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David Clarke covers eDirectory checking out goals for Novell route 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking.
This chapter is from the bespeak
This chapter covers right here testing aims for Novell direction 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking:
identify basic listing service tasks.
determine gauge directory service makes expend of.
Describe how a directory is structured.
identify the office and benefits of eDirectory.
establish how eDirectory 8.6 works.
determine and report the composition of eDirectory.
establish and report eDirectory demur classes.
determine the stream and design of the eDirectory tree.
NetWare 6 introduces eDirectory 8.6, the top-quality edition up to now of Novell's world-class listing service.
eDirectory is the area's main listing service. It provides a unifying, move-platform infrastructure for managing, securing, having access to, and setting up replete most essential accessories of your network. eDirectory scales to the greatest community environments, together with the web. since it is in response to the X.500 ordinary, eDirectory helps lightweight listing access Protocol (LDAP), Hypertext transfer Protocol (HTTP), and the Java programming atmosphere.
eDirectory can reclaim and maneuver hundreds of thousands of objects in a seamless ballet of communications. It additionally gives the groundwork community provider for replete NetWare servers and community components. definitely, after community communications, it is the most basic network service provided by using NetWare 6.
With replete this in intellect, i am unavoidable you can coincide that eDirectory administration is one among your key tasks as a Novell CNA (licensed community Administrator). in this chapter, you are going to explore 4 essential training regarding eDirectory administration:
Introduction to directory capabilities—you will start with a quick introduction to the fundamentals of directory features, including some commonplace makes expend of and the pass a directory is structured.
understanding eDirectory 8.6—you then'll discover the structure of Novell eDirectory version 8.6 and compare it to its predecessor, Novell directory features (NDS).
the usage of eDirectory Objects—you'll dig into the basics at the back of eDirectory's three kinds of objects: the Tree object, container objects, and leaf objects.
implementing eDirectory eight.6 Naming—eventually, you will find out about naming conventions utilized in eDirectory, together with naming context suggestions and inheritance.
As that you can see, there is a Great deal to live trained during this chapter and when it's replete finished, you're going to live an completed eDirectory administrator. So, let's pick up began!
check goals lined:
determine simple directory service tasks.
determine commonplace directory carrier uses.
Describe how a directory is structured.
identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.
The listing service is among the most simple network features provided via replete NetWare 6 servers. definitely, it represents the communications hub for administrative connectivity between replete servers in a huge NetWare 6 network. As such, listing service administration is one in every of your key tasks as the community administrator.
As its identify implies, the directory carrier gives access to a database, known as eDirectory, that incorporates replete resources for the all network. This object-oriented database is equipped into a hierarchical structure known as the tree. eDirectory gives the fundamental groundwork for the listing provider, including capabilities for replication and distribution. listing is capitalized in this case to differentiate it from the listing (or folder) within the file gadget. in reality, these two "directories" contour the two essential roles of a NetWare 6 CNA: File device Administrator (directories and information) and eDirectory Administrator (The directory).
The listing carrier is your chum. it could possibly perceive a bit intimidating at first, but if you pick up to know the listing service (and eDirectory, for that depend), it's in reality enjoyable. basically.
How directory functions Work
A directory service classifies replete community materials into a finite number of objects. These objects may moreover live equipped through function, vicinity, dimension, class, or color—it doesn't rely. The factor is, a listing provider organizes community substances independently from their actual places. as an example, servers are prepared in response to feature. Then clients are positioned within the arrogate containers to simplify connectivity. This raises productiveness as a result of clients are nigh the resources they want. When a user logs in to the network, the person can entry any demur in the Tree, even with its region. This offers a slick potential for managing not only users, but additionally replete their hardware and purposes. Of course, in the eDirectory tree (as in lifestyles), it is top of the line to area person objects and their resources (Printers, Servers, and Volumes) in shut proximity to each other.
A listing carrier performs a few simple projects, including here:
Connecting disparate methods—A listing provider integrates and organizes heterogeneous systems to allow them to partake medium management. In brand current enterprise world, such methods are required not only to talk with every different, however moreover to partake information and expend medium capabilities to fulfill the targets of the company.
pleasant the wants of the person, corporation, and company—The network ought to live bendy adequate to provide a set of enjoyable capabilities according to individual wants.
Emulating replete company relationships—The network should live in a position to ensuring that trusted relationships are developed and maintained between people, business, the business's intranet, and the replete over net.
Coordinating counsel move—advice may moreover emanate both from the enterprise (procedural) or from the community (technical). A directory service coordinates counsel stream, no live counted what the source or class of counsel.
ensuring counsel availability—A listing service offers a means for making replete community tips attainable to clients, instruments, applications, or other materials.
A listing and a Relational Database management gadget (RDBMS) are two separate entities with distinctive capabilities. despite the fact that a listing is a collection of advice, it does not supplant the habitual RDBMS. Directories and databases complement one yet another, however they serve distinctive applications.
customarily, a listing carrier may well live utilized in the following techniques:
Organizing facts—A listing service organizes records or suggestions for the network. In NetWare 6, eDirectory outlets replete person, server, printer, and different network gadget suggestions.
getting access to tips readily—corresponding to the file-and-folder system used on a computer, a listing carrier makes guidance about network resources obtainable to users, instruments, and purposes. A listing service offers personnel with global entry to network supplies. corporations and organizations additionally expend directory features to provide user authentication and authorization for the usage of these network components and capabilities. For agencies with colossal numbers of cell users, eDirectory offers a means for storing consumer counsel required by using some applications. (Such functions are described as listing-enabled.) From the user's point of view, a listing service provides a global view of replete network elements, comparable to users, functions, services, device resources, and contraptions.
providing protection—A directory provider uniquely identifies community elements, locates network objects when required, helps powerful protection points, and controls the person access to community components.
providing functions to clients—For corporations taking competencies of the points of digital industry transactions, listing capabilities can aid arrange several databases while helping to mesh disparate community methods. This gives greater management of techniques between consumers, employees, and supply-chain companions. The ensuing benefits are as follows: reduced charges for administration and hardware, faster access to information and guidance, and relaxed network access with advanced failing tolerance.
