how many days education required to bypass 00M-246 examination?
I noiseless engage into account the tough time I had even as mastering for the 00M-246 exam. I used to are in search of for wait on from friends, but I felt most of the material possess become indistinct and crushed. Later, i establish killexams.com and its material. Thru the treasured material I determined everything from top to backside of the provided dump. It Come to subsist so particular. Within the given questions, I replied every bit of questions with consummate option. Thank you for brining every bit of the endless happiness in my profession.
amazed to glance 00M-246 dumps and examine guide!
Passing the 00M-246 exam turned into just impossible for me as I couldnt control my training time nicely. Left with handiest 10 days to head, I referred the exam by using killexams.com and it made my life clean. subjects possess been provided nicely and was dealt well within the test. I scored a terrifi 959. thanks killexams. i was hopeless however killexams.com given me hope and helped for passing whilst i used to subsist hopeless that i cant discontinuance up an IT licensed; my friend instructed me approximately you; I attempted your on-line education gear for my 00M-246 exam and became capable of obtain a 91 bring about exam. I very own thanks to killexams.
nice to pay interest that contemporary-day dumps modern-day 00M-246 exam are to subsist had.
I noiseless recall the tough time I had while learning for the 00M-246 exam. I used to search assistance from friends, but I felt most of the material was vague and overwhelmed. Later, I establish killexams.com and its material. Through the valuable material I learned everything from top to bottom of the provided material. It was so precise. In the given questions, I answered every bit of questions with consummate option. Thanks for brining every bit of the countless happiness in my career.
That changed into brilliant! I got dumps of 00M-246 examination.
killexams! Massive manner to you. Ultimate month whilst i was an extravagant amount of worried about my 00M-246 exam this website assist me masses for scoring excessive. As every corpse is vigilant of that 00M-246 certification is an extravagant amount of tough however for me it become no longer an extravagant amount of hard, as I had 00M-246 dump in my hand. After experiencing such dependable material I suggested to every bit of the college students to dispose towards the incredible educational offerings of this web site in your education. My well needs are with you concerned in your 00M-246 certificates.
Passing 00M-246 exam became my first undergo but distinguished enjoy!
The material was usually prepared and green. I need to with out a telling buy of a stretch undergo in brain severa solutionsand score a 97% marks after a 2-week preparation. A whole lot way to you dad and mom for first rate associationmaterials and helping me in passing the 00M-246 exam. As a working mother, I had constrained time to accomplish my-self obtain prepared for the exam 00M-246. Thusly, i was searching out some specific materials and the killexams.com dumps aide changed into the privilege selection.
What is needed to study for 00M-246 exam?
I used this dump to skip the 00M-246 exam in Romania and were given 98%, so this is a very telling way to consequence togetherfor the exam. every bit of questions I were given on the exam were exactly what killexams.com had provided on this brainsell off, which is extraordinary I notably recommend this to anyone in case you are going to engage 00M-246 exam.
read books for 00M-246 expertise however accomplish certain your achievement with those .
best 00M-246 exam training i possess ever Come across. I passed 00M-246 exam hassle-free. No pressure, no issues, and no frustrations every bit of through the exam. I knew the entirety I had to realize from this killexams.com 00M-246 Questions set. The questions are legitimate, and i heard from my pal that their money lower back guarantee works, too. They accomplish provide you with the money lower back if you fail, however the component is, they accomplish it very easy to skip. ill use them for my nextcertification test too.
How many questions are asked in 00M-246 exam?
that is exceptional, I passed my 00M-246 exam terminal week, and one exam in forward this month! As many human beings factor out privilege here, those braindumps are a remarkable manner to analyze, either for the exam, or only for your expertise! On my checks, I had plenty of questions, exact thing I knew every bit of the answers!!
in which can i am getting assist to bypass 00M-246 examination?
I desired to start my personal IT traffic but earlier than it, 00M-246 path became necessary for my commercial enterprise, so I determine to obtain this certificate. after I took the admission for 00M-246 certification and took lectures I didnt understand whatever. After a few query I reached at killexams.com website and learnt from their and whilst my 00M-246 exam came I did nicely as examine to the ones students who took lectures and prepared from 00M-246 test manual from this internet site. I counsel this internet site to all. I additionally thank to the employees of this internet site.
Belive me or now not! This resource of 00M-246 questions works.
these days i purchased your certification package deal and studied it very well. terminal week I passed the 00M-246 and obtained my certification. killexams.com exam simulator became a excellent device to prepare the exam. that enhanced my self assurance and that i without problems passed the certification exam! notably advocated!!!
Title: C-degree/President supervisor VP personnel (affiliate/Analyst/etc.) Director
role in IT determination-making manner: Align company & IT goals Create IT approach determine IT needs control seller Relationships evaluate/Specify manufacturers or providers different role empower Purchases not involved
sometimes, they ship subscribers particular offers from opt for partners. Would you dote to acquire these special associate presents by the use of electronic mail? yes No
Your registration with Eweek will comprise the following free e-mail publication(s): information & Views
by using submitting your wireless quantity, you disagree that eWEEK, its linked homes, and dealer partners proposing content you view may additionally contact you using contact core expertise. Your consent isn't required to view content or use web site aspects.
via clicking on the "Register" button below, I disagree that I actually possess carefully study the terms of service and the privacy coverage and i disagree to subsist legally certain by using every bit of such phrases.
No influence found, try novel key phrase!Toshiba TEC (OTC:TSHTF) will purchase IBM's (IBM) retail shop factor-of-sale solutions enterprise. The agreement enables each to tap the growing smarter commerce probability. A multi-12 months company colleague ...
In simultaneous ever greater related world consumers possess much bigger expectations of the businesses they deal with.
They want groups to understand their preferences and bring a customized, advantageous journey. What's greater they are expecting this the entire time not just at the factor of sale.
To assist businesses carry for his or her shoppers IBM is the usage of its Smarter Commerce global apex in Florida to unveil ExperienceOne, an built-in portfolio of cloud-based and on premise offerings to assemble advertising, sales and repair practices and support create deeper, extra effective customer engagements.
IBM ExperienceOne draws on innovation from IBM analysis as well as more than $3 billion invested in organic structure and acquisitions. or not it's besides constructed on top-quality practices drawn from IBM's undergo of working with over eight,000 corporations throughout the globe.
"Smarter Commerce is about assisting shoppers normally reinvent themselves around the client journey," says Craig Hayman, time-honored supervisor, trade Cloud options at IBM. "IBM ExperienceOne provides a at ease and simplified portfolio -- including innovation from greater than 1,200 companions -- to champion consumers design and bring extra constructive client engagements. With cloud, on premise and hybrid options, IBM ExperienceOne quickly scales to engage every client in the second while retaining their privateness".
New capabilities aid to enhance understanding of client relationships, maximize earnings through directing the correct present to the correct consumer, and accomplish use of cell and convivial media to convey improved client event. Combining ExperienceOne with SoftLayer cloud infrastructure IBM is additionally in a position to present client statistics, customer analytics and digital commerce as a service.
The enterprise is aiming to deliver similar stages of customer insight to the B2B sector as neatly with the launch of recent associate and organization assignation application via its Smarter Commerce initiative. This contains a Multi-business Relationship management (MRM) platform for improved collaboration. IBM Sterling B2B features Reporting and Analytics to video panoply transactions and wait on traffic spot traits and accomplish recommended decisions. Plus other tools present improved adherence to compliance requisites and sooner and more efficient sharing of information.
"Now more than ever, the kismet of any traffic is deeply intertwined with the success of its network of partners and suppliers every bit of over the world," says John Mesberg, vp, B2B & Commerce solutions at IBM. "by using orchestrating these knotty engagements with surprising precision and perception, organizations can create novel gateways to alternate that permit groups to convey outstanding consumer experiences. With today’s news, IBM basically transforms these dynamics with partners and shoppers to pressure faster time to salary throughout the prolonged cost chain".
which you can find more about IBM ExperienceOne on the enterprise's web site. there's additionally an infographic on how Smarter Commerce can carry greater consumer assignation beneath.
While it is difficult errand to pick solid certification questions/answers assets regarding review, reputation and validity since individuals obtain sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets as for exam dumps update and validity. The greater allotment of other's sham report objection customers Come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams cheerfully and effortlessly. They never compact on their review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer conviction is imperative to us. Extraordinarily they deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report grievance, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. On the off casual that you discern any counterfeit report posted by their rivals with the title killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com protestation or something dote this, simply recall there are constantly terrible individuals harming reputation of telling administrations because of their advantages. There are a distinguished many fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their sample questions and test brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.
People used these IBM dumps to obtain 100% marks If are you confused how to pass your IBM 00M-246 Exam? With the wait on of the verified killexams.com IBM 00M-246 Testing Engine you will learn how to increase your skills. The majority of the students start figuring out when they find out that they possess to flaunt in IT certification. Their brain dumps are comprehensive and to the point. The IBM 00M-246 PDF files accomplish your vision vast and wait on you a lot in preparation of the certification exam.
Just depart through their Questions bank and sense assured approximately the 00M-246 test. You will pass your exam at elevated marks or your money back. They possess aggregated a database of 00M-246 Dumps from actual test so that you can Come up with a casual to obtain ready and pass 00M-246 exam on the essential enterprise. Simply install their Exam Simulator and obtain ready. You will pass the exam.
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as beneath;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for every bit of tests on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders more than $99
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for every bit of Orders
Detail is at http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/00M-246
We possess their specialists working consistently for the accumulation of genuine exam inquiries of 00M-246. every bit of the pass4sure inquiries and answers of 00M-246 collected by their group are investigated and updated by their IBM certified group. They sojourn associated with the hopefuls showed up in the 00M-246 test to obtain their surveys about the 00M-246 test, they amass 00M-246 exam tips and traps, their undergo about the methods utilized in the genuine 00M-246 exam, the oversights they done in the genuine test and afterward enhance their material in dote manner. When you undergo their pass4sure inquiries and answers, you will feel positive about every one of the themes of test and feel that your insight has been significantly made strides. These pass4sure inquiries and answers are not simply hone addresses, these are genuine exam inquiries and answers that are adequate to pass the 00M-246 exam at first attempt.
IBM certifications are profoundly required crosswise over IT associations. HR administrators lank toward competitors who possess a comprehension of the point, as well as having finished certification exams in the subject. every bit of the IBM certifications gave on Pass4sure are acknowledged worldwide.
Is it accurate to vow that you are searching for pass4sure genuine exams inquiries and answers for the IBM Smarter Commerce Sales Mastery Test v1 exam? They are here to give you one most updated and quality sources is killexams.com. They possess aggregated a database of inquiries from true exams with a specific discontinuance goal to give you a casual to map and pass 00M-246 exam on the primary endeavor. every bit of preparation materials on the killexams.com site are up and coming and verified by industry experts.
Why killexams.com is the Ultimate decision for accreditation readiness?
1. A quality detail that wait on You Prepare for Your Exam:
killexams.com is a definitive readiness hotspot for passing the IBM 00M-246 exam. They possess deliberately gone along and amassed genuine exam inquiries and answers, updated with indistinguishable recurrence from genuine exam is updated, and investigated by industry specialists. Their IBM guaranteed specialists from different associations are gifted and qualified/certified people who possess verified on each inquiry and respond and clarification locality with a specific discontinuance goal to enable you to comprehend the notion and pass the IBM exam. The most model approach to map 00M-246 exam isn't perusing a reading material, however taking exercise genuine inquiries and understanding the privilege answers. exercise questions wait on set you up for the ideas, as well As the technique ininquiries and respond alternatives are exhibited amid the genuine exam.
2. easy to use Mobile Device Access:
killexams.com give to a distinguished degree easy to use access to killexams.com items. The focal point of the site is to give exact, updated, and to the usher material toward enable you to study and pass the 00M-246 exam. You can rapidly find the genuine inquiries and solution database. The website is multifarious agreeable to permit study anyplace, as long as you possess web association. You can simply stack the PDF in portable and concentrate anyplace.
3. Access the Most Recent IBM Smarter Commerce Sales Mastery Test v1 true Questions and Answers:
Our Exam databases are routinely updated during the time to incorporate the most recent genuine inquiries and answers from the IBM 00M-246 exam. Having Accurate, legitimate and current genuine exam questions, you will pass your exam on the main attempt!
4. Their Materials is Verified by killexams.com Industry Experts:
We are doing battle to giving you exact IBM Smarter Commerce Sales Mastery Test v1 exam questions and replies, alongside clarifications. They accomplish the estimation of your occasion and cash, the judgement each inquiry and reply on killexams.com has been certified by IBM guaranteed specialists. They are exceedingly qualified and ensured people, who possess numerous long periods of expert undergo identified with the IBM exams.
5. They Provide every bit of killexams.com Exam Questions and comprise detailed Answers with Explanations:
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017: 60% Discount Coupon for every bit of exams on website
PROF17: 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17: 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL: 10% Special Discount Coupon for every bit of Orders
Not at every bit of dote numerous other exam prep sites, killexams.com gives updated genuine IBM 00M-246 exam questions, as well as obvious answers, clarifications and charts. This is censorious to wait on the applicant comprehend the privilege answer, as well as insights about the alternatives that were mistaken.
00M-246 Practice Test | 00M-246 examcollection | 00M-246 VCE | 00M-246 study guide | 00M-246 practice exam | 00M-246 cram
2. The Up & Comers: Health and Auto are tall development areas for AI/ML due to the copious amount of data being created in those industries. For example, patient records house vital information related to disease identification and treatment. In Ontario alone, there are over 2.3 billion medical test results from 11.1 million Ontarians. On the other discontinuance of the spectrum, automobiles are constantly generating slews of data — distance traveled, medium speed, destination — that can subsist used for optimizing traffic, city planning and accident prevention. For AI/ML to subsist effectively implemented within the enterprise, it needs to subsist integrated into core decision making processes within a company; just glance at Facebook’s newsfeed algorithm and Uber’s surge pricing and route optimization system. AI/ML will supplant a lot of the grunt drudgery in the enterprise, freeing employee time for more value-add activities (e.g. Amy, x.ai’s robot assistant, who saves me from so many unnecessary emails when scheduling a meeting). Near-term opportunities in the enterprise are in data optimization, data search and messaging (think: commerce, payments and gaming), and you’ll likely discern this quickly penetrate areas such as Enterprise Optimization, Law, Security and Sales.
No result found, try novel keyword!But Google's bigger ambition is the mastery - and commercialization - of synthetic intelligence ... Azure Functions, Google Cloud Functions, IBM Openwhisk, Oracle Fn Project.
October 31st, 2018 in traffic Practices, drop 2018, Millennial, Restaurants, Technology, Trends
By Tyler Titherington
I am a restaurateur. I’m behind schedule. Again. Not because I am disorganized or possess too much to do, more so because I possess a hierarchy of tasks that are addressed based on priority. Guest needs are my first priority, staff needs are a close second and everything else last. There is a tertiary hierarchy in the terminal basket as well. Some tasks with a lower priority drop through the cracks. Not because they are unimportant, but rather there just was not enough time. The verisimilitude is that I am obsessively organized. I treasure “To Do” lists, calendars, flux charts and the accomplishment of tasks. I ingest projects for breakfast, while alive on the edge of chaos and complete catastrophe. Short staffed? Yawn. Drains flooding? Been there, done that. POS system crash during service on a weekend? Bring it. I am the duck – tranquil above water and feet moving nonstop below. However, how accomplish I manage every bit of the curveballs and noiseless manage to gain time without compromising any of my other priorities? It is very simple – meet and embrace technology wherever possible, specifically, cloud-based computing solutions that allow one to subsist in many places at one time. These applications simplify daily tasks for management teams and staff, which will ultimately leverage senior management down to focus on the bigger picture. Maybe even obtain a day off…
Over the terminal 10 years or so, the increased availability of cloud-based computing solutions (using network computers over the internet rather than property-based difficult drives) has been a major paradigm shift for many industries. However, as with most technological advances, the restaurant industry has been very behind to adapt. taut margins, resistance to change, and scare of unknown outcomes possess long driven the restaurateur’s decision-making process. However, with increased options, cheaper costs, and ease of use, that mindset is quickly becoming a thing of the past. Restaurant operators are dawn to embrace cloud-based solutions for everything from Point of Sale and Tableside Payment to Menu Design and Scheduling.
