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Storage gigantic EMC is taking a comprehensive strategy to information loss prevention (DLP) with its RSA facts Loss Prevention Suite, which incorporates RSA DLP Datacenter, RSA DLP community and RSA DLP Endpoint with RSA trade supervisor; moreover, four RSA appliances are used for the DLP suite.
Editor's live aware: The RSA facts Loss Prevention Suite was lately discontinued, and the product hit End of basic aid on Jan. 31. RSA DLP will hit its End of extended aid date on Dec. 31, 2018.
The appliances used for the RSA facts Loss Prevention Suite encompass a Sensor equipment, which is employed for passive monitoring; an Interceptor appliance, which analyses and enforces guidelines for outbound e mail; an online content material Adaptation Protocol (ICAP) Server appliance, which communicates with ICAP-equipped net proxies to video parade and manage internet and FTP traffic; and a network Controller equipment, which manages entire the home gear and communicates with the home windows-based RSA commercial enterprise supervisor utility.
The RSA commercial enterprise manager, for its half, is a critical management console that shows dashboards, creates studies, manages policy edifice and deployment, and controls incident management workflow and administers the statistics loss prevention techniques. birthright here is a closer appear to live on the components of the RSA facts Loss Prevention Suite.
RSA DLP Datacenter
RSA DLP Datacenter is an information-at-rest scanning DLP device that performs computerized discovery for fine records on storage structures comparable to Microsoft home windows file servers, Unix file servers, network-attached storage/storage-enviornment network instruments, Microsoft SharePoint, Lotus Notes, databases and local drives on home windows workstations.
The RSA network Sensor appliance is required to set up this tool.
The DLP Datacenter is able to successfully scan tremendous storage repositories devoid of the exigency for dedicated hardware through the exercise of temporary scanning agents.
RSA DLP Endpoint
RSA DLP Endpoint screens and controls fine information on home windows endpoints. The network Sensor gear is besides required to installation this tool, and it uses either ephemeral or everlasting endpoint agents.
RSA DLP Endpoint can monitor and avert fine data exposures via user actions reminiscent of HTTP/HTTPS posts to webmail and companionable media, moveable media reads and writes, printing, and the saving of fine information to network file shares. particular contraptions can besides live whitelisted to authorize the switch of fine facts to permitted transportable media.
An not obligatory self-remediation feature in RSA DLP Endpoint can besides live used to educate clients via presenting precise-time comments on coverage violations.
besides windows, RSA DLP Endpoint supports virtual computers such as Microsoft Hyper-V, VMware View, Citrix XenDesktop and XenApp digital applications.
RSA DLP network
RSA DLP network displays and controls fine statistics in action in true time to linger away from unauthorized transmissions. DLP network can handle corporate e mail on home windows workstations and conveyable endpoints, reminiscent of home windows laptops, smartphones and drugs. it is additionally able to manage sensitive statistics in widely wide-spread TCP traffic, HTTP/HTTPS internet and companionable media traffic, FTP, rapid messaging and encrypted traffic.
The network Sensor gear is required to install this tool.
The RSA statistics Loss Prevention Suite is designed to serve medium-sized companies to big companies. The product suite covers endpoint records in use, network information in transit and statistics at leisure in numerous data and databases.
RSA DLP software besides addresses statistics on cellular gadgets, in addition to public cloud applications and services. Pricing for the DLP suite depends on a pair of elements, together with which home gear can live deployed. groups interested in pricing and licensing phrases for RSA facts Loss Prevention Suite can contact the dealer or their approved RSA resale partners.
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providers exhibit how they're addressing the difficulty; consultants determine duty security could play as features evolve
by means of John okay. Waters
considerations concerning the security implications of evolving cloud computing applied sciences dominated final week's annual RSA conference.
With many viewing security as a major barrier to adoption of cloud-primarily based capabilities, key providers used eventual week's sustain to showcase how they're addressing the problem whereas consultants explored the position security could play as these functions evolve.
Cloud computing could magnify middling desktop protection issues, as a minimum in the short time period, pointed out Adi Shamir, professor of mathematics and computing device science at Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science. Shamir become among a gaggle of safety pundits who debated the position of security in cloud computing entire through the incredibly seen Cryptographer's Panel. Shamir concerned that an endemic, which might live an annoyance on a desktop desktop, as an example, could live catastrophic in hosted computing environments.
Bruce Schneier, chief safety expertise officer at BT Counterpane, argued there are few simple alterations between cloud computing and the customer-server mannequin. however Ronald Rivest, a professor of desktop science at MIT, spoke of that he expects cloud computing to develop into "a focal point in their work in security." He delivered, "i am optimistic about cloud computing, but I suppose lots of us bear complicated work to do."
A slew of companies bear launched modern applied sciences and functions to manipulate some of cloud computing's safety concerns. Cisco rolled out its modern Cisco safety Cloud functions, a SaaS providing designed to combine capabilities from numerous networks and applications to combine security in the cloud with enterprise network safety. a section of Cisco's "Collaborate with self belief" initiative, the cloud safety features consist of a botnet filter and a host-primarily based intrusion prevention gadget (IPS). "The handiest course you can resolve this [security problem] is through an architectural strategy." pointed out Cisco CEO John Chambers in a keynote handle.
IBM released security offerings for the cloud in line with reports from its X-force safety analysis community on world crook organizations. The enterprise delivered its modern virtual equipment, the Proventia Virtualized community security Platform, which consolidates an IPS, net app insurance design and community coverage enforcement into a single service. big Blue additionally added malware scanning capabilities to its Rational AppScan scanning and trying out software, which performs net web page scanning and checking out for embedded malware and malicious content material.
lengthy-time security capabilities provider Savvis unveiled a modern managed internet utility firewall (WAF) carrier that runs on its Cloud Compute offering. The Missouri-primarily based company of co-vicinity and committed hosting functions claims to live one of the most first to present WAF expertise as a service (WAF has been accessible for about two years in hardware and software). in response to Chris Richter, Savvis' vice president of security features, about 80 % of his enterprise's valued clientele are looking to a WAF since it's now a requirement of the payment Card business's records safety commonplace.