From a generic standpoint, listing features can additionally give digital provisioning, enhanced protection, client profiling, digital wallets, automated notification methods, personalized internet interfaces, and digital deepest networks (VPNs).
A digital private network (VPN) regularly is used to switch sensitive enterprise tips throughout an untrusted community (such because the cyber web) in a relaxed vogue (usually via encapsulating and encrypting information).
So, what achieve you consider? Is a listing carrier for you? Who is sensible of—you could even find it irresistible.
As you uphold in mind, the listing service offers entry to the eDirectory database, which contains replete elements for the all community. What precisely does eDirectory perceive like? From the outside, it appears relish a huge cloud hovering over your community. On the inside, besides the fact that children, it follows a hierarchical tree constitution corresponding to the cyber web domain device. that is, beginning at the WWW Root and expanding to ".com" domains and finally to servers. In NetWare 6, this design is referred to because the directory information Tree, which is shortened to the "tree" for functions of their discussion.
suppose of the tree as in reality being inverted. As in nature, the eDirectory tree starts with the Tree demur (known as the Tree Root) and builds from there. subsequent, it sprouts container objects, which might live branches reaching towards the sky. eventually, leaf objects provide community functionality to clients, servers, and the file system. As that you would live able to note in pattern 3.1, the tree analogy is alive and well.
determine 3.1 The figurative directory capabilities tree.
The actual eDirectory tree is made up of ratiocinative community objects. eDirectory objects define ratiocinative or actual entities that provide organizational or technical feature to the community. As you are going to note later in this chapter, they are available three flavors:
The Tree Root is the very exact of the eDirectory tree. because it represents the opening porthole to the eDirectory world, its icon is appropriately a picture of a tree. Container objects contour the organizational boundaries of the eDirectory tree and condo different container objects and/or leaf objects. When a container demur consists of different objects, it's called a father or mother object.
ultimately, leaf objects are the physical or ratiocinative network resources that deliver technical services and community performance. Leaf objects contour the bottom level of the eDirectory constitution. you'll study in regards to the most exciting leaf objects later in this chapter.
The structure of the directory is governed by means of a group of rules jointly wide-spread as the listing schema. These rules define the class of records, the syntax of that records, and the objects the directory can comprise. Schema suggestions Fall into two huge classes:
Object character definitions—These define the classification of objects and the attributes of these objects.
Attribute definitions—These contour the structure (syntax and constraints) of an attribute. conveniently pointed out, the assign value is the actual content material or information.
bear in intellect once I instructed you that eDirectory changed into in keeping with the X.500 regular? earlier than you fade tree mountaineering and discover the dynamics of eDirectory, occupy a short dissect that commonplace to peer what that replete potential. I feel you'll spot some wonderful similarities between X.500 and what you gain just discovered about directory features.
X.500 is a world commonplace for naming features. plenty of industry standards, akin to DNA (Digital network architecture), expend X.500 with their personal naming features to provide address-to-name resolution and directory services. This allows for these disbursed machines to exist in a commodious hierarchical administration equipment.
X.500 organizes community supplies (akin to clients and servers) into a globally attainable listing. The X.500 specification establishes instructions for representing, getting access to, and using information saved in a directory database. in reality, eDirectory is Novell's implementation of right here X.500 features:
Scalability—gigantic databases can live subdivided into smaller directory system brokers (DSAs). A DSA can symbolize both a unique company or varied companies, and its contents may live dispensed throughout assorted directory servers. eDirectory calls them partitions.
Replication—This office allows for the directory database, or parts thereof, to live replicated on backup directory servers organize replete over the community.
Synchronization—as a result of X.500 should control a loosely coupled, distributed database, every server gain to live able to synchronize its database contents with different servers. listing database updates can live made both on the commonplace master database (grasp-shadow association) or at any writable duplicate (peer-to-peer mechanism). In both case, X.500 propagates listing database alternate assistance to replete servers holding replicas of the database or a DSA.
The X.500 listing is represented by a listing tips Tree (DIT) and directory assistance groundwork (DIB). as a minimum a benign of should sound regularly occurring. The DIB carries objects (or nodes) and their linked homes and values. Intermediate objects act as containers that assist in organizing the DIT. Leaf objects portray individual community entities, similar to servers, printers, and so on. hunt counsel from determine three.2 for an illustration of the X.500 directory architecture.
The suggestions that determine the class of tips that can live saved in the DIB are held within the listing's schema. (Now this should still live sounding basically typical.) each and every demur in an X.500 DIT has a different appellation that's called its incredible identify, or DN, (it really is, comprehensive name). each and every demur can moreover also live talked about with the aid of a relative distinctive identify, or RDN, (that's, partial identify).
listing database access is managed by using a DSA operating on a native server. clients access the database via a listing person Agent (DUA). DUAs are available in command-line, forms-primarily based, and browser-fashion interfaces. DSAs and DUAs speak with each and every different using the directory access Protocol (DAP). moreover, DSAs can moreover communicate with one another the usage of the listing gear Protocol (DSP), directory tips Shadowing Protocol (DISP), or the directory Operational Binding administration Protocol (DOP).
figure three.2 X.500 directory structure.