Our foray into cloud computing began with an luckless set of circumstances that the entire industry was facing. The year was 2010 and the impending doom of PCI Compliance was upon us. At best, their network infrastructure was dated and they needed to act quickly to obtain it into compliance. dote most operators, their hand was forced and they had no choice. What is PCI Compliance? The respond depends on who you ask.
Your guests possess never heard of it and possess no notion what it is. Most restaurant operators will bid you that PCI Compliance is an almost unachievable set of network security standards designed to protect the credit card giants, who already permeate them way too much for credit card processing and continually squeeze them with a plethora of monthly fees. The definition of PCI Compliance is below, according to PCI ComplianceGuide.org
“The Payment Card Industry Data Security criterion (PCI DSS) is a set of security standards designed to ensure that every bit of companies that accept, process, store or transmit credit card information maintain a secure environment. The PCI Security Council Card focuses on improving payment account security throughout the transaction process. It is an independent corpse that was created by the major payment card brands (Visa, MasterCard, American Express, ascertain and JCB.).”[i]
PCI DSS is mandatory for any and every bit of businesses that accept credit cards. It involves a process of assessment, remediation and reporting. Operators must identify network vulnerabilities, physical vulnerabilities, and operational vulnerabilities that could result in a credit card infraction and fix them. In summary, it is a painfully tedious, extremely time consuming, and potentially expensive process.
It is extremely essential for the security of their guest’s payment information, both for ensuring confidence with their customers and limiting legal liabilities. In 2017-8, major retail stores including Home Depot, Macy’s, Sears, Kmart, Best Buy and Lord & Taylor made headlines across the country for data breaches possibly compromising customer’s credit card personal information. The restaurant industry is besides plagued with security breaches, including large chains such as Darden (Cheddar’s), Panera Bread, Sonic and Arby’s. The number of customers whose credit card information may subsist compromised totals into the millions.[ii]
At Grafton Group, the process of obtaining Credit card security involved working directly with their IT vendor and POS vendor to achieve PCI compliance. The first order of traffic was to obtain their network infrastructure in order. Some of the major network upgrades that they undertook were upgrading wiring, locking down patch panels, securitizing external ports, adding wireless access points (WAPs), and replacing firewalls. The WAPs and novel firewalls were the heart of the upgrades and would ultimately allow us to operate unencumbered in the cloud. The novel access points give their guests their own network and obviate them from accessing ours. The security firewalls obviate intrusions and besides allow their IT vendor remote access so they can accomplish changes without actually being in the restaurant. What used to subsist a scheduled visit from their IT vendor that may possess taken weeks, is now a simple email and can often subsist addressed online in minutes. In a nutshell, PCI DSS forced us to upgrade their network, which ultimately allowed us to operate in the cloud. This unintended outcome to a painful requirement was truly a blessing in dissemble and it pushed us into novel territory – the cloud! Being in the cloud has allowed us access to exciting applications and services that would otherwise subsist unavailable to us.
IBM defines cloud computing as “the delivery of on-demand computing resources — everything from applications to data centers — over the internet on a pay-for-use basis.”[iii] For their purposes, these on exact computing resources primarily consist of “SaaS” or Software as a Service. Here are some of the areas where cloud computing can streamline their operation.
Point of Sale
POS systems are the most attractive locality of cloud-based solutions for restaurant operators. Legacy systems such as Positouch, Micros, and Aloha are bulkier, more expensive, and much harder to program and implement. There are quite a few cloud-based POS options, most notably Boston-based Toast. Toast has done a distinguished job streamlining and simplifying the interface for both front and back discontinuance users. Management can access the system remotely for screen programming, troubleshooting or reviewing sales. It is extremely intuitive, dote using a smartphone, thus needing very microscopic training. As wireless POS solutions evolve, legacy systems will eventually subsist phased out. It is only a matter of time.
EMV (Europay, MasterCard and Visa) is another set of regulations that are coming to the restaurant industry. “EMV is a global criterion for cards equipped with computer chips and the technology used to authenticate chip-card transactions.”[iv] Used in Europe for years, the credit card never leaves the customer and every bit of transactions are processed tableside with a handheld device. One sample of an EMV compliant, cloud-based device for tableside payments that they at Grafton Group are currently analyzing and map on implementing is Pay My Tab. Pay My Tab will fully integrate with their POS system and eliminates many bulky PCI DSS requirements. Many similar systems are already in use at quick service operations, where guests and staff possess easily adapted to them. In addition to tougher security, the implementation should diminish payment time, liquidate paper receipts (emailed instead) and simplify the process for management to search for specific receipts.
Reservations and Floor Management
There are a variety of solutions for reservations and floor management systems. Their difficult has been using OpenTable for over 15 years, so when they rolled out their cloud-based system, GuestCenter, they were early adopters. This has been one of the sole best applications in terms of roll out, ease of use, and seamless integration. It is iPad-based and eliminates every bit of the wiring and host stand true estate. It is compatible to smart phones that allows for remote access, allowing management to check flux of service, identify unique reservations, and accomplish positive that waitlists are being managed appropriately. Soon to Come is an interface with POS systems that automatically applies any “guest notes” from GuestCenter to the server’s check, such as special occasions, etc. Most importantly, due to its intuitive design, their millennial hosts use the system seamlessly.
Private Event Management
Private events are the foundation of most plenary service restaurant operations. They are the contrast between a telling week and a distinguished week. However, it can subsist a very confusing process with every bit of of the moving parts. In order to sojourn organized, they use TripleSeat to manage leads, create BEOs and track their events calendar. The cloud-based event management system allows their Private Event Coordinators to respond at any given time from anywhere, giving them a leg up on the competition, giving them the occasion to win fees for each event. Since their coordinators receive an administrative fee for each event, they delight in responding when available off-site; telling communication is key for making positive work-life equilibrium is maintained.
Bar at the Russell House Tavern in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com
An locality which the cloud has really saved their restaurants time is with food & beverage inventories. No more paper and no more transposing paper to spreadsheet. Inventories can subsist uploaded in true time using a tablet, laptop or even a smart phone. BevSpot is used for both their food and beverage inventories. They possess besides given access to their accounting firm, in order to reduce bulky invoice scans and uploads. every bit of information can subsist entered into the cloud and accessed by every bit of of their approved users. It besides allows for multiple people to engage inventory simultaneously. One person can subsist on the bar, another in the walk in fridge, and another in the liquor room, every bit of at the selfsame time. In addition to being a major time saver, it has helped Grafton Group to reduce sitting inventory by a significant amount across every bit of properties.
Staff scheduling is a weekly administrative headache for managers, but there are cloud-based scheduling applications that lessen the pain. They possess establish HotSchedules to meet their needs as it interfaces with their POS system and allows their difficult to accomplish some creative reporting in regards to budgeting and forecasting, as well as taking employees requests and requirements into consideration.
Email and File Sharing
Grafton Group has Come a long way from sharing access to a desktop version of Outlook and toggling between accounts. They were able to liquidate their main server entirely and now they use Office 365 for their email and file sharing needs. Not only is this highly securitized, it has redundancy so their information is always backed up. They access both their email and files from anywhere in the world. This has greatly improved productivity and allowed their management teams to communicate in true time.
Grafton Street in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com
Our office hardware now consists of much less expensive “Network Computers”, which accomplish not require expanded memory for giant programs, CD drives for downloading drivers, or expansion slots for extraneous drives. They can purchase more computers at a reduced cost and their managers no longer possess to participate computer access in the office.
For their menu design need, they possess establish InDesign to subsist the most efficient program, which is allotment of the Adobe Creative Cloud. This program can now subsist selected a la carte from Adobe’s menu of programs and paid for on a month to month basis for under $20. This is much more palatable than paying $600 for the entire Adobe suite.
These are just a handful examples of how cloud computing has impacted their operations and ultimately saved time for their management team and staff. Ten seconds here, 5 minutes there, an hour tomorrow – it adds up to impactful chunks of time that can subsist better spent elsewhere. They possess only scratched the surface as an industry – they will discern more and more options for cloud-based solutions to true world restaurant problems. Although the solutions highlighted above create efficiency and save time, they accomplish not serve guests and they don’t understand the technique of hospitality. It is imperative that as restaurateurs they continue to create a positive environment, embrace innovation, and engage and train their employees in the technique and skill of hospitality.
There are some things you will never possess time for in the restaurant industry, regardless of cloud-based advancements. “Lunch”, for example, I possess heard is a meal that takes position in the middle of the day. For me, “lunch” is the sandwich that I ingest in 30 seconds somewhere between 2pm and 6pm standing over a trash can in the back of the kitchen. There is no technology for that…
PDF Version Available Here
[i] “PCI Compliance usher FAQ.” PCIComplianceGuide.Org. September, 2018. https://www.pcicomplianceguide.org/faq/#1.
[ii] Green, D. and Hanbury, M. (Aug. 22, 2018). “If you shopped at these 16 stores in the terminal year, your data might possess been stolen.” https://www.businessinsider.com/data-breaches-2018-4
[iii] “What Is Cloud Computing?” IBM.com. September, 2018. https://www.ibm.com/cloud/learn/what-is-cloud-computing.
[iv] Kossman, Sienna. ” 8 FAQs about EMV credit cards.” CreditCards.com. August 29, 2017. https://www.creditcards.com/credit-card-news/emv-faq-chip-cards-answers-1264.php.
Tyler was born and raised in Portland, Maine and has lived in the Boston locality since attending Boston University. After graduating from the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration, Mr. Titherington operated a handful of bars and restaurants in Boston. He has been with Grafton Group since October 2007.
October 31st, 2018 in traffic Practices, drop 2018, Restaurants, Trends
By Christopher Muller
In allotment 1 of this analysis of the restaurant delivery system they looked at the owner/operator models which noiseless present some measure of control over cost and quality. This is hasty becoming an issue with the mount of the Ghost Kitchen where the ODP is an integral allotment of the equation. Here they present the larger challenges from the dominant ODP control of the marketplace. It is telling to recall that most of the ODPs themselves are noiseless looking to find profits in what they do, a suggestion that those profits will need to Come at the expense of the restaurant providers in one way or another.
5. The Aggregator or On-Line Delivery Provider (ODP) – No Driver Fleet
If someone were to say, “Let me engage care of every bit of of your delivery problems for a small carve of your revenues” many restaurant operators, especially those interested to obtain into the market with the least amount of upfront investment, would jump at the chance. Enter the On-Line Delivery Provider with a traffic model built upon a brand title customer-facing APP, website or phone number and an immense amount of back office computing power to drive order volume.
At its core, to subsist successful the Aggregator needs to subsist a world-class matchmaker for food orders, with both a large customer database of users and a broad assortment of restaurant menus offered in major cities. dote many of what MIT’s Bill Aulet calls an Innovation Driven Enterprise (IDE) the cost of customer acquisition is the key hurdle in entering this distribution channel. What it doesn’t need is its own fleet of employee delivery drivers. Capitalizing on the DIY gig economy, drivers are hired on a contractual basis, working as independent delivery agents with their own vehicles.
The barrier to lowering this elevated cost of entry has favored early market entrants and large well-funded digital innovators. Worldwide, the fastest growing ODP is Uber Eats, the natural extension of car service provider, Uber, with its existing immense data basis of users, an ever expanding fleet of drivers, and the understanding for a driver that delivering food with an APP-based pre-payment system is considerably faster and easier than dealing with human passengers.
The upside for restaurant companies using an ODP such as Uber Eats, from those as dominant as McDonalds or as small as the local pizzeria, is that there is no need to hire and train non-core employees. As touted by Uber Eats delivery service can start almost immediately upon signing up. The downside, that has a potential for long term impact, is two-fold. The fee structure for traditionally low margin restaurants can subsist between 20-30% of a menu detail price, leaving microscopic to cover remaining expenses. Worse though is that the restaurant gives away its brand and trade dress image to the company making the delivery to the front door. McDonalds hamburgers may subsist in the bag, but the title on the ordering APP and the uniform on the person handing it to the customer says Uber Eats.
6. The Consolidator – Bulk “Bus Stop”
As noted, the most expensive sole piece of the delivery confound is getting food from the restaurant to the front door, what is called “the terminal mile.” One proven way to minimize that expense is to possess the customer meet the food delivery at a central drop-off spot (see: Amazon ). A start-up, Yun Ban Bao, in novel York City is taking edge of ethnic Chinese food deserts through direct targeted marketing using the dominant Chinese online service provider, WeChat. By doing so it is creating a captive delivery market with the edge of pre-ordering and payment.
Taking online requests for delivery on the next traffic day, then consolidating orders using a bulk delivery model, Yun Ban Bao is lowering the cost of delivery while maintaining control with its own fleet of drivers. It advertises a data analytics service for smaller restaurants as well as being a revenue growth accelerator for restaurants in suburban locations which otherwise could not find novel or broader market opportunities.
Using a pre-arranged group delivery network, often outside parks, office towers or apartment buildings, the system mirrors a bus route, not the more traditional taxi route model of one-on-one delivery. This besides affords the network of restaurants a way to lower operating costs by controlling the production process in advance.
7. The Aggregator ODP – Owned Fleet
Some of the largest ODP players started in the delivery traffic by controlling their own fleets of employee managed delivery drivers. The global leader, Just Eat, has used this model throughout the UK, Europe and worldwide. But it besides has worked directly with restaurants who possess their own in-house deliver fleets to create a broad partnership. Just ingest acts as the online ordering platform, but then allows the local branded company to subsist the mug at the door.
The competence to present a standardized customer facing brand identity means that confidence may subsist established with the customer directly. While this can Come at the risk of the restaurant losing its direct brand relationship, what Just ingest has been able to master is the collection of a vast customer database of its users. It has created a relationship with many of its restaurant partners to assist them in finding model store locations, menu detail design and creative targeted pricing and promotions programs which would not otherwise subsist affordable or even available to smaller companies.
For these ODP companies, the costs for maintaining their own fleets or working as a hybrid with a local restaurant creates a higher operating expense, but these are often offset with a higher fee participate from both the restaurant and the consumer. It besides creates a competitive edge by structure a broader network of restaurants to choose from for the customer, which builds long term loyalty and habitual purchase behaviors.
8. The ODP Aggregator – dusky Kitchens
One of the greatest threats to the bricks and mortar restaurant delivery partners is the emerging concept of a dusky Kitchen. This is a space created by an OPD to facilitate the lowest cost per delivery mile from restaurant kitchen to the highest density of users. While this is similar to the Cloud Kitchen model, in this case the OPD establishes a cluster of small dedicated but competitive restaurant kitchens in a sole site. A dusky Kitchen is besides similar to the trending food hall concept, but comes with no direct customer interaction—no walk-in guest visits these production facilities. In the UK this was pioneered by Deliveroo with its urban RooBox or Editions concepts. colleague restaurants rent portable kitchen space from the delivery service and pay a larger percentage fee to cover the build-out costs for their space. Restaurants staff the kitchens at their own expense, as well.
Earlier this year, Grubhub invested $1 million in Green apex Group (see Ghost Kitchen in allotment I), a startup with nine virtual restaurants operating from a sole kitchen. DoorDash is renting extra space from the Santa Clara Fairgrounds in San Jose, Calif., and making it available to foodservice operators who want to create delivery-only options. In Los Angeles, Postmates leased a commissary kitchen space so its restaurants can compass novel customers. And UberEATS is exploring the concept with Poke Café in Chicago — a virtual restaurant serving Hawaiian poke bowls.
“We can drudgery with existing restaurant partners to create delivery-only menus. (They would) flaunt as entirely novel restaurants on the UberEats app,” Ambika Krishnamachar, UberEats product manager, said in an article on Mashable.
And again, while on its mug this appears to subsist a positive occasion for independent or chain restaurants to lower costs or disaggregate the dine-in from the delivery production process, it is not cost free. In fact, as a ratiocinative progression would suggest, the OPD Deliveroo service has realized that the actual local restaurant in this blend is not a necessity for success. Instead by using its own “innovation fund” it will to depart directly into the restaurant traffic itself, creating “from scratch” concepts by working with title chefs and data mining information from its immense customer data base. 
As more of the OPDs glance to find profits to pass along to the aggressive investors who possess funded rapid growth, they will inevitably glance to carve out the middleman and provide meals themselves to increase margins. The kitchen that may actually depart “dark” is the local one on the corner down the street in an independent restaurant.
This is undoubtedly both an attractive and a challenging time for the restaurant industry and the Online Delivery Providers who are feeding from it. Neither side seems to possess figured out how to accomplish the novel consumer exact for off-site delivery drudgery to their complete advantage.