RSA adds modern tools
For software developers, the massive intelligence at this 12 months's conference got here from event sponsor RSA (a division of EMC), which introduced that it is making entry to gear for edifice protection into apps from the outset simpler. The enterprise launched the RSA partake venture, an ail combining the RSA BSAFE encryption tools for C++ and Java birthright into a free toolkit. RSA partake additionally comprises online aid within the sort of a developer neighborhood, in response to RSA President artwork Coviello in his keynote address. The RSA partake assignment invites developers "to prefer section in an internet neighborhood with one of the vital premier minds in cryptography," he stated.
according to the company, BSAFE partake toolkits are interoperable with current products in accordance with BSAFE encryption. those items latitude from standalone application functions to browsers to gaming methods. RSA is providing a $10,000 reward for the developer who devises "essentially the most artistic and useful use" of BSAFE encryption in a web-based software. the contest runs until may besides 20. interested builders can enter on the RSA partake chore neighborhood internet web page.
Microsoft disclosed a partnership with RSA/EMC to combine RSA counsel Rights management functions (IRM) with statistics loss coverage technology in Microsoft's SharePoint platform. The RSA answer for SharePoint addresses quite a lot of safety considerations that commonly arrive up in massive SharePoint stores, Microsoft mentioned.
"one of the most challenges with IRM is that it works neatly within a company, but no longer throughout organizational boundaries," pointed out Scott Charney, vice president of Microsoft's trustworthy Computing community, in a keynote presentation. "via doing this partnership with EMC, they prefer the capabilities of IRM and fade move-boundary."
A key component of the brand modern solution is the RSA relaxed View tool for SharePoint, which the enterprise spoke of gives a hierarchical view of SharePoint environments, from servers to data, and access manipulate records. The influence, Microsoft stated, is an easier manner for deciding upon the status fine facts resides in any given SharePoint atmosphere, which will besides live used as a device for assessing possibility, amongst other issues. both corporations had banded collectively closing yr to integrate RSA's data Loss Prevention (DLP) classification with the Microsoft IT platform and "future suggestions-insurance design products."
Charney besides talked up a few of Microsoft's key safety initiatives, proposing an update on the company's open identity platform project, code-named "Geneva," which the enterprise says can live a key component in enabling its own Azure cloud functions. One component of the platform of positive activity to builders is an blanketed framework for constructing .net applications designed to esteem digital token claims and a server-primarily based digital token service.
"the course they finish identity today is fully incorrect," Charney stated. "i fade to a web web page, they problem me for some own suggestions -- a companionable protection number, date of birth, mom's maiden name. They validate that information and then they give me a credential. Of direction, these secrets and techniques aren't underhand in any respect. Yet it truly is the course they bear now done id on the cyber web."
He additionally outlined the safety points coming in windows 7, with the goal to consist of support for trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) that assist hardware-based encryption, such as the windows BitLocker drive Encryption, AppLocker and DirectAccess. Microsoft endured to recount modern security elements in home windows 7 as stated Monday.
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Your confidence may live misplaced if you were counting on your desktop antimalware to protect unpatched systems against the recently discovered XML flaw in Internet Explorer, based on tests by NSS Labs Inc..
The NSS' test results of six business-grade endpoint protection products from AVG, Kaspersky Lab, McAfee Inc., Sophos, Symantec Corp. and Trend Micro Inc. yielded generally needy results for stopping known SQL injection exploits of the flaw.
The attacks were reported in the wild on Dec 11 andMicrosoft issued a patch on Dec. 17. It was the software giant's second release outside of its customary monthly patching cycle in two months. NSS conducted its tests the week of Dec. 15, issuing its findings based on live testing through Dec. 18.
NSS tested the products aptitude to cease the exploits at any of three stages: first, detecting and blocking the malicious URL; second, detecting and blocking the exploit; and finally, detecting and blocking the malware when it was inserted in the test clients' memory.
"The issue here is really the exploit, rather than the malware that is delivered afterwards," said Rick Moy, NSS Labs president. "There are really only two exploits. After that, the attacker can load up a keylogger, Trojan, or anything they want. The trick is to entrap it on [its] course in, before it actually exploits -- and that's what they weren't seeing [it] happen."
Only Kaspersky Lab's Total Space Security 6.0 stopped the exploits gelid by blocking URL access. Sophos Endpoint Security and control detected the URL, but only issued a warning without blocking it. However, it did detect and shroud the exploit.
Symantec's Endpoint Protection 11.0.2 failed to detect the URL or the exploit, but detected and quarantined the malware payload. Trend Micro's Officescan 8.0 SP1 R3 performed similarly, but failed to quarantine one of the malware's two components, apparently because the beset thwarted its aptitude to gain the necessary permissions.
Both McAfee's Total Protection for Endpoint and AVG's Internet Security Network Edition 8.0 failed to detect and cease the beset at any of the three stages.
NSS turned on the most aggressive detection settings, where possible.
Given the results, NSS recommended that companies patch immediately, even if they finish not bear time to complete their full testing regime.
While NSS cautions that this was a very narrow test of the aptitude to shroud exploits of a new, critical flaw, enterprises often signify on vendors' assertions that their products can thwart zero-day attacks by using heuristic and anomaly detection techniques and host intrusion prevention systems (HIPS), since traditional signature-based detection is increasingly ineffective against many Web-borne exploits.
"The HIPS section surprised us," said Vik Phatak, NSS chairman and CEO. "Most of these products were not inserting themselves between Internet Explorer, which is tightly tied to the OS and the TCP stack. You'd hope that the HIPS product would entrap the exploit before it actually knocks over the browser."
