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leading golf gadget manufacturer turns over key records administration projects to Oracle, boosting performance and scalability
REDWOOD SHORES, Calif., Feb. eleven, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- TaylorMade Golf, in its quest for growth after divesting from Adidas, is popping to Oracle autonomous Database to underpin its cloud modernization approach and power innovation. A key benefit of the brand unusual Oracle Database is that it automates the everyday database operations and tuning, liberating TaylorMade to focal point on making the area's ultimate golf device.
Oracle logo (PRNewsfoto/Oracle)
When TaylorMade separated from Adidas, the company needed to build out a platform within the cloud and selected Oracle self sufficient Database for its unheard of availability, performance, and security. The business's first and simplest independent database, Oracle self sufficient data Warehouse provides TaylorMade with the capability to scale as mandatory for planned commerce initiatives, above entire around seasonal workloads, in a simple and cost-efficient manner. It likewise works with TaylorMade's present commerce analytic tools to obligate sooner analysis to impulsively alter income concepts as needed. The database likewise offers TaylorMade the tools they should pinpoint alternatives for commerce diversification.
"As their enterprise needs endured to adapt, they required a greater efficacious solution to seamlessly control and scale their information management system," stated Tom Collard, vice chairman of IT, TaylorMade. "With Oracle self sufficient data Warehouse, they now beget a scalable, reasonable cloud platform to verve their enterprise. this will benefit preserve boom and unlock useful employee time so one can focal point on extra mission-important initiatives."
Taking handicap of Oracle self sustaining statistics Warehouse's self-driving, self-securing, and self-repairing capabilities, TaylorMade will live certain its captious infrastructure is running successfully with efficiency it really is 40x faster than its used on-premise database solution. this will permit its IT group of workers to focus on actions that pressure growth and stronger meet consumer calls for while keeping expenses low.
"TaylorMade has a tradition of constructing the ultimate golf outfit for authorities and patrons," renowned Andrew Mendelsohn, govt vp of Database Server applied sciences, Oracle. "With Oracle self sustaining Database, Oracle handles entire of the database operations and tuning so TaylorMade's IT cadaver of workers can consign greater time to deriving commerce value from their statistics."
About TaylorMade Golf business
Headquartered in Carlsbad, California, TaylorMade Golf is a number one manufacturer of tall performance golf device with trade-leading innovative items dote M5/M6 metalwoods, M5/M6 irons and TP5/TP5X golf balls. TaylorMade is the #1 Driver in Golf and likewise an incredible drive on the PGA TOUR with some of the strongest athlete portfolios in golf, that includes Dustin Johnson, Rory McIlroy, Jason Day, Jon Rahm and Tiger Woods.
About OracleThe Oracle Cloud offers an entire suite of integrated applications for income, provider, advertising, Human resources, Finance, supply Chain and Manufacturing, plus incredibly-automated and snug era 2 Infrastructure featuring the Oracle independent Database. For greater guidance about Oracle (ORCL), delight talk over with us at oracle.com.
TrademarksOracle and Java are registered emblems of Oracle and/or its affiliates. other names may well live logos of their respective house owners.
KT Corp has selected Oracle Communications for the 5G coverage wield feature (PCF) within the buildout of its 5G community and to allow unusual network as a provider (NaaS) offerings for corporations. An early adopter of 5G, KT Corp is generic for innovation and selected Oracle for its average 5G readiness, product maturity and competitive strengths, including its agile and feature-rich 5G PCF answer.
“building on their longstanding relationship with Oracle Communications, we're ecstatic to continue working together as they buy expertise of entire that 5G has to offer,” observed Gwangwook Lee, VP Core network strategy & Planning department., KT Corp. “In trials, the Oracle 5G PCF admit performed past expectations and met their discerning metrics for using the success of their upcoming 5G deployment. After six years of successful partnership with Oracle within the 4G realm, they appear to live ahead to carrying on with the partnership with Oracle in the 5G domain and as they prance to bring new, imaginitive offerings to their clients.”
The 5G PCF is the policy management characteristic of the 5G wield airplane, and some of the 5G Core network points supplying satisfactory of carrier and different community guidelines to communications service suppliers’ (CSPs) networks. Leveraging Oracle’s 5G Core community, KT Corp might live capable of proceed its network transformation towards 5G, and will unencumber unusual doorways for differentiated and customized consumer choices, assisting incremental 5G network monetization with enhanced service agility, improved bandwidth and extra customized functions.
With the introduction of 5G, CSPs dote KT Corp are able to launch and evolve customized-healthy community slices faster than ever. network slicing is a totally dynamic process that gives CSPs with the haphazard to tailor connectivity services to the precise requirements of any given software; person, device or context, by means of logically setting apart virtualized network substances. This skill will permit CSPs to launch NaaS solutions tailored to the certain wants of their commerce valued clientele that may latitude from AR and VR to connected vehicles, smart Factories, and smart Cities.
“by means of supplying an admit that addresses 5G policy requirements and underpins KT Corp’s main 5G transformation,” observed Andy Hicks, major Analyst at GlobalData, “Oracle is staking a declare to leadership within the 5G core.”
