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: 85 actual Questions
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Oracle Oracle actual Application Clusters
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This chapter introduces Oracle Clusterware and Oracle actual software Clusters (Oracle RAC) by describing these products as well as a passage to deploy, administer, and installation them. This chapter describes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC architectures as well because the utility and hardware add-ons for each of these items. This chapter additionally in brief describes workload management, features, and tall availability for both single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments. This chapter includes here topics:
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle actual application Clusters
A cluster comprises diverse interconnected computers or servers that emerge dote they are one server to conclusion users and purposes. Oracle Database 10g legal software Clusters (Oracle RAC) allows the clustering of the Oracle Database. Oracle RAC makes utilize of Oracle Clusterware for the infrastructure to bind multiple servers so that they role as a lone device.
Oracle Clusterware is a conveyable cluster administration solution that's built-in with the Oracle database. The Oracle Clusterware is additionally a required participate for the usage of Oracle RAC. in addition, Oracle Clusterware permits each single-illustration Oracle databases and Oracle RAC databases to get utilize of the Oracle excessive availability infrastructure. The Oracle Clusterware allows for you to create a clustered pool of storage to subsist used by passage of any amalgam of single-instance and Oracle RAC databases.
Oracle Clusterware is the only clusterware that you want for many structures on which Oracle RAC operates. that you can additionally utilize clusterware from different vendors if the clusterware is licensed for Oracle RAC.
Single-example Oracle databases believe a one-to-one relationship between the Oracle database and the illustration. Oracle RAC environments, however, believe a one-to-many relationship between the database and instances. In Oracle RAC environments, the cluster database circumstances access one database. The combined processing punch of the distinct servers can deliver improved throughput and scalability than is obtainable from a lone server. Oracle RAC is the Oracle Database alternative that gives a lone apparatus image for varied servers to access one Oracle database. In Oracle RAC, each Oracle illustration always runs on a divide server.
Oracle RAC is a unique technology that provides tall availability and scalability for sum utility kinds. The Oracle RAC infrastructure is additionally a key element for enforcing the Oracle industry grid computing architecture. Having distinctive circumstances entry a lone database prevents the server from being a lone point of failure. Oracle RAC enables you to blend smaller commodity servers right into a cluster to create scalable environments that back mission captious enterprise functions. applications that you just deploy on Oracle RAC databases can role without code adjustments.
The Oracle Clusterware structure and Oracle Clusterware Processing
The Oracle Clusterware is utility that after installed on servers operating the equal operating device, allows the servers to subsist inevitable collectively to operate as if they were one server. The Oracle Clusterware requires two clusterware add-ons: a vote casting disk to checklist node membership assistance and the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) to listing cluster configuration counsel. The balloting disk and the OCR need to reside on shared storage. The Oracle Clusterware requires that every node subsist related to a personal community by the utilize of a non-public interconnect.
The private interconnect that Oracle Clusterware requires is a divide community that you simply configure between the cluster nodes. This interconnect, which is required by passage of Oracle RAC, may too subsist the identical network that the clusterware uses, but the interconnect may noiseless now not subsist purchasable with the aid of nodes that don't appear to subsist a participate of the cluster.
Oracle recommends that you configure a redundant interconnect to avoid the interconnect from being a lone point of failure. Oracle additionally recommends that you utilize consumer Datagram Protocol (UDP) on a Gigabit Ethernet for your cluster interconnect. Crossover cables aren't supported for utilize with Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC databases.
The Oracle Clusterware manages node membership and prevents split brain syndrome wherein two or greater cases try to manage the database. this may ensue in situations where there is a ruin in verbal exchange between nodes through the interconnect.
The Oracle Clusterware architecture supports tall availability with the aid of automatically restarting stopped add-ons. The Oracle Clusterware can automatically re-beginning a node to avoid problems with that node from affecting the provision of the leisure of the Oracle RAC ambiance. In an Oracle RAC ambiance, sum Oracle strategies are under the wield of the Oracle clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware additionally gives an application programming interface (API) that enables you to control other Oracle techniques with Oracle Clusterware.
Oracle Clusterware application participate Processing particulars
The Oracle Clusterware includes a number of background methods that facilitate cluster operations. The Cluster Synchronization provider (CSS), adventure administration (EVM), and Oracle Cluster add-ons talk with other cluster element layers in the other situations inside the identical cluster database atmosphere. These accessories are additionally the leading conversation links between the Oracle Clusterware tall availability accessories and the Oracle Database. additionally, these accessories video display and control database operations.
right here checklist describes the services of one of the most essential Oracle Clusterware add-ons. This record comprises these add-ons which are strategies on Unix and Linux operating programs or features on home windows.
On windows-primarily based operating techniques, many of the components are threads of the Oracle technique in its location of divide methods.