Microsoft responded rapidly to issue a patch, but there is always a necessary lag after the discovery of any flaw. And, most companies rely on rigorous patch testing on their system configurations before universal patching. Further, patches sometimes fail, and some systems, typically those of remote users who may not log into the network frequently, remain unpatched for a while.
The test results, though narrow, attend to underscore recent testing by Secunia, which tested the exploit detection aptitude of a dozen different consumer endpoint protection products. Secunia turned 144 malicious files and 156 malicious Web pages against XP SP2 with missing patches and a number of vulnerable programs. Symantec was tops with only 64 hits; the other products lagged far behind.
Consumer endpoint protection products are generally regarded as more effectual than trade versions because vendors are justifiably cautious about breaking corporate applications.
Routine physical activity elicits a number of health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of numerous chronic diseases and premature death.1 2 Compared with the universal population, elite athletes appear to harvest additional health benefits in the figure of greater life expectancy and lower risk of disease and hospital admission.3–7 However, concomitantly, they dash a higher risk of musculoskeletal disorders and long-term disability after the End of their careers.4 8–11
Systematic injury and illness surveillance is a prerequisite to effectual protection of the health of the athletes. Epidemiological data contribute to better planning and provision of athlete healthcare and, importantly, inform the development of measures to avert injury and illness.12 13
Some International Sports Federations or research institutes bear set up injury and illness surveillance systems either longitudinally, over one or more seasons, or in positive main events.14–76 For Beijing 2008, the IOC developed the IOC injury surveillance system77 78 which, to account for entire health aspects, was expanded for Vancouver 2010 to besides comprise illnesses.79 Since then, the surveillance system has been implemented in London 201280 and Sochi 2014.81 In these Games, the injury and illness incidences bear ranged from 9.6 to 14.0 injuries and from 7.2 to 8.9 illnesses per 100 athletes.
Our point was to recount the incidence and characteristics of the sports injuries and illnesses occurring during the Rio 2016 Olympic Summer Games.
We employed the IOC injury and illness surveillance system for multi-sport events in this prospective cohort study.77 They asked entire National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams to report the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of athlete injuries and illnesses on a standardised medical report figure (online appendix 1). Concurrently, they retrieved the same information on entire athletes treated for injuries and illnesses in the polyclinic and entire other medical venues operated by the Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016 (Rio 2016) medical staff. These data were collected through an electronic medical record system (GE Centricity practice Solution), which was used for the first time in the Games.
Supplementary Appendix 1
We used the athlete accreditation number to control for duplicates resulting from athletes being treated for the same condition by both NOC and Rio 2016 medical staff. In such cases, they retained the NOC data.
Four months in advance, they informed the NOCs about the study by letter. The day before the opening of the Games, they organised an information meeting for entire NOC medical staff, where they besides distributed the daily injury and illness report forms, as well as an instructional booklet detailing the study protocol (online appendix 2).
Supplementary Appendix 2
Throughout the data collection, they actively followed up the NOCs comprising more than 10 participating athletes with frequent visits to address any questions and embolden continuous reporting during the games. They recorded the response rate of entire the 207 NOCs.
Definition of injury and illness
We defined injuries and illnesses as modern (ie, pre-existing, not fully rehabilitated conditions were not recorded) or recurring (athletes having returned to full participation after a previous condition) musculoskeletal complaints, concussions or other medical conditions (injuries) or illnesses incurred in competition or training during the Rio Olympic Games (5–21 August 2016) receiving medical attention, regardless of the consequences with respect to absence from competition or training.77 In cases where a single incident caused multiple injury types, they retained only the most severe diagnosis, as determined by their research team based on entire available clinical data, for analysis.80 severe injuries and illnesses were defined as injuries or illnesses estimated to lead to absence from training or competition of more than 1 week.
Injury and illness report form
Our NOC injury and illness report figure (online appendix 1) was identical to the one they used in the Vancouver 2010, London 2012 and Sochi 2014 Olympic Games.79–81 With respect to injuries, they recorded the following data: accreditation number, sport and event, whether the injury occurred in competition or training, date and time, carcass part, type, reason and estimated time lost from competition or training. They recorded data on illnesses in a similar fashion: accreditation number, sport and event, date, affected system, main symptom(s), reason and estimated time loss.
We provided instructions and examples on how to complete the figure correctly in the instructional booklet. Furthermore, they distributed the injury and illness report figure in English, French, Arabic, Chinese, German, Japanese, Russian and Spanish.
Confidentiality and ethical approval
We used the athlete accreditation number to query the IOC athlete database for the age, gender and nationality of the injured or ill athlete. They treated entire information confidentially and deidentified their database after the Games.
The study was reviewed by the Medical Research Ethics Committee of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority (2011/388).
We calculated the summary measures of injury and illness incidences (i) according to the formula i=n/e, where n is the number of injuries or illnesses in competition, training or in total during the study term and e is the respective number of exposed (participating) athletes, with incidence proportions presented as injuries/illnesses per 100 athletes. They besides calculated the summary measures of injury and illnesses per 1000 athlete-days, where athlete-days correspond to the total number of athletes multiplied by 17 days. They calculated CIs of the risk ratio (RR) of the number of injuries or illnesses between two groups by a simple Poisson model, assuming constant hazard per group. They present injury and illness incidences as means and RRs with 95% CIs. They regarded two-tailed p values <0.05 as significant.
In total, 11 274 athletes took section in the Rio Olympic Games. Of these, 5089 were women (45%) and 6185 men (55%). There were eight double-starters, signification athletes who participated in two different sports, giving a total of 11 289 athlete exposures to injury or illness.
