12:14:11 |
| 2 | 2005-01-23 12:14:11 |
In the same course as for stored routines, the carcass of a trigger can hold multiple statements if you coop them within a BEGIN/END block. In this case, you'll necessity to change the default delimiter so that you can employ ';' as the delimiter within the trigger definition. The preceding case uses this technique.
The syntax NEW.col_name can breathe used in the trigger carcass to mention to columns in the original row to breathe inserted or updated in an INSERT or UPDATE trigger. Similarly, OLD.col_name can breathe used to mention to columns in the primitive row to breathe deleted or updated in a DELETE or UPDATE trigger. primitive and original are not case sensitive.
Triggers can mention to user variables, so you can set a variable within a trigger to pass a result outside of the trigger. This gives you a course to check what consequence the trigger had.