It is impossible to believe that any restaurant can survive if it gives away up to 30% of its top line revenues when the medium net profit is less than 10%. No amount of increased volume in sales will accomplish up for that. As Cameron Keng wrote in his column “Why Uber Eats Will ingest You Into Bankruptcy” in March, 2018:
Based on the medium profit margins above, every restaurant that engages Uber Eats will lose money on every order they take. The more orders coming from Uber Eats, the more money a restaurant would lose.
At the selfsame time, while it is difficult to obtain exact information, it appears that almost zero of the largest On-Line Delivery Providers, in any of the described segments is actually showing a profit. Uber Eats is only profitable in 27 of its more than 100 urban markets, and while Deliveroo’s sales rose in 2017 to £277 million ($356 million), the company lost an astounding £185 million ($237 million). Yet Uber Eats is offering over $2 billion to purchase/merge with Deliveroo.
Finally, as Jonathan Maze wrote in his Bottom Line column in early October the restaurant industry is simply unprepared for what appears to subsist a tectonic shift in traditional restaurant segments, consumer behavior, labor utilization, true Estate valuation and investor interest.
If delivery is the future of the restaurant business, the restaurant traffic as it is currently constructed is in trouble.
The service is growing rapidly. But it’s increasingly replacing existing restaurant traffic rather than taking traffic away from grocers or other food retailers. 
As they eminent in the beginning, it took the lodging industry almost 20 years to start to accomplish this kindhearted of tectonic change and it is nowhere near complete. A few very large hotel companies, through merger and acquisition, possess consolidated enough power to start the slither away from handing over every bit of of their pricing to the OTA’s. In economic terms, hotel companies are trying to depart from being cost Takers to cost Setters.
At this early stage of the restaurant OPD’s domination of the delivery cycle, it is not limpid that any restaurant organization is large enough to atomize the fever, especially now that McDonald’s is partnering with Uber Eats. While it may flaunt that the On-line Delivery Provider is a restaurant’s partner, friend or even savior, it is zero of those. In fact, in order to become profitable the OPD is looking to become a direct competitor.
What is certain is that few restaurant companies, and certainly no independent operations, can survive the next two decades letting third parties impose what convenience and cost mean. In fact, this might subsist a telling time to obtain out of the house and depart visit your favorite local restaurant. Sacrificing some convenience for a distinguished undergo is a telling value and that restaurant may not subsist around the next time you want to exhibit up.
PDF Version Available Here
 discern Bill Aulet, Disciplined Entrepreneurship,
 The Financial, October 25, 2018, https://www.finchannel.com/~finchannel/business/76317-amazon-expands-grocery-delivery-and-pickup
 Menqi Sun, WSJ, September 9, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-to-get-food-delivered-from-your-favorite-faraway-restaurant-1536516000
 See https://www.just-eat.com/
 James Cook, traffic Insider, April 5, 2017, https://www.businessinsider.com/deliveroo-editions-pop-up-restaurants-roobox-2017-4
 Tim York, The Packer, March 23, 2018, https://www.thepacker.com/article/rise-virtual-restaurant
Sophie Witts, tall Hospitality, May 21, 2018, https://www.bighospitality.co.uk/Article/2018/05/21/Deliveroo-to-create-own-restaurant-brands-using-5m-fund#
 Cameron Keng, Forbes, March 26, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/cameronkeng/2018/03/26/why-uber-eats-will-eat-you-into-bankruptcy/#778a3b0621f6
 Ibid., DealBook, September 21, 2018
 BBC News, October 1, 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-45707700
 Jonathan Maze, Restaurant traffic Online, October 17, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/financing/delivery-could-force-changes-restaurant-business-model
Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the exercise of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email: email@example.com
October 31st, 2018 in traffic Practices, drop 2018, Restaurants, Trends
By Christopher Muller
The entire restaurant industry, from the simplest quick service joint to the most knotty fine dining jewel, is caught in a veritable frenzy of delivery. It may be, unfortunately, a very risky path to travel for the uninitiated restaurant operation, but delivery is driving the investment community to a fever pitch.  They possess entered into the time of the restaurant On-Line Delivery Provider (ODP) which mirrors in many ways the On-Line Travel Agent (OTA) which has so disrupted the lodging industry.
In two complimentary BHR articles here, they present a glance at the 8 different models of restaurant delivery and how they are affecting both senior management and customer choices.
A Quick Lesson From Pricing History
For observers of the global Hospitality Industry this should ship up warning flags. In a galaxy far, far away, the Lodging industry managed revenues by using simple seasonal or attribute pricing models (On-, Shoulder- and Off-Peak rates, or premiums for “A elbowroom With A View”) and sold some limited excess inventory through a network of independent Travel Agents (at an onerous 10% commission!).
Then, as the Internet expanded, and the travel market imploded after the 9-11 tragedy, a novel and exciting model emerged – the On-Line Travel Agent (OTA) acting as a third party aggregator appeared. Hotel companies willingly gave open access to every bit of of their unsold elbowroom inventory to the OTAs (Expedia, Travelocity, Priceline, Booking.com, Kayak, Trivago, etc.) to sell directly at profound discounts, often between 25 and 30% off posted Rack Rates. Occupancies rose, but medium Daily Rates plummeted, and profits quickly diminished. Hotels, relying on the stale pricing models were caught competing “with themselves” and watched as formerly loyal customers switched their buying habits and loyalties to the OTA that gave them the best rate. Customers could scroll through pages of prices, often for the exact selfsame elbowroom in the selfsame hotel, searching for the cheapest rate. Hotel rooms, instead of being unique destinations became interchangeable commodities.
It has taken almost twenty years, but through brand consolidation and a total system-wide transformation into a Revenue Management based pricing model, the hotel traffic has been transformed and the OTAs are being aggressively challenged for dominance. This should subsist a lesson for the restaurant owner/operator, the OTAs drove nothing but cost as a decision attribute, the ODPs are poised to accomplish the selfsame thing with both cost and convenience, unfortunately restaurants probably won’t possess decades to recover.
Today’s Restaurant Delivery Frenzy –The mount of the ODP
Whether it’s the savvy but shape-shifting Millennial, the rapidly aging Baby Boomer, or the rising young digital native from the i-Generation, it seems that customers in every bit of shapes and sizes just want to possess their meals brought to them at home, the office, or somewhere in between. Breaking the code of the delivery model—becoming the customer’s choice of who serves up breakfast, lunch or dinner at home, drudgery or play—has emerged as the Holy Grail of the foodservice business. But it may subsist more dote the other mythic dusky Ages metaphor, the Plague, potentially killing upwards of 30% of existing restaurant units.
So, what exactly is “delivery” today, how did it evolve into such a big, expanding component of the restaurant offering and what are the implications going forward for the industry? Just how accomplish the On-Line Delivery Providers, the ODP, dominate the market?
We can start by agreeing that delivery is a several and rapidly growing distribution channel, although it has been around in one shape or another for a very long time. And while not exactly a novel technology, nor necessarily a profitable one, the exploding market for the delivery of food is poised for an inevitable shiver out as it quickly approaches a develope phase consolidation.
In late 2018 delivery is every bit of about instant gratification, not just for the diner but some would imply for the restaurant as well. At first glance, it every bit of feels so simple and easy. But dote so much in restaurant management, there is more than one way to obtain something done, even the simplest of things.
Emerging Key Success Factors
Like so many emerging traffic models in the on-line digital age, food delivery is developing its own metrics and factors to subsist considered and mastered. While noiseless evolving, among these now are:
Addressing the profit challenges of “The terminal Mile” in the delivery chain
Minimizing the elevated cost of Customer Acquisition
Developing an integrated APP, website, tablet and smartphone ordering platform
Designing the most effective delivery driver fleet system
Establishing an attractive and competitive user fee basis
Creating positive and immediate Brand recognition
Building a proprietary erudition basis of data storage, analytics and access
Delivery of food, especially from a restaurant to a consumer, has become a multi-billion dollar segment of the industry. Some are predicting that it will overtake the traditional dine-in segment completely within a decade, although the complexity of getting it privilege and turning a profit while doing so, can noiseless subsist elusive even for the largest players. And of course, no one should forget that Amazon is over in the corner waiting to discern how things evolve in an online delivery world they basically invented.
Traditional and Controlled
As noted, the delivery of food from a restaurant directly to a local customer is not a novel notion although traditionally the customer came to the restaurant and picked up or carried out their food order. Both delivery and carry-out were best suited to a restaurant with a simple, easily transported menu. Where a significant amount of the value of the meal was the dining undergo and table service, meals to depart were often comprised of a package of leftovers or the long gone term “doggie bags.”
Here is a glance at four models with some measure of control for restaurant owners and operators over the quality and profitability of their offerings.
1. The Independent – One Shot
As a service provider a restaurant may determine that in order to meet the needs of its local customer basis it should provide a delivery option. At one time, only a few restaurants in an urban core would possess delivery offers and these might typically subsist delicatessens or Chinese restaurants with few seats and a very sturdy focus on offering takeout options. The food can subsist cooked, boxed, wrapped and brought quickly to an office or apartment within a few blocks on foot or by bicycle.
This model is the most basic – a caller, the kitchen, and an employee bringing seared food directly to the customer. The restaurant controls the quality, manages the relationship with the diner and absorbs the plenary cost and every bit of the revenues. It typically comes with higher operating costs for labor (primarily from an in-house paid delivery driver fleet) and with premium rent from the need for an attractive customer-facing retail space. On the plus side, every bit of local customer information may subsist controlled by the restaurant and there are no fees to participate with an outside third-party service.
But as the independent operator reaches for the brass ring on the delivery merry-go-round, they besides need to subsist mindful not to lose their grip on their existing ride. A novel distribution channel can subsist much more challenging that just taking a customer order. As eminent by Jennifer Marston:
…restaurants are under pressure to adapt…More and more, that means altering the physical restaurant space so it can better accommodate this influx of novel orders. Extra meals require extra bodies to cook and package the food, after all, not to mention extra space for third-party devices, and somewhere to consequence completed orders waiting to subsist picked up by a delivery driver.
An attractive twist on this sole restaurant model of trying to find a way to both control and expand the delivery system while maintaining some measure of profitability is one recently proposed in the restaurant trade magazine Restaurant traffic Online:
He (CMO Nabeel Alamgir) explained that Bareburger is already striving to transmute customers ordering through third parties’ apps into users of the chain’s own channels. Patrons of an Uber Eats or Postmates might subsist offered a 10% discount on their next order if it’s placed through Bareburger’s website. The chain can afford a discount that profound because the monetary impact is noiseless less than the 20% or 30% discount an outside service typically charges.
Alamgir eminent at the start of the panel’s presentation that a service started by restaurants for restaurants would possess been an attractive alternative to some of the third-party giants. “Let’s accomplish their own platform. Let’s accomplish their own Grubhub,” he said.
2. The Cloud Kitchen – A Hub & Spoke System
It can subsist argued that today’s focused delivery channel began in earnest when Domino’s offered up a “30 Minute or Free” guarantee in 1973. In order to accomplish this guarantee effective, the company created a hub and spoke system, in consequence structure a succession of franchised units in low cost locations. They were characterized by being geographically market-centered but with no need for a “High Street” customer facing address. This was directly in contrast to the overwhelming market edge owned by Pizza Hut and its network of “Red Roof” plenary service pizzerias with their focus on dine-in and takeout service. But the competitive edge that came from having units with no dine-in, limited customer carry-out, and which were serviced by a central commissary set in motion the shift away from the traditional eat-in model.
“The reality is, when the red roof restaurant was created, the notion of delivery wasn’t allotment of the concept,” said Pizza Hut chief executive David Gibbs, a 26-year veteran at parent company Yum Brands…”so in many cases, their traffic has outgrown the capabilities of those restaurants…”
Now, four decades later Domino’s is the world leader in delivery, pizza or otherwise. It has done this by controlling the entire process or what is called the “full stack” in the delivery cycle. Now describing itself as an IT and logistics company that sells pizza, the backbone of the system is that they control the customer ordering process, the production quality process, and through a vast franchise network the delivery process.
Next to come, using novel GPS and AI technologies, Domino’s predicts that it will subsist able to accomplish deliveries not just to a formal structure address, but to anywhere a customer can subsist located by tracking their cellphone, even if that is a park bench or a blanket on the beach.
But Domino’s is not the only leader to subsist expanding its Cloud Kitchen delivery system. Already designed on a commissary production system model, giant hasty casual leader, Panera Bread, tested delivery in Boston and then announced an expansion across the United States in early May, 2018 with a system based upon using its own delivery drivers.  Following the trend in October the largest chicken sandwich chain, Chick-fil-A, announced it was dawn to test the hub and spoke model of delivery in Nashville, TN and Louisville, KY.
Chick-fil-A is opening two novel restaurants that don’t possess something you commonly associate with the chain: seats.
Chick-fil-A, the Atlanta-based chicken sandwich chain, is testing catering and delivery locations in Nashville and Louisville, Ky., that will open this month.
The locations, according to an announcement on the chain’s website, possess no dining rooms or drive thru’s and are designed to subsist hubs for catering and delivery orders. The restaurants will not accept cash, either.
The Cloud Kitchen model can subsist very effective for restaurant companies with large enough scale, whether in a sole city or across a region, to engage edge of a sole production kitchen site with remote staging kitchens. Ultimately the “full stack” control from order to front door can Come from as few as three restaurants or as many as 3000. This besides means that the foundation is laid for vast proprietary customer data collection and eventually data mining by the most forward-looking operators.
It can subsist argued that the Food Truck movement of the past decade is a subset of the Cloud Kitchen model. By most local health code laws, food trucks must possess a “home kitchen” or commissary for their bulk production that meets every bit of health and sanitation code requirements. In many urban centers, to be successful a food truck company needs to possess multiple trucks on the road acting as a distribution network. While this is besides a classic Hub & Spoke model, it comes with similarities to a model in the next article, #6 The Consolidator, with distribution on a bus halt route and not a one-to-one terminal mile taxi route.
3. The Ghost Kitchen
One further refinement of the Cloud Kitchen is the Ghost Kitchen. As delivery becomes more of a threat to the traditional dine-in restaurant option, some imply that this model, in fact, is the future of restaurants—basically a highly efficient hybrid of menu concepts, specialized production and logistics, and low labor cost with no eat-in customers.
In that way, this model is identified by three key components.
First, it removes the dining elbowroom or takeout from the restaurant completely, working out of a kitchen whose location is based on nearness to its core customer market yet in a typically low rent out-of-the-way space.
Second, it does not hire any paid employees to deliver, instead making use (through partnership or agreement) of the many third-party delivery companies dote GrubHub, Postmates or Doordash.
Third, and possibly the most important, because of the flexibility of only needing an APP, website or traditional telephone ordering system, more than one cuisine can subsist produced in the selfsame kitchen space. easy to prepare, cook and deliver foods such as salads, sandwiches, Asian and other ethnic dishes, or gourmet pizza can every bit of subsist offered while cross-utilizing similar ingredients in creative menu offerings.
This can best subsist described as an “order only” restaurant. The most prominent or well-known of these Ghost Kitchens would subsist Green apex (see transition to #8 dusky Kitchen in allotment 2). While garnering a telling amount of press, the title chef David Chang’s Maple, closed its operation in 2017 with some assets moving to London and the delivery company Deliveroo. Chef Chang sold the physical kitchen space, Ando, to Uber Eats after ceasing operations in January, 2018. 
Because no customer ever sets foot through the front door the owners can consequence every bit of of their investment in kitchen gear and the technology of ordering. A Ghost Kitchen offers customers large menu choices, and just as its cousin the Cloud Kitchen, has the option to preserve track of its own proprietary customer data set through the direct ordering process. The tradeoff is that ownership sacrifices the customer interface at delivery of the Cloud Kitchen model. Operating and start-up costs are low and efficiency can subsist very high. The risk is that a large portion of the margin (sometimes up to 30%) from market-driven menu prices is taken by the delivery partnership, who besides control the brand image when customers receive their orders off-site.
4. Virtual Restaurants
Along with disrupting the taxi business, Uber Eats is about to globally disrupt the restaurant delivery business. As of October, 2018, Uber Eats had over 1600 “virtual restaurants” around the globe, with almost 1000 in its US partnership portfolio. The majority of these are not the Cloud or dusky Kitchen models mentioned above, but are existing restaurants with novel brands that only exist through Uber Eats. This model, while charging very elevated fees to the restaurant, allows them to technically not compete with themselves in the home delivery marketplace. Uber Eats gains more menus to offer, and limits any need for an investment in a commissary space.