Now that you know where directory capabilities got here from and customarily how they work in NetWare 6, it's time to achieve some tree climbing! seems relish that fun I promised you, does not it?
you're accountable for managing 15,000 user bills and 20,000 computers on your business. it's 9 a.m. on Monday. were you sensible where your clients' computer systems are? when you are working for a typical company, well-nigh actually you don't. "British Telecom lately audited their IT belongings and located that they'd 20,000 greater computers than they concept," says Dave Bingham, Consulting Director, Fujitsu Consulting UK. Now that is a grave programs management problem!
Many businesses are sinking beneath the weight of their current legacy network identification, entry manage, and provisioning programs. one of the most warning signals that you just could gain an issue:
users cannot live sensible replete their passwords because each utility requires its own authentication
listing assistance is obsolete, or incomplete
Ex-employees nevertheless gain entry to local/far flung network capabilities
It takes on standard, 22 steps to create a current worker electronic mail address
Little or no auditing of debts and privileges, including dart application comparisons to pick up a actual sustain of person movements
Redundant administration features and no pre-established delegation policies
Proprietary access, authentication, and provisioning APIs for each utility
As tremendous and petite businesses alike struggle to ply IT belongings and fees, world community id administration programs are looking increasingly desirable. The Forrester group predicts most Fortune 100 businesses may live enforcing these programs to in the reduction of TCO (complete imbue of possession), pick up rid of manual/legacy programs, and streamline enterprise techniques.
What achieve Novell, identity management and LDAP (light-weight directory access Protocol) ought to achieve with any of this? is this the equal moribund enterprise commonplace for the mature NetWare, NDS (Novell directory carrier), and GroupWise product traces? sure, a revitalized Novell is aggressively pursuing the network id management and listing capabilities market with a current technology of LDAP-based mostly products and applied sciences. through pile on Novell's typical strengths in listing administration and de-coupling these products from their flagship NDS NOS product, it is hoping to compete at once with iPlanet, Oblix, faultfinding course, Microsoft, and different id administration vendors. The following couple of years can live a battleground for community identity providers and consultants as they battle to set up themselves during this current market. let us occupy a more intensive dissect Novell's LDAP implementation and directory service products to peer why gain positive to live seriously in view that them if you would relish an commercial enterprise scale LDAP gadget.
Why Novell and LDAP?Novell realized it necessary an open regular for its entrance-conclusion software software. LDAP changed into the glaring preference as a result of Novell had traditionally based mostly each the NetWare and NDS programs on the X.500 protocol and LDAP turned into at the start designed because the X.500 entrance end. In March 1999, Novell released a duplicate of open source LDAP as fragment of its SDK (application developer's equipment) indicating its replete uphold for the LDAP commonplace. at the time Kurt Zeilenga, chief architect of the OpenLDAP assignment, cited, "world adoption of applied sciences requires that builders gain entry to open and reusable code. they are pleased that Novell has chosen to expend OpenLDAP application and has made its changes accessible to the group so replete can moreover improvement. They emerge ahead to working with Novell in furthering open source LDAP software." It obviously had the all serve of the developer neighborhood.
besides the fact that children LDAP has been around as a gauge protocol on account that 1995 except lately it has been a strictly again-office commercial enterprise network carrier. prior to now, the only open medium for directories become X.500, added in 1988. due to the fact X.500 turned into OSI mannequin based mostly, LDAP turned into designed to office a translation protocol between the TCP/IP and OSI models. since it is essentially the most open and multifaceted of the entire community capabilities protocols, the community id management group has embraced it because the core expertise to unite person and computing device id assistance collectively into one seamless entire. it is now the de facto gauge for many major identity administration services purposes. Openwave and iPlanet each expend LDAP because the underlying address directory technology for enterprise email features products. LDAP is a longtime, strong, scalable open directory habitual -- an extremely eye-catching answer.
Novell NDS and LDAPHow has that modified Novell's items? First, let us emerge at the details of how the NDS gear has totally included LDAP. NDS eight gives effective LDAP uphold through enabling access at once to a NDS statistics store. This affords the better of each worlds -- open requirements for directory access whereas leveraging Novell's security strengths corresponding to incredible authentication and server-server replication. This stronger serve comprises:
LDAP capabilities are installed by using default, which skill that LDAP clients can transparently entry NDS objects the usage of SSL without requiring any extra client utility.
means to retain in writing at once to LDAP schema. To alternate an LDAP-NDS mapping, fade to the ConsoleOne (Novell's Java-based server/laptop management utility) monitor and select LDAP community Object. right click on this demur and choose residences. that you can then fade to the assign map or class Map tab so as to add/modify/delete the arrogate object.
Full auxiliary class help, which capability if an NDS or LDAP demur is a member of several demur classes, it inherits the attributes of replete these demur classes. word there are three default auxiliary classes in NDS.
eDirectory - Novell's directory provider ProducteDirectory, which evolved from NDS, is a listing carrier it's scalable, extensible, and inordinate efficiency. really, Novell has publicly confirmed that eDirectory can control greater than 1000000000 objects in a unique tree. This capacity some distance exceeds what most commercial enterprise networks or e-businesses will ever require. a few of eDirectory's principal add-ons relish international printing capabilities are included into NetWare 6.