Throughout the 17 days of the Rio Games, the 207 NOCs submitted 1590 of a maximum of 3519 forms (45%; 97 countries did not submit any data) (table 1). The response rate of the 114 NOCs with >10 participating athletes (accounting for 10 772/96% of entire the athletes) was 74% (1439 of 1938 forms).
Response rates, injuries and illnesses in NOCs of different sizes (measured by number of athletes)
Injuries overall, by sport and gender
We recorded a total of 1101 injuries, equalling 9.8 injuries (95% CI 9.2 to 10.3) per 100 participating athletes. This corresponds to 5.7 injuries per 1000 athlete-days. On average, 8% (n=931) of the athletes sustained at least one injury. In addition, there were 70 and 10 athletes with two and three injuries each, respectively.
Figure 1 shows the incidence proportion of injured athletes in each sport (additional details are available in online appendix 3). The incidence of injury was highest in BMX cycling (37.5 injuries (95% CI 20.2 to 54.8) per 100 athletes), boxing (30.1 (23.7–36.4)), mountain bike cycling (23.8 (13.1–34.4)), taekwondo (23.6 (15.2–32.1)), water polo (19.4 (14.0–24.8)) and rugby (18.6 (13.6–23.5)), and lowest in canoe slalom, rowing, shooting, archery, swimming, golf and table tennis (ranging from 0 to 3 injuries per 100 athletes).
Supplementary Appendix 3
Proportions of athletes (%) in each sport with injury, injury with estimated time loss ≥1 day, and injury with estimated time loss >7 days.
The injury incidences for women (9.3 injuries (95% CI 8.4 to 10.1) per 100 athletes) and men (9.4 (8.6–10.1), RR=0.99 (0.87–1.11)) were nearly identical (online appendix 4). However, women were at significantly higher risk of injury in sailing (RR=5.33 (1.78–15.93)), shooting (RR=5.14 (1.67–15.78)) and mountain bike cycling (RR=3.61 (1.37–9.50)).
Supplementary Appendix 4
There was no statistical incompatibility in the incidence of injury between the NOCs that did not report any NOC data (ie, Rio 2016 data only) and the NOCs that reported data (7.9 vs 9.8 injuries per 100 athletes; RR=1.24 (0.72–2.14)).
Severity of injuries
While almost two thirds of the injuries were estimated to result in no time loss from sport (n=662, 60%), 40% of the injuries (n=438) were expected to avert the athlete from participating in competition or training (online appendix 3). motif 1 shows the incidence of injuries estimated to lead to ≥1 day and >7 days of absence in each sport. It was estimated that 14% of the injuries (n=153) would result in an absence from sports from 1 to 3 days, 6% (n=64) in an absence from 4 to 7 days, 10% (n=106) in an absence from 8 to 28 days and 10% (n=115) in an absence for more than 28 days. Information on severity was missing for one injury.
A total of 221 injuries (20%) were classified as severe, with an estimated absence from training or competition of more than 1 week (box 1, online appendix 3).
Information on the 221 severe injuries (estimated absence >7 days), with the sports with the highest numbers in brackets (unadjusted for athlete exposures in each sport).
65 muscle strains (33 in athletics, six in football, six in weightlifting)
57 ligament sprains/ruptures (eight in wrestling, six in athletics, six in judo, five in artistic gymnastics, five in weightlifting)
24 fractures (three in hockey, three in rugby, two in boxing, two in artistic gymnastics, two in mountain bike cycling, two in road cycling, two in water polo)
15 dislocations or subluxations (four in wrestling, three in judo, two in boxing)
12 lesions of meniscus or cartilage
nine concussions (out of 12 in total: seven in boxing, two in rugby, one each in BMX cycling, mountain bike cycling, and handball)
seven stress fractures (three in athletics, two in tennis, one each in boxing and triathlon)
six tendon ruptures
five contusions, haematomas or bruises
five lacerations, abrasions or other skin lesions (three in boxing, two in triathlon)
four nerve or spinal cord injuries
four tendinopathies (three in athletics)
two arthritis, synovitis or bursitis injuries
two ’other bone injuries
Location and ilk of injuries
The most commonly injured anatomical locations were the knee (n=130), thigh (n=108), ankle (n=103), visage (n=94) and lower leg (n=90). The most common injury types were sprain/ligament rupture (n=187), contusion/haematoma/bruise (n=178), strain/muscle rupture/tear (n=168), laceration/abrasion/skin lesion (n=152) and tendinosis/tendinopathy (n=112). The distribution of injury locations and injury types per sport are presented in online appendices 5 and 6, respectively.
Causes, mechanisms and onset of injury
While 71% (n=781) of the injuries were reported to occur acutely, 27% (n=301) were reported to live caused by overuse (information missing for 19 injuries). The three most commonly reported injury causes/mechanisms were contact with another athlete (28%), non-contact trauma (21%) and overuse with gradual onset (19%). The distribution of injury causes/mechanisms in each sport is detailed in online appendix 7. Of entire overuse injuries (gradual and sudden onset) occurring in the Games, 72% were recorded with no estimated absence from competition or training.
Supplementary Appendix 7
In terms of onset, 59% of the injuries were sustained in competition (5.8 (5.3–6.2) injuries per 100 athletes) and 37% during training (3.6 (3.2–3.9) injuries per 100 athletes; RR=1.61 (1.42–1.82)) (information on training/competition was missing for 45 injuries; online appendix 3). However, when analysing only the severe injuries, those estimated to result in at least 7 days of absence, the incompatibility was greater (RR=2.22 (1.69–2.96)).
