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initial necessities:You gain to pass two tests that cowl favorite Linux potential ($178 each and every). The assessments cover simple abilities that are habitual to most captious distributions of Linux.
carrying on with necessities:You must recertify within 5 years after receiving your certification designation. To recertify, you exigency to circulate everything of the current checks that are required for your maximum earned certification designation.
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LPIC-1 (examination codes a hundred and one-four hundred and 102-four hundred) is the primary certification in LPI’s multi-stage Linux skilled certification software. The LPIC-1 will validate the candidate's capacity to operate preservation projects on the command line, install and configure a pc operating Linux and configure fundamental networking.
The LPIC-1 is designed to replicate current research and validate a candidate's talent in precise world gadget administration. The aims are tied to real-world job expertise, which they investigate via job task analysis surveying everything the passage through examination development.
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Exam 101 Linux Server Professional Certification LPIC-1 Exam Prep
The LPIC-1 will validate your competence to effect maintenance tasks with the command line, install & configure a computer running Linux and exist able to configure basic networking. Certifyhill’s guaranteed certifications App for Exam 101 Linux Server Professional Certification LPIC-1 Exam Prep is comprehensive and helps you merit your certification and gain knowledge.
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• System Architecture• Linux Installation and Package Management• GNU and Unix Commands• Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
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June 5, 2000Web posted at: 10:19 a.m. EDT (1419 GMT)
by Joe Barr
(IDG) -- I should exist studying. I should exist in a classroom. I should exist cramming for my exam. But I'm not. I'm sitting here at my computer dutifully writing this column, even though I know that at about this time next week, I'll exist in Austin, Texas, taking the first of two plane 1 LPI Linux certification exams. I know I'm not going to Do very well, but that's OK; I'm not obligated to humiliate myself by revealing my score. After taking both exams for plane 1, however, I should gain a pretty suitable notion of what is considered an acceptable plane of information for a junior Linux system administrator.
Linux certification is an notion that has been around for a long time and is now coming to fruition. There are two primary entities working to provide Linux professionals with credentials. The first is SAIR; the second is LPI, the Linux Professional Institute. If you are not intimate with Linux certification, I recommend Eileen Cohen's excellent analysis, which appeared in LinuxWorld earlier this year. The URL is given below in the Resources section of this article.
The goals of the two primary groups are very similar. The primary contrast is that SAIR is a for-profit corporation offering both testing and training, while LPI is a nonprofit organization focusing exclusively on testing. Wave Technologies, which recently purchased SAIR, is in fact a major provider of IT training.
Both LPI and SAIR hunt to forward Linux in the enterprise. Each has impeccable credentials of its own. Some of the brightest lights in the open source world serve on SAIR's advisory board. LPI is simply a piece of the Linux community doing something that needs to exist done.
Evan Leibovitch, who has been involved with Unix and Linux for a long time, and who has written about Linux for the past five years, is one of the founders of the LPI. Evan asked recently if I would infatuation to Take the first-level LPI exam, currently in beta. I hesitated a day before accepting the offer, for no understanding other than awe of failing.
At first I hoped that I would exist able to Take the test online, but the exams are only given in controlled environments, so that people don't invent it an open bespeak test or gain proxies Take the exam for them. But VUE (Virtual University Enterprises), which administers the certification exams for LPI, has three locations in the Austin area, so finding a nearby testing hub was not a problem. I'm booked for 10:30 a.m. on May 31. deem suitable thoughts for me.
I'm always amazed and a runt in awe of what the people in the Linux community Take it upon themselves to do. LPI is no exception. Now about 1,000 strong, and less than two years old, it is finishing beta testing on its plane 1 certification program as I type. You should exist able to merit your LPI plane 1 certification as early as this summer. drudgery is already underway on the plane 2 exams, and a third level, for senior administrators, will follow.