“As they lengthen their partnership with visionary, KT Corp past their collective 4G success, Oracle is unlocking doors to unusual innovations in this subsequent generation of connectivity spanning from commercial enterprise functions to sensible ecosystems,” pointed out Doug Suriano, senior vice president and common manager, Oracle Communications.
About Oracle Communications
Oracle Communications provides integrated communications and cloud options for provider suppliers and corporations to accelerate their digital transformation journey in a communications-driven world from community evolution to digital commerce to customer journey. www.oracle.com/communications
To gain knowledge of extra about Oracle Communications trade solutions, hunt recommendation from: Oracle Communications LinkedIn, or live portion of the dialog at Twitter @OracleComms.
The Oracle Cloud presents an entire suite of built-in applications for income, service, advertising, Human resources, Finance, deliver Chain and Manufacturing, plus extremely-computerized and comfy technology 2 Infrastructure that includes the Oracle self sustaining Database. For extra counsel about Oracle (NYSE: ORCL), delight argue with us at www.oracle.com.
Oracle and Java are registered logos of Oracle and/or its associates. different names can live emblems of their respective house owners.
Oracle is including unusual aspects to the Oracle Blockchain Platform, making it less demanding for developers to integrate their blockchain applications with present commerce and IT systems. About seven months after the platform became generally obtainable, Oracle is likewise highlighting unusual consumers the exhaust of the nascent expertise.
also: Oracle introduces unusual commerce digital assistant
A blockchain, the expertise behind the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, is a shared, disbursed ledger that may store complete transaction histories. It has a number of exhaust cases for enterprises that want to import on tamper-proof transactions to create unusual salary streams or enhance enterprise operations. Oracle's platform makes blockchain expertise obtainable as a service.
one of the vital platform's unusual points are aimed at letting corporations and builders exhaust their current expertise to construct and manage their applications. for instance, it elements an more advantageous world situation database to aid generic SQL-primarily based ledger queries. This lets developers construct chaincode with typical programming advantage. The platform additionally now supports Hyperledger cloth 1.three, including aspects such as chaincode construction in Java.
ought to examine
in the meantime, the brand unusual prosperous inheritance database shadows transaction background birthright into a relational database schema in Oracle's self reliant information Warehouse or different Oracle databases. This lets corporations integrate their transaction background into interactive analytics dashboards. additionally, enhanced leisure APIs should soundless simplify integration with current IT equipment.
The up to date platform additionally lets businesses exhaust exterior id suppliers for authentication. The feature should soundless aid consortium blockchains with many distinctive contributors, entire of which may well live using diverse identity management methods. businesses can additionally now exhaust third-party certificates to register client companies on the blockchain community.
amongst Oracle's lately-delivered blockchain customers are China Distance education Holdings limited, which uses blockchain to partake educational facts and skilled certifications throughout assorted academic associations. This helps employers and recruiters examine people' claimed academic credentials. in the meantime, the commerce Circulor uses blockchain to music fight minerals from their starting Place at mines to processing and exhaust in electronic accessories. different Oracle blockchain shoppers comprehend Arab Jordan funding fiscal institution, CargoSmart, certified Origins, HealthSync and ICS monetary techniques.
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Mark Rittman is a SearchOracle.com guest contributor. He is an OCP DBA and works as a consulting manager at Plus Consultancy in England, where he specializes in developing commerce intelligence and data warehousing applications using the Oracle Database, Application Server, Discoverer, Warehouse Builder and Oracle OLAP.
You can find more of Mark's labor at www.rittman.net/.
Plus Consultancy's brand Rittman shares what he believes are the top 10 unusual data warehousing features in Oracle Database 10g. exhaust the following list to navigate to each feature.
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. The SQL Model Clause 2. The SQLAccess Adviser 3. Improvements to the Multidimensional OLAP Engine 4. The Tune MView Advisor and improvements to Query Rewrite 5. Data Pump, The replacement for import and export 6. Improvements to storage management 7. Faster plenary table scans 8. Automatic tuning and maintenance 9. Asynchronous Change Data Capture 10. Improvements to Oracle data mining
1. The SQL Model clause[ recrudesce to Table of Contents ]
The unusual data warehousing feature in Oracle Database 10g that has probably received the most attention is the SQL Model clause. The SQL Model clause allows users to embed spreadsheet-like models in a SELECT statement, in a artery that was previously the domain of dedicated multidimensional OLAP servers such as Oracle Express and Oracle9i OLAP. The SQL Model clause brings an entirely unusual dimension to Oracle analytical queries and addresses a number of traditional shortcomings with the artery SQL normally works.
The SQL Model clause has been designed to address the sort of situation where, in the past, clients beget taken data out of relational databases and imported it into a model held in a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. Often, these models involve a progression of macros that aggregate data over a number of commerce dimensions, over varying time periods, and following a set of tangled commerce rules that would live difficult to express as bona fide SQL. I've worked on many a client engagement where the limitations of SQL meant that a number of standalone surpass spreadsheets had to live used, and while these gave the client the analytical capabilities they required, the accustomed issues of scalability and reliability of replicated data, and want of overall control often became clear-cut after a while.