Injuries in training and in competition differed significantly in characteristics (location, type, mechanism and subsequent time loss from sport) and in terms of incidence in different sports (online appendix 3). The injury incidence was higher in competition than in training in boxing (RR=7.50 (3.88–14.51)), tennis (RR=6.00 (1.77–20.37)), hockey (RR=5.71 (2.56–12.76)), rugby (RR=5.38 (2.53–11.43)), handball (RR=3.90 (1.95–7.81)), football (RR=3.63 (2.08–6.31)), water polo (RR=3.56 (1.70–7.45)), BMX cycling (RR=3.50 (1.15–10.63)), basketball (RR=3.40 (1.25–9.22)), fencing (RR=3.25 (1.06–9.97)) and judo (RR=2.91 (1.47–5.77)). Swimming was the only sport in which the incidence of injury was significantly higher in training than in competition (RR=0.29 (0.11–0.80)).
Illnesses overall, by gender, sport and severity
Among the 11 289 exposed athletes, a total of 613 illnesses were reported, resulting in 5.4 illnesses (95% CI 5.0 to 5.9) per 100 athletes. This corresponds to 3.2 illnesses per 1000 athlete-days. On average, 5% (n=587) of the athletes incurred an illness, as there were 26 athletes with two illnesses each. Women (5.7 illnesses (5.0–6.3) per 100 athletes) were at significantly higher risk of contracting an illness than men (4.0 (3.5–4.5), RR=1.41 (1.19–1.67)).
Figure 2 shows the incidence proportion of ill athletes in each sport (additional details are available in online appendix 3). Diving was the sport with the highest illness incidence (11.9 illnesses (95% CI 6.0 to 17.7) per 100 athletes), followed by open-water marathon (11.8 (2.4–21.2)), sailing (11.8 (8.4–15.3)), canoe slalom (10.8 (3.8–17.9)), equestrian (10.5 (6.0–15.0)) and synchronised swimming (9.6 (3.7–15.6)). The illness incidence was low in a number of sports, with the lowest incidences recorded in trampoline and artistic gymnastics, golf and handball (ranging from 0 to 2 illnesses per 100 athletes).
Proportions of athletes (%) in each sport with illness, illness with estimated time loss ≥1 day and illness with estimated time loss >7 days.
One in five illnesses (n=113, 18%) were expected to result in absence from training or competition. Of these, two illnesses (0.3%) were expected to result in an estimated time loss of more than 7 days (chickenpox and conjunctivitis).
Affected system, main symptoms and causes of illness
A total of 292 illnesses (47%) affected the respiratory system. The second, third and fourth most frequently affected systems were the digestive system (n=131, 21%, 1% of the athletes affected), skin and subcutaneous tissue (n=53, 9%), nervous system (n=38, 6%) and genitourinary system (n=27, 4%), respectively. Infection was the most common reason of illness (n=346, 56% of the illnesses; 3% of the athletes incurred an infection). Of the 292 respiratory illnesses, 223 (76%) were caused by an infection. The distribution of affected systems, main symptoms and causes of illness per sport are presented in online appendices 8, 9 and 10, respectively.
Data sources, and injuries and illnesses per NOC size
Only 6% of the injuries and 2% of the illnesses were captured by both the NOCs and the Rio 2016 staff. While 59% of the injuries and 70% of the illnesses were recorded solely by the NOCs, 27% and 15% of the injuries and illnesses, respectively, were recorded only by the Rio 2016 staff.
Whereas the majority of injured and ill athletes from the larger NOCs were seen internally by the NOC medical staff, athletes from diminutive NOCs were to a greater extent relying on diagnosis and treatment from the Rio 2016 medical staff (table 1).
There was besides an inverse relationship between NOC size (measured in number of participating athletes) and the risk injuries, with athletes from smaller NOCs suffering more injuries (NOCs with <10 athletes: 12.2 (9.1–15.2) injuries per 100 athletes versus NOCs with >99 athletes: 8.7 (8.1–9.4) injuries per 100 athletes, injury RR=1.40 (1.07–1.81)).
The point of the present paper was to recount and analyse the incidence and characteristics of the sports injuries and illnesses in the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. The main findings of this 17-day-long prospective cohort study were that 8% and 5% of entire the 11 274 athletes suffered from at least one injury or illness, with overall incidences of 9.8 injuries and 5.4 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively.
Injury incidences varied from high to low across sports, with the highest incidences found in BMX cycling, boxing, mountain bike cycling, taekwondo, water polo and rugby. Illness incidences were generally lower, with the highest incidences seen in diving, open-water marathon, sailing, canoe slalom, equestrian and synchronised swimming.
Injuries in the Olympic sports
The incidence of injury in the Rio Games (8%) was lower than those in Beijing 2008 (10%),78 Vancouver 2010 (11%),79 London 2012 (11%)80 and Sochi 2014 (12%).81 It was besides lower than the injury incidences reported from recent Paralympic Games.33–36 38
When comparing each sport in Rio 2016 with Beijing 2008, higher injury incidences were found in diving (9% vs 2% of the athletes injured), water polo (19% vs 10%), boxing (30% vs 15%), fencing (8% vs 2%) and sailing (6% vs 1%), while the injury incidences were lower in basketball (8% vs 13%), football (15% vs 32%) and hockey (12% vs 20%).
Likewise, when doing a similar comparison with London 2012, the injury incidences in Rio were higher in boxing (30% vs 9%) but lower in athletics (11% vs 18%), football (15% vs 35%), handball (15% vs 22%), sailing (6% vs 15%), swimming (3% vs 5%) and taekwondo (24% vs 39%).