For SushiYaa, Kim says the virtual restaurant concept has been transformative. “Because this concept worked so well for us, they actually changed one of their restaurants from a sushi buffet concept to a regular restaurant with 8 different virtual restaurant brands inside it. The buffet sales weren’t doing so well and the delivery side was doing better, so they thought — let’s change it completely so we’re focused more on delivery.” From a sales standpoint, he says it’s “almost as if they possess another restaurant without paying additional rent and labor, even though [Uber Eats] takes about 30 percent.”
One other character of Virtual Kitchen involves the licensing of existing restaurant recipes and menu items in a curated virtual model. The start-up concept telling Uncle is using this to compete in the university meal map segment, offering a range of pricing options for higher quality prepared meals, delivered by their own delivery fleet using the bus halt common drop off method. This is a limited menu, limited target market, which benefits from a direct marketing approach, lower operating costs, and uses both a subscription and premium fee based pricing system. It is a Virtual Kitchen because there is no restaurant or other customer facing facility, it exists only online.
Part One – Conclusions
Delivery models, some traditional, some evolving, present many opportunities for restaurant operators, especially those in the QSR and hasty Casual segments, where quicken and cost and convenience are the drivers of consumer choice.
The challenge in today’s delivery market is how owners and operators can maintain both elevated quality and long-term profitability in the products/services they offer. For many meals, the time and distance from kitchen to table can subsist more than 30 minutes or multiple miles. quality of presentation and flavor may quickly diminish. More importantly, where the medium annual profitability for restaurants across every bit of segments in the USA is considerably less than 10%, losing up to 30% of top line revenues is not a path to a successful future, (even if total sales increase by 20%).
PDF Version Available Here
 Heather Haddon and Julie Jargon, The Wall Street Journal online, October 24, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/investors-are-craving-food-delivery-companies-1540375578?mod=cx_picks&cx_navSource=cx_picks&cx_tag=contextual&cx_artPos=4#cxrecs_s
 Liam Proud, DealBook, NYTimes, September 21, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/21/business/dealbook/uber-eats-deliveroo.html
 Jennifer Marston, The Spoon, July 31, 2018, https://thespoon.tech/delivery-is-making-these-restaurants-literally-redesign-the-way-they-do-business/
 Peter Romeo, Restaurant traffic Online, Oct. 19, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/operations/3-big-changes-looming-restaurants
 Karen Robinson-Jabos, Dallas News, Jan 6, 2016. https://www.dallasnews.com/business/business/2016/01/06/pizza-hut-is-ditching-the-iconic-red-roof-for-a-more-modern-look
 Janelle Nanos, Boston Globe, May 7, 2018, https://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2018/05/07/panera-expanding-its-delivery-service-cities/sZg4pO0yTw9cEdYpv514tL/story.html?event=event12
 Jonathan Maze, Restaurant traffic Online, Oct. 09, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/financing/chick-fil-opening-new-delivery-focused-prototype
 Neal Ungerleider, 01.20.17 hasty Company https://www.fastcompany.com/3064075/hold-the-storefront-how-delivery-only-ghost-restaurants-are-changing-take-out
 Closing announcement from Maple, May 8, 2017 https://maple.com/letter/
 Whitney Filloon, Eater, October 24, 2018, www.eater.com/2018/10/24/18018334/uber-eats-virtual-restaurants
 discern the online Audiopedia site https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKO5JFbqKTA
 Ibid, Eater, October 24, 2018
 discern https://www.gooduncle.com/
Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the exercise of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
October 31st, 2018 in traffic Practices, drop 2018, Hotels, Marketing, Sharing Economy, Technology, Trends
By Makarand Mody and Monica Gomez
For a long time, the hotel industry did not deem Airbnb a threat. Both the industry and Airbnb claimed they were serving different markets and had different underlying traffic models. Over the years, as Airbnb become more successful and grown to being larger than the companies in the hotel industry, the rhetoric has changed. The hotel industry began to realize they had something to worry about.
A stage of denial was followed by the American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) attacking Airbnb by sponsoring research to demonstrate its negative impacts on the economy and lobbying governments to impose taxes and regulations on homesharing. The association is arguing for a smooth playing sphere between homesharing and hotels (and rightly so). The next stage of this battle involves competition and integration. Not only are hotels looking to add homesharing-like attributes and experiences to their properties, to more effectively compete with Airbnb, but are besides looking to tap into the platform-based traffic model that underlies Airbnb’s success.
The Past: How does Airbnb impact the hotel industry?
Airbnb’s disruption of the hotel industry is significant, both existentially and economically. A recent study by Dogru, Mody, and Suess (2018) establish that a 1% growth in Airbnb supply across 10 key hotel markets in the U.S. between 2008 and 2017 caused hotel RevPAR to decease 0.02% across every bit of segments. While these numbers may not flaunt substantial at first, given that Airbnb supply grew by over 100% year-on-year over this ten year term means that the “real” diminish in RevPAR was 2%, across hotel segments. Surprisingly, it was not just the economy but besides the luxury hotel segment that was difficult hit by Airbnb supply increases, experiencing a 4% true decline in RevPAR. The impact of Airbnb on ADR and occupancy was less severe. In Boston, RevPAR has decreased 2.5%, on average, over the terminal ten years due to Airbnb supply increases. In 2016 alone, this 2.5% diminish in RevPAR amounted to $5.8 million in revenue lost by hotels to Airbnb. Brands that felt the impact the most were those in the midscale and luxury segments, with a diminish in RevPAR of 4.3% and 2.3% respectively. These supply increases are besides fueling Airbnb taking an increasing participate of the accommodation market pie. For example, in novel York City, Airbnb comprised 9.7% of accommodation demand, equaling approximately 8,000 rooms per night in Q1 2016 (Lane & Woodworth, 2016). As a whole, Airbnb’s accommodated exact made up nearly 3% of every bit of traditional hotel exact in Q12016.
Buoyed by a growth rate of over 100% year on year, Airbnb now has over 4 million listings, with the U.S. being its largest market. The company besides has significant elbowroom to grow in other countries, particularly emerging markets in Africa and India. The company has avoid into some competition in China, with local rivals Tujia and Xiaozhu. Also, within the U.S., the telling word is that Airbnb will not grow at 100% indefinitely and will eventually plateau as it reaches a saturation point (Ting, 2017a). In view of this, the company has turned to alternative strategies to continue to increase supply. It is now targeting property developers to eddy entire buildings into potential Airbnb units, through its newest hotel-like brand, Niido. Currently, there are two Airbnb branded Niido buildings in Nashville, TN and Orlando, FL with over 300 units each and Airbnb plans to possess as many as 14 home-sharing properties by 2020 (Zaleski, 2018). Niido works by encouraging tenants to list their units on Airbnb, with Airbnb and Niido taking 25% of the revenue generated. Airbnb has besides clearly evolved from its original premise of “targeting a different market” to attracting segments traditionally targeted by hotels, such as the leisure family market, traffic travelers, and the upscale traveler, as evidenced through its latest offering, Airbnb Plus. These homes possess been verified for quality, comfort, design, maintenance, and the amenities they offer. They besides possess easy check in, premium internet access, and fully equipped kitchens. Their hosts are typically rated 4.8+, and depart above and beyond for their guests. Through Airbnb Experiences, travelers can partake in everything from the distinguished outdoors—hiking and surfing—to “hidden” concerts and food and wine tours. In addition to these products, Airbnb has besides “created” its own segments of travelers: novelty and undergo seekers who are looking for unique and unconventional accommodation dote yurts, treehouses, and boats, every bit of things that a traditional hotel company cannot provide.
The Present: Understanding what consumers want lies at the heart of the battle between hotels and Airbnb
There are larger societal trends that are impacting what consumers search travel, and they mediate this has implications for the Airbnb and hotel dynamic. These trends include:
A shift to a “new luxury”—seeking out unique, unquestionable experiences that serve as a launchpad for self-actualization—fueled by an increased wealth gap in the United States.
An increased mobility, particularly among previously under-represented groups in the United States (the black travel movement, for example) and the global traveler (more Indian and Chinese international travelers than ever before).
The changing nature of brand loyalty: from long-term relationships to consumers’ needs for instant gratification and personalization.
Changing nature of “ownership”: In a post-consumerist society, the accent on “access-based consumption” has consequence a spotlight on wellness and well-being, beyond materialism.
A co-everything world where work, play, and life blend into one seamless mosaic: Technology has changed the way they live their lives, and how they are connected to work, to each other and to the things that drive us. An upcoming 5G world and the IOT is only likely to accelerate the pace of change. engage LiveZoku (https://livezoku.com/), for example: is it a residence? A hotel? A WeWork? A space for the local community? A thriving food and beverage destination? It’s every bit of of these things.
What accomplish these trends mean? They require marketers and undergo designers to re-think what the travel undergo means to the customer. The notion of the undergo economy was created by Pine and Gilmore in 1998, and included four dimensions: escapism, education, entertainment, and esthetic. Leveraging one, or ideally, more of these dimensions creates memorable experiences for customers, which in eddy results in brand loyalty. This dynamic has been fairly well-established in the academic literature. However, Airbnb has changed the game for the undergo economy by emphasizing the sharing lifestyle and a sense of community, cleverly incorporating the above highlighted trends into its communications with customers. Because of Airbnb popularity and success, six novel dimensions possess been incorporated into the undergo economy, in the context of the travel experience: personalization, communitas, localness, hospitableness, serendipity, and ethical consumerism, as was presented by Mody in 2016.
Interestingly, in a recent study by Mody and colleagues (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, 2017), the researchers establish that Airbnb outperformed hotels on every bit of the dimensions of this new, expanded, accommodation experiencescape. Airbnb outperforms hotels in the personalization dimension because of its wide array of homes and locations, enabling genuine micro-segmentation and the “perfect match” between guest and host (Dolnicar, 2018). Moreover, no one home is similar to another, giving customers a unique undergo every time, enhancing the serendipity associated with an Airbnb stay. Airbnb elevates the sense of community that consumers seek, particularly when sharing space with other travelers and/or with the host, and allows consumers unparalleled access to “the local”—that café or cute microscopic store that only locals know about. However, there are areas where hotels hold their own. For example, the pathways between these dimensions and memorability were just as sturdy for hotels as for Airbnb, emphasizing the need for hotels to engage customers by leveraging the “right” dimensions for the brand—dimensions that align with the brand’s mission, story, and personality.
One such dimension where hotels discharge just as well as Airbnb is hospitableness, as confirmed in a study by Mody, Suess, and Lehto (2018). More “investor units” on the Airbnb platform means that the host is often not present when guests arrive to the home; moreover, every bit of communication is done electronically and with someone who “manages” the Airbnb unit and doesn’t necessarily own or live in it. In turn, hotels that leverage the human factor—the welcome of a friendly check-in agent, the helpfulness of the concierge, the warm greeting and genuine interaction between guest and food and beverage staff—create more positive emotions, which subsequently lead to higher brand loyalty. It is imperative that hotel brands really mediate about the high-tech, elevated palpate undergo they are looking to provide, particularly in the golden age of brand proliferation that they live in.
From a non-experience standpoint, regulation is another bone of contention that merits close inspection. After years of denying that Airbnb was a competitor, in 2016, the American Hotel & Lodging Association first began an extensive lobbying effort for the imposition of taxes and regulations on Airbnb that smooth the playing field. Over the terminal couple of years, the voices of the hotel lobby and other community groups possess translated into governments taking some action, in the U.S. and abroad. However, in a study of regulation across 12 European and American cities, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) establish that governments possess been fairly lenient towards short-term rentals with microscopic to no (meaningful) regulations thus far. Moreover, regulations possess been designed to alleviate the negative externalities of Airbnb on neighborhoods and communities rather than to smooth the playing sphere between Airbnb and hotels. Another challenge with regulating the peer to peer economy has been enforcement. In novel York City, under the Multiple Dwelling law, it is illegal for a unit to subsist rented out for less than 30 days unless the owner is present in the unit at the time the guest is renting. However, it is noiseless feasible to find “entire homes” on Airbnb in novel York City, even though, in principle, these typically comprise homes where the host is not present during the guest’s stay. Moreover, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) and Hajibaba and Dolnicar (2017) possess establish that regulations tend to subsist very similar across cities, without accounting for the specificities of a particular location, which makes the process perfunctory and superficial. There besides remains the danger of over-regulating Airbnb, given that there is noiseless very microscopic erudition about effective ways of regulating these innovations in the sharing economy, thus stifling their potential. Avoid over-regulation is critical, since Airbnb has significant welfare effects in the economy. In addition to stimulating travel to previously inaccessible markets, Airbnb besides creates customer surplus (Farronato & Fradkin, 2018), an essential economic value measure. Moreover, other research has suggested that the medium resident is not as negative towards the Airbnb as media rhetoric might imply (Mody, Suess, & Dogru, 2018). The need for a data-driven approach to Airbnb regulation remains paramount.
The Future: Competing with the sharing economy requires re-thinking the brand and the experience
While regulation is outside the control of the hotel industry, the brand and the customer undergo are not. They contend that these are the areas where hotel companies’ efforts need to subsist focused. Hotels need to re-think the brand promise, both for the parent brand as well as individual brands in the portfolio, and how it defines and shapes the guest experience. Recent research by Mody and Hanks (2018) indicates that while Airbnb leverages the authenticity of the travel experience—by enabling local experiences that provide a sense of self and sense of place, hotel brands that are perceived as being authentic—original, genuine, and sincere—can generate higher brand loyalty. Thus, while it’s difficult to compete with homesharing in terms of experiential authenticity, brand authenticity is a pillar on which hotels can build a sturdy foundation for loyal brand relationships. This is particularly essential because while Airbnb promotes experiential authenticity as a key judgement to use the brand, most travelers tend to sojourn with the brand for much more functional requirements, such as space and cost (Chen & Xie, 2017; Dogru & Pekin, 2017)
There is no one definition for or manifestation of an “authentic” brand. It’s a perception, a feeling that consumers possess about what you stand for. An unquestionable brand has at its core the brand promise, an unquestionable value proposition that gives consumers a raison d’etre for associating with the brand. However, what an unquestionable brand does require is effective storytelling. A brand is perceived to subsist authentic, if it has an unquestionable sage that feeds it. Brand stories can Come from many sources: a brand’s values, personality, heritage, uniqueness, or its quest and purpose. What is essential is telling compelling and coherent stories across the brand’s various touchpoints to engage consumers at a visceral, emotional level. Taking off industry blinders, and looking for inspiration outside the hotel industry, is critical. Tom’s Shoes is an excellent sample of leveraging its quest—One for One—in creating a compelling brand story. As another example, in an industry typically focused on the in-store, “physical” experience, Burberry has set the gold criterion for authentic, digitally-led and emotive storytelling, by looking within and leveraging over 150 years of history (Watch the YouTube Video here). In this vein, they mediate that Fairfield Inn and Suites’ recrudesce to “where it every bit of began”—the Marriott family’s Fairfield Farm in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia— to craft the brand undergo of the future, from a design and communications standpoint, is an excellent sample of leveraging authenticity and crafting a compelling brand promise (Ting, 2017b).
Another notion that lies at the heat of the brand promise is what they muster the experiential value proposition, or EVP. For the longest time, hotel marketers possess relied on the guest elbowroom as the primary source of value for the guest. But mediate about the terminal time you traveled. Was it the prospect of the hotel elbowroom that got you excited about your trip? Or was it everything that the hotel enables you to accomplish – the undergo outside the guestroom? From experiencing technique and music in the lobby to its proximity to the must-do craft beer garden, hotel marketers must realize that it’s the complete package—what’s inside and outside the room—that customers use as cues for making their decision to choose an accommodation. They muster this proposition offered by the hotel—what’s inside and outside the guest room, enclosed within an undergo of hospitableness and a connection to humanity—its EVP. They present the EVP in device 1. The EVP mirrors the value paradigm of the modern traveler, something that must subsist reflected in the hotel brand’s sales, marketing and pricing and revenue management efforts. Thinking about a brand through the lens of the EVP paradigm has the power to re-orient the customer’s mindset from one of price-shopping to experience-shopping.