FeaturesSome of eDirectory's current or improved facets included in edition 8.7 - codenamed "Falcon" are:
Full aid on multiple platforms, Netware, home windows NT/2000, and UNIX flavors (Linux, AIX, and Solaris). here's splendid information for multi-platform businesses.
eDirectory has replete guide for replication (assorted disbursed copies of the directory in case of failover) and portioning (splitting directory logically to assist decentralized administration and greater network performance). this is particularly essential in a 7x24, five 9s, mission vital deployments.
Full assist of LDAP over SSL/TLS (cozy Socket Layer & Transport Layer security protocols). This feature is terribly essential in the net-primarily based services area.
helps SNMP monitoring. each directory monitoring and management consoles can live found. ConsoleOne is a Java-primarily based for servers/workstations, and iMonitor is a web-based mostly monitoring and diagnostics for replete enterprise eDirectories.
IManager is an internet-based mostly listing supervisor that performs operations on listing objects, including access, creation, directory portioning, and replication.
It includes an import/export utility the usage of LDAP listing Interchange structure (LDIF) for simplified ports and integration with legacy systems. It may moreover live performed from both the command line or the ConsoleOne or iManager items.
directory StructureHere is a brief overview of the Novell listing structure from submissive to backside. Novell calls its directories "container objects."
TREE (as soon as referred to as [ROOT]) is the desirable of the directory hierarchy and carries replete objects in the listing. essentially used to supply or contradict international rights.
firm contains replete objects for a solid or business. This includes the Administrator user. a country demur can moreover live created at this degree for greater refinement.
ORGANIZATIONAL UNIT (OU) - is a further subdivision of a solid structure (corresponding to divisions, geographical, and so on). clients are created at this degree.
area (DNS Domains) - allows for eDirectory interaction with DNS for area of services.
DirXMLDir XML gives bi-directional and Meta-listing capabilities between e-listing and other commercial enterprise and legacy programs. The methods communicate with the aid of without deliberate processing XML documents. DirXML runs on plenty of systems -- Linux, NetWare, Solaris, and home windows NT/2000, however requires eDirectory 8.5 or later. at present attainable DirXML drivers include:
electronic Messaging - Groupwise, Lotus Notes, Microsoft alternate
commercial enterprise purposes - Peoplesoft, IBM WebSphere MQ, Oracle, IBM DB2, and Sybase
working device Domains - NT, lively listing, NIS
Delimited text - Miscellaneous
DirXML ComponentsBetween eDirectory/DirXML there are two various kinds of statistics flows.
writer Channel - Sends facts from various methods to eDirectory.
Subscriber Channel.- Sends records from eDirectory to a considerable number of methods.
DirXML Driver - Handles the communication between DirXML engine and the utility however no longer the guideline processing. This comprises receiving the XML doc and translating it into a set of instructions, which can live then sent to the arrogate statistics keep. word that DirXML 1.1 now not requires eDirectory and DirXML operating on the server allowing far flung drivers to live dynamically loaded.
DirXML Engine - interprets listing activities comparable to add, alter, or delete to an XML doc. Translation contains processing a lot of filters, rules, and style sheets to obtain the favored outcome.
Filters -- examine which attributes equivalent to appellation or tackle will live affected for this selected channel session.
Object mapping -- buddies an demur within the eDirectory schema with an demur within the exterior software.
Matching -- Determines the attributes and values in eDirectory and the corresponding utility that should hale earlier than growing an association attribute.
Create demur -- Specifies the assign and values that exigency to live in area before a current demur or record is created.
Placement -- Specifies the status within the software the objects are kept. several suggestions are customarily used.
XSLT mode sheets - contour the XLST transformation suggestions that transforms commands or listing activities present in the XML files.
Developer ServicesAdditional capabilities and products Novell offers certainly designed to uphold builders encompass:
custom-made DirXML Drivers -- Written in either C++ or Java. The Java drivers requires JDK 1.1.7b or later. developers can expend DSTrace facility and DirXML hint log for debugging.
XML Interfaces for C++ - permits the developer to jot down messages to DSTrace facility and DirXML hint log.
LDAP Extensions and ply for JNDI (Java Naming and directory Interface).
verify Server for LDAP
eDirectory classification Libraries for C and Java - Used to execute operations corresponding to query or add on a LDAP directory. fragment of the Novell Developer gear (NDK), it makes expend of open supply code from the OpenLDAP undertaking.
Some CautionsNovell is relocating the right course by porting the package to assorted platforms, but if you really are looking to gain a totally built-in gadget, remember to nevertheless live the usage of the other Novell products together with eDirectory. youngsters eDirectory has some tremendous elements that gain it less complicated to increase enterprise scaled listing functions based purposes, it remains at coronary heart an NDS primarily based product. it's going to doubtless work ultimate for you in case you already gain a NetWare setting up and some familiarity with the Novell strategy to network primarily based commercial enterprise capabilities. Tony Neal, IT supervisor at Marriott international Inc. views Novell LDAP aid as "a different piece of the protocol puzzle that will tie everything together, with NDS as the true engine underneath". It is not clear when talking to Novell how many of their eDirectory installations are in fact current purchasers and never just extra revenue to the current Novell customer base.
just a few years back Novell took a grave misstep when they proposed a current excellent-stage .dir area for the internet. The proposed .dir domain turned into a so-known as chartered domain and would gain required .dir candidates to live entirely compliant with LDAP 2000, an LDAP conformance verify subsidized by DIF. Novell claimed that organising the .dir domain changed into faultfinding since it would guarantee the character of web sites that might expend it. The proposed domain immediately met with neighborhood resistance and became rapidly withdrawn. "Why is each person trying to ICANN to rubber-stamp their company fashions?" referred to Rick Wesson, CEO of Alice's Registry, in Santa Cruz, Calif., a consultancy for ICANN-authorized registrars. "Novell wants to create a LDAP (lightweight directory entry Protocol) root, nevertheless it would not want a TLD to try this. it could possibly construct the equal infrastructure below the latest DNS domains."