Evan has been involved with Unix for many years, and with Linux since 1995. As a journalist, he has written about both, and he currently writes a weekly column on Linux for ZDNet. He told me that he can silent recollect when he first got hooked by Linux. It was at the November 1995 Unix Expo in unusual York, following Novell's announcement that it was selling its Unix interests to SCO. Evan said, "I spent most of the relaxation of the day at the booths of Caldera and Red Hat, which had very tiny booths at that show. And basically that was the start of my getting hooked."
The current LPI organization is blended from two divide mailing lists and a third Linux community certification project, Digital Metrics. Evan was not satisfied with simply writing about Linux and became an lively member of the community. He helped to institute CLUE, the Canadian Linux Users Exchange, and it was from CLUE's general mailing list that the first roots of the LPI appeared.
Evan said that someone on the list asked what Linux needed to invent it into the mainstream. The concede that came up most often was certification, and soon the topic warranted a list of its own. Among the early participants on the list was Dr. Tobin Maginnis, founder and president of SAIR.
In 1998, Dan York wrote an article about certification in the Linux Gazette, and it generated enough interest that a mailing list formed around it as well. Not long afterwards, one of Linux's roving ambassadors, Jon "maddog" Hall, introduced Evan and Dan. The result was a merger of the lists and the formation of LPI.
LPI has made worthy strides since its formation a year and a half ago. For one thing, members gain rethought how LPI would exploit the problem of testing for distribution-specific knowledge. Originally, LPI planned to proffer two tests, one general and one distribution specific. Candidates would gain everything had to Take the common exam, and then pick the distribution for which they wanted to exist tested in piece two.
But as LPI members looked more closely at the feedback received from the community about the types of things that a junior, intermediate, and advanced Linux admin should know, they discovered that the places where the distributions were different -- primarily their installation and selection of GUI -- weren't areas that needed to exist tested that deeply.
Instead, the people at LPI gain designed one section of the second exam to deal with differences between dpkg and RPM package management. Evan said, "It was not reasonable to gain an exam that would cover basic admin tasks that didn't deal with package management." But he added that if you know only dpkg and not RPM, or vice versa, you will exist able to pass.
If I'm not totally humiliated by the exam, I'll Take the second piece as well and provide as many details about it as I'm allowed. I can't report on any specific questions, of course, but I'll cover topics, toughness, and the test environment.
Looking towards the future, LPI plans to gain the second plane of testing, for the intermediate Linux system administrator, available in less than a year. No timetable has been set for the third-level test, which will exist released sometime after the second. Evan also told me that LPI is working closely with the Linux standard groundwork (LSB), so that when LSB finalizes its specification, it becomes the foundation for the LPI testing.
Will SAIR and LPI ever merge? I don't believe it would exist a inferior thing if they did, but I personally don't notice how it can happen. A founding principle of LPI was the separation of training and testing, and SAIR is owned by a training firm. So in certification, just infatuation so many other aspects of Linux and the open source community, they are blessed with choice.
My Take on everything of this is that folks infatuation Evan and Dan and everything the others who gain contributed time, money, ideas, or endeavor to LPI are doing everything the relaxation of the Linux community a very worthy service. The enterprise is involved not only for Linux itself, but for qualified professionals to administer it. The certification of a pool of Linux professionals can only befriend to precipitate its deployment.
Linux struggles to merit beuond the WebJune 2, 2000Troubleshooting the Linux wayMay 17, 2000Two Linux standards groups combine into oneMay 10, 2000Security solid warns of Red Hat Piranha 'back door'April 27, 2000Linux livin' great on mainframeApril 5, 2000
RELATED IDG.net STORIES:
High require for initial vendor-neutral Linux certification tests(Linuxworld)Simply useful: Spare, powerful desktops for Linux(Linuxworld)New tools on horizon boost Linux appeal(Computerworld unusual Zealand)Troubleshooting the Linux way(Linuxworld)Embedded Linux basics(Linuxworld)Two Linux standards groups combine into one(Computerworld)Open source smugglers(Computerworld)How the Linux community is trying to avoid Unix's mistakes(The Industry Standard)
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More than 20 years after Linus Torvalds developed Linux, this operating system remains a genuine compel in the computing industry. While Linux is not widely used on desktops (making up about 3 percent of the overall desktop operating system market share in October 2017, according to NetMarketShare), it is extraordinarily tough on the web server side, where it enjoys a market share of more than 50 percent (W3Techs).