Cluster Synchronization features (CSS)—Manages the cluster configuration by passage of controlling which nodes are members of the cluster and by using notifying individuals when a node joins or leaves the cluster. if you're using third-birthday party clusterware, then the css technique interfaces along with your clusterware to manipulate node membership counsel.
Cluster capable features (CRS)—The simple software for managing excessive availability operations within a cluster. the comfort that the crs process manages is known as a cluster resource which can subsist a database, an instance, a service, a Listener, a digital IP (VIP) handle, an utility manner, etc. The crs technique manages cluster components in line with the aid's configuration counsel this is kept within the OCR. This comprises birth, stop, display screen and failover operations. The crs system generates routine when a aid fame adjustments. when you believe attach in Oracle RAC, crs screens the Oracle example, Listener, and so on, and instantly restarts these add-ons when a failure occurs. with the aid of default, the crs technique makes five makes an attempt to restart a resource after which does not get additional restart attempts if the useful resource does not restart.
experience management (EVM)—A inheritance system that publishes hobbies that crs creates.
Oracle Notification service (ONS)—A post and subscribe carrier for communicating quick utility Notification (FAN) activities.
RACG—Extends clusterware to pilot Oracle-specific necessities and complicated components. Runs server callout scripts when FAN movements ensue.
method display screen Daemon (OPROCD)—This technique is locked in memory to video display the cluster and provide I/O fencing. OPROCD performs its verify, stops working, and if the awaken is beyond the anticipated time, then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. An OPROCD failure effects in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. OPROCD uses the hangcheck timer on Linux systems.
In right here table, if a process has a (r) beside it, then the procedure runs as the root user. otherwise the manner runs because the oracle person.
table 1-1 record of methods and windows services associated with Oracle Clusterware
Oracle Clusterware component
home windows servicesWindows procedures
process computer screen Daemon
Oracle Notification service (ONS)
evmd (r), evmd.bin, evmlogger
Cluster Synchronization features
init.cssd (r), ocssd (r), ocssd.bin
The Oracle Clusterware utility add-ons
When Oracle Clusterware operates, several platform-particular techniques or functions will even subsist working on each and every node within the cluster to assist Oracle Clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware platform-certain UNIX-primarily based tactics and home windows-based services are described under here headings:
Oracle Clusterware techniques on UNIX-primarily based programs
The Oracle Clusterware processes on UNIX-based mostly systems are:
crsd—Performs excessive availability restoration and management operations corresponding to keeping the OCR and managing utility elements. This technique runs because the root user, or via a consumer within the admin neighborhood on Mac OS X-based systems. This process restarts automatically upon failure.
evmd—event supervisor daemon. This process additionally starts the racgevt system to control FAN server callouts.
ocssd—Manages cluster node membership and runs as the oracle consumer; failure of this process effects in cluster restart.
oprocd—process monitor for the cluster. note that this process most effective looks on structures that don't utilize supplier clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.
Oracle RAC on Linux structures can believe varied threads that appear as divide processes with divide procedure identifiers.
Oracle Clusterware functions on windows-based programs
The Oracle Clusterware services on home windows-based mostly programs are:
OracleCRService—Performs excessive availability recovery and management operations such as maintaining the OCR and managing utility elements. This system runs because the root user, or with the aid of a person within the admin neighborhood on Mac OS X-primarily based systems. This technique restarts automatically upon failure.
OracleCSService—Manages cluster node membership and runs as oracle consumer; failure of this procedure outcomes in cluster restart.
OracleEVMService—experience manager daemon. This manner too begins the racgevt system to control FAN server callouts.
OraFenceService—system display screen for the cluster. celebrate that this process best appears on structures that don't utilize vendor clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.
The Oracle actual software Clusters structure and Oracle actual software Clusters Processing
An Oracle RAC database is a logically or somatic shared every thing database. sum datafiles, manage information, PFILEs, and redo log information in Oracle RAC environments must live on cluster-conscious shared disks so that sum the cluster database circumstances can entry them. sum of the cases must additionally participate the equal interconnect. additionally, Oracle RAC databases can participate the identical interconnect that Oracle Clusterware makes utilize of.
as a result of an Oracle RAC database uses a shared every thing architecture, Oracle RAC requires cluster-aware storage for sum database files. it's your alternative as to the passage to configure your disk, but you need to utilize a supported cluster-conscious storage answer. Oracle Database 10g gives computerized Storage administration (ASM), which is the suggested solution to control your disk. besides the fact that children you may too also utilize a cluster-mindful extent manager or a cluster file apparatus (no longer required). In Oracle RAC, the Oracle Database software manages disk entry and the Oracle utility is certified to subsist used on a variety of storage architectures. An Oracle RAC database can believe as much as a hundred instances. reckoning on your platform, you could utilize here file storage options for Oracle RAC:
ASM, which Oracle recommends
Oracle Cluster File system (OCFS), which is obtainable for Linux and home windows platforms, or a third-birthday party cluster file apparatus that's licensed for Oracle RAC
A community file device
Oracle RAC databases scope architecturally from Oracle RACsingle-example Oracle databases in that every Oracle RAC database instance additionally has:
All nodes in an Oracle RAC environment must connect with a local area network (LAN) to enable clients and purposes to entry the database. applications should noiseless utilize the Oracle Database capabilities feature to hook up with an Oracle database. capabilities permit you to define guidelines and characteristics to wield how users and applications connect with database instances. These characteristics comprise a special name, workload balancing and failover options, and excessive availability characteristics. Oracle internet capabilities allows for the burden balancing of software connections throughout the entire cases in an Oracle RAC database.