Some sports bear collected and published data on injury incidences in their world championships or other main events. The incidence of football injury in Rio 2016 was similar to those in the 2014 World Cup,20 200429 and 200831 European championships, but half of that in the 2010 World Cup.19 In athletics, as well as in diving, swimming and synchronised swimming, the injury incidences in Rio were similar to those reported from recent world championships.40–47 In contrast, the Rio injury incidences in open-water marathon and water polo were lower and higher, respectively, than previously reported from the aquatics world championships.46 47 In rugby sevens, the injury incidence in Rio was less than half than previously found in the Rugby Sevens World Cup and World Series.23 Similarly, the proportions of injured athletes in the beach volleyball tournaments in the three latest summer Olympic Games constitute about one third of that reported earlier in the beach volleyball world championships.14 In handball, the incidence of injuries in Rio was about half of that found in the men’s world championship in 2015.64 Interestingly, and in contrast, the BMX cycling injury incidence in Rio was about six times higher than that documented in the 1989 BMX European championships.70
A change in injury incidence can live the result of changes in the composition of the Olympic Games programme (eg, two modern sports in Rio), environmental factors, venue or track design, competition rules or changes in equipment. Recorded injury frequencies are besides likely to live influenced by the response rate and reporting accuracy by the NOC and organising committee medical staff. However, their analysis comparing the injury incidences of the NOCs that reported data and those that did not (other than the data recorded by the Rio 2016 staff) indicated no significant incompatibility between the two. In addition, in Rio 2016, a modern electronic medical record was used for the first time by the organising committee medical staff. Also, incidence differences (lower or higher) may simply live the result of a natural variability of athletes’ exposure to risk, an observation that emphasises the value of ongoing surveillance to monitor trends over time, for example, the sequel of venue design, rule or gear changes in the term between major sports events.
Severity of injuries
In major sports events, enjoy the Olympic Games, injuries or illnesses of even minor severity with or without time loss bear the potential to live both participation limiting and performance inhibiting, and thus avert athletes from possibly fulfilling their potential and reaching their life-time achievement. In the Rio Games, 40% of the injuries were estimated to result in time loss from competition or training of at least 1 day. This places Rio 2016 between London 2012 and Beijing 2008, in which the equivalent numbers were 35% and 50%, respectively. In contrast, athletes in Rio incurred more injuries of higher severity (20% of the injuries estimated to result in absence greater than 7 days) than the athletes in London 2012 and Beijing 2008 (both 13%).
The sports with the highest incidences of injuries entailing a prolonged absence from training or competition (>7 days) were BMX cycling (10% of the athletes), wrestling (5%), weightlifting (5%) and triathlon (5%), which is similar to the data from the London Games.
Causes, mechanisms and onset of injury
The causes, mechanisms and circumstances of injuries in competition and training differed significantly between the different sports. Overall, the distribution of injuries in competition and training (59% vs 37%) was similar to that of London 2012,80 the 2009 and 2013 Aquatics World Championships,46 47 the 2010 men’s Football World Cup,19 and the 2011 Athletics World Championships,42 but not Beijing 2008,78 the 2007 or 2009 Athletics World Championships,40 41 or the 2015 men’s Handball World Championships,64 where the incidence of competition injuries was higher. In Rio 2016, the majority of injuries were reported to live acute, whereas overuse injuries with either a gradual or sudden onset accounted for a quarter of the injuries. Although similar distributions were reported from London 2012 and Beijing 2008, these numbers should live interpreted with caution, due to the limitations in the recording of overuse injuries in the current methodology.82–86
Illness risk during the Olympics
In the lead up to the Rio Games, there were concerns about the risk of gastroenteritis and other infections from various water-borne viruses and bacteria, as well as the mosquito-borne Zika virus, with some calling for the Games to live cancelled.87 However, the overall symmetry of athletes with illness in the Rio Games (5%) was actually lower than those reported from London 2012 (7%),80 Vancouver 2010 (7%)79 and Sochi 2014 (8%).81 While the majority of illnesses in Rio (56%) were caused by an infection, the symmetry of athletes contracting an infection (3%) was identical to London 2012 (3%) and lower than Sochi 2014 (5%). Similarly, the incidence of digestive system illness (1%) was identical to London 2012 (also 1%). In terms of the Zika virus, no cases were reported among either athletes or the universal population during the Olympic Games in Rio.88
As in previous Olympic Games,79–81 female athletes contracted more illnesses than virile athletes. The same disproportion has previously been reported in the 2009 Athletics41 and Aquatics46 World Championships, but not in the 2011 Athletics42 or 2013 Aquatics47 World Championships, in the 1994–2009 US Open Tennis Championships,89 or in the Winter or Summer Paralympic Games.37 39
In studies on sports injury, it is usually recommended to express incidences using a measure of time exposed to risk as the denominator.35–37 90 91 However, considering the inherent complexity and size of the Olympic Games, this was not feasible in the present study. Instead, they expressed the injuries or illnesses by means of absolute risk: the number of modern cases per 100 registered athletes (incidence proportion). This approach erroneously assumes that the frequencies and lengths of exposure are identical in entire sports and that the number of athletes at risk in each NOC is constant throughout the Games. Interpretation of differences in injury incidences or patterns should therefore live made with caution.
In the current study, they defined injuries and illnesses as modern or recurring injuries or illnesses receiving medical attention, regardless of the consequences with respect to absence from competition or training. By using such a definition, less staid injuries may live overlooked, since such injuries finish not always require medical attention.92 93 Nonetheless, their results note that the majority of reported injuries were not estimated to involve any absence from the sport. Also, in the Olympic Games, entire athletes can bag healthcare through the athletes’ village polyclinic and the venue medical clinics. However, the availability, size and property of the NOCs’ own medical teams vary among countries, signification that not entire athletes profit from identical healthcare, which may jaundice the injury and illness recording.
Throughout the 17 days of data collection in the Olympic Games, they collected 45% of entire the NOC injury and illness report forms. If including only the NOCs which they actively followed up (those with more than 10 athletes), as done in previous Olympic Games, the response rate was 74%, which is lower than in previous Games (99.7% in Sochi; 96% in London). It is difficult to speculate as to what the potential causes are. In the future, transitioning to an electronic data collection system, similar to that used in the Paralympics,35 may befriend to ameliorate the response rate among the NOCs, as well as the accuracy of the data.