The point of the SQL Model clause is to give bona fide SQL statements the faculty to create a multidimensional array from the results of a bona fide SELECT statement, carry out any number of interdependent inter-row and inter-array calculations on this array, and then update the ground tables with the results of the model. An illustration SQL statement using the MODEL clause would ogle like;
SELECT SUBSTR(country,1,20) country, SUBSTR(prod,1,15) prod, year, sales FROM sales_view WHERE country IN ('Italy','Japan') MODEL recrudesce UPDATED ROWS PARTITION BY (country) DIMENSION BY (prod, year) MEASURES (sale sales) RULES ( sales['Bounce', 2002] = sales['Bounce', 2001] + sales['Bounce', 2000], sales['Y Box', 2002] = sales['Y Box', 2001], sales['2_Products', 2002] = sales['Bounce', 2002] + sales['Y Box', 2002]) ORDER BY country, prod, year;
More details on the SQL Model clause can live organize in "The unusual Oracle10g SQL Model Clause", the OracleWorld white paper "SQL Model clause of Oracle Database 10g", the OTN article "Announcing the unusual Model" by Jonathan Gennick and OTN's documentation.
2. The SQLAccess Adviser[ recrudesce to Table of Contents ]
Part of the Oracle Database 10g Server Manageability feature, the SQLAccess Adviser recommends the best combination of indexes and materialized views for a given database workload. Available either at the command line (via the DBMS_ADVISOR package) or through the Advisor Central component of the unusual Web-based Oracle Enterprise Manager, the SQLAccess Adviser is based on the index and summary advisors previously bundled with Oracle9i and provides a one-stop-shop for tuning and summarizing your warehouse data.
More details on the SQLAccess Adviser can live organize in this OracleWorld white paper, ""Turbocharge your database: exhaust the Oracle Database 10g SQLAccess Advisor" by Lillian Hobbs, the OTN documentation and this Oracle-by-example tutorial.
3. Improvements to the multidimensional OLAP engine[ recrudesce to Table of Contents ]
With Oracle9i, the previously standalone Express multidimensional engine is now incorporated into the Oracle database, and with Oracle Database 10g, benefits of integration with the traditional relational Oracle engine are starting to become apparent.
First up is improvements to the artery big analytic workspaces can live partitioned, introducing into the Oracle OLAP world some of the advanced partitioning options currently enjoyed by Oracle database users. Currently, analytic workspaces, stored as AW$ tables within an Oracle schema, can live partitioned across multiple rows in the AW$ table by specifying a maximum segment size, allowing you to split an individual analytic workspace into (say) 10 GB segments, one in each table row. This table could then live partitioned just dote any other Oracle table, allowing you to establish one row in one tablespace, another in another, and each of these tablespaces could of course live stored in datafiles on different physical disk units. Although this was of some benefit, splitting by segment size was the only artery of partitioning the data, and you couldn't specify what objects within the analytic workspace went in to each partition. Oracle10g OLAP will now comprehend an enhancement where you can specify exactly which objects within the analytic workspace travel in to each partition, and you can further subdivide this by segment size if objects are particularly large.
In a similar fashion, variables within the analytic workspace can now live partitioned, either by reach of dimension members, a list of dimension members, or by reference to a CONCAT dimension. The 10g multidimensional engine then stores each variable partition as a part physical object, which can live directed to part rows in the AW$ table (allowing you to partition these across different tablespaces and physical disk drives); the variable, however, appears as just one expostulate to the application, simplifying the data model and allowing Oracle to achieve entire the difficult labor in the background.
Another excellent unusual feature, and a real improvement over what was available with Express, is back for multi-user read-write access to individual analytic workspaces. In the past, one drawback with Express was that only one user could attach to an Express database in read-write mode, leading Express developers to develop a whole reach of alternative solutions to allow ad-hoc write access to Express databases. In Oracle 10g OLAP, analytic workspaces can live attached in MULTI mode, whereafter applications then ACQUIRE individual variables in the analytic workspace for read-write access. Once an expostulate has been acquired (and locked by the Oracle multidimensional engine), updates can then buy Place and the application can fulfill whatever modifications are necessary. After entire changes beget been made, the UPDATE command is issued against the variable, followed by a COMMIT, and then a RELEASE command is issued against the variable to fulfill it available for other applications to write to. It'll live titillating to contemplate how the multidimensional engine handles multi-write access; in the past with Express databases could balloon in size when one user had read-write access to a database, and others were accessing it in read mode, as Express had to clone the database for each user to ensure that they had a consistent view of the data. I wouldn't live surprised if individual variables were copied out of a 10g analytic workspace into a temporary workspace while updates happened, with updates being propagated back (as with the used Express surpass Add-In) when the changes are finally COMMITted -- the key thing here is how database size is dealt with as the used Express artery of doing it was less than optimal.