IT professionals invest considerable time learning about server computing for everything from installation, configuration, maintenance and virtualization to application support and so forth. This also means that many IT professionals are working with and around Linux operating systems daily, often alongside Windows and various UNIX OS brands as well.
The best of the Linux certifications vie for considerable mindshare among IT professionals and present an titillating mingle of distribution (or brand) agnostic credentials alongside some pretty formidable vendor-specific credentials. There are multiple well-elaborated certification ladders available to those interested in learning, using and mastering the Linux operating system environment and everything the many bells and whistles it supports.
The results of a job search they conducted on several favorite job posting sites display which Linux certifications employers are looking for when hiring unusual employees. While results vary from day to day (and job board to job board), this recites those Linux-related certifications that employers were seeking.
Job Board Survey Results (in alphabetical order, by certification)
GCUX (SANS GIAC)
Oracle Linux OCA
Oracle Linux OCP
RHCA (Red Hat)
RHCE (Red Hat)
RHCSA (Red Hat)
Linux system administrators and engineers can await mediocre earnings in the low-70s and upward, depending on the job role. PayScale lists $70,194 as the mediocre salary for Linux system administrators ($49,000/low and $100,000/high). mediocre earnings for Linux system engineers were reported at $78,571 ($61,000/low to $100,000/high), while senior Linux system engineer salaries averaged $101,097, with low earnings at $77,000 but some receiving more than $140,000 on the lofty end. Glassdoor reports earnings for Linux system administrators averaging $71,144, Linux system engineers at $103,312 and senior Linux system engineers at $128,022.
GCUX: GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator
The Global Information Assurance Certification (GIAC) program is piece of SANS, a highly regarded source of instruction and research in the information security field. SANS also provides breaking news, operates a security alert service and serves on everything kinds of government, research and academic information security task forces, working groups and industry organizations.
The SANS GIAC program encompasses more than 35 information security certifications across several categories, such as cyber defense, penetration testing, incident response and forensics, management, audit, legal, developer and industrial control systems. The GIAC Certified UNIX System Administrator (GCUX) falls under the Cyber Defense category, and aims at professionals who install, configure, monitor and audit both Unix and Linux systems.
GIAC certifications must exist renewed every four years by earning 36 continuing professional taste (CPE) credits. In addition, credential holders must pay a certification maintenance fee of $429 every four years.
GCUX Facts & Figures
GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator (GCUX)
Prerequisites & Required Courses
None; SEC506: Securing Linux/Unix training recommended (classroom, on demand, self study or private; $6,210)
Number of Exams
One exam (75 questions, two hours, minimum passing score 68 percent)
Cost per Exam
$1,699 without training (called a GIAC certification attempt; includes two free drill exams)$729 as piece of a training course$729 retake fee$429 certification renewal
Practice tests available on the GIAC exam preparation page (two tests included in exam fee; additional drill tests are $149 each). No GCUX-specific study guides found; GIAC recommends searching for self-study materials based on the GCUX objectives' information areas and getting practical experience.
Linux+ (CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI)
CompTIA exercises extraordinary certification clout at the entry plane in many IT niches. This non-profit organization has shown itself as willing to team up with more focused IT organizations, associations and consortia to combine their own market compass and visibility with niche smarts and subject matter expertise on loan from various partners.
One worthy sample is the organization's partnership with the Linux Professional Institute (LPI), which resulted in the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential. This unique certification replaced the original CompTIA Linux+ certification in 2010 and uses the very two exams required for LPIC-1 certification.