users can access an Oracle RAC database the usage of a client-server configuration or through one or greater middle tiers, with or devoid of connection pooling. users can subsist DBAs, builders, application users, vigour clients, corresponding to statistics miners who create their personal searches, etc.
Most public networks customarily utilize TCP/IP, but which you could utilize any supported hardware and software combination. Oracle RAC database cases will too subsist accessed via a database's defined, default IP tackle and through VIP addresses.
do not to utilize the interconnect or the private network for user conversation as a result of Cache Fusion uses the private interconnect for inter-illustration communications.
besides the node's host cognomen and IP address, you ought to additionally allot a virtual host cognomen and an IP tackle to each and every node. The virtual host identify or VIP may noiseless subsist used to connect to the database example. as an instance, you could enter the virtual host cognomen CRM within the address listing of the tnsnames.ora file.
A virtual IP tackle is an alternate public wield that client connections utilize in its location of the tolerable public IP handle. To configure VIP addresses, you need to reserve a spare IP wield for each node that makes utilize of the identical subnet as the public community.
If a node fails, then the node's VIP fails over to yet another node on which the VIP can not accept connections. often, VIPs fail over when the node on which a VIP runs fails or if sum interfaces for the VIP fail or are disconnected from the community. clients that attempt to connect with the VIP obtain a quick connection refused error instead of anticipating TCP connect timeout messages. You configure VIP addresses in the address checklist in your database connection definition to allow connectivity. the following area describes the Oracle RAC software add-ons in additional aspect.
The Oracle actual application Clusters application accessories
Oracle RAC databases believe two or extra database circumstances that each and every comprise memory constructions and history methods. An Oracle RAC database has the identical techniques and reminiscence buildings as a single-illustration Oracle database in addition to further procedure and reminiscence buildings that are particular to Oracle RAC. any one instance's database view is just about similar to another instance's view within the identical Oracle RAC database; the view is a lone apparatus photograph of the ambiance.
every sample has a buffer cache in its system world area (SGA). using Cache Fusion, Oracle RAC environments logically blend every instance's buffer cache to allow the circumstances to procedure records as if the statistics resided on a logically combined, lone cache.
The SGA measurement necessities for Oracle RAC are more suitable than the SGA requirements for single-example Oracle databases as a result of Cache Fusion.
To get inevitable that every Oracle RAC database sample obtains the shroud that it must fulfill a question or transaction, Oracle RAC cases utilize two processes, the world Cache carrier (GCS) and the global Enqueue service (GES). The GCS and GES retain information of the statuses of each records file and each cached shroud using a worldwide useful resource listing (GRD). The GRD contents are allotted across sum the lively circumstances, which comfortably raises the dimension of the apparatus world area for an Oracle RAC illustration.
After one sample caches data, another sample within the identical cluster database can acquire a shroud image from a different sample in the identical database quicker than with the aid of reading the shroud from disk. for this reason, Cache Fusion moves present blocks between instances in location of re-analyzing the blocks from disk. When a constant shroud is needed or a modified shroud is required on an additional illustration, Cache Fusion transfers the shroud picture without slow between the affected instances. Oracle RAC makes utilize of the private interconnect for inter-example verbal exchange and shroud transfers. The world Enqueue provider video display and the illustration Enqueue system manages access to Cache Fusion resources as well as enqueue recuperation processing.
These Oracle RAC approaches and the GRD collaborate to enable Cache Fusion. The Oracle RAC strategies and their identifiers are as follows:
LMS—international Cache service procedure
LMD—world Enqueue carrier Daemon
LMON—world Enqueue provider video display
LCK0—instance Enqueue process
in case you utilize network connected Storage (NAS), you then are required to configure a 2d deepest community. entry to this network is usually managed by using the seller's application. The private network uses static IP addresses.
many of the Oracle accessories that this participate describes are moreover the add-ons which are described for single-example Oracle databases in Oracle Database ideas.