Figure 1. The Experiential Value Proposition Framework
How does a hotel marketer apply the EVP paradigm? Its application can open up many avenues. Hotels can start by rethinking the design of their primary digital channels, led by the website by adding more rich, vivid content that goes beyond the guestroom, in order to better integrate aspects of the wider hotel and local experience. The criterion Hotels serves as an excellent sample (http://www.standardhotels.com/) Its website feels more dote a local lifestyle and culture magazine than a digital media property “selling” a hotel room. The website’s rich images and stories draw the visitor into wanting to learn more about what the brand has to offer. While not every hotel can or would want to depart the criterion way, since the brand has its own several voice and personality, there is a case to subsist made for going beyond static images of beds in guestrooms, which tend to blend into one indistinguishable whole after a point, particularly on OTA websites. When was the terminal time the image of a hotel bed excited you to want to sojourn there? Yet, when you glance at the imagery consequence out by most hotels, this is what marketers noiseless focus on.
Placing an accent on humanity and providing a sense of hospitableness can besides enhance a brand’s EVP. Instead of technology replacing the human connection, the industry needs to glance for ways in which technology can actually free up employees so that they can disburse their time crafting more personal and unique experiences, delighting guests instead of performing routine transactions. Moreover, if the human connection is what people search out when traveling with Airbnb, why is it that hotel confirmation emails noiseless obtain sent out by automated systems that highlight the “facelessness” of the hotel entity. Why not use that as an occasion to truly welcome the guest; a simple palpate such as a welcome letter from the GM with his/her photo, or that of an employee who is “assigned” as “your personal host” during your sojourn can depart a long way in emulating the human connection that the sharing economy enables.
The design of the hotel’s public spaces can subsist used to enhance the guest’s undergo of “communitas”. Ian Schrager would disagree (Schaal, 2017). After all, with much of Airbnb’s supply being dominated by investor units that provide microscopic or no host contact, what better an occasion for hotel brands to exhibit that they are the original connectors of human beings? Sheraton has been wise in incorporating some of these communal elements into its brand makeover by introducing productivity tables and studio spaces and a day-time coffee bar that transforms into a bar at night. In terms of another design element, Airbnb’s attractiveness to family and group travelers can subsist offset by offering connecting and/or multiple rooms for one price, with other undergo value-adds thrown in (as with the Marriott family elbowroom connecting rooms package.
Finally, the role of the loyalty program cannot subsist emphasized enough. Loyalty programs must slither beyond programmatic levels to being able to leverage data from guest history, convivial media, and other marketing data sources, powered by predictive analytics, to personalize and individualize the guest undergo of the brand. In an age of instant gratification, the loyalty program has to subsist gamified to unlock value-adds and present creative bundling.
At the smooth of the hotel company, beyond the individual brand, the hotel industry has started participating in the home sharing traffic and is increasingly looking to integrate these platform traffic models. For example, while Accor purchased Onefinestay, Marriott has teamed up with Hostmaker to create Tribute Portfolio Homes, a partnership that was recently expanded to four European cities (Fox, 2018). From an organic brand development standpoint, Accor’s newest Jo & Joe brand mimics the sharing economy within the confines of a traditional hotel space. Other, more innovative and bold ways of integrating the sharing economy ethos into a hotel could comprise offering an “Airbnb floor”, an antithesis to the club floor, one that would not present housekeeping and other hotel services and thus subsist offered at a lower price. With hotel brands becoming “branded marketplaces” for accommodation and not just hotel rooms, perhaps there is merit in listing hotel rooms on alternative accommodation platforms. HomeAway is already adding hotels to its platform through the Expedia Affiliate Network, while Airbnb is making a push for bed-and-breakfasts and boutique hotels. Homesharing providers hope that by adding these options to their listings, they will fulfill their goal of being “for everyone”, while allowing independent and boutique hotels to garner the benefits of branded distribution at a lower cost than traditional OTA brands.
In sum, hotels must adopt a sales, marketing, and revenue management approach that is both strategic and tactical.
At a strategic level, hotel brands need to re-think their story, and how they portray and fulfill their authenticity and brand promises. At a tactical level, it’s the undergo and value beyond the guestroom that must subsist factored into what is presented to current and potential guests, what they are charged for it, and how it is leverage to create “memorable memories” that lead to higher net promotor scores and brand loyalty. They present a graphical summary of the past, present, and future of Airbnb vs. hotels in device 2.
Figure 2. Summarizing the past, present and future of Airbnb vs. hotels
PDF Version Available Here
Chen, Y., & Xie, K. (2017). Consumer valuation of Airbnb listings: a hedonic pricing approach. International Journal of simultaneous Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2405–2424. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2016-0606
Dogru, T., Mody, M., & Suess, C. (2018). Adding evidence to the debate: Quantifying Airbnb’s disruptive impact on ten key hotel markets.
Dogru, T., & Pekin, O. (2017). What accomplish guests value most in Airbnb accommodations? An application of the hedonic pricing approach. Boston Hospitality Review.
Dolnicar, S. (2018). Unique Features of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 1–14). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd.
Farronato, C., & Fradkin, A. (2018). The Welfare Effects of Peer Entry in the Accommodation Market: The Case of Airbnb.
Fox, J. (2018). Marriott expands homesharing program in Europe. Hotel Management. Retrieved from https://www.hotelmanagement.net/own/marriott-expands-homesharing-program-to-3-european-cities
Hajibaba, H., & Dolnicar, S. (2017). Regulatory Reactions Around the World. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 120–136). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd.
Lane, J., & Woodworth, M. (2016). The Sharing Economy Checks In: An Analysis of Airbnb in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cbrehotels.com/EN/Research/Pages/An-Analysis-of-Airbnb-in-the-United-States.aspx
Mody, M. A., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2017). The accommodation experiencescape: a comparative assessment of hotels and Airbnb. International Journal of simultaneous Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2377–2404. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2016-0501
Mody, M., & Hanks, L. (2018). Parallel pathways to brand loyalty: Mapping the consequences of unquestionable consumption experiences for hotels and Airbnb.
Mody, M., Suess, C., & Dogru, T. (2018). Not in my backyard? Is the anti-Airbnb discourse truly warranted? Annals of Tourism Research. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.05.004
Mody, M., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2018). Going back to its roots : Can hospitableness provide hotels competitive edge over the sharing economy ? International Journal of Hospitality Management. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.05.017
Nieuwland, S., & van Melik, R. (2018). Regulating Airbnb: how cities deal with perceived negative externalities of short-term rentals. Current Issues in Tourism, 0(0), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2018.1504899
Schaal, D. (2017). Ian Schrager Calls Out Hotel Industry’s Airbnb Strategy as Misguided. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/12/08/ian-schrager-calls-out-hotel-industrys-airbnb-strategy-as-misguided/
Ting, D. (2017a). Airbnb Growth sage Has a Plot Twist — A Saturation Point. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/11/15/airbnb-growth-story-has-a-plot-twist-a-saturation-point/
Ting, D. (2017b). Marriott and choice engage Varied Approaches to Reviving Classic Midscale Brands. Skift.
Zaleski, O. (2018). Airbnb and Niido to Open as Many as 14 Home-Sharing Apartment Complexes by 2020. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-08-14/airbnb-and-niido-to-open-as-many-as-14-home-sharing-apartment-complexes-by-2020
Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a quality Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer behavior within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of simultaneous Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His drudgery involves the extensive use of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand besides serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In drop 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and besides holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland.
Monica Gomez is a graduate student in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management from the University of Florida and has held previous internship positions in hotel operations and event management. She is a member of the Hospitality Sales and Marketing International Association and is interested in hotel revenue management.
June 6th, 2018 in traffic Practices, Spring 2018, Sustainability, Uncategorized
By Christian E. Hardigree, J.D.
Today’s hospitality conversations are rife with dialogue about sustainability, initiatives ranging from linen reuse programs, to donating toiletries, to auto dimming lights, to food sourcing, etc. Hospitality practitioners’ quest to define the ROI (return on investment) is often at foiled by a concept that includes intangible metrics and differing definitions of what “sustainability” really means. The oft-used “Triple Bottom Line – People, Planet, Profit” embodies the commonly agreed upon themes of sustainability, which comprise ensuring a vigorous environment, improving economic prosperity, and implementing convivial justice initiatives that ensure the well-being and quality of life for current and future generations.
Companies struggle to determine what role they play in advancing and addressing convivial and global challenges while enhancing their brand, ensuring consumer loyalty, and expanding their market share. Many companies evaluate and refine their efforts for engaged brand activism, particularly through marketing, which they equilibrium with efforts to implement higher standards for suppliers, improve equality among workers, and preserve pricing competitive – falling in line with the common categories of most corporate convivial responsibility efforts: 1) environmental efforts; 2) philanthropy; 3) ethical labor practices; and 4) volunteering.
The “Arms Race” of Corporate convivial Responsibility Reporting
For many companies, particularly in hospitality, corporate convivial responsibility (CSR) reporting has emerged as a key traffic approach to articulate the benefits to the company’s stakeholders through strategic initiatives. According to the Governance and Accountability Institute, sustainability reporting by S&P 500 companies increased from 19% in 2011 to 85% in 2017.[i]
Companies now value the marketing value of CSR reporting, particularly as a mechanism to attract and retain customers. Increased societal pressure for greater regulation and transparency, coupled with research showing that consumers demonstrate a preference toward companies they perceive are more responsible, possess resulted in a novel “arms race” with companies are making operational decisions that are more tightly linked to ethical values, environmental stewardship, and respect for the human equity. They want to ensure those efforts are known to their stockholders, investors, and the public.
While many CSR disclosures are currently willful in the United States, there are increasing requirements mandated by various statutes. Such mandates, commonplace in the European Union, are increasingly required in the United States. In particular, there is growing market exact for a more accountable and transparent corporate supply chain. Current statutory requirements range from the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases rule for large emitters of greenhouse gases to the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010 to ensure that large retailers and manufacturers provide consumers with information regarding their efforts to eradicate slavery and human trafficking from their supply chains.[ii] The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which impacted virtually every allotment of the US monetary services industry besides includes provisions for certain reporting on their exercise of due diligence in the source and chain of custody of certain minerals that are associated with armed conflicts in and around the Democratic Republic of the Congo, minerals that are associated with the manufacturing of devices such as cell phones, computers, and digital cameras.[iii] Most recently, the European Union’s sweeping Global Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) went into consequence May 25, 2018. Intended to give EU citizens greater control of their own, widely-define personal data, GDPR has far reaching implications for any company doing traffic with citizens of the EU. For the hospitality industry, novel processes are required to subsist implemented to protect things dote IP addresses and cookie data, similar to the protections currently provided to ensure privacy for addresses and convivial security numbers. In the three months prior to GDPR going into effect, it was estimated that 79% of companies were unprepared.[iv] The mandatory disclosure landscape is changing fast, and hospitality is challenged to preserve up.
Not every bit of Changes Are Mandated
As consumers are holding corporations accountable for effecting convivial change in their traffic practices and beliefs, ultimately impacting the bottom line, companies refine their sustainability initiatives as a result of public advocacy, stockholder proposals, or consumer feedback. A 2017 study by Cone Communications illustrated some key elements, including:[v]
63% of Americans are hopeful that businesses will engage the lead to drive convivial and environmental change in the absence of government regulation
78% want companies to address essential convivial justice issues
87% will purchase a product because a company advocated for an issue they cared about; and
76% will reject to purchase a company’s product or services upon learning it supported an issue contrary to their beliefs
To illustrate, on February 6, 2018, in a commitment associated with improved packaging in betterment of the planet, Dunkin’ Donuts announced it would phase out the use of polystyrene foam cups by 2020 and supplant them with double-walled paper cups, estimated to possess a net impact of eliminating over a billion cups annually from the squander stream.[vi] This was on the heels of McDonald’s announcing in January that it would phase out the use of foam packaging in every bit of global markets by the discontinuance of 2018.[vii] Straws and stirrers accomplish up over 7% of plastic establish in the environment, an issue initially addressed (and banished) by George McKerrow, co-founder of the restaurant chain Ted’s Montana Grill, that has gained widespread attention as consumers are reminded that they use 500 million straws a day, a usage that widely impacts wildlife and the oceans.[viii] Just this month, Bon Appétit announced they were banning plastic straws from their over 1000 café locations in 33 states.[ix] As cities dote Miami and Malibu possess banned sole use straws (and in Malibu, banned every bit of sole use plastic utensils and stirrers), they find some municipalities are forcing hospitality businesses to incorporate sustainable practices.
As hospitality companies search to out-promote each other, they would subsist well-advised to avoid greenwashing – today’s version of “snake oil”, more akin to “eco-fraud” – when a company holds itself out as more environmentally friendly than it actually is in practice. Clearly consumer preferences demonstrate an increasing trend for purchasing products and services that are sustainable – for their impact on the environment, in how they are manufactured, and/or how the workers are treated. Between 2009 and 2010, the number of “greener” products increased by 73%.[x] In order to capitalize on this trend, many brands are trying to competitively out-do each other with their eco-credentials – exaggerating their claims, or at times, completely manufacturing them. In legalese, greenwashing may amount to deceptive marketing, misrepresentation, and/or fraud.
In the “sins” of greenwashing, hospitality entities would subsist wise to avoid vague, over-reaching, or unverifiable assertions. Hotels increasingly inspirit their guests to embrace green practices – shut off lights, reuse towels, avoid changing the linen as frequently, etc. Research by faculty at Washington condition University establish that a perceived ulterior motive of a hotels’ environmental claims evoked consumer skepticism, which negatively influenced consumer’s purpose to participate in the linen reuse program, as well as negatively effecting the consumers’ purpose to revisit the hotel.[xi] At a time when as many as 79% of travelers disagree that eco-friendly practices is an essential factor in their choice of lodging, companies risk losing valuable restate customers if their motives are self-serving. As a result, to avoid the negative aspects, hoteliers are cautioned to install comprehensive green programs, train their staff to implement practices, and ensure their green claims are accurate and not overreaching, perhaps through third party certification.
For Goodness Sakes, Don’t Greenwash the Food
Greenwashing is of particular concern in today’s environment, particularly in the context of food. For example, in 2016, organic food sales jumped 8.4%, to over $43 billion, while overall food sales only increased 0.6%.[xii] Similarly, organic non-food items jumped 88% to $3.9 billion in sales. As restaurants and hotels are asked questions by their customers about the source of their products, facilities need to subsist vigilant of the claims they are making to ensure they are not overreaching or deceptive, as greenwashing has become the “flavor of the month” in consumer class litigation. Claims challenging products advertised as “natural” are the most frequent suits encountered.
While no definition of “natural” is provided by the FDA, food products in the US labeled as “natural” accomplish up roughly $40 billion in sales, and are growing by an medium of 6.6% annually. According to Food Navigator, there were 20 food labeling class actions pending in federal court in 2008 – a number that rose to 425 by 2016. Cases that specifically focus on “natural” claims increased by 22% from 2016 to 2017, notably with suits against common Mills’ Nature Valley bars and Dr. Pepper Snapple’s Mott’s Apple Sauce. Of particular note is that three quarters of federal court food class actions are in four states: California (36%), novel York (22%), Florida (12%), and Illinois (7%).[xiii] Many of the suits are rooted in claims that items such as elevated fructose corn syrup, elevated maltose corn syrup, soy flour, soy lecithin, and GMA yellow corn flour, as well as synthetically derived vitamins, are not “natural”, and thus such claims are fraudulent.[xiv] Overreaching statements can subsist a source of eroding consumer confidence, destroying customer loyalty, and/or litigation.
Sustainability initiatives will continue to subsist an imperative allotment of a hospitality entities’ brand, evaluated by every bit of stakeholders. In order to ensure consumer confidence, it is imperative that those initiatives subsist unquestionable in their implementation, supported by third party verification, and in alignment with the legal requirements of the jurisdiction. In doing so, their efforts in supporting the three E’s – environment, economic, and equity – their industry will collectively mount in to improve the future for ourselves and for future generations.