As a result of this partnership, IT professionals who are grave about Linux can merit both the Linux+ credential and the LPIC-1 at the very time. Candidates must first merit the Linux+ credential and then submit a request to CompTIA asking that their results exist sent to LPI to obtain the LPIC-1 certification. CompTIA exam records are confidential, so candidates must request that their records exist forwarded to LPI when taking the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI exams.
Earning the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI requires candidates to pass two exams. The first covers system architecture, installation and package management, GNU and Unix commands, devices, file systems and standard file system hierarchies. The second exam digs into command shells, scripting and data management, user interfaces and desktops, administrative tasks and activities, basic system services, networking fundamentals and security topics.
The Linux+ credential is sound for life.
CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI Facts & Figures
CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI
Prerequisites & Required Courses
Recommended: CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+ and 12 months of Linux administration experience
Number of Exams
Two exams: LX0-103 and LX0-104 (60 multiple-choice questions each, 90 minutes, 500 required out of 200 to 800 scale to pass)
CompTIA maintains a list of training materials and additional study options including links to study guides, exam crams, drill tests, online and classroom training, CertMaster and more. Additional third-party review materials may exist institute on Amazon.
LPI (Linux Professional Institute) Certifications
The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) came into being in October of 1999, almost one decade after Linus Torvalds began his pioneering efforts on the Linux kernel. Since then, LPI has become one of the leading certification providers on Linux topics and technologies. Given the organization's distribution-agnostic approach to Linux, it offers excellent coverage of a platform that's available in many forms and flavors in today's marketplace.
The LPI Certification (LPIC) program is available in three discrete levels:
LPIC-1: Linux Administrator —A junior-level Linux certification with no prerequisites. Candidates must pass two exams that cover basic Linux skills, including installing and configuring Linux on a workstation, working at the command line, performing basic maintenance tasks, and making LAN or internet connections. While you can obtain the LPIC-1 credential directly from LPI, candidates should deem obtaining the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential first, which qualifies you for both the Linux+ and LPIC-1 credentials.
LPIC-2: Linux Engineer — An advanced-level Linux certification that requires an lively LPIC-1 certification. Candidates must pass two exams that cover significant Linux skills and topics. The first exam covers the kernel, system startup, file system and devices, advanced storage administration, network configuration, system maintenance and capacity planning. The second exam covers web services, file sharing, network client management, email services, system security and troubleshooting, and domain designation servers.
LPIC-3: Linux Enterprise Professional Certification — A senior-level Linux certification that requires an lively LPIC-2 and passing any unique exam in the 300 series. sound exam IDs currently comprehend 300: Mixed Environment, 303: Security and 304: Virtualization and lofty Availability. The Mixed Environment exam covers Samba (domain integration, user and group management, designation services, share configuration and so forth), plus OpenLDAP and working with Linux and Windows clients. The Security exam covers network, operations and application security, as well as cryptography and access controls. lofty availability cluster storage and management, along with virtualization, are covered in the Virtualization and lofty Availability exam.
In addition to the LPIC-1, 2 and 3 credentials, LPI also offers an entry-level credential, the Linux Essentials Professional development Certificate (PDC). Linux Essentials focuses on foundational skills, such as creating and running simple scripts, restoring compressed backups and archives, working with the command line, Linux operating system basics, FOSS, and users/groups and file permissions for public and private directories. Linux Essentials is a worthy passage to merit started while gaining the skills and information needed for the more challenging LPIC credentials.
LPI's newest certification is the LPIC-OT DevOps Tools Engineer, which recognizes the efficacious expend of tools for collaboration during system and software development. There are no prerequisites, and the unique exam lasts for 90 minutes and has 60 questions.
The LPIC credentials are worthwhile for IT pros whose chosen Linux distributions Do not warrant their own certification programs, and for those seeking broad, vendor- and distribution-neutral coverage of Linux topics, tools and technologies. They are favorite among IT staffers and in some require among IT employers.
LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 Facts & Figures
LPIC-1: Linux Administrator
LPIC-2: Linux Engineer
LPIC-3: Linux Enterprise Professional
Prerequisites & Required Courses
LPIC-1: None, Linux Essentials recommendedLPIC-2: lively LPIC-1 certificationLPIC-3: lively LPIC-2 certification plus completion of one of the 300 progression specialty examsTraining is recommended but not required
Number of Exams
LPIC-1: Exam 101-400 and Exam 102-400
LPIC-2: Exam 201-450 and Exam 202-450LPIC-3: One of the 300 progression exams:
Cost per Exam
$200 per exam. Exams administered by Pearson VUE. Linux ID required to register.
Study guides, courseware information packs, eLearning courses, exam crams, drill tests, online and classroom training, Linux Academy subscriptions and more are available at LPI Exam Preparation, LPI Marketplace and Amazon.
Oracle Linux OCA & OCP
When Oracle bought Sun Microsystems in 2010, it acquired a wealthy and abysmal Unix tradition. Oracle started phasing out Solaris pretty much immediately after finalizing the Sun acquisition.
Today, Oracle offers associate- and professional-level certifications based on Linux rather than harking back to any benevolent of Unix roots. These certifications retain enough of their Sun roots, however, so that courses are not mandatory preambles to taking the exams for the two Oracle Linux certifications currently available.
As with other vendor-specific Linux certifications, Oracle's are most appealing to those who drudgery with or around that distribution, or who wish to drudgery for employers who expend those distributions.
OCA and OCP Facts & Figures
Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System AdministratorOracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Linux 6 System Administrator
Prerequisites & Required Courses
OCA: No prerequisites. Recommended training: Oracle Linux System AdministrationOCP: OCA Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator or Linux Administrator Certified Associate (now retired). Recommended training: Oracle Linux System Administration
Number of Exams
OCA: One exam, 1Z0-100 Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administration (150 minutes, 80 questions, 61 percent to pass)OCP: One exam, 1Z0-105 Oracle Linux 6 Advanced System Administrator (150 minutes, 97 questions, 61 percent to pass)
Oracle offers online and in-class training for its credentials, with hit-or-miss coverage for them on the aftermarket. Start with Amazon searches — check exam IDs 1Z0-100 and 1Z0-105 to merit a sense for what's available.
Red Hat RHCSA, RHCE & RHCA
If there's one major star in the vendor-specific Linux certification firmament, it's got to exist Red Hat. The company has major market presence and grave duration as a commercial provider of Linux platforms and technologies.
Red Hat offers a typical administrator > engineer > architect certification ladder. Unlike many other such programs, however, it offers highly regarded and valued credentials at each rung, along with demanding and hands-on oriented exams and an excellent training curriculum to match. everything exams for the following Red Hat certifications are performance based and eventual two hours or longer.
The giveaway for Red Hat certifications is that everything near with acronyms that start with RH, as follows:
Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) — This foundation certification vets essential skills in handling files, working at the command line and using system documentation, along with managing systems (boot-up, identifying processes, start/stop virtual machines, controlling services), configuring storage partitions and analytic volumes, and more.
Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) — This cornerstone certification is designed to test and validate the skills and information necessary to drudgery as a senior-level Linux system administrator. Topics covered comprehend advanced IP routing and services, managing runtime kernel behavior, working with iSCSI, automating maintenance tasks with shell scripts and working with networking services for Web, FTP, NFS, SMB, SMTP, SSH and more. An RHSCA is a prerequisite for the RHCE.
Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) — Red Hat's pinnacle certification takes the RHCE or Red Hat Certified JBoss Developer (RHCJD) as a prerequisite, and also requires candidates to merit at least five certificates of expertise within one of the concentrations: Datacenter, Cloud, DevOps, Application Platform or Application Development. Expertise areas comprehend OpenStack, hybrid cloud storage, JBoss administration, platform as a service (PaaS), deployment and systems management, virtualization, clustering and storage management, server hardening and performance tuning. Each certificate requires passing a performance-based exam, which lasts up to six hours. Candidates who pass six or more exams merit the designation of RHCA plane II. This is a grueling, expensive and time-consuming credential to earn, but it's valued highly.