Oracle Clusterware add-ons and excessive Availability
when you combine Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC, which you could achieve excellent scalability and tall availability. The Oracle Clusterware achieves this the usage of the accessories that this section describes below here themes:
The Oracle Clusterware balloting Disk and Oracle Cluster Registry
The Oracle Clusterware requires the following two vital information:
balloting Disk—Manages cluster membership by the utilize of a health check and arbitrates cluster ownership among the many situations in case of community screw ups. Oracle RAC uses the balloting disk to investigate which instances are contributors of a cluster. The vote casting disk ought to reside on shared disk. for top availability, Oracle recommends that you've dissimilar balloting disks. The Oracle Clusterware allows assorted balloting disks but you believe to believe an peculiar number of balloting disks, such as three, five, and the like. in case you silhouette a lone vote casting disk, then subsist positive to utilize external mirroring to deliver redundancy.
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)—maintains cluster configuration suggestions as well as configuration guidance about any cluster database within the cluster. The OCR too manages suggestions about procedures that Oracle Clusterware controls. The OCR outlets configuration counsel in a sequence of key-price pairs within a listing tree structure. The OCR believe to linger on shared disk it truly is purchasable with the aid of the entire nodes to your cluster. The Oracle Clusterware can multiplex the OCR and Oracle recommends that you utilize this role to subsist inevitable cluster tall availability. you can change a failed OCR on-line, and you can update the OCR through supported APIs such as industry supervisor, the Server manage Utility (SRVCTL), or the Database Configuration lieutenant (DBCA).
each the voting disks and the OCRs believe to linger on either cluster file device info or on shared raw devices that you configure before you install Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC.
Oracle Clusterware tall Availability and the software Programming Interface
Oracle Clusterware offers a excessive availability utility programming interface (API) so you might utilize to allow Oracle Clusterware to manage purposes or tactics that race a cluster. This allows for you to deliver excessive availability for sum of your purposes. The Oracle Clusterware with ASM allows you to create a consolidated pool of storage to back each the only-illustration Oracle databases and the Oracle RAC databases which are running for your cluster.
To maintain excessive availability, Oracle Clusterware components can reply to reputation alterations to restart purposes and strategies in accordance with described excessive availability rules. furthermore, you can utilize the Oracle Clusterware excessive availability framework by registering your applications with Oracle Clusterware and configuring the clusterware to birth, stop, or relocate your application methods. that is, you can get custom functions particularly attainable by using Oracle Clusterware to create profiles that monitor, relocate, and restart your applications. The Oracle Clusterware responds to FAN hobbies that are created by means of an Oracle RAC database. Oracle publicizes FAN hobbies when cluster servers may additionally become unreachable and community interfaces are gradual or non-practical.
Workload administration with Oracle actual application Clusters
Workload management permits you to manage the distribution of workloads to supply most confiscate performance for users and functions. This comprises featuring the optimum availability for database connections, swift failure recuperation, and balancing workloads optimally throughout the lively configuration. Oracle Database 10g with Oracle RAC contains many points that may augment workload administration equivalent to connection load balancing, rapidly connection failover (FCF), the load balancing advisory, and Runtime Connection Load Balancing. Workload management gives the foremost merits to Oracle RAC environments. that you may, although, rob skills of workload administration by using Oracle services in single-instance Oracle Databases, exceptionally people that utilize records protect or Streams. Workload management comprises here components:
excessive Availability Framework—The Oracle RAC excessive availability framework makes it possible for the Oracle Database to retain add-ons in a working condition continuously. Oracle excessive availability implies that Oracle Clusterware displays and restarts captious components if they stop, until you override the restart processing. The Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC too deliver signals to clients when configurations alternate. This permits valued clientele to instantly react to the changes, enabling software builders to conceal outages and reconfigurations from discontinue clients. The scope of Oracle excessive availability spans from the restarting of stopped Oracle processes in an Oracle database instance to failing over the processing of an entire illustration to other obtainable circumstances.
Load Balancing Advisory—here's the capability of the database to deliver advice to purposes concerning the existing provider degrees being supplied via the database and its circumstances. purposes can rob potential of this advice to direct connection requests to the instance so one can provide the utility request with the most beneficial provider best to finished the utility's processing. Oracle has integrated its Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) and Oracle records company for .internet (ODP.internet) connection swimming pools to work with the load balancing counsel. applications can utilize the integrated connection swimming pools without programmatic adjustments.
functions—Oracle Database 10g introduces an impressive automatic workload management facility, called functions, to allow the industry grid vision. services are entities so that you can silhouette in Oracle RAC databases. capabilities permit you to neighborhood database workloads and route the work to the greatest situations that are assigned to manner the service. in addition, which you can utilize services to define the resources that Oracle assigns to manner workloads and to display screen workload materials. purposes that you simply allot to features transparently acquire the described workload administration traits, including excessive availability and load balancing guidelines. Many Oracle database features are built-in with capabilities, such as resource supervisor, which permits you to preclude the materials that a carrier can utilize within an illustration. Some database facets are additionally built-in with Oracle Streams, advanced Queuing, to obtain queue location transparency, and the Oracle Scheduler, to map services to specific job classes.