Is Novell concerned with LDAP?Novell has been energetic with two emerging IETF specifications agencies. These efforts will diminutive question emerge as in future Novell net, working system, and listing products.
SAML (safety statement Markup Language) 1.0 allows for functions to partake authentication information. In July, Novell participated in a SAML Interoperability discussion board as a fragment of the Burton neighborhood. however, the only sign-on retort remains a work-in-growth.
The equal community OASIS (organization for the development of Structured counsel necessities) that oversees SAML is moreover developing the UDDI (time-honored Description, Discovery and Integration) specification. UDDI includes a protocol for describing net capabilities and queries about agencies/products. Novell sponsored engineers authored a draft schema to area UDDI tips in an LDAP listing.
Liberty Alliance is creating a "federated" identification authentication protocol, known as "a circle of believe", that enables users to transparently navigate between affiliated companies. There are a lot of security access considerations nevertheless to live decided earlier than this turns into fact. It isn't clear what information this schema has over present certification programs, relish PKI.
Novell developers are engaged on the subsequent release of Netware code named "Nakoma." it will consist of more advantageous DirXML uphold for tighter integration between NetWare, Novell Portal services, and legacy company directories that require listing-based identity and access services. present projected availability is summer 2003.
Some enhancements which are a fragment of "project fate" the common Novell eDirectory and listing enhancement pains encompass:
UDDI server due via yr-end.
the long avoid version of eDirectory may live more dynamic with more desirable rules-based mostly "decision-making" about americans, and listing records.
"Saturn" is a Novell pains to gain eDirectory and iChain (identification-driven net access) compatible with the liberty Alliance specification. "Saturn" reportedly may live accomplished by pass of 12 months-end.
Dynamic identity functions and access will live granted in line with the software.
In conclusion, Novell has been working challenging to status itself in the forefront of the LDAP pile neighborhood. Novell has leveraged its talents with X.500 and NDS to create a magnificent set of gear the expend of LDAP and the NDS structure. if you are keen on big-scale identity administration functions and you already gain some familiarity with the Novell environment, eDirectory might possibly live just the toolkit you should build your software.
Beth Cohen is president of Luth computing device specialists, Inc., a consulting practice focusing on IT infrastructure for smaller companies. She has been within the trenches supporting industry IT infrastructure for over 20 years in a few distinctive fields including architecture, construction, engineering, application, telecommunications, and analysis. She is currently writing a ebook about IT for the petite commercial enterprise and pursuing an counsel Age MBA from Bentley faculty.
Hallett German is an IT advisor who is skilled in imposing sturdy IT infrastructures with an stress on electronic messaging and directories. he is the founder of the Northeast SAS clients community and former President of the REXX Language association. he's the author of three books on scripting languages.
» note replete Articles through Columnist Beth Cohen
November 17, 1999Web posted at: 2:29 p.m. EST (1929 GMT)
by pass of Jana Sanchez
LAS VEGAS (IDG) -- Novell has announced a version of NDS (Novell directory functions) that runs on the home windows NT, Novell NetWare and solar Microsystems' Solaris working programs.
obtainable now, the NDS eDirectory is a directory platform that allows the person to compile, shop and talk suggestions about users, consumers and enterprise companions.
apart from the three platforms that are available now, the listing will moreover work with Linux and Compaq's Tru64 Unix OS in the first half of next yr.
Novell is touting NDS e-listing as an e-commerce tool if you want to allow companies to partake assistance with its partners and suppliers.
"Extranet equals further work ... in status of create a VPN (digital inner most network) you are sharing counsel using open protocols relish SSL (secure sockets layer) and LDAP (lightweight listing access protocol)," eminent Paul Corriveau, NDS product advertising manager, in an interview.
the brand current directory is being positioned as a product that e-commerce vendors can expend to construct up enormously personalized profiles to proffer personalized capabilities to clients.
considered one of Novell's shoppers, introduced here, is CNN Interactive, in an pains to expend the expertise to shop user profiles for its internet website. When users log onto the directory by means of CNN's web web page, they'll acquire custom-made information, functions and promoting, Corriveau mentioned.
"constructing this variety of personalised information with the intent to target shoppers is the actual magnitude of directories," said Dana Gardner, an analyst with Aberdeen community in Boston. "by using having potent directories, businesses can goal specific individuals and proffer the services these americans want."
"it live replete about loyalty -- developing relationships and customized services is the best option to build loyalty," Corriveau spoke of.
"customers profit because the counsel about their wants and desires may moreover live presented to a huge number of product and repair suppliers," Gardner referred to.
through the expend of eDirectory you can enable companions to entry your listing the usage of a browser via LDAP, Corriveau talked about. The companions will not gain to gain eDirectory.
privacy issues are additionally addressed by using the directory, Corriveau observed. "eDirectory has developed-in entry controls so you can gain a decision how a all lot information partners share."
In an try and pick up application carriers to enhance applications for eDirectory, Novell is making a gift the directory to any ISV (independent software providers). The ISVs can down load it and expend it to improve their applications and they can bundle a restricted eDirectory license with their application.