Because Red Hat Linux is widely used in the commerce world, it makes an excellent selection for those interested in a more platform-focused path into the Linux world. Of course, for those who already drudgery with or around Red Hat, it is a natural certification selection as well.
RHCSA, RHCE and RHCA Facts & Figures
Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA)Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA)
Prerequisites & Required Courses
RHCSA: No prerequisitesRecommended training:
Windows system administrators: Red Hat System Administration I (RH124) (5 days, $3,200) and II (RH134) (4 days, $3,200)
Red Hat System Administration III (RH254) ($3,200)
RHCA: RHCE or RHCJD, plus at least five certificates of expertise (for the DevOps concentration, the Red Hat Certified Developer may exist substituted for RHCE) Recommended training varies by concentration.
Number of Exams
RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) exam (2.5 hours)
RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam (3.5 hours)
RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you start as an RHCE or RHCJD (see below)
An RHCE must pass five exams from the following to achieve the RHCA:
EX210 — Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack
EX220 — Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Hybrid Cloud Management
EX236 — Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Hybrid Cloud Storage
EX248 — Red Hat Certified JBoss Administrator (RHCJA)
EX270 — Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Container Administration (retired)
EX276 — Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Containerized Application Development
EX280 — Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Platform-as-a-Service
EX310 — Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack
EX318 — Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator
EX342 — Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Red Hat Enterprise Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
EX401 — Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Deployment and Systems Management
EX403 – Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Deployment and Systems Management exam
EX405 — Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Configuration Management
EX407 — Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Ansible Automation
Red Hat skills assessments and other materials can exist located on the training page. Red Hat Training includes multiple training options (online, classroom, self-paced, virtual, video and more). Red Hat Learning Subscription includes everything online courses in one package; prices vary by geography, candidates can await to pay $5,500 for a Basic Subscription and $7,000 for a standard Subscription. Study guides are on Amazon.
Beyond the Top 5: More Linux Certifications
Outside the top five Linux credentials and programs covered in this article, there are other Linux certifications worthy of your time and attention.
The Linux Foundation, a membership-based organization, promotes the development of the Linux kernel through collaboration, conferences and education. The organization's small but respected certification program includes the Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) and the Linux Foundation Certified Engineer (LFCE).
IBM continues to proffer a handful of Linux-related certifications. One certification of interest is the Certified Advanced Database Administrator, which continues to exist in require for those running DB2 on Linux, Unix and Windows systems.
HPE offers a few certifications based on UNIX (which is similar to Linux) — the HP ASE –HP-UX 11iV3 Administrator V1 and the corresponding HP ATP credential. The HPE Certification and Learning website maintains a complete list of requirements and training for these and other HPE credentials.
In addition, HPE also offers a comprehensive Linux System Administration curriculum path consisting of courses for Linux/Unix administrators, fundamentals for Linux and Unix, enterprise system administration, network services, enterprise security administration and Linux troubleshooting. Candidates completing the HP Linux System Administration educational curriculum are prepared for the LPI plane 1 and 2 exams, SairLinux/GNU plane 1 exam and the Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam.
Many industry experts, including Steven J. Vaughn-Nichols, a long-time user and expert on Linux and Unix operating systems, drawl that certifications can exist an captious ingredient in a job candidate's qualifications. But interviewers should also pay near attention to how many Linux systems candidates gain set up, managed or used to merit a sense of the scale and scope of their experience.
In other words, when you notice a web hosting service advertising for Linux jobs, they're not looking for people who've installed and used Linux at home or in a small commerce setting; they're looking for professionals who've set up and managed Linux in a highly distributed and virtualized data hub environment, with lots of involved networking and services coming into the mix.
As other Linux certifications pop up, or as old-fashioned ones fade and unusual ones appear, IT pros would Do well to recollect that, along with their certifications, they should also gain compelling stories to order about how they've deployed and managed Linux, and establish a significant sense of scale and scope for their on-the-job efforts.
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