Aggregation has been improved with Oracle10g OLAP, with formulas now allowed as sources of data for the AGGREGATE command, eliminating the necessity to design and store data at the detail level. Aggregation, particularly dynamic aggregation, is another zone where Oracle9i and now 10g OLAP are a distinct improvement over Express and it's well worth looking at this zone in more detail if this is an issue with an existing Express system.
More details on Oracle10g OLAP's unusual features can live organize in the OLAP Application Developer's Guide, the OLAP DML Reference and a white paper by Bud Endress, "OLAP Option to the Oracle10g Database."
4. The Tune MView Advisor and improvements to Query Rewrite[ recrudesce to Table of Contents ]
Query Rewrite (the faculty for Oracle to transparently redirect queries from detail smooth to summary tables) is one of the best data warehousing features in Oracle8i and 9i, but it's sometimes a bit temperamental and you can often find that queries don't actually rep rewritten. Sometimes this is because you've broken one of the Query Rewrite restrictions, sometimes it's because your materialized view doesn't accommodate the redress columns and aggregates. Oracle 10g has a number of improvements to Query Rewrite and the materialized view tuning process that should fulfill this process a bit more productive. With Oracle Database 10g, query rewrite is now feasible when your SELECT statement contains analytic functions, plenary outer joins and set operations such as UNION, MINUS and INTERSECT. In addition, you can now exhaust a hint, /*+ REWRITE_OR_ERROR */, which will desist the execution of a SQL statement if query rewrite cannot occur.
SQL> SELECT /*+ REWRITE_OR_ERROR */ 2 s.prod_id, 3 sum(s.quantity_sold) 4 FROM sales s 5 GROUP BY s.prod_id; FROM sales s * oversight at line 4: ORA-30393: a query block in the statement did not rewrite
Oracle9i came with two packages, DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_MVIEW and DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_REWRITE that could live used to diagnose why a materialized view wasn't being used for query rewrite. However, although these packages told you why rewrite hadn't happened, they left it down to you to labor out how to alter your CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW statement to ensure that rewrite happened correctly. Oracle Database 10g comes with a unusual advisor package, DBMS_ADVISOR.TUNE_MVIEW, that takes as its input a CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW DML statement, and outputs a corrected version that supports query rewrite and features such as speedily refresh.
More details on Query Rewrite improvements and the Tune MView Adviser can live organize in the TUNE_MVIEW online documentation, the Query Rewrite online documents and this Oracle Database 10g Oracle-by-Example tutorial.
5. Data Pump: The replacement for import and export[ recrudesce to Table of Contents ]
Data Pump is a replacement for the venerable IMP and EXP applications used for creating logical backups of Oracle tables, schemas or databases. Data Pump is a server application (as opposed to IMP and EXP, which were client applications), which in beta testing was twice as speedily as the used EXP for exporting data, and 10 times as speedily as the used IMP for importing data. Data Pump is callable either through the DBMS_DATAPUMP package, through the replacements for IMP and EXP, known as IMPDB and EXPDB, or through a wizard delivered as portion of Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g.
Data Pump (and the unusual IMPDB and EXPDB applications) offers a number of improvements over the used IMPORT and EXPORT, including resumable/restartable jobs, automatic two-level parallelism, a network mode that uses DBLINKs/listener service names instead of pipes, fine-grained expostulate selection (so you can select individual tables, view, packages, indexes and so on for import or export, not just tables or schemas as with IMPORT and EXPORT), and a fully callable API that allows Data Pump functionality to live embedded in third-party ETL packages.
More details on Data Pump can live organize in this OracleWorld white paper by George Claborn, "Data Pump in Oracle Database 10g: Foundation for ultra-high-speed data movement utilities,", OTN's online documentation and this Oracle-by-example tutorial.
6. Improvements to storage management[ recrudesce to Table of Contents ]
Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is one of the 'cool unusual features' in Oracle10g that is meant to reduce the workload for Oracle DBAs. ASM completely automates the process of creating logical volumes, file systems and filenames, with the DBA only specifying the location of raw disks and ASM doing the rest. Disk I/O is managed by evenly distributing the data across blocks within a disk group, with ASM in addition handling disk mirroring and the creation of mirror groups and failure groups.
ASM deals with the problems caused by rapidly expanding data warehouses, where administators can no longer deal with the sheer number of disk units, nodes and logical groupings, and is a key feature of the Oracle 10g Grid Architecture, which aims to 'virtualize' computing power and present database features dote processing and storage as utilities that effectively manage themselves.
More details on Automatic Storage Management can live organize in this OTN article by Lannes Morris-Murphy, this Oracle-by-example tutorial (which comes with a number of demonstration viewlets) and OTN's online documentation.
7. Faster plenary table scans[ recrudesce to Table of Contents ]
Full table scans are common in data warehousing environments, and with this in mind, table scan performance has been improved in Oracle10g. Code optimization in Oracle Database 10g has decreased CPU consumption and this leads to faster table scan execution (when queries are CPU bound, rather than I/O bound), and gives the potential for greater query concurrency, offering up to 30-40% precipitate improvements when comparing CPU-bound queries.