Novell moreover introduced the availability of NDS corporate version, an software that sits on rectify of NDS e-listing that integrates network components throughout diverse systems.
NDS eDirectory is $2 per consumer and NDS corporate version is $26 per person.
Jana Sanchez is London bureau chief for the IDG tidings provider.
Novell plans to outcluster windows NTSeptember 13, 1999NetWare 5.0 pulls replete of it togetherAugust 3, 1999Novell and Microsoft coincide on XML-based standardJuly 14, 1999
linked IDG.web experiences:
Comdex: Novell CEO unveils NDS eDirectory(IDG.web)Novell jumps into e-commerce enviornment with eDirectory(InfoWorld electric)NetPro helps directory administration(InfoWorld electric)community log-ins eased through NDS(InfoWorld electric)lost NDS characteristic muddles NetWare/Win 2000 management(InfoWorld electric)reputation of NDS-energetic directory integration is still up in the air(InfoWorld electric)Migration tool eases road from NDS to energetic listing(InfoWorld electric powered)NDS eight.0 offers competent community know-how(Civic.com)
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This chapter covers the following testing objectives for Novell Course 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking:
Identify basic Directory Service tasks.
Identify common Directory Service uses.
Describe how a Directory is structured.
Identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.
Identify how eDirectory 8.6 works.
Identify and report the composition of eDirectory.
Identify and report eDirectory demur classes.
Identify the current and design of the eDirectory tree.
NetWare 6 introduces eDirectory 8.6, the greatest version to date of Novell's world-class directory service.
eDirectory is the world's leading Directory service. It provides a unifying, cross-platform infrastructure for managing, securing, accessing, and developing replete major components of your network. eDirectory scales to the largest network environments, including the Internet. Because it is based on the X.500 standard, eDirectory supports Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and the Java programming environment.
eDirectory can store and manage millions of objects in a seamless ballet of communications. It moreover provides the foundation network service for replete NetWare servers and network resources. In fact, after network communications, it is the most fundamental network service offered by NetWare 6.
With replete this in mind, I'm positive you would coincide that eDirectory management is one of your key responsibilities as a Novell CNA (Certified Network Administrator). In this chapter, you will explore four essential lessons regarding eDirectory management:
Introduction to Directory Services—You'll originate with a brief introduction to the basics of Directory services, including some common uses and how a Directory is structured.
Understanding eDirectory 8.6—Then you'll explore the architecture of Novell eDirectory version 8.6 and compare it to its predecessor, Novell Directory Services (NDS).
Using eDirectory Objects—You'll dig into the basics behind eDirectory's three types of objects: the Tree object, container objects, and leaf objects.
Implementing eDirectory 8.6 Naming—Finally, you'll learn about naming conventions used in eDirectory, including naming context rules and inheritance.
As you can see, there's a lot to learn in this chapter and when it's replete done, you'll live an accomplished eDirectory administrator. So, let's pick up started!
Test Objectives Covered:
Identify basic Directory Service tasks.
Identify common Directory Service uses.
Describe how a Directory is structured.
Identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.
The Directory Service is one of the most fundamental network services provided by replete NetWare 6 servers. In fact, it represents the communications hub for administrative connectivity between replete servers in a large NetWare 6 network. As such, Directory Service management is one of your key responsibilities as the network administrator.
As its appellation implies, the Directory service provides access to a database, called eDirectory, that contains replete resources for the entire network. This object-oriented database is organized into a hierarchical structure called the tree. eDirectory provides the basic foundation for the Directory service, including capabilities for replication and distribution. Directory is capitalized in this case to differentiate it from the directory (or folder) in the file system. In fact, these two "directories" define the two major roles of a NetWare 6 CNA: File System Administrator (directories and files) and eDirectory Administrator (The Directory).
The Directory service is your friend. It may appear a diminutive intimidating at first, but when you pick up to know the Directory service (and eDirectory, for that matter), it's actually fun. Really.
How Directory Services Work
A Directory service classifies replete network resources into a finite number of objects. These objects can live organized by function, location, size, type, or color—it doesn't matter. The point is, a Directory service organizes network resources independently from their physical locations. For example, servers are organized according to function. Then users are placed in the arrogate containers to simplify connectivity. This increases productivity because users are near the resources they need. When a user logs in to the network, the user can access any demur in the Tree, regardless of its location. This provides a slick means for managing not only users, but moreover replete their hardware and applications. Of course, in the eDirectory tree (as in life), it is best to status User objects and their resources (Printers, Servers, and Volumes) in nigh proximity to each other.
A Directory service performs several basic tasks, including the following:
Connecting disparate systems—A Directory service integrates and organizes heterogeneous systems to allow them to partake common management. In today's industry world, such systems are required not only to communicate with each other, but moreover to partake information and expend common services to meet the objectives of the organization.
Satisfying the needs of the user, organization, and business—The network must live springy enough to provide a set of unique services based on individual needs.
Emulating replete industry relationships—The network must live capable of ensuring that trusted relationships are built and maintained between people, business, the company's intranet, and the World Wide Web.
Coordinating information flow—Information may emanate either from the industry (procedural) or from the network (technical). A Directory service coordinates information flow, no matter what the source or character of information.
Ensuring information availability—A Directory service provides a means for making replete network information available to users, devices, applications, or other resources.
A Directory and a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) are two separate entities with different functions. Even though a Directory is a collection of information, it does not supplant the traditional RDBMS. Directories and databases complement one another, even though they serve different purposes.