PDF Version Available Here
[i] Retrieved May 30, 2018 from https://www.ga-institute.com/press-releases/article/flash-report-85-of-sp-500-indexR-companies-publish-sustainability-reports-in-2017.html
[ii] 40 CFR allotment 9; and California Civil Code §1714.43
[iv] Retrieved April 6, 2018 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2018/03/27/u-s-businesses-cant-hide-from-gdpr/#33b76ef052c8
[v] Retrieved April 6, 2018 from http://www.conecomm.com/research-blog/2017-csr-study
[vi] Retrieved April 16, 2018 from https://news.dunkindonuts.com/news/dunkin-donuts-to-eliminate-foam-cups-worldwide-in-2020
[vii] Retrieved April 16, 2018 from https://www.bizjournals.com/chicago/news/2018/01/10/mcdonalds-phasing-out-foam-packaging-this-year.html
[viii] Retrieved May 30, 2018 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/megykarydes/2018/05/23/the-future-of-take-out-exhibit-how-we-can-eliminate-packaging-waste/#37a1213c7580
[ix] Retrieved May 31, 2018 from https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2018/05/31/615580695/last-straw-for-plastic-straws-cities-restaurants-move-to-toss-these-sippers
[x] Retrieved April 6, 2018 shape http://sinsofgreenwashing.com/index5349.pdf
[xi] Rahman, I., Park, J., & Geng-qing Chi, C. (2015). “Consequences of “greenwashing”: Consumers’ reactions to hotels’ green initiatives”, International Journal of simultaneous Hospitality Management, Vol. 27 Issue: 6, pp.1054-1081, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2014-0202
[xii] Retrieved May 31, 2018 from https://www.foodbusinessnews.net/articles/9394-u-s-organic-food-sales-jump-more-than-8
[xiii] Retrieved May 31, 2018 from http://www.instituteforlegalreform.com/uploads/sites/1/TheFoodCourtPaper_Pages.pdf
[xiv] Examples comprise Janney et al. v. common Mills, 3:12-cv-03919, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California; Rojas v. common Mills, Inc. 3:12-cv-05099, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California; Bohac v. common Mills, Inc., 3:12-cv-05280, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California; Van Atta v. common Mills, 1:12-cv-02815, U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado
As Founding Director and Professor of the Michael A. Leven School of Culinary Sustainability and Hospitality at Kennesaw condition University, Dr. Hardigree oversees the Bachelor of Science degree program which houses over 260 majors and services over 1500 students enrolled in classes each semester. Addressing both “sustainability on the plate” as well as “sustainability beyond the plate” in terms of water, squander and energy efficiencies, this highly material management program provides a competitive edge and discernible point of differentiation as the epicenter for teaching, research and best practices in sustainable culinary and hospitality management. The flexibility of the program’s curriculum allows students to emphasize careers in beverage management, event planning, specialized cuisines, and the hotel industry.
Christian conducts research and presents nationally at industry conferences as related to her areas of expertise, including food safety, risk management, sustainability, workplace violence and employment/management issues. She is a national expert on bed bug litigation, speaking across the country on the subject.
After obtaining her B.S., cum laude, from the William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration at UNLV, Christian obtained her Juris Doctorate from the Walter F. George School of Law at Mercer University, focusing on employment discrimination, arbitration/mediation, and labor management relations. She is of counsel with the law difficult of Parnell & Associates. Christian serves on a variety of committees and advisory boards, including the ConServe Sustainability Advisory Council for the National Restaurant Association, the KSU Brian Jordan hub for Excellence and Professional development at LakePoint Sporting Community, and formerly on the Women in Lodging Advisory Council for the American Hotel & Lodging Association.
May 31st, 2018 in traffic Practices, Cooking, Restaurants, Spring 2018
By Martin Zsarnoczky
Digitalization is among the most essential changes in their rapidly evolving world. Digital innovations and technological novelties are engines of development and exhibit their impact everywhere, especially in the sphere of manufacturing, ICT and other service industries. Given the fact that tourism is based on the cooperation between a wide range of services and products, the benefits of the digital revolution in the sector are quite obvious.
Our alive environment is a combination of online and offline spaces that co-exist together, defining their everyday habitat. In tourism, the special use of spaces has always been a unique feature of the industry, and as of today, the spaces of the digital world possess become allotment of it. The rapid development of the digital world brings novel and innovative solutions into the digital tourism spaces by the day. Peer-to-peer communication is outstandingly essential in the technological environment of tourism. This character of communication, together with the spreading of smart devices possess revolutionized scheduling, administration and finances, and besides opened novel horizons for the introduction of innovative sales and marketing technologies in the whole tourism industry. As a result of the digital revolution, the international development trends in tourism possess opened the way for novel solutions dote cloud-based booking sites or information and undergo sharing via digital platforms.
In line with the novel trends of travelling, there is a dynamically growing exact for special tailor-made offers beyond mass tourism, as conscious consumers hope personalized solutions that respond their individual needs. As of today, the vast majority of tourism market stakeholders possess access to detailed information on their consumers and can closely succeed and track consumer behavior and its changes. These novel systems of personalized products and services are available thanks to various flexible follow-up techniques dote CRM client databases. The cloud-based CRM client database systems – ones that create offers by analyzing previous sales records and demographic data – possess evolved rapidly. As of today, they can anatomize huge datasets by tall data analysis and scaling methods in a cost effective and anonymous way, searching for significant event points. Although tall data research is based on working with large samples, it is the most efficient mode to reveal individual personal preferences (Stadler, 2015).
How did sharing economy pave the way to personalized tourism services?
In previous decades, the results of digital development possess opened the door for the true life implementation of shared economy theories. It was almost ten years ago that Chris Anderson (2009) introduced his pricing theory in digitalization, basically suggesting giving away products for free, based on the principle of shared goods and resources. Although at the time Anderson’s theory was considered as a technological solution, the principle of digital sharing possess induced earnest convivial changes as well. One of the most essential positive messages of shared economy is the maximum use of resource capacities for the purpose of convivial well-being (Sundararajan, 2014). convivial well-being is besides a key priority in tourism, because a well-managed tourism industry brings profit not only for the traffic operators but besides for the local communities.
In the sharing economy model, the stakeholders – who are besides consumers at the selfsame time – present their excess capacities for collective use in order to maximize the exploitation of their goods and resources. These economic processes consist of so-called hybrid transactions with maximum capacity use (Hyde, 2007), for both commercial and convivial purposes. An essential drive in the evolution of collaborative consumption theory was the realization of the fact that using or possessing the selfsame consumer goods can result in different advantages. The core constituent of the model is that sellers present their excess capacities, while the consumers in need use them in recrudesce for payment. In the sharing economy (based on the aforementioned primary idea), more and more industrial, commercial and service providers present innovative solutions.
The principle of sharing is not a novel notion in the tourism industry. In the case of some accommodation services, seasonal cost reduction has always been a practice. Hostels and youth hotels possess always been current – these facilities are often used as dormitories throughout the academic year and lease their rooms for backpackers in the summer season, when the students are away. Of course, these seasonal options would not possess been enough for creating a novel market sector; the dawn of the novel traffic era was marked with the emergence of wide platform solutions dote Airbnb, Booking.com, Agoda, etc.
Casa de la Musica Hostel Budapest. Photo by Martin Zsarnoczky
In the strategy of digital platform tourism businesses, consumers are considered as partners in the traffic activities. This shared operation can subsist best defined as a postmodern traffic model. Although the knotty notion of postmodernism is quite difficult to describe, its main characteristics – shared participation and the subjective ardor of each contributor – can lead closer to understand the phenomenon. It is limpid that postmodernism will change some processes of the classic market laws in the near future. While “shared experience” has become a key marketing term for selling goods and services, specialized offers inevitably lead to a market fragmentation that will result in the fragmentation of users as well. In a disintegrated market, consumers will behave differently in fragmented times and spaces, paving the way for personalized services and tailor-made solutions. At the selfsame time, individualism has become the key characteristics of the younger generations (McCrindle et al., 2009); a phenomenon that will possess to subsist taken into account whilst creating traffic strategies. Due to the emergence of individualism, more and more young people are trying to create something unique that can serve the long-term benefit of the community. Their drive for creating businesses based on their own ideas and undergo accounts for the increasing popularity of start-up businesses. These aspects of uniqueness, community thinking and experience-centered approach hold a huge occasion for the future of the tourism industry.
The Future: AI, VR/AR, Blockchain
While looking through their photos, tourists usually possess a positive undergo remembering their travels, experiences and the destination they had visited. Some specialized digital technologies can present this assumed positive undergo in a searchable and changeable form. With regards to true life objects, their connections and relations, there is only a limited amount of information available in a format that could subsist handled by computers. The main problem is that computers need adequate coding solutions created by synthetic intelligence to subsist able to store, wield and organize information. The methods of coding for tourism undergo purposes affect the speed, efficiency and knowledge/experience-based computing abilities of today’s computers.
According to the forecasts of product development strategies in various industries, almost every bit of of their everyday objects and gear will subsist accessible through the internet in the future. As a result, every bit of devices that are capable of two-way communication will belong in the framework of IoT (Internet of Things). The devices of the future, unlike the devices of today, will communicate in a bidirectional way, where robust safe data handling, personalized differentiation and adequate decision management will subsist allotment of the user experience. As a result of the continuous data collection during the use of these devices, every bit of material information will eventually discontinuance up in a final centralized system at the top of the dataset.
Previously, tourism used to subsist an industry based on personal relations and connections, where the trends – and therefore travelers’ decisions – were set out by a limited number of large international tourism and travel enterprises. As a result of the digital revolution, the transparency of “hidden markets” had been revealed and numerous other factors possess to subsist taken into account (Fig.1.).
Figure 1. Influencing factors of traveler’s decision. Source: Zsarnoczky, (2017a)
The early development of ICT resulted not only in the better capacity utilization of airlines, but besides on the compatibility of the prices; and soon, the emergence of the discount airlines had led to the innovation of the whole industry and forced out efficiency in every bit of segments. The novel travel recommendation sites (Expedia, Orbitz, Kayak, etc.) were created with the train to accomplish travelers’ decisions easier; however at the selfsame time, a lot of tourism service providers who could not preserve up with the novel challenges were forced out of the market. Although the novel trends dote travel packages (including car rental) or taking into account the reviews of previous travelers (Lonely Planet) were from many aspects antithetical to the former traffic models, the rapidly increasing popularity of online offers required quick and user-friendly tourism product development from the industry.
Figure 2. Virtual Personal lieutenant – VPA. Source: Zsarnoczky, (2017a)
The technological development cannot subsist stopped; however, with adequate flexibility and openness, tourism businesses can prepare for the upcoming challenges. In the tourism of the future, the novel consumers will bring forth novel priorities and novel demands. As a revolutionary approach, the members of the IoP (Internet of People) community present their free time in order to compass joint IT/industrial goals, where frameworks are created in line with the preferences of other people, for a yet not specified consumer segment (Miranda et al., 2015). Beyond innovative technologies, whole novel spaces possess opened in tourism, completely different from the habitual destinations. University researchers possess been carried out to study the possibilities of online tourism spaces and their opportunities for the tourism and hospitality industry. In virtual reality, with a special “glass”, the user can glance into an optional tourism space, from which the true world is completely shut out. The Augmented reality is a different technological solution, where digital elements are projected into a true life space.
In 2011, the interior designers of cafés only used and re-designed the existing design panels; today, the traditional alive spaces are often combined with the online world. Carneval Coffee Budapest. Photo by Martin Zsarnoczky
The newest technological developments and the innovation in the use of alive spaces are every bit of connected to the alternative payment options that can subsist used in tourism as well. The emergence of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies has led to the creation of a novel payment system. The Blockchain payment system is a shared database, which records a continuously growing list of data blocks, preventing any counterfeiting or alteration of the data. One conceal consist of a list of transactions and the results of computations made by the stored programs. For example, if a customer buys some cryptocurrency or any other kindhearted of currency, and then transfers it to anywhere in the world to another partner, who exchanges it instantly, both partners can avoid any loss caused by exchange rate fluctuations; furthermore, the whole transaction takes only minutes instead of the habitual couple of traffic days. This solution can stand for a revolutionary innovative payment option for everyone in the tourism industry.
The applicability of the blockchain system is independent from currency rates. In the case of cryptocurrencies, it is not the exchange rate that really matters – instead, the just value of the currency lies in the safety of the blockchain technology and in the authentic, transparent, unalterable and decentralized recording system (Pilkington, 2016). This payment system offers a novel smooth of encryption safety and intervention-free operation, and the data handled in the system cannot subsist modified in any way. Another huge benefit of the system is that the transactions are realized without any intermediate agents, thus eliminating any additional transaction costs. By the time of the “maturity” of blockchain payment solutions, today’s large service intermediators dote Airbnb, Booking.com, Agora, etc. are foreseen to lose some of their market positions, as consumers and service providers will probably deal with their transactions directly.
Will synthetic Food subsist the next meal on the table?
With the worldwide population boom, the exact for food is besides increasing. To fullfil this growing need for food, the extension of agricultural areas is required for food material production, and at the selfsame time, adequate land management is needed for animal husbandry. The greatest challenge of sustainable agriculture lies in the fact that the agricultural areas can only subsist further expanded at the expense of forested lands. In addition, the current changes in the environment has besides led to the diminish of fishing possibilities, another rigor in the availability of food materials.
Shrimp in pasta shell by Martin Zsarnoczky
The decreasing resources of food materials will constrain the food production industry to re-think their former concepts. novel technologies dote 3D food printers can even bring the hasty food era to an end. The novel inventions of food production and food engineering – dote artificially flavored drinks, chocolates and dairy products – possess been on the market of more than a decade now, and so far, they possess not had a negative consequence on the common savor of consumers.
In the concept of 3D food printing, popular sweets and delicacies are synthesized by a layered printing technology, using the various pre-mixed powders, flavorings, fixers and oils that are stored in the “toners” of the printer. These synthetic foods are already available: specialized franchise restaurants dote the Food Ink chain present a wide variety of printed meals for consumers who are inquisitive about the future of gastronomy. It is besides likely that with the next generation of the food printers, they will subsist able to calibrate the nutritional values and energy content of the meals.
The 3D food printing technology is not only essential for HoReCa businesses, but holds a distinguished occasion for the health industry, too, especially in the sphere of special diets and medication. Using 3D food printing for these purposes can increase cost-effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability, thus supporting the food industry and hospitality and tourism businesses alike.
The option of personalized 3D food printing is just one of the innovative technological solutions in the tourism and hospitality industry. The Henn-na Hotel  in Huis Ten Bosch, Japan is the first hotel in the world, where customers are served exclusively by robots. At another Asian location in China, there are 24/7 cafés that succeed the no-staff traffic model of Amazon Go. As for the restaurant market, the Chinese food brand Wufangzhai has recently opened the first unmanned restaurant in Hangzhou, capital city of east China’s Zhejiang Province.
The question is: how long will it engage until food production and consumption will need no human resources at all?
For innovative enterprises, the efficiency of interactivity is of key importance for the success of their business. The rapid development of ICT solutions has brought immense changes in the tourism industry. Previously, consumers’ decision making was mainly affected by the industrial environment. The era of digital tourism spaces – preceded by theme parks and thematic destinations – started with the emergence of information websites; however, this targeted information flux used to subsist one-directional with narrow choices. In today’s digital era, the novel generation of commercial activities engage position in VR or AR spaces, and the instant analysis of the customer’s reactions and behavior champion the enhancement of their buying willingness. The traditional decision making processes are gradually being replaced with personalized offers, further increasing the importance of AI.
With the development of shared economy, greater accent is consequence on convivial well-being, as user undergo slowly becomes more essential than ownership. This novel approach is besides expressed in novel forms of payment, which can seriously diminish the profits of intermediate activities. The novel trends accomplish not appear to subsist problematic in the tourism industry, mostly because in this sector, the exact costs and incomes are not clearly visible yet. On the other hand, the quality development of the 3D printing technology holds a distinguished occasion for the tourism and hospitality sector. The development of digitalization has finally reached a smooth where it can truly champion the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of industrial food production, paving the way to the future of tourism and hospitality businesses.
PDF Version Available Here
Anderson, C. (2009). Free: The Future of a Radical Price. Hyperion, novel York.
Hyde, L. (2007). The Gift: Creativity and the Artist in the Modern World. novel York: Random House Inc.
McCrindle, M. – Wolfinger, E. (2009). The ABC of XYZ: Understanding the Global Generations, University of novel South Wales Press, Sidney. pp. 1-22.
Miranda, J. – Mäkitalo, N. – Garcia-Alonso, J. – Beroccal, J. – Mikkonen, T. – Canal, C. – Murillo, M. J. (2015) From the Internet of Things to the Internet of People. IEEE Internet Computing, 19 (2): 40-47.
Stadler, G. (2015). tall data – tömeges adatelemzés gyorsan. HTE Medianet 2015, Kecskemét. LLX. pp. 44-48
Pilkington, M. (2016). Blockchain technology: priciples and applications. Research Handbook on Digital Transformation. Edward Elgar Publishing, Northampton, MA. pp. 225-253.