A mere 6% of the injuries and 2% of the illnesses were captured by both the NOC and the Rio 2016 medical personnel, underlining the importance of both recorder groups. Their study besides shows that in particular athletes from smaller NOCs profit from diagnosis and treatment from the local organising committee’s medical staff, whereas the majority of athletes from larger NOCs are seen by their own NOC medical staff. More importantly, they once again identified an inverse relationship between NOC size and the risk of health problems, with athletes from the smallest NOCs experiencing significantly more injuries compared with the largest NOCs. It is difficult not to discern this finding in light of several differences in resources available to the NOC. big delegations usually arrive from countries with well-developed exercise physiology and sports medicine communities and are generally able to offer their athletes more comprehensive healthcare and closer medical follow-up both in the lead up to and during the Games, potentially giving them a competitive advantage.
The continuously accumulating evidence that injuries and illnesses vary substantially between sports demonstrates the exigency for tailoring preventive measures to the specific context of each sport. Sport bodies such as the IOC, International Paralympic Committee, International Sports Federations (IFs) and NOCs bear the responsibility to protect the health of their athletes. The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages entire stakeholders to prefer measures to ensure that sport is practised with minimal risks of physical injury and illness or psychological harm.94 For IFs, a critical component of this responsibility is the implementation of a scientifically sound injury and illness surveillance system in entire major events. Some sports federations bear Put increasing ail into working systematically and scientifically to protect their athletes’ health.15–20 22–47 49–61 68 They embolden other IFs and sports organisations to succeed their example.
The authors would enjoy to concede the contribution and support of the Rio 2016 staff throughout the different stages of this study. The authors besides sincerely thank entire the NOC medical staff contributing to the data collection: Dr Loughraieb Mok Amine (ALG), Dr Maria Stella Cristiano (ANG), Dr Hugo Rodriques Papini (ARG), Dr Davit Mosinyan (ARM), Dr Carolyn Broderick (AUS), Dr Alfred Engel (AUT), Dr Guliyeva Ludmila (AZE), Dr Virgil Rene Best (BAR), Dr Johan Bellemans (BEL), Dr Henadzi Zaharodny (BLR), Dr Roberto Nahon (BRA), Dr André Pedrinelli (BRA), Dr Stefan Strugarov (BUL), Dr Bob McCormack (CAN), Dr Joshua Ferguson (CAN), Dr Jaques Ngouonimba Goulou (CGO), Dr Alejandro Orizola (CHI), Dr Minhao Xie (CHN), Dr Ngiebe Mubiala (COD), Dr Juan Carlos Quiceno (COL), Dr Karen Nuit Cifuentes Rodríguez (COL), Dr Humberto Evora (CPV), Dr Max Moreira (CRC), Dr Damir Jemmendzic (CRO), Dr Dinko Pivvalica (CRO), Dr Miroslav Smerdej (CRO), Dr Pablo Castillo Diaz (CUB), Dr Constantinos Schizas (CYP), Dr Petr Sikora (CZE), Dr Lars Juel Andersen (DEN), Dr Francis Sanchez (DOM), Dr Pablo Sarmiento Panchana (ECU), Dr Haile Ghirmasion (ERI), Dr Rosario Urena Duran (ESP), Dr Mihkel Mardua (EST), Dr Ayalew Tilahun Beshahe (ETH), Dr Maarit Valtonen (FIN), Dr Philippe Le Van (FRA), Dr Fabrice Bryand (FRA), Dr Niall Elliott (GBR), Dr Mike Rossiter (GBR), Dr Zurab Kakhabrishvili (GEO), Dr Bernd Wolfarth (GER), Dr Odysseas Paxinos (GRE), Dr Georgios Marinos (GRE), Dr Greg Varigos (GRN), Dr Luis Cruz (GUM), Dr Mukkuaka Oda (HAI), Dr Julian Wai Chang (HKG), Dr Eva Vinalti (HON), Dr Peter Barlogh (HUN), Dr Antonius Andi Kurniawan (INA), Dr Leane Suniar Manuruna (INA), Dr Pawanddeep Singh Kohli (IND), Dr Gholamreza Norouzi (IRI), Dr Rod McLoughlin (IRL), Dr Ghaleb Abbas Salih (IRQ), Dr Örnolfur Valoimarsson (ISL), Dr Lubov Galitskaya (ISR), Dr Antonio Spataro (ITA), Dr Derrick McDowell (JAM), Dr Kohei Nakajima (JPN), Dr Tomohiro Manabe (JPN), Dr Shuichi Nakayama (JPN), Dr Hiroshi Takagi (JPN), Dr Serikkazy Mazenhov (KAZ), Dr Natalia Kudashova (KAZ), Dr Elena Galtis (KAZ), Dr Daniel Langat (KEN), Dr Baktygul Alisheva (KGZ), Dr Jungjoong Yoon (KOR), Dr Liga Circule (LAT), Dr Axel Urhausen (LIE), Dr Dalius Barkauskas (LTU), Dr Axel Urhausen (LUX), Dr Christian Nührenbörger (LUX), Dr Semmar Sahar (MAR), Dr Arshad Bin Puji (MAS), Dr Balmus Dorin (MDA), Dr Viridiana Silva Quiroz (MEX), Dr Chuluun Nasanbat (MGL), Dr Bayartuya Bayarsaikhan (MGL), Dr Licienne Attard (MLT), Dr Predrag Dabovic (MNE), Dr Flezer Tomadote (MOZ), Dr Jürgen Hofmann (NAM), Dr Aniya-Mart Kruger (NAM), Dr Cees-Rein van den Hoogenband (NED), Dr Sarub Shrestha (NEP), Dr Abdulkadir Mu’azu (NGR), Dr Thomas Torgalsen (NOR), Dr Lars Haugvad (NOR), Dr Anne Froholdt (NOR), Dr Bruce Hamilton (NZL), Dr imprint Fulcher (NZL), Dr Victor Carpio Quintana (PER), Dr Bernie Amof (PNG), Dr Hubert Krysztofiak (POL), Dr Maria Joao Cascascais (POR), Dr Kim Yumi (PRK), Dr Rebecca Rodriquez (PUR), Dr Juan Manuel Alonso (QAT), Dr Carlo Bagutti (ROT), Dr Tanase Dan (ROU), Dr Kevin Subban (RSA), Dr Andrej Sereda (RUS), Dr Seydina Omar Diagne (SEN), Dr Darren Leong (SIN), Dr Matjaz Vogrin (SLO), Dr Martin Zorko (SLO), Dr Katja Azman Juvan (SLO), Dr Dragan Radovanovic (SRB), Dr Goran Vasic (SRB), Dr Patrick Noack (SUI), Dr Branislav Delej (SVK), Dr Per Andersson (SWE), Dr Fredrik Bergström (SWE), Dr Mats Börjesson (SWE), Dr Nassoro Matuzya (TAN), Dr Hilary Meechai Inwood (THA), Dr Lin Yzn Chou (TPE), Dr Tonya Welch (TTO), Dr Ayachi Saida (TUN), Dr Tugba Kocahan (TUR), Dr Hassan Kamal (TUR), Dr Abdulhameed Alattar (UAE), Dr Robert Zavuga (UGA), Dr Oleksandr Varvinskyi (UKR), Dr Daniel Zarrillo (URU), Dr Bill Moreau (USA), Dr Svetlana Suyatskaya (UZB), Dr Joze German Medina (VEN), Dr Phu Nguyen Van (VIE), Dr Mulenga Davie (ZAM), Dr Austin Jeans (ZIM), Dr Dorothy Masawi (ZIM) and Dr Nicholas Munyonga (ZIM).