In Oracle RAC databases, the provider efficiency guidelines that you just configure control the quantity of work that Oracle allocates to every available sample for that provider. As you extend your database by adding nodes, purposes, accessories of applications, and so on, which you can add more features.
Connection Load Balancing— Oracle internet features gives connection load balancing for database connections. Connection load balancing occurs when the connection is created. Connections for a given carrier are balanced throughout the entire operating cases that offer the provider. you'll want to define the passage you need connections to subsist balanced in the provider definition. despite the fact, you should nonetheless configure Oracle web capabilities. if you betide to allow the load balancing advisory, the Listener makes utilize of the weight balancing advisory for connection load balancing.
Introduction to installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle precise software Clusters
This section introduces the storage alternatives for Oracle RAC and the setting up techniques for each Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC under the following topic matters:
Oracle Clusterware installation technique Description
The Oracle Clusterware is dispensed on the Oracle Database 10g setting up media. The Oracle generic Installer (OUI) installs Oracle Clusterware into a directory structure, which will too subsist called CRS_home, it really is become independent from other Oracle application running on the desktop. as a result of Oracle Clusterware works intently with the working system, gadget administrator access is required for one of the vital setting up tasks. additionally, some of the Oracle Clusterware strategies ought to race because the apparatus administrator, which is often the root consumer on Unix and Linux methods and the gadget Administrator consumer on windows methods.
before you install Oracle Clusterware, Oracle recommends that you simply race the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to get positive that your ambiance meets the Oracle Clusterware installation requirements. The OUI additionally immediately runs CVU at the discontinue of the clusterware setting up to examine a considerable number of clusterware add-ons. The CVU simplifies the installation, configuration, and usual administration of the Oracle Clusterware setting up system through making a election on issues in cluster environments.
all over the Oracle Clusterware installing, you ought to identify three IP addresses for each and every node that goes to subsist a participate of your setting up. One IP tackle is for the inner most interconnect and the other is for the generic public interconnect. The third IP address is the digital IP wield that valued clientele will utilize to connect to each illustration.
The Oracle Clusterware installing procedure creates the voting disk and OCR on cluster-mindful storage. in case you select the election for typical redundant copies right through the installing system, then Oracle Clusterware instantly keeps redundant copies of these information to steer transparent of the info from fitting lone features of failure. The generic redundancy feature too eliminates the want for third celebration storage redundancy options. for those who utilize benchmark redundancy, Oracle Clusterware immediately continues two copies of the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) file and three copies of the voting Disk file.
in case you select exterior redundancy for the OCR and voting disk, then to permit redundancy, your disk subsystem should subsist configurable for RAID mirroring. in any other case, your device could subsist susceptible since the OCR and voting disk are lone aspects of failure.
Oracle actual utility Clusters installation and Database creation procedure Description
The Oracle RAC application is disbursed as participate of the Oracle Database 10g setting up media. through default, the commonplace Oracle Database 10g software setting up system installs the Oracle RAC option when it acknowledges that you're performing the installing on a cluster. The OUI installs Oracle RAC into a directory constitution, which will too subsist called Oracle_home, it is burst away other Oracle application working on the laptop. as a result of OUI is cluster-conscious, it installs the Oracle RAC software on sum the nodes that you defined to subsist a participate of the cluster. if you're the utilize of a certified cluster file gadget for the Oracle home, then simplest select the node that you're related to for the installing.
You need to first set up Oracle Clusterware earlier than installation Oracle RAC. After Oracle Clusterware is operational, that you can utilize OUI to set up the Oracle database utility with the Oracle RAC components. right through the installation, OUI runs DBCA to create your Oracle RAC database in line with the alternate options that you select. The DBCA too runs the internet Configuration lieutenant (NETCA) to configure the community for your Oracle RAC ambiance.
Oracle recommends that you simply opt for ASM sum through the installing to simplify storage management; ASM instantly manages the storage of sum database info within disk companies. which you could additionally configure capabilities sum over setting up, counting on your processing necessities. when you are the usage of the Oracle Database 10g generic version, then you definitely ought to utilize ASM for storing the entire database data.
via default, DBCA creates one service on your ambiance and this carrier is for the database. The default service is attainable on sum instances in an Oracle RAC atmosphere, until the database is in constrained mode.
Cloning Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC software in Grid Environments
This section briefly summarizes the procedures for deploying Oracle RAC in grid environments which believe vast numbers of nodes the utilize of cloned photos for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle cloning is the favourite formulation of extending your Oracle RAC ambiance by using including nodes and circumstances. To execute the cloning approaches that are summarized during this section, refer to the Oracle ordinary Installer and OPatch consumer's guide.that you may additionally utilize industry supervisor Grid control to execute cloning.