8. Automatic tuning and maintenance[ recrudesce to Table of Contents ]
Automatic maintenance and tuning has always been one of the key product differentiators for Microsoft SQL Server and with Oracle10g, features that meet and match those organize in competitor products are being introduced to the server technology stack.
Surveys present that over 50% of a DBAs time is spend tuning and monitoring the database server, a chore that while well-known is often tangled and difficult to rep exactly right. With Oracle Database 10g, Oracle has introduced a number of components that together fulfill it feasible for the database server to monitor itself, fulfill intelligent changes to configuration, and alert DBAs when situations arise that necessity manual intervention.
The first component in this framework is the Automatic Workload Repository, which uses an enhanced version of Statspack to collect instance statistics every 30 minutes and stores these for a rolling seven day period. This enhanced version of Statspack now collects a broader reach of statistics and has a number of optimizations to streamline the artery high-cost SQL statements are captured, ensuring that only SQL activity that has significantly affected performance since the final snapshot are collected. The usage information stored in the Automatic Workload Repository is then used as the basis for entire the self-management functionality in Oracle Database 10g.
Next up is the Automatic Maintenance Tasks feature, which acts on the statistics gathered by the Automatic Workload Repository, and carries out tasks such as index rebuilding, refreshing statistics and so on, where such tasks don't require any manual intervention by the DBA. A unusual scheduling feature known as Unified Scheduler runs these tasks during a predefined maintenance window, set by default to live between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am the next day, although these times can live customized to reduce repercussion on other tasks (such as batch loads) that might live taking place.
The third component of the self-managing framework is Server Generated Alerts, a system where the database server sends notifications via e-mail to the DBA -- including a recommendation as to how best to deal with the situation. Alerts will normally live raised where the database itself cannot deal with the situation that has arisen, such as when there is insufficient space on a disk unit to extend a datafile.
Lastly, and perhaps the most exiting of entire the self-managing component frameworks, is the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor. This component analyzes the data captured in the Automatic Workload Repository and uses an synthetic intelligence algorithm, similar to that organize in Oracle Expert, to analyze areas such as lock contention, CPU bottlenecks, I/O usage and contention, issues with checkpointing and so on, in much the very artery that a DBA would currently achieve by analyzing statspack reports.
More details on the self-tuning and maintenance features in Oracle 10g can live organize in this OracleWorld white paper, "Oracle Database 10g: The self-managing database," by Sushil Kumar.
9. Asynchronous Change Data Capture[ recrudesce to Table of Contents ]
Oracle Change Data Capture was introduced with Oracle9i, and provided the faculty to track changes to tables and store them in a change table, for further consumption by an ETL process. Oracle9i Change Data Capture worked by creating triggers on the source tables, transferring data synchronously but creating a processing overhead and requiring access to the structure of the source tables. Because of the effect that the triggers had on the underlying tables, many warehouse projects did without change data capture and used other methods to capture changes.
Oracle10g introduces Asynchronous Change Data Capture, which instead of using triggers uses the database log files to capture changes and apply them to collection tables. Asynchronous Change Data Capture therefore doesn't require changes to the table structure and doesn't repercussion on database performance.
More details on Asynchronous Change Data Capture can live organize in this OTN white paper, "On-time data warehousing with Oracle 10g -- Information at the precipitate of your business," which likewise details improvements to the transportable tablespaces feature in Oracle Database 10g (tablespaces no longer necessity to live sourced from the very O/S platform).
10. Improvements to Oracle data mining[ recrudesce to Table of Contents ]
Alongside the inclusion of the Oracle Express multidimensional OLAP engine, Oracle9i likewise embedded data mining functionality in the database together, and this data mining functionality has been enhanced with Oracle Database 10g. Oracle Database 10g adds back for two unusual classification routines, back Vector Machine (used for top-down rather than a bottom-up calculations, assuming the best feasible proper and then working backwards to what can live achieved) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorisation, together with back for Frequent Itemsets, used for such functions as market basket analysis and propensity analysis.
More details on what's unusual with Oracle10g Data Mining can live organize in the OTN online documentation.
About the author:Mark Rittman works for Plus Consultancy, an Oracle colleague specializing in commerce intelligence and data warehousing solutions, based in Brighton, England. He manages their data warehousing exercise and spends most time designing and pile BI&W systems based on the Oracle9i platform. Away from Plus, he's likewise the chair of the UKOUG commerce Intelligence & Reporting Tools SIG, working as a liason between the Oracle BI tools community and Oracle. Check out Mark's Web site at www.rittman.net.
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Change is a fact of life, and each of the major DBMS products changes quite rapidly. A typical release cycle for DBMS software is 18 to 24 months for major releases, with constant bug fixes and maintenance updates delivered between major releases. Indeed, keeping DBMS software up-to-date can live a full-time job.
The DBA must develop an approach to upgrading DBMS software that conforms to the organization’s needs and minimizes commerce disruptions due to outages and database unavailability.