Sundararajan, A. (2014). Peer-to-Peer Businesses and the Sharing (Collaborative) Economy: Overview, Economic Effects and Regulatory Issues. NYU hub for Urban Science and Progress, novel York.
Zsarnoczky, M. (2017a). How does synthetic Intelligence affect the Tourism Industry? Vadyba Journal of Management 31 (2): 85-90.
Zsarnoczky, M. (2017b). The future of sustainable rustic tourism development: the impacts of climate change. Annals of the Polish Association of Agricultural and Agribusiness Economists. XIX. (3): 337-344.
Martin Zsarnoczky, Ph.D. has several years of undergo in the huge tourism and hospitality industry. He has worked with P&O Princess Cruises, Intercontinental and Marriott Hotels in Budapest. Between 2005 and 2015, he was the founder, developer and CEO of Casa de la Musica Hostel and Event’s Hall, one of the largest multifunctional private tourism & hospitality businesses in Budapest downtown. He holds a BSc degree in Tourism and Hospitality from the Budapest traffic School, and graduated at MSc/Med smooth as Teacher of Economics in Tourism and Hospitality. During his studies, he had spent short a term mobility term at Utwente University in the Netherlands, and later earned his Ph.D. in Regional Sciences at Szent Istvan University. At the moment, he is noiseless very active as an entrepreneur and is actively involved in community development. He is besides a board member of the Budapest Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and works as a mentor for the young Entrepreneurs Association Hungary. With regards to his academic career, he is a plenary time lieutenant professor at the Institute of Marketing and Media at the Tourism Department of Corvinus University of Budapest.
May 23rd, 2018 in traffic Practices, Marketing, Spring 2018
By Leora Lanz and Namrata Sridhar
In the Winter 2018 edition of the Boston Hospitality Review, they brought forth suggestions for the 10 Best Practices for Organic Visibility —ways to improve search results through organic search, or accomplish not cost the company a monetary investment. Rather, these rankings were based on elements such as keywords, location, and mobile friendliness. Suggestions for improving a company’s organic search comprise utilization of backlinks, hyperlinks between websites, and content enhancement in relation to local listings such as ensuring quick website load speed, elevated quality imagery, and conspicuous links to convivial media channels.
This second installation of a two-part succession will converse to the subject of search engine functionalities as a result of paid queries. For independent or smaller companies, this brief but powerful set of tips obtained from industry experts can enable a traffic to become more “searchable” for optimal recrudesce on investment.
Search Engine Marketing (SEM) Best Practices:
1. Understand the Paid Media Landscape:
According to the Associate Director for Organic Search and Content Strategy at Boston-based Connelly Partners, Dan Hurley, the most essential allotment of SEM is to comprehend the paid media landscape. It is censorious to know who one’s competitors truly are and understand how they are marketing, from a tactical standpoint.1 It is besides essential to research the types of ad crusade structures that are surfacing in the category of interest, on both desktop and mobile devices. Then one must adopt those that flaunt effective and meet traffic goals appropriately. For restaurants and hotel-related queries, “this strategy is especially pertinent because these searches generally transmute very quickly; mobile searchers will likely patronize a restaurant within a few hours.”
In order to subsist the most efficient with a company’s paid advertisements, Todd Philie, president of Southcoast Marketing Group in Wareham, MA, besides encourages companies to ascertain how consumers are searching for them on the Internet. For example, “utilize the query search tool via the Google AdWords™ platform to ascertain what terms and phrases are used to compass your own site and then panoply your ads.”
Additionally, Kym Parker, associate search marketing director at Connelly Partners, emphasizes the importance of using the company’s brand to ensure a sturdy search presence. By utilizing paid search bids, a hotel or restaurant can subsist the first result a web surfer sees when conducting a search.2
“Sometimes, competitors will bid on your brand terms – which means that if someone searches for your company name, for example, the competitor could exhibit up ahead of you in the search results,” Parker notes. “You can obviate this by ‘protecting’ your brand terms. Always subsist bidding on them, at least a microscopic bit, to ensure that you possess a better casual of staying on top of the results when someone searches your title and other brand terms.”
2: use of Google AdWords™:
The major player in the world wide web is Google, which has created various platforms to optimize searching. Using keywords, Google users can pay to promote their advertisements for a set budget. This Google functionality allows a company (hotel or restaurant) to understand how it ranks in comparison to direct competitors.
Also preserve ‘negative keywords’ in mind, adds Philie. “Negative terms generally means terms that you are not specifically telling AdWords™ that you accomplish not want to flaunt in specific results for other searches. For example, suppose you are marketing a seafood restaurant that does not present steak on its menu. You want to bid on the phrase ‘best restaurant in Boston’ but you accomplish not want to squander money on clicks from customers who want steak. You might set ‘steak’ and ‘steakhouse’ as negative terms so that if someone searched ‘best steak restaurants in Boston” you accomplish not exhibit up in that search.
The Google AdWords™ functionality besides offers companies the casual to enhance the listing. An incredibly important, yet often overlooked, input is the “click to call” functionality and its presence on a mobile site, besides known as the muster extension. “These additional factual details, known as “ad extensions” besides comprise location, information from different pages on your website, and even testimonial reviews,” adds Seth Cargiuolo, director of communication strategy at Chestnut Hill, MA-based D50 Media. “Making use of ad extensions is essential because it helps the customer learn more about the traffic with a quick glance pre-click, and can wait on differentiate a hotel or restaurant (or any product) against its competitors.” Ad extensions besides increase the visual footprint of an ad, which can push competitors’ ads and organic listings down the page and out of view, particularly on mobile devices.
For marketers just starting to utilize SEM and Search Engine Optimization (SEO), Google AdWords™ besides offers free tutorials and trainings. Zachary Azar, D50 Media’s senior manager of paid search notes, “These tutorials provide clients with the occasion to obtain the most out of the program and create effective campaigns.”
To properly manage an effective AdWords campaign, Google Analytics can subsist a helpful tool as it reveals which content on a website is most useful and attractive to customers. This will wait on in the creation of resonating ad copy and can besides subsist a usher for aligning keyword selection and website copy to increase the “Quality Score” of an ad campaign.
However, Philie besides cautions individuals not to subsist completely reliant on Google’s suggestions for keywords. “Often times, these keywords are pluralized and can occasions companies to disburse more or not subsist as effective.” He warns companies to choose how to consequence their key words “out there” when bidding. Companies must choose best matched keywords for their ads and choose between “exact match,” “phrase match,” “broad search” and “modified broad search” – every bit of of which will bow varied returns. Campaigns should utilize a equilibrium of every bit of match types, but should “skew more heavily towards exact and phrase, utilizing broad match only for keyword prospecting and expansion opportunities.”
3. Always Start with Non-Paid Efforts or SEO
When optimizing a company’s searches, Cargiuolo and Azar imply the first thing that the company should focus on is actually the SEO. First and foremost, it is essential to ensure that a website is user- and mobile-friendly. Another essential factor is a quick load speed. “Google has establish that sites that engage longer than three seconds to load lose 40% of their traffic, and for mobile traffic, that jumps to 53%,” reports Azar. This is essential for paid search as well; Cargiuolo adds, “It’d subsist despicable enough for a user to abandon your page when it’s an organic search – but now imagine if you’d paid for that click and those dollars were totally wasted.”
In order to reduce the load speed, it is essential to not possess “big” images—think kilobytes, not megabytes. Web copy should subsist concise and “bandwidth-hogging” scripts and plugins minimized. “Additionally, given that over half of web traffic is on mobile devices, ensure that pdfs (which you want to avoid anyway) glance acceptable on a smart phone too,” Cargiuolo says.
Kristin Metzler, Print and Web Marketing Coordinator of Frasca Design Group, besides echoes that mastery of SEO is the first step in a successful digital marketing campaign. Websites built with a sturdy attention to keywords and content will minimize spending on pay-per-click campaigns.
4. Don’t disburse on Paid Search if You Can’t Afford It
Hurley cautions that one need not disburse money on advertising to obtain traffic. Because so much information is provided in the search results, there may not subsist any clicks on your page during the search process. Companies should never consequence any money into paid search, panoply advertising or paid convivial that the company cannot afford to lose.3
Cargiuolo emphasizes that when a company starts advertising, it should not hope an immediate return,4 which is oftentimes an assumption that businesses make. Initially, many may not subsist confidential with the bidding process; keywords; or how to build, optimize, and manage an effective campaign. subsist cautious not to disburse money needed for other resources. Start behind and disburse time learning before committing tall budgets.
One final word of caution: There are easily incurred expenses that can Come from paid search marketing, such as additional costs from agencies that engage a portion of a monthly budget. Being conscious of your daily budget is censorious in avoiding overspending.
When taking the steps to build a search campaign, it is censorious to accomplish research and slither slowly at the beginning. Understand how the market is reflected in consumer searches and what keywords are being utilized. Before jumping into methods that require payment, a company should ensure that its website is optimized for searches and never disburse more than what can subsist budgeted, as it will engage time to discern a recrudesce on investment.
As Cargiuolo reminds, businesses must recall that Google serves the user first. Thus as the marketer, one must mediate as a user would when structure a paid search campaign. People Come to Google with questions. The marketer that best answers the user’s questions, both pre-click and post-click, is going to subsist one that is most successful.
PDF Version Available Here
1 Inc. Staff. “How to Conduct Competitive Research.” Inc. Magazine. May 2010
2 Ratcliff, Christopher. “What is PPC and Why accomplish You need it?” Econsultancy. 13 November 2013.
3 Kumar, A.J. “SEO vs PPC: Knowing Which is Better for Your Website.” Entrepreneur. Editorial. 21 May 2012
4 Steimle, Josh. “How Long Does SEO engage to Start Working?” Editorial. Forbes. 7 February 2015.
Namrata Sridhar is a marketing communications coordinator at LHL Communications and a rising senior at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (BU SHA). She has besides previously worked in marketing communications capacities at RealFood Consulting where she helped design an internal marketing map to rebrand their company. Namrata besides serves as the President of the Student Government of BU SHA. She is an active member of the National Society of Minorities in Hospitality, the American Hotel and Lodging Association, and the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association International.
Leora Halpern Lanz, ISHC, is principal of LHL Communications, a hospitality-focused marketing communications, branding, and media relations advisory. She is besides a plenary time faculty member at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (SHA), teaching advanced strategic marketing and digital marketing for hospitality at the undergraduate and graduate levels. She was named among the Top 25 Minds in Hotel Marketing for 2016 by the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International and was named 2017 Professor of the Year by the student government of SHA.
February 13th, 2018 in traffic Practices, Winter 2018
By Sarah Andersen
After completing the senior capstone Hospitality Leadership course at Boston University, I had the casual to reflect on the class topics and apply the teachings to my personal life. The course explored several different levels of leadership, from the head of a major corporation role to developing self-leadership. I learned the importance of a mission, vision, and values in an organization, better understood the components of change management, and worked with a group throughout the semester to develop my teamwork skills. I was able to critically anatomize concepts and models presented in leadership literature as well as improve my own leadership skills.
I then interviewed three prominent leaders in hospitality and establish connections between their industry insights and my leadership class discussions. Dan Donahue, President of Saunders Hotel Group, Len Wolman, Chairman and CEO of Waterford Hotel Group, and Geoff Ballotti, President and CEO of Wyndham Hotel Group kindly shared their experiences and explained their personal values and company’s culture, revealing the five keys to successful leadership.
“Leadership is the capacity totranslate vision into reality.”
-Warren G. Bennis
Establishing Shared Beliefs, Values, and Goals
When an organization wants to achieve its goals, it needs a vision. Effective leadership starts with the competence to recognize and silhouette those goals and inspire others to follow. Leaders paint a picture of how that vision will affect the company as a whole, as well as each individual. A leader’s competence to articulate that vision into a mission statement corresponds to the active implementation of goals and the company’s bottom line success. A productive vision goes beyond a written organizational mission statement, but instead permeates throughout every bit of levels of a company and manifests into actions and beliefs. John P. Kotter, author of traffic Leadership, writes, “A vision says something that helps clarify the direction in which an organization wants to slither [and] is relatively easy to communicate, appealing to customers, stockholders, and employees.”1 It is therefore up to hospitality leaders to set and clearly communicate a vision, and to inspire those around them to participate and implement it.
A vision does not belong only to a leader. It must subsist a shared vision that attracts everyone to sustain elevated levels of motivation and withstand challenges. According to The Leadership Challenge, by James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, leaders can envision the future by imagining the possibilities and finding a common purpose.2 In addition, leaders must spark a sense of significance and purpose in those around them. Dan Donahue agrees that, “My job, as someone who has the vision, is to obtain you inspired and committed to sharing that vision and sharing that creativity to the point where you possess buy-in.”
After seven years of rigorous research, a landmark study of the observations from more than 100 CEOs and over 8,000 employees establish that “leaders who were limpid about their values delivered as much as five times greater returns for their organizations as did leaders of fragile character.”3
So how accomplish illustrious CEOs and successful leaders in their industry shape the parameters for success through a shared vision for a future? How accomplish they empower and inspire those around them to accomplish decisions and drudgery towards their goals?
Balancing Accountability and Autonomy
When asked what his core values were, Len Wolman responded, “First and foremost, their organization has been built on integrity and transparency. They possess four core values that they live by on a daily basis which are to (1) to wow the customer, (2) to continuously improve, (3) to subsist a passionate and committed team, and (4) to participate and sustain their bottom line success.”
Dan Donahue, established that, “Our values are simple. Their values are people. They allow them the flexibility and latitude to accomplish their jobs under the usher of taking care of the guest, but besides taking care of themselves as well.” To strengthen others, exemplary leaders increase people’s belief in their competence to accomplish a difference. They slither from being in control to giving over control. Developing associates into leaders and enhancing self-determination creates a culture of empowerment and confidence. Geoff Ballotti agrees that, “In terms of motivating others, it is letting them accomplish decisions. It’s not micromanaging, but rather letting them Come up with the solutions.”
Geoff Ballotti continues, “Our core value statement is three words, ‘Count On Me,’ which is every bit of about accountability. It is about people being able to subsist counted on at any time, for any issue, any question, any decision, and any champion that their owners, franchisees, and associates need. It is built on the principal of integrity in terms of taking personal responsibility for your actions.” Accountability is essential because it results in an extremely efficient and productive team. According to the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, accountability in the workplace is linked to higher performance and increases in commitment to drudgery and employee morale.4
Dan Donahue, states, “A vision has to subsist fluid. To obtain to an achievable goal and vision, whether short term or long term, you need to subsist present, you need to understand that if you want it to subsist successful you need to subsist there, you need to subsist accountable to it, and you need to subsist accountable to the people that want to participate that.” When accountability becomes embedded into culture, company’s are able to set meaningful goals, develop team buy-in, build confidence through champion and encouragement, and celebrate successes together. Accountability is about creating a culture where people value responsibility. When associates understand that accountability involves a certain degree of autonomy, mutual respect develops between every bit of levels of an organization.
Mr. Ballotti adds, “The third leg of their values is every bit of about respect. Respecting everyone everywhere both on their ownership side and the community side.” When leaders develop mutual respect, associates are more likely to drudgery harder to accomplish shared goals. Harvard traffic Review examined employee needs and determined through a query of more than 19,000 workers that most employees covet renewal, value, focus and purpose.5 feeling a sense of value and respect can instill an employee with aplomb and motivation. Len Wolman adds that, “I’ve been in the industry for many years, I was educated in the industry and then worked my way up through the industry, so I’m fortunate in that I possess the perspective of having worked in various positions. So I possess empathy, understanding, and respect for each position. Everyone needs to subsist treated with mutual respect and understanding.”
Modeling by Example
An essential allotment of being an effective leader is educating others on what the organization stands for and why it matters. When leaders sincerely express a commitment to their core values, they’re besides making a commitment on behalf of the entire organization. Therefore, leaders must accomplish positive there is collective agreement on the shared values amongst everyone they lead.
So how accomplish leaders become a role model for what the organization stands for?
The respond is pretty simple. They set the sample for others to follow. Holding others accountable to values and standards means leaders must live the values themselves. Dan Donahue responds, “I would never ask an employee to accomplish something I wouldn’t accomplish myself.” Len Wolman agrees adding, “You always want to set an sample and never want to hope anyone to accomplish anything that you wouldn’t accomplish yourself.” Researcher on behavioral integrity demonstrates that the alignment between a leader’s words and actions has a powerful impact on how much constituents confidence the leader and on their subsequent performance levels.6 distinguished leaders effectively translate purpose into reality by acting on the values they discipline and the things they vow to those around them.