The cloning manner assumes that you correctly attach in an Oracle Clusterware domestic and an Oracle domestic with Oracle RAC on at least one node. in addition, sum root scripts ought to believe race successfully on the node from which you're extending your cluster database. to get utilize of Oracle cloning, first clone the Oracle Clusterware home after which clone the Oracle domestic with the Oracle RAC application.
To clone the Oracle Clusterware domestic, on UNIX-based methods create a tar file of the Oracle Clusterware domestic and duplicate the file to the brand unique node's Oracle Clusterware domestic. On windows-based techniques you should create zip information. Then on UNIX-based programs create the required users and companies on the brand unique nodes. On windows-primarily based methods, you don't should create clients and agencies, however the user that performs the cloning should noiseless subsist the equal consumer that carried out the setting up.
Extract the tar file, or unzip the zip file, and race the Oracle regular Installer (OUI) in clone mode as described in the Oracle usual Installer and OPatch user's e-book. Then race the installing scripts and restate these steps on every node that you're adding. The procedure for cloning the Oracle home onto unique nodes is similar to the manner for cloning the Oracle Clusterware home. in addition, you must race the Oracle net Configuration lieutenant (NETCA) on each unique node to create a Listener.
in case you believe not already created a database, then that you could race the Database Configuration lieutenant (DBCA) to create one. ultimately, celebrate the post-cloning procedures to finished the extension of your Oracle RAC atmosphere onto the brand unique nodes.
extra concerns and lines for Oracle actual application Clusters
moreover configuring features to manipulate your workloads, too agree with using right here aspects when you install Oracle RAC:
Scaling Your Oracle RAC Database—As mentioned, you could add nodes and instances to your Oracle RAC environment the utilize of Oracle cloning. in case you settle to not utilize cloning, then you could prolong your database through the utilize of the pilot approaches which are described in Chapter 10, "adding and Deleting Nodes and circumstances on UNIX-based mostly methods" or Chapter eleven, " adding and Deleting Nodes and situations on home windows-based techniques".
enterprise supervisor—Use commercial enterprise supervisor to administer your entire Oracle RAC ambiance, not simply the Oracle RAC database. utilize industry supervisor to create and adjust capabilities, and to dawn and forestall the cluster database cases and the cluster database. industry manager has further elements as specific in the area "Overview of using enterprise manager with Oracle precise utility Clusters".
recovery supervisor (RMAN)—RMAN backs up, restores, and recovers datafiles, wield information, server parameter data (SPFILEs) and archived redo logs. which you could utilize RMAN with a media supervisor to again up files to exterior storage. you can additionally configure parallelism when backing up or improving Oracle RAC databases. In Oracle RAC, RMAN channels may too subsist dynamically allocated throughout sum the Oracle RAC situations. Channel failover permits failed operations on one node to proceed on one other node. which you can utilize RMAN in Oracle RAC from the Oracle enterprise manager Backup manager or from a command line.
automated undo management—instantly manages undo processing.
computerized section house administration (ASSM)—immediately manages section freelists and freelist companies.
in the neighborhood managed tablespaces—Enhances area management efficiency.
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—Use CVU to determine the status of your clusterware in case you event complications or utilize it on every occasion you reconfigure your cluster.
Sequences—if you utilize sequence numbers, then always utilize CACHE with the NOORDER option for greatest sequence quantity technology efficiency. With the CACHE choice, besides the fact that children, you may additionally believe gaps within the sequence numbers. in case your environment can not tolerate sequence number gaps, then utilize the NOCACHE election or believe pre-generating the sequence numbers. if your software requires sequence quantity ordering but can tolerate gaps, then utilize CACHE and ORDER to cache and order sequence numbers in Oracle RAC. in case your application requires ordered sequence numbers devoid of gaps, then utilize NOCACHE and ORDER. This aggregate has the most poor upshot on efficiency in comparison to other caching and ordering mixtures.
Indexes—in case you utilize indexes, believe options, reminiscent of transpose key indexes, to optimize index efficiency. transpose key indexes are exceptionally effective if in case you believe universal inserts to 1 side of an index, corresponding to indexes which are according to insert date.
Managing Oracle actual application Clusters Environments
This participate describes the following Oracle RAC environment administration topics:
Designing Oracle precise application Clusters Environments
accept as legal with performing the following steps sum the passage through the design and construction of functions that you're deploying on an Oracle RAC database. reckon tuning:
The design and the utility
The memory and that i/O
The working device
If an software does not scale on an SMP computer, then poignant the application to an Oracle RAC database cannot enrich performance.
trust using hash partitioning for insert-intensive online transaction processing (OLTP) applications. Hash partitioning:
Reduces rivalry on concurrent inserts right into a lone database structure
impacts sequence-based mostly indexes when indexes are locally partitioned with a table and tables are partitioned on sequence-based mostly keys
Is transparent to the software
in case you hash partitioned tables and indexes for OLTP environments, then which you could drastically help efficiency to your Oracle RAC database. notice that you just can't utilize index latitude scans on an index with hash partitioning.