Typically, a Directory service may live used in the following ways:
Organizing data—A Directory service organizes data or information for the network. In NetWare 6, eDirectory stores replete user, server, printer, and other network device information.
Accessing information easily—Similar to the file-and-folder system used on a computer, a Directory service makes information about network resources available to users, devices, and applications. A Directory service provides employees with global access to network resources. Businesses and organizations moreover expend Directory services to provide user authentication and authorization for using these network resources and services. For organizations with large numbers of mobile users, eDirectory provides a means for storing user information required by some applications. (Such applications are described as Directory-enabled.) From the user's point of view, a Directory service provides a global view of replete network resources, such as users, applications, services, system resources, and devices.
Providing security—A Directory service uniquely identifies network resources, locates network objects when required, supports robust security features, and controls the user access to network resources.
Providing services to customers—For organizations taking advantage of the features of electronic industry transactions, Directory services can serve organize multiple databases while helping to mesh disparate network systems. This provides better management of processes between customers, employees, and supply-chain partners. The resulting benefits are as follows: reduced costs for administration and hardware, faster access to data and information, and secure network access with superior failing tolerance.
From a common perspective, Directory services can moreover provide electronic provisioning, enhanced security, customer profiling, electronic wallets, automated notification systems, customized Web interfaces, and virtual private networks (VPNs).
A virtual private network (VPN) often is used to transfer sensitive company information across an untrusted network (such as the Internet) in a secure mode (typically by encapsulating and encrypting data).
So, what achieve you think? Is a Directory service for you? Who knows—you might even relish it.
As you recall, the Directory service provides access to the eDirectory database, which contains replete resources for the entire network. What exactly does eDirectory perceive like? From the outside, it looks relish a commodious cloud hovering over your network. On the inside, however, it follows a hierarchical tree structure similar to the Internet domain system. That is, starting at the WWW Root and expanding to ".com" domains and eventually to servers. In NetWare 6, this design is referred to as the Directory Information Tree, which is shortened to the "tree" for purposes of their discussion.
Think of the tree as actually being inverted. As in nature, the eDirectory tree starts with the Tree demur (called the Tree Root) and builds from there. Next, it sprouts container objects, which are branches reaching toward the sky. Finally, leaf objects provide network functionality to users, servers, and the file system. As you can note in pattern 3.1, the tree analogy is alive and well.
Figure 3.1 The figurative Directory services tree.
The actual eDirectory tree is made up of ratiocinative network objects. eDirectory objects define ratiocinative or physical entities that provide organizational or technical office to the network. As you will note later in this chapter, they near in three flavors:
The Tree Root is the very top of the eDirectory tree. Because it represents the opening porthole to the eDirectory world, its icon is appropriately a picture of a tree. Container objects define the organizational boundaries of the eDirectory tree and house other container objects and/or leaf objects. When a container demur contains other objects, it is called a parent object.
Finally, leaf objects are the physical or ratiocinative network resources that provide technical services and network functionality. Leaf objects define the lowest level of the eDirectory structure. You'll learn about the most spirited leaf objects later in this chapter.
The structure of the Directory is governed by a set of rules collectively known as the Directory schema. These rules define the character of data, the syntax of that data, and the objects the Directory can contain. Schema rules Fall into two broad categories:
Object class definitions—These define the character of objects and the attributes of those objects.
Attribute definitions—These define the structure (syntax and constraints) of an attribute. Simply stated, the assign value is the actual content or data.
Remember when I told you that eDirectory was based on the X.500 standard? Before you fade tree climbing and explore the dynamics of eDirectory, occupy a quick perceive at that gauge to note what that replete means. I reflect you'll spot some incredible similarities between X.500 and what you've just erudite about Directory services.
X.500 is an international gauge for naming services. A variety of industry standards, such as DNA (Digital Network Architecture), expend X.500 with their own naming services to provide address-to-name resolution and directory services. This enables these distributed machines to exist in a large hierarchical management system.
X.500 organizes network resources (such as users and servers) into a globally accessible Directory. The X.500 specification establishes guidelines for representing, accessing, and using information stored in a directory database. In fact, eDirectory is Novell's implementation of the following X.500 features:
Scalability—Large databases can live subdivided into smaller Directory System Agents (DSAs). A DSA can portray either a unique organization or multiple organizations, and its contents may live distributed across multiple Directory servers. eDirectory calls them partitions.
Replication—This feature allows the Directory database, or portions thereof, to live replicated on backup Directory servers located throughout the network.
Synchronization—Because X.500 must manage a loosely coupled, distributed database, each server must live able to synchronize its database contents with other servers. Directory database updates may live made either at the original master database (master-shadow arrangement) or at any writable replica (peer-to-peer mechanism). In either case, X.500 propagates Directory database change information to replete servers holding replicas of the database or a DSA.
The X.500 Directory is represented by a Directory Information Tree (DIT) and Directory Information groundwork (DIB). At least one of those should sound familiar. The DIB consists of objects (or nodes) and their associated properties and values. Intermediate objects act as containers that aid in organizing the DIT. Leaf objects portray individual network entities, such as servers, printers, and so on. refer to pattern 3.2 for an illustration of the X.500 Directory architecture.
The rules that determine the character of information that may live stored in the DIB are held in the Directory's schema. (Now this should live sounding really familiar.) Each demur in an X.500 DIT has a unique appellation that is referred to as its distinguished name, or DN, (that is, complete name). Each demur may moreover live referred to by a relative distinguished name, or RDN, (that is, partial name).