You may beget noticed that I exhaust the terms version and release by far interchangeably. That is fine for a broad discussion of DBMS upgrades, but a more precise definition is warranted. For a better discussion of the differences between a version and a release, delight refer to the sidebar.
A DBMS version upgrade can live thought of as a special case of a unusual installation. entire the procedures required of a unusual installation apply to an upgrade: You must scheme for confiscate resources, reconsider entire system parameters, and ensure that entire supporting software is appropriately connected. However, another solemn issue must live planned for: existing users and applications. An upgrade needs to live planned to antecedent as cramped disruption to the existing users as possible. Furthermore, any additional software that works with the DBMS (such as purchased applications, DBA tools, utilities, and so on) must live verified to live compatible with the unusual DBMS version. Therefore, upgrading can live a tricky and difficult task.
In a complex, heterogeneous, distributed database environment, a coherent upgrade strategy is essential. Truthfully, even organizations with only a lone DBMS should approach DBMS upgrades cautiously and scheme accordingly. Failure to scheme a DBMS upgrade can result in indelicate and inefficient adoption of unusual features, performance degradation of unusual and existing applications, and downtime.
Upgrading to a unusual DBMS release offers both rewards and risks. The following are some of the benefits of poignant to a unusual release:
Developers can avail themselves of unusual features and functionality delivered only in the unusual release. If evolution requires a unusual feature, or can simply benefit from a unusual feature, program evolution time can live reduced or made more cost-effective.
For purchased applications, the application vendor may require a specific DBMS version or release for specific versions of its application to enable specific functionality within the application.
New DBMS releases usually deliver enhanced performance and availability features that can optimize existing applications. Sometimes a unusual DBMS release is required to scale applications to back additional users or larger amounts of data.
DBMS vendors often provide better back and respond to problems faster for a unusual release of their software. DBMS vendors are loath to allow sinful publicity about bugs in a unusual and heavily promoted version of their products.
Cost savings may accrue by upgrading to a unusual DBMS release. Some vendors freight additionally when a company uses multiple versions of a DBMS, such as the unusual version in a test environment and the used in production. When both are migrated to the very version, the price tag for the DBMS sometimes can live reduced.
Production migration to a unusual DBMS release will align the test and production database environments, thereby providing a consistent environment for evolution and implementation. If a unusual release is running in the test environment for too long, database administration and application evolution tasks become more difficult because the test databases will operate differently from the production databases.
However, an efficacious DBMS upgrade strategy must equipoise the benefits against the risks of upgrading to arrive at the best timeline for migrating to a unusual DBMS version or release. The risks of upgrading to a unusual DBMS release comprehend the following:
An upgrade to the DBMS usually involves some smooth of disruption to commerce operations. At a minimum, databases will not live available while the DBMS is being upgraded. This can result in downtime and lost commerce opportunities if the DBMS upgrade occurs during bona fide commerce hours (or if there is no planned downtime). Clustered database implementations may permit some database availability while individual database clusters are migrated to the unusual DBMS version.
Other disruptions can occur, such as having to convert database structures or discovering that previously supported features were removed from the unusual release (thereby causing application errors). Delays to application implementation timelines are another possibility.
The cost of an upgrade can live a significant barrier to DBMS release migration. First, the cost of the unusual version or release must live budgeted for (price increases for a unusual DBMS version can amount to as much as 10 to 25 percent). The upgrade cost must likewise factor in the costs of planning, installing, testing, and deploying not just the DBMS but likewise any applications that exhaust databases. Finally, live certain to comprehend the cost of any unusual resources (such as memory, storage, additional CPUs) required to exhaust the unusual features delivered by the unusual DBMS version.6
DBMS vendors usually tout the performance gains that can live achieved with a unusual release. However, when SQL optimization techniques change, it is feasible that a unusual DBMS release will generate SQL access paths that fulfill worse than before. DBAs must implement a rigorous testing process to ensure that unusual access paths are helping, not harming, application performance. When performance suffers, application code may necessity to live changed—a very costly and time-consuming endeavor. A rigorous test process should live able to enmesh most of the access path changes in the test environment.
New DBMS releases may antecedent features and syntax that are being used in existing applications to live deprecated.7 When this occurs, the applications must live modified before migration to the unusual release can proceed.
To buy handicap of improvements implemented in a unusual DBMS release, the DBA may beget to apply some invasive changes. For example, if the unusual version increases the maximum size for a database object, the DBA may beget to drop and recreate that expostulate to buy handicap of the unusual maximum. This will live the case when the DBMS adds internal control structures to facilitate such changes.
Supporting software products may want immediate back for a unusual DBMS release. Supporting software includes the operating system, transaction processors, message queues, purchased applications, DBA tools, evolution tools, and query and reporting software.
After weighing the benefits of upgrading against the risks of a unusual DBMS release, the DBA group must create an upgrade scheme that works for the organization. Sometimes the determination will live to upgrade immediately upon availability, but often there is a lag between the generic availability of a unusual release and its widespread adoption.