if you're using sequence numbers, then always utilize the CACHE alternative. if you utilize sequence numbers with the CACHE option, then:
Administrative apparatus for Oracle actual utility Clusters Environments
Oracle makes it possible for you to administer a cluster database as a lone gadget image via enterprise manager, SQL*Plus, or via Oracle RAC command-line interfaces equivalent to Server control (SRVCTL). which you could too utilize several tools and utilities to control your Oracle RAC atmosphere and its components as follows:
business manager—commercial enterprise manager has each the Database manage and Grid control GUI interfaces for managing each lone illustration and Oracle RAC environments.
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—CVU is a command-line device that you can utilize to verify a number cluster and Oracle RAC-specific accessories reminiscent of shared storage contraptions, networking configurations, gadget requirements, and Oracle Clusterware, in addition to operating gadget groups and users. that you could utilize CVU for pre-installing exams in addition to for post-installing tests of your cluster ambiance. CVU is above sum advantageous sum over pre-installation and right through setting up of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC accessories. The OUI runs CVU after Oracle Clusterware and the Oracle installing to determine your ambiance.
Server manage (SRVCTL)—SRVCTL is a command-line interface so you might utilize to manage an Oracle RAC database from a lone element. which you could utilize SRVCTL to delivery and stop the database and situations and to delete or circulation situations and features. which you could additionally utilize SRVCTL to manage configuration guidance.
Appendix E for more counsel about SRVCTL
Cluster in a position capabilities control (CRSCTL)—CRSCTL is a command-line tool that you can utilize to control Oracle Clusterware. which you can utilize CRSCTL to birth and forestall Oracle Clusterware. CRSCTL has many alternatives equivalent to enabling on-line debugging,
Oracle Interface Configuration device (OIFCFG)—OIFCFG is a command-line tool for both single-example Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments so you might utilize to earmark and de-allocate network interfaces to components. which you can additionally utilize OIFCFG to direct add-ons to utilize specific network interfaces and to retrieve element configuration counsel.
OCR Configuration device (OCRCONFIG)—OCRCONFIG is a command-line device for OCR administration. you can additionally utilize the OCRCHECK and OCRDUMP utilities to troubleshoot configuration problems that believe an upshot on the OCR.
Monitoring Oracle precise utility Clusters Environments
web-based commercial enterprise supervisor Database manage and Grid wield enable you to display screen an Oracle RAC database. The industry supervisor Console is a valuable point of control for the Oracle ambiance that you just access by the utilize of a graphical consumer interface (GUI). utilize the enterprise manager Console to initiate cluster database management tasks. utilize industry manager Grid control to administer multiple Oracle RAC databases. too celebrate here points about monitoring Oracle RAC environments:
The international views, or GV$ views, are based on V$ views. The catclustdb.sql script creates the GV$ views. race this script if you don't create your database with DBCA. in any other case, DBCA runs this script for you.
Statspack is Oracle RAC-mindful.
as a substitute of the utilize of Statspak, Oracle recommends that you just utilize the extra sophisticated administration and monitoring aspects of the Oracle Database 10g Diagnostic and Tuning packs which comprise the automated Database Diagnostic video display (ADDM).
Evaluating efficiency in Oracle actual utility Clusters Environments
You don't should operate particular tuning for Oracle RAC; Oracle RAC scales with out particular configuration alterations. if your software performed neatly on a single-example Oracle database, then it'll operate neatly in an Oracle RAC atmosphere. most of the tuning tasks that you'd role on a single-instance Oracle database can additionally augment Oracle RAC database efficiency. here is especially legal in case your environment required scalability across a improved number of CPUs.
probably the most Oracle RAC efficiency aspects are:
Dynamic resource Allocation
Cache Fusion allows for A Simplified Tuning Methodology
You attain not need to tune any parameters for Cache Fusion
No application-level tuning is crucial
that you may utilize a backside-up tuning strategy with well-nigh no repercussion to your latest functions
greater particular performance records
New Oracle VM Templates for Oracle legal software Clusters Now accessible
source: Oracle organization
November 15, 2010 08:00 ET
Simplifies Deployment of a incredibly available, Virtualized Database
REDWOOD SHORES, CA--(Marketwire - November 15, 2010) - Oracle (NASDAQ: ORCL)
Enabling valued clientele to swiftly installation a particularly obtainable, virtualized database, Oracle nowadays introduced the availability of recent Oracle VM Templates for Oracle Database 11g unencumber 2 and Oracle actual software Clusters.
with the aid of providing pre-put in and pre-configured application photographs, Oracle VM Templates deliver an ingenious strategy to deploying a fully configured utility stack and permit digital and cloud environments to subsist provisioned rapidly, comfortably, perpetually, and with simplified administration.
the unique Oracle VM Templates for Oracle precise application Clusters deliver a rapidly and straightforward strategy to installation a database cluster on Oracle VM for building, test and production environments. Clusters of any variety of nodes may too subsist constructed, and the complete installation is automated, inquiring for minimal assistance from the consumer when guests are booted.