Directory database access is managed by a DSA running on a local server. Users access the database through a Directory User Agent (DUA). DUAs are available in command-line, forms-based, and browser-style interfaces. DSAs and DUAs communicate with each other using the Directory Access Protocol (DAP). Furthermore, DSAs may communicate with one another using the Directory System Protocol (DSP), Directory Information Shadowing Protocol (DISP), or the Directory Operational Binding Management Protocol (DOP).
Figure 3.2 X.500 Directory architecture.
Now that you know where Directory services came from and generally how they work in NetWare 6, it's time to achieve some tree climbing! Sounds relish that fun I promised you, doesn't it?
Skill Level: Intermediate Status: Active
Low Cost: $375 (shortest track)
Summary:For individuals who decipher advanced company-wide uphold problems and high-level network problems. They execute planning, installation, configuration, troubleshooting and upgrade services for networks. The Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) has been recognized as the IT industry's leading certification for advanced networking and troubleshooting.
Initial Requirements:You must pass three exams: Foundations of Novell Open Enterprise Server fpr NetWare ($125), Novell Open Enterprise Server for NetWare further Admin ($125) and Novell eDirerctory Design and Implementation: eDirectory 8.8 ($125).
An upgrade exam is available for current NetWare 6 certified individuals.
Continuing Requirements:From time to time, Novell Training Services may require you to occupy an exam to uphold current on the latest solutions and technologies. These exams are considered a Continuing Certification Requirement (CCR), which uphold your skills up-to-date and uphold your certification valuable in the marketplace.
Zvetco Biometrics, a leader in fingerprint identity and authentication solutions, today announced that the City of Apopka has deployed the company’s P4500 biometric fingerprint reader and the Authasas® enterprise grade biometric software, to achieve compliance with CJIS mandates at state and federal levels. The City of Apopka selected Zvetco and Viable Solutions, Inc. to provide and install a turn-key solution to secure mobile access to information, reduce helpdesk costs and simplify compliance with the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information System (CJIS) mandate. With this installation, the City of Apopka delivers extremely towering security and convenience through fingerprint scanning.
Within the current mandates, agencies must enforce unique IDs, tenacious passwords, and comply with the CJIS Advanced Authentication requirement by 2013. However, Advanced Authentication is required for any system upgrade performed after 2005. This means that instead of a 2013 deadline, the mandates must live met at the time of the upgrade. Agencies that are audited and don’t comply with the CJIS policy could live denied access to CJIS systems or mug penalties.
The City of Apopka has chosen Zvetco Biometrics and their VAR, Viable Solutions, Inc. to deliver much needed biometric tools to achieve taut integration within a Novell eDirectory environment. In addition to their all-metal biometric readers, Zvetco provided Authasas®, advanced authentication software that enabled the first of its benign connectivity with Novell eDirectory.
City of Apopka’s IT Supervisor, Robert Hippler, says, "Zvetco scanners are a cost effective product that easily connects to their VDI and Physical workstations. With those in status they are able to deliver the current Authasas® Biometric Authentication to desktops, meeting and even exceeding the CJIS requirements."
"Zvetco’s Verifi fingerprint readers deliver on the plight to provide simple yet secure access to organizations’ networks and applications," said Zavi Cohen, CEO at Zvetco Biometrics. "It’s gratifying to note Zvetco solutions supporting government agencies’ needs for security and efficiency in their daily operations. He added, “The Zvetco solution can live utilized in a Novell environment as well as Windows lively Directory. By deploying Zvetco’s Enterprise grade fingerprint readers the City of Apopka achieved noteworthy cost benefits when compared with traditional AFIS character readers”.
Eliot Lloyd Lanes, CEO, and CTO of Viable Solutions, Inc. states, “We gain supported the City of Apopka for decades, and they gain worked with Zvetco Biometrics for many years. The City’s IT Director, Donald Kahrs was sensible that Viable Solutions, Inc. has helped with pioneering efforts in the sphere of Biometrics integration. So, when they needed to meet the CJIS requirements, they turned to us. They then looked to Zvetco Biometrics, who presented Authasas. During the project they built nigh ties with Authasas and together they gain now delivered a solution that will appropriate any current Novell and/or Microsoft environment with ease and cost effectiveness.”
About Zvetco Biometrics
Zvetco Biometrics is a manufacturer of best-in-class identity authentication hardware and provider of identity management solutions. Founded in 1999, Zvetco provides its customers in corporate enterprise, government, financial services, healthcare, gaming, food services and point-of-sale with cost-effective network security tools that forestall identity theft, increase accountability and liquidate the cost and inconvenience of password-based access. Zvetco Biometrics' Verifi™ line of biometric products incorporates precision fingerprint-sensing technology into ergonomic computer peripherals that deliver unparalleled performance, reliability and convenience.
Verifi™ is a trademark of Zvetco Biometrics. Authasas® is a trademark of Authasas, a provider of advanced authentication software. replete other trademarks, registered trademarks and service marks are the property of their respective owners.
Media Contact: Christy Elliott, Zvetco Media DirectorPhone: (407) 681-0111 Extension: 804Web site: http://www.zvetcobiometrics.com
About Viable Solutions, Inc.
Viable Solutions, Inc. is a world leader in networking and collaboration design, implementation, and support. They moreover provide a secure, robust, and trustworthy private corporate cloud. Founded in 1986, Viable Solutions, Inc. provides its customers in replete manner of industry cost-effective design, implementation, and uphold tools and services (on premise or cloud baased) to meet and exceed their industry process needs. Information about Viable Solutions, Inc. and its products and services by calling (407) 249-9600 option 2.
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