Companies, looking to protect their data and networks from cloud arrangements made by employees, are turning to technology that can sniff out cloud services that are lurking, unbeknownst to the IT department, on corporate networks. Chief information security officers exercise the technology, offered by so-called cloud access security brokers, to enforce policies such as blocking risky services or encrypting data before it is uploaded to the cloud.
When Myrna Soto, head of infrastructure and information security at Comcast, used a security broker, she expected to find employees using hundreds of cloud services. She was stunned to find workers using thousands of cloud services. “We really thought they knew what was going on,” said Ms. Soto during a panel at the RSA Conference in San Francisco eventual week.
At Comcast, employees turned to cloud services for well-intended trade reasons but some could bear had staid consequences. For example, the terms of some cloud services actually give ownership of the data to the service provider. It’s something that is revealed in the terms of service, but few people actually read through the terms. “We found a pair instances that could bear been very detrimental in the sense of ownership of data,” she said. Fortunately, in those instances, it was caught before there were problems.
Over the past several years, the market for these cloud security brokers, whose software or services sit between the enterprise and one or more cloud services, has emerged from essentially nothing to about $100 million, said Neil MacDonald, vice president at distinguished analyst at research solid Gartner Mr. MacDonald predicts the market will grow to about $500 million over the next three years. Currently Gartner is tracking more than 15 companies that offer security broker products and services including Symantec, Skyhigh Networks and Bitglass Inc.
To enforce security, these security brokers bear access to entire of the traffic between the endpoint and one or more software-as-a-service applications, typically through network traffic redirection. Once entire of the traffic is redirected through the security broker, it’s practicable for companies to prefer an inventory of entire the cloud services employees use, finish regulatory compliance reporting and check that sensitive data isn’t leaking into the cloud. At the same time, those security brokers can besides apply techniques such as encryption or tokenization to further secure the data. Tokenization, for example, is the process of replacing sensitive data such as bank accounts or personally identifiable information with a surrogate value that wouldn’t live useful if stolen.
Cisco Systems Vice President and Chief Information Security Officer Steve Martino discovered 607 cloud services when the company began to exercise a security broker. About half of those were cloud services that Cisco already had a relationship with so it meant investigating a few hundred other services, said Mr. Martino, speaking at the RSA conference.
Cisco’s cloud access security broker has established risk ratings of entire the services which Mr. Martino uses to befriend settle when the company needs to find safer cloud services for employees to use. Through the process, Cisco discovered that employees were using free file sharing services or ones that simply required a credit card. The company decided it needed different security features and formed a relationship with another file-sharing cloud service provider. It then began to direct employees from the other file-sharing services they used to the more secure file-sharing service. “We were able to Put the birthright controls in status and deliver the capability to the users,” said Mr. Martino.
Over the eventual several years, cloud access security brokers bear expanded capabilities beyond tracking cloud services, providing encryption, integration with specific cloud platforms such as Microsoft Office 365 or Salesforce and integration with data loss prevention software and services.
Western Union is considering expanding its exercise of the Skyhigh service to provide additional security layers as its exercise of cloud services expands. “We’re looking at piteous to Office 365 and thinking about how they provide security controls around those applications,” David Levin, director of information security at Western Union told CIO Journal. In the past, the company has used the security broker to determine the risk of various cloud services employees exercise and to create a safe alternative in the event those services aren’t secure.
The Skyhigh service, for example, can give the company power to allow or negate access to corporate data in the cloud based on user, device or geographic location. It does application auditing and alerts the company if someone is using the application in a suspicious way. It can encrypt data and give companies the aptitude to enforce corporate policies as data moves from mobile to cloud, on premise to cloud and even from cloud to cloud.
Comcast currently encrypts data but doesn’t exercise its cloud access security broker to finish so. That may change in the future. “We are actively looking at an opening with Salesforce and a pair other software-as-a-service applications where they are going to explore and pilot the exercise of encryption from the broker,” said Ms. Soto.
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