When the risks of a unusual release outweigh the benefits, some organizations may elect to skip an interim release if doing so does not repercussion a future upgrade. For example, a pleasurable number of Oracle customers migrated directly from Oracle7 to Oracle8i, skipping Oracle8. If the DBMS vendor does not allow users to bypass a version or release, it is soundless feasible to “skip” a release by waiting to implement that release until the next release is available. For example, deem the following scenario:
ABC Corporation is using DB Version 8 from DBCorp.
DBCorp announces Version 9 of DB.
ABC Corporation analyzes the features and risks and determines not to upgrade immediately.
DBCorp later announces DB Version 10 and that no direct migration path will live provided from Version 8 to Version 10.
ABC Corporation decides that DB Version 10 provides many useful features and wants to upgrade its current Version 8 implementation of DB. However, it has no compelling intuition to first implement and exhaust Version 9.
To fulfill its requirements, ABC Corporation first upgrades Version 8 to Version 9 and then immediately upgrades Version 9 to Version 10.
Although a multiple-release upgrade takes more time, it allows customers to effectively control when and how they will migrate to unusual releases of a DBMS instead of being held hostage by the DBMS vendor. When attempting a multiple-release upgrade of this type, live certain to fully understand the features and functionality added by the DBMS vendor for each interim release. In the case of the hypothetical ABC Corporation, the DBAs would necessity to research and prepare for the unusual features of not just Version 10 but likewise Version 9.
An confiscate DBMS upgrade strategy depends on many things. The following sections profile the issues that must live factored into an efficacious DBMS release upgrade strategy.
Features and Complexity
Perhaps the biggest factor in determining when and how to upgrade to a unusual DBMS release is the functionality supported by the unusual release. Tightly coupled to functionality is the inherent complexity involved in supporting and administering unusual features.
It is more difficult to detain an upgrade if application developers are clamoring for unusual DBMS features. If DBMS functionality can minimize the cost and ail of application development, the DBA group will feel pressure to migrate swiftly to the unusual release. An additional factor that will coerce rapid adoption of a unusual release is when DBMS problems are fixed in the unusual release (instead of through regular maintenance fixes).
Regardless of a unusual release’s “bells and whistles,” certain administration and implementation details must live addressed before upgrading. The DBA group must ensure that standards are modified to comprehend the unusual features, educate developers and users as to how unusual features labor and should live used, and prepare the infrastructure to back the unusual DBMS functionality.
The types of changes required to back the unusual functionality must live factored into the upgrade strategy. When the DBMS vendor makes changes to internal structures, data page layouts, or address spaces, the risks of upgrading are greater. Additional testing is warranted in these situations to ensure that database utilities, DBA tools, and data extraction and movement tools soundless labor with the revised internal structures.
Complexity of the DBMS Environment
The more tangled your database environment is, the more difficult it will live to upgrade to a unusual DBMS release. The first complexity issue is the size of the environment. The greater the number of database servers, instances, applications, and users, the greater the complexity. Additional concerns comprehend the types of applications being supported. A DBMS upgrade is easier to implement if only simple, batch-oriented applications are involved. As the complexity and availability requirements of the applications increase, the rigor of upgrading likewise increases.
Location of the database servers likewise affects the release upgrade strategy. Effectively planning and deploying a DBMS upgrade across multiple database servers at various locations supporting different lines of commerce is difficult. It is likely that an upgrade strategy will involve periods of supporting multiple versions of the DBMS at different locations and for different applications. Supporting different versions in production should live avoided, but that is not always possible.
Finally, the complexity of the applications that access your databases must live considered. The more tangled your applications are, the more difficult it will live to ensure their continuing uninterrupted functionality when the DBMS is modified. Complexity issues comprehend the following:
Usage of stored procedures and user-defined functions.
Complexity of the SQL—the more tables involved in the SQL and the more tangled the SQL features, the more difficult it becomes to ensure that access path changes achieve not repercussion performance.
Client/server processing—network usage and usage of multiple tiers complicates testing the unusual DBMS release.
Applications that are designed, coded, and generated by a framework or an IDE (for example, Hibernate) may beget additional components that necessity to live tested with a unusual DBMS release.
Integration with other infrastructure software such as message queues and transaction processors can complicate migration because unusual versions of these products may live required to back the unusual DBMS release.
The language used by the programs might likewise repercussion DBMS release migration due to different back for compiler versions, changes to APIs (application programming interfaces), or unusual ways of embedding SQL into application programs.
Reputation of the DBMS Vendor
DBMS vendors beget different reputations for technical support, fixing bugs, and responding to problems, which is why customer references are so well-known when choosing a database.
The better the reputation of the vendor, the greater the likelihood of organizations rapidly adopting a unusual release. If the DBMS vendor is pleasurable at responding to problems and supporting its customers as they migrate to unusual releases, those customers will more actively engage in migration activities.
Support Policies of the DBMS
As unusual releases are introduced, DBMS vendors will retire older releases and no longer back them. The length of time that the DBMS vendor will back an used release must live factored into the DBMS release migration strategy. You should never race a DBMS release in production that is no longer supported by the vendor. If problems occur, the DBMS vendor will not live able to resolve them for you.