Combining the advantages of Oracle VM for x86 and Oracle true utility Clusters presents a highly attainable database cloud solution with the entire benefits of a fully virtualized atmosphere.
the brand unique Oracle VM Templates are available in 32-bit or 64-bit system codecs.
enjoyable amalgam of Virtualization and Clustering Speeds Time to Market and permits higher Availability
Use of Oracle VM Templates tremendously simplifies installation and configuration, assisting reduce initial and ongoing protection fees and permitting organizations to achieve faster time to market and lower cost of operations.
by using deploying Oracle actual software Clusters in Oracle VM environments with the brand unique templates, purchasers can benefit from enhanced database availability.
The amalgam of Oracle VM and Oracle precise application Clusters enables eternal availability in the pan of hardware and application failures, a pleasant deal greater availability than would historically be bought through hypervisor-most effective solutions from companies dote VMware, that could handiest circulate and restart failed digital machines.
Oracle VM Templates are additionally purchasable for Oracle functions, Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle Database, Oracle Linux, Oracle Solaris and other Oracle items.
"handiest Oracle offers the wonderful aggregate of clustering and virtualization," stated Wim Coekaerts, senior vice chairman, Linux and Virtualization Engineering, Oracle. "the utilize of an Oracle VM infrastructure combined with the efficiency, scalability and resiliency of Oracle precise application Clusters and Oracle VM Templates, they assist shoppers significantly cleave back deployment and operational expenses whereas enabling a highly attainable infrastructure."
About Oracle Oracle (NASDAQ: ORCL) is the world's most comprehensive, open, and integrated enterprise application and hardware methods business. For extra guidance about Oracle, gladden visit their web site at http://www.oracle.com.
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Oracle actual Application Clusters 12c Essentials
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If you utilize Oracle technologies, you may subsist relying on Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) to manage your clouds, applications and databases. But if you’re accountable for multiple environments with hundreds of databases as well as Oracle actual Application Clusters (RACs) and Oracle Exadata, then OEM solitary will not enable you to attain your job effectively.
The Oracle 12c Database is now generally available, with its most touted aspect being a database virtualization feature called Pluggable Databases.
The Redwood Shores, Calif.-based IT company announced Oracle 12c Database at its OpenWorld reveal last year, but at the time the product had been in beta mode for months. Now it is available for download on Linux and Solaris, with an official version number of Oracle Database 220.127.116.11. Mike Dietrich, a senior principal technologist who announced the generic availability in a blog post, wrote in comments below the post that Oracle 12c Database will subsist supported on Microsoft Windows Server and IBM AIX operating systems, but he wouldn't voice when.
"I'm looking forward to downloading 12c and trying it out," said Bobby Durrett, lead Oracle DBA at US Foods. "Unfortunately, they don't believe 32-bit Windows or Linux versions out -- just 64-bit Linux and a couple Solaris 64-bit versions."
Durrett added that his focus for US Foods is to upgrade its key systems to the most stable release of Oracle Database 11.2. Oracle 12c Database is further down the upgrade path.
Pluggable Databases, now called Oracle Multitenant
The most-talked about feature of Oracle 12c Database has been Pluggable Databases, and database administrators (DBAs) said this week they were interested in exploring the cost benefits around it. The feature, now called Oracle Multitenant, essentially allows a database administrator to set up a container database with multiple pluggable databases inside. During patches and upgrades, only the container database needs changing. Also, a pluggable database can subsist moved to another container database, either on the identical server or somewhere else in the network.
But it will Come at a cost. On the Oracle cost list, updated this week, the feature is called "multitenant." It will cost about $21,000 per processor or $430 per user in a named user plus licensing scenario.
"With Pluggable Databases there are things you can consolidate, and possibly you can deliver on the other side, with database management and maintenance," said Michelle Malcher, a DBA, Oracle ACE Director and president of the Independent Oracle Users Group. "I mediate it's a much option to start to play with; to remark what utilize cases there are."
Amit Das, database engineering architect at PayPal, said Pluggable Databases was one of the top features he was looking at with Oracle 12c Database. Another feature that interests Das is Flex Automatic Storage Management (ASM), which requires fewer ASM instances when running Oracle actual Application Clusters (RAC).
"We believe some plans to utilize this soon," he said.
Malcher added that unique security features in Oracle 12c Database are effortless to implement and "closer to the core of the database." One of them is called Oracle Advanced Security Data Redaction, which can hide data from SQL query results prior to display based on factors such as a user's IP address.
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