Sometimes a DBMS vendor will provide back for a retired release on a special basis and at an increased maintenance charge. If you absolutely must continue using a retired DBMS release (for commerce or application issues), live certain to investigate the DBMS vendor’s policies regarding back for retired releases of its software.
Every organization displays characteristics that divulge its style when it comes to adopting unusual products and technologies. Industry analysts at Gartner, Inc., beget ranked organizations into three distinct groups labeled types A, B, and C. A type-A enterprise is technology driven and, as such, is more likely to risk using unusual and unproven technologies to try to gain a competitive advantage. A type-B organization is less willing to buy risks but will adopt unusual technologies once others beget shaken out the bugs. Finally, a type-C enterprise, very conscious of cost and averse to risk, will lag behind the majority when it comes to migrating to unusual technology.
Only type-A organizations should scheme on poignant aggressively to unusual DBMS releases immediately upon availability and only if the unusual features of the release will deliver advantages to the company. Type-C enterprises should adopt a very conservative strategy to ensure that the DBMS release is stable and well tested by type-A and type-B companies first. Type-B organizations will drop somewhere between types A and C: Almost never upgrading immediately, the type-B company will adopt the unusual release after the earliest users beget shaken out the biggest problems, but well before type-C enterprises.
DBA Staff Skill Set
Upgrading the DBMS is easier if your DBA staff is highly skilled and/or experienced. The risk of an upgrade increases as the skills of the DBA staff decrease. If your DBAs are not highly skilled, or beget never migrated a DBMS to a unusual release, deem augmenting your DBA staff with consultants for the upgrade. Deploying an integrated team of internal DBAs and consultants will ensure that your upgrade goes as smoothly as possible. Furthermore, the DBA staff will live better prepared to wield the future upgrades alone.
If consultants will live required, live certain to comprehend their contracting cost in the DBMS release upgrade budget. The budget should allow you to retain the consultants until entire production database environments are stable.
When a DBMS vendor unleashes a unusual release of its product, not entire platforms and operating systems are immediately supported. The DBMS vendor usually first supports the platforms and operating systems for which it has the most licensed customers. The order in which platforms are supported for a unusual release is likely to disagree for each DBMS vendor. For example, Linux for System z is more strategic to IBM than to Oracle, so a unusual DB2 release will most likely back Linux for System z very quickly, whereas this may not live moral of Oracle. The issue is even thornier for UNIX platforms because of the sheer number of UNIX variants in the marketplace. The most common variants are Oracle’s Solaris, IBM’s AIX, Hewlett-Packard’s HP-UX, and Linux, the open-source version of UNIX (the Red Hat and Suse distributions are supported more frequently and rapidly than others). Most DBMS vendors will back these UNIX platforms quickly upon generic availability. Other less common varieties of UNIX will buy longer for the DBMS vendors to support.
When planning your DBMS upgrade, live certain to deem the DBMS platforms you exhaust and try to gauge the priority of your platform to your vendor. live certain to build some lag time into your release migration strategy to accommodate the vendor’s delivery schedule for your specific platforms.
Carefully deem the repercussion of a DBMS upgrade on any supporting software. Supporting software includes purchased applications, DBA tools, reporting and analysis tools, and query tools. Each software vendor will beget a different time frame for supporting and exploiting a unusual DBMS release. Review the sidebar to understand the dissimilarity between back and exploitation of a unusual DBMS release.
Some third-party utensil vendors succeed guidelines for supporting and exploiting unusual DBMS releases. Whenever possible, question your vendors to situation their policies for DBMS upgrade support. Your vendors will probably not consign to any firm date or date reach to back unusual versions and releases—some DBMS versions are larger and more complicated and therefore buy longer to fully exploit.
Each unusual DBMS version or release should reach with a manual that outlines the unusual features of the release and describes the fallback procedures to recrudesce to a prior release of the DBMS. live certain to review the fallback procedures provided by the DBMS vendor in its release guide. You may necessity to recrudesce to a previous DBMS release if the upgrade contains a bug, performance problems ensue, or other problems arise during or immediately after migration. preserve in irony that fallback is not always an option for every unusual DBMS release.
If fallback is possible, succeed the DBMS vendor’s recommended procedures to enable it. You may necessity to detain the implementation of certain unusual features for fallback to remain an option. Understand fully the limitations imposed by the DBMS vendor on fallback, and exploit unusual features only when fallback is no longer an option for your organization.
The DBA should implement procedures—similar to those for a unusual installation—to verify that the DBMS release upgrade is satisfactory. fulfill the very steps as with a brand-new DBMS install, but likewise test a representative sampling of your in-house applications to verify that the DBMS upgrade is working correctly and performing satisfactorily.
The DBMS Upgrade Strategy
In general, design your DBMS release upgrade policy according to the guidelines discussed in the preceding sections. Each specific DBMS upgrade will live unique, but the strategies we’ve discussed will benefit you to achieve success more readily. A well-thought-out DBMS upgrade strategy will prepare you to back unusual DBMS releases with minimum repercussion on your organization and in a style best suited to your company.
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