Showing Vulnerability and Visibility
Confidence is an essential skill to possess as a leader. However, having vulnerability as a leader is just as essential to recognize and appreciate. Every leader has vulnerability, but great leaders have the self-awareness to recognize this fact and feel snug expressing their weaknesses. Showing vulnerability is a relatable trait and Geoff Ballotti finds that, “The greatest leaders I know out there are very snug talking about their weaknesses, about what it is that they need to drudgery on, to improve upon, and to accomplish better.” effective leaders invest the thinking, the time, the energy and are prepared for the vulnerability of connecting with others.
So how accomplish these leaders win trust, inspire, and build bonds with those they lead?
Great leaders inspire their associates and guests by genuinely connecting to them through a consistent presence and visibility. Visibility as a leader not only includes having a physical presence, but besides aligning everyone to the purpose behind their shared vision through natural conversations and casual exchanges on a daily basis. When asked how he communicates company goals and the overall vision, Dan Donahue replied, “If you possess a presence, it happens organically. It doesn’t need to subsist contrived.” The purpose of this unaffected visibility is not about the need to “check on employees,” but rather an honest covet to interact with associates in order to gauge motivation and learn if employees need champion or help. Mr. Wolman agrees that, “It is censorious to operate with an open door policy and listen to everyone’s perspective and ideas, particularly the people who are executing the day to day functions, and I mediate you’ve got to subsist constantly evaluating that.”
Mr. Ballotti adds, “I besides mediate showing empathy is key and the best way distinguished leaders accomplish that is through the technique of storytelling when they’re up in front of their associate basis or leadership team, being able to bid stories that connect and engage and inspire and motivate in terms of the culture your want to set and want to build.” Storytelling is a powerful way to participate knowledge, push information at people or tow them into a company’s vision and mission by reinforcing the intent behind unquestionable leadership. According to Edgar Schein, Professor Emeritus at the MIT Sloan School of Management, “[Stories] besides strengthen the framework and the importance of an organization’s culture by establishing norms and values.”7 telling stories compel, persuade, and unify others around the leaders’ vision.
Creativity Breads Adaptability
“Hospitality isn’t about a product on the shelf. Hospitality is about creating something that changes day to day, hour to hour, or minute by minute.” – Dan Donahue
IBM’s 2010 Global CEO Study, which surveyed more than 1,500 CEOs from 60 countries and 33 industries worldwide, concluded that creativity is the most essential leadership quality for success in business, outweighing competencies such as integrity and global thinking.8 Geoff Ballotti agrees that, “Creativity is critical, especially in the traffic that we’re in. We’re trying to redefine and reposition their brand from a creative standpoint in terms of experience.” What defines one brand from another and what makes one brand more successful than another is the creativity that it delivers as well as the undergo it delivers to its guests. Understanding how to generate distinguished ideas is a crucial leadership trait in hospitality’s innovation-driven industry. Successful leaders create an environment where associates can contribute their fancy and insight, which is censorious because most innovations draw upon the contributions of many.
Today’s traffic environment is unpredictable, changeable and increasingly complex. Therefore, the competence to create something that is both innovative and applicable is on the top of leader’s minds. Mr. Donahue states, “Nothing in their traffic can subsist or should subsist cookie cutter. It’s about curating an undergo for each person who spends to subsist with you.” Len Wolman adds, “If you’re not creative and open to change in todays world with the disruptors that exist in their industry, particularly with technology, you will not subsist successful. You need to subsist creative in terms of staying ahead, staying current and relevant, and obtain managing the costs associated with change in a way that your organization can noiseless subsist successful and profitable.”
In an industry of constant change, distinguished hospitality leaders need to capitalize on the opportunities that are ripe for the present context and map for the likely future state. Change requires creating a novel system, which demands effective leadership. It is crucial that leaders first avow how difficult it can subsist to drive others outside of their console zones and push for change. When asked how he responds to change, Len Wolman replied, “A crucial constituent is feedback. They obtain daily feedback that is current and relevant, whether it subsist Trip Advisor, direct contact with their guests, or direct contact with their associates. They need to listen to it, they need to respond to it, and they need to adjust to the things that people are looking for whether it subsist the consumer or the drudgery environment.” Those who create novel initiatives, programing, design, and brand essence are the ones who succeed. By supporting creativity and commanding change, leaders can increase workplace satisfaction and build driven teams that craft original, valuable ideas.
Figure 1: Interview Questions
When associates are inspired by their leaders, they are more confident, they know what’s expected, and they feel empowered to accomplish decisions and drudgery toward their goals. So with your vast undergo in the hospitality industry, what are some ways you empower and inspire those around you to accomplish decisions and really motivate others?
Do you possess a specific set of core values? They can subsist personal or related to your company.
How accomplish you hold others accountable to those values and standards as a leader? Are there specific tools or methods you provide your associates to wait on them drudgery towards that unified goal?
Confidence is obviously an essential skill to possess as a leader, but accomplish you mediate showing vulnerability as a leader is essential as well? This can subsist shown through being more visible to others around you, taking risks, being vocal and limpid about your specific goals as a leader….
Creativity is essential to the entrepreneurship that gets novel businesses started and that sustains the best companies after they possess reached a global scale. accomplish you deem creativity to subsist a manageable trait? Is creativity a focus of your attention as a leader?
How accomplish you meet to various situations in an age of rapid change (with technology and this millennial “mindset” emergence)? What are the key components to having an adaptable mindset?
It has been made limpid through the interview process of these three prominent industry leaders that establishing shared values, balancing accountability with autonomy, modeling by example, showing vulnerability through visibility, and having a creative mindset that is open to change are every bit of essential factors to being a successful leader. The common theme amongst every bit of these traits and elements to successful leadership, however, is each leader’s dependence and confidence for their associates. At one point during the interview, Mr. Ballotti pointed out that, “Great leaders are those who ring themselves with distinguished people…who are brighter, and smarter, and more diverse in thought than they are. And who are able to build a team that knows how to champion and confidence each other.” It is limpid that effective leadership boils down to a leaders competence to unlock the plenary potential in those around them. Len Wolman adds that it “We engage care of their associates so that they engage care of their guests, which keeps the guests coming back and is the judgement they are in business.“ Dan Donahue besides notes, “You possess to realize each individual employee’s needs. accomplish a connection with your employees every sole day.” every bit of telling leaders were once followers themselves and possess learned to establish and foster confidence over time. A just leader passes acclaim and shares the blame, lifting up those around them.9 Without followers, distinguished leaders cannot lead.
PDF Version Available Here
Sarah R. Andersen is a senior at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration. Her areas of interest comprise integrated marketing communications and true estate development. Beyond her studies in hospitality, she is a member of the BU Women’s Lacrosse team. She plans to continue her studies at Boston University after graduating with her bachelor’s degree by enrolling in the School of Hospitality’s Master of Management in Hospitality program.
Gallos, Joan V. Business Leadership. Second Edition ed., A Jossey-Bass Reader.
Kouzes, James M., and Barry Z. Posner. The Leadership Challenge: How to accomplish Extraordinary Things betide in Organizations. Sixth Edition ed., Wiley, 2017.
Carson, and E. A. Phelps, “Regulating the Expectation of Reward,” Nature Neuroscience 11, no.8 (2008):880-881
“Performance Management: Accountability Can possess Positive Results.” U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Web.
Porath, Tony SchwartzChristine. “The Power of Meeting Your Employees’ Needs.” Harvard traffic Review, 6 Dec. 2017.
C. M. Shea and J.M. Howell, “Charismatic Leadership and job Feedback: A Laboratory Study of Their Effects on Self-Efficacy and job Performance,” Leadership Quarterly 10, no. 3 (1999)
Marshall, John, and Matthew Adamic. “The sage Is the Message: Shaping Corporate Culture.” Journal of traffic Strategy, vol. 31, no. 2, 2010, pp. 18–23.
“Creativity Selected as Most Crucial Factor for Future Success.” IBM 2010 Global CEO Study, 18 May 2010.
Henderson, Aaron M. Building effective Leadership from the Ground Up. Llumina Press, 2004.
February 13th, 2018 in traffic Practices, Marketing, Winter 2018
By Juan Lesmes and Leora Lanz
It wasn’t that long ago when digital marketing surfaced as essential exercise for the hospitality industry. As time moved forward, hotel marketing departments established roles to manage the digital positioning and visibility of the property. Thus, they witnessed hospitality brands which were ‘present’ on convivial media outlets, adopting paid search as a permanent component of their marketing blend and abiding by well-known website best practices. They refer to this term as phase I of the Hospitality Digital Marketing Revolution.
Phase II quickly blossomed, and hotels realized that the competition to penetrate the digital space was sturdy and arduous. Brands started focusing on and investing in the internet user-experience (UX), negotiating partnerships with online travel agencies (OTAs), understanding the landscape of search engine result pages (SERPs), separating high-value budgets exclusively for search engine marketing (SEM), and delving into the intricacies of search engine optimization (SEO) for their own websites. convivial media served as a competitive edge and quickly escalated as paramount for marketing, branding, reputation management, and organic visibility. Paid search, via Google AdWords platform, is not to subsist confused with the organic approaches detailed here.
As they delve into 2018, phase III emerges clearly. OTAs dominate and in some instances absorb Google searches with first page results. Consequently, hotels are realizing that digital marketing efforts should subsist shifted from a haphazard online presence to one that is strategic – one that capitalizes on each micro-moment of the guest travel planning journey (most of which, if not all, occurs on the web). As convivial media forces Instagram and Facebook solidify their roles as prominent search engines, paid ‘posts’ within users’ ‘feeds’ continue to convey the power of personalized sponsored content.
With a myriad of stakeholders now involved in the simple act of searching for hotel rooms, is it a battle worth fighting? The respond is absolutely. But before addressing the how, it is crucial to identify and differentiate the digital marketing scope of branded and non-branded hotels. Branded hotels, especially those flagged with hospitality powerhouses, benefit from a more powerful domain authority coming from the parent chain, making it easier for them to rank higher on the SERPs. engage Marriott.com/hotel vs. hotelname.com for example. Domain authority is the overall power of the domain title considering traffic size, popularity, and number of links to the site (backlinks). It is besides a top ranking factor for Google.
Branded hotels besides tend to possess significant budgets to disburse on Pay-Per-Click (PPC) and paid search, ensuring top first page visibility for valuable destination and branded queries. In addition, branded hotels possess wider access to digital partnerships, including listings, local directories, event sponsorships, travel influencers, and online features – every bit of of which provide authoritative backlinks to the hotel’s site, further contributing to its domain authority.
Because independent and small-scale hotels rarely benefit from domain authority, maintaining and monitoring digital marketing best practices to boost Google rankings should subsist a requirement, not merely a recommendation. Digital marketing practices command their own dedicated efforts. Yet online marketing should subsist well-equipped with its own strategy and utilize expertise in the nuances and intricacies of hotels, restaurants, leisure activities, and attractions – overall, hospitality.
The question then becomes, how can hotels strive for visibility in this Wild West of a digital landscape, particularly if they are competing against each other, the OTAs, and a powerful sharing economy?
1. Execute a Carefully Crafted Keyword Strategy
Optimizing for search queries, besides known as keywords, is perhaps the core of any digital marketing tactic aiming to build visibility – both organic and paid. Identifying those keywords with the highest search volume, such as ‘Miami hotels,’ is the intuitive process. Presence on Google’s first page for elevated search-volume keywords requires a robust SEM budget, an ongoing and long-term SEO strategy, or both. This puts independent and small-scale properties, which often accomplish not possess the necessary budget and fundamental team, at a notable disadvantage.
However, niche keywords present a different scenario. These queries are typically ’long-tail’ significance they contain more than four words. Though niche keywords accomplish not possess the highest search popularities, it is much easier to actually capture their search volume, which then results in higher click-through rates (CTR). Hotels can leverage niche keywords by identifying their unique amenities and value propositions, and turning them into valuable keywords. For example, ‘Miami hotels with a rooftop bar,’ ‘Miami hotels with free breakfast’ and ‘Miami hotels with nightclubs’ are terms to utilize as they leverage a more specific travel purpose that easily turns into conversions (booked business). It is crucial to mediate as the customer would.
Some independent hotels, because of the virtue of their uniqueness and often niche-market, can possess the upper hand in this situation. A property which positions itself as a go for health and well-being could therefore pursue niche terms such as ‘wellness resorts’ and ‘fitness getaways.’ The key is to identify the brand’s top performing unique selling propositions (USPs) and translate them into humanized search queries, every bit of while keeping the guests’ travel planning journeys in mind.
Finding a balanced blend of both high-search volume terms and niche queries secures strategic keywords. Nevertheless, actually optimizing for them by ensuring they are naturally or comfortably present throughout the website’s titles, content, metadata and bidding efforts besides wait on secure a carefully crafted keyword strategy.
2. Optimize for Local Search
Our termed “Phase II” besides consequence the spotlight on search engine traffic directories such as Google My traffic and Bing Places for Business. In phase III, hotel listings on these directories is no longer a recommendation, it is a necessity. Optimizing for local search entails driving the visibility of a property’s traffic listing via a two-part process:
Ensure the listing’s content is precise and optimal. For a hotel’s listing to subsist effective, it needs to subsist correct. This means not only having a consistent name, address, and phone number (NAP) across the web, but besides sharing additional traffic attributes such as traffic hours, property images, contact e-information, and traffic category. Because Google understands that local users are better served by businesses that silhouette every bit of the information they need, it ranks complete, accurate, and consistent listings higher than those that are partial. If your hotel has a divide restaurant, spa, or in-house shop, each should possess a divide online traffic listing.
Utilize keywords with universal search integrations – certain keywords tend to trigger significantly more universal search results, which includes a blended combination of Carousel, Local 3-Pack, Images, and Maps. (The former two are Google features establish on search pages, displaying images and contact information to wait on users with specific searches). Because they are primarily location-based, they present yet another occasion to drive the hotel’s local traffic listing. Keywords such as ‘Miami hotels near American Airlines Arena’ or ‘Downtown Miami hotels,’ for example, possess powerful local search integrations since they allude to a local locality within a larger market. As a result, incorporating these styles of keywords into the hotel’s website and local listings is a way to let Google know that the property is not only highly material to the query, but besides a local traffic to subsist recognized.
3. Attain and Maintain a Star Rating on Google
One of the key components of local search results is the Star Rating associated with a traffic listing. In fact, star reviews on SERPs are an effective way for hotels to increase digital visibility by standing out from the competition. Star ratings wait on increase the site’s CTR and provide an influential benchmark for online reputation management (ORM). Once an exclusive attribute for paid results, star ratings now besides flaunt on organic results through Google’s ‘Rich Snippets.’ These snippets are a shape of structured data which Google extracts from multiple websites and presents it as a ‘preview’ in search results, besides known as Google’s erudition Graph.
Therefore, obtaining and retaining star ratings involves safeguarding reviews on trusted and authoritative review sites. Google then aggregates this rating data and displays an medium star rating. Hotels (restaurants, attractions, etc.) should inspirit satisfied guests to submit reviews to their booking channel (i.e. Expedia) because they are by default ‘trusted’ sites. However, they should besides inspirit reviews for their own Google My traffic listing in an attempt to increase the hotel’s chances of being featured on local search results.
It is essential to clarify that there is a technical component to obtaining a Google star rating. Codes consequence onto the website to wait on search engines recrudesce more informative results to users. Hotels need to ensure that their web developers besides comprise star rating information within the markup code.
4. Enhance Content on Local Listings
A hotel’s content for its local listings should subsist strategically optimized. Whether it is in Foursquare, CitySearch, or any other listing, valuable keywords should subsist incorporated throughout the copy – including local search ‘near’ queries such as ‘hotel in Miami near Brickell’. If the brand image is roguish and tongue-in-cheek, the content on local listings should besides reflect that. Some listings even allow for a featured message. Rather than a generic ‘Welcome!’ hotels can use this space to promote current offers or highlight special amenities (complimentary champagne, sunset yoga, free breakfast).
Other content elements such as images should subsist of the highest quality, showcasing provocative yet realistic visuals of the property’s exterior, interior, and overall ambiance. Links to every bit of the property’s convivial media channels should subsist present in the listings, which allows the user to access other hotel assets including brand personality and online reputation.
5. Optimize for Voice Search
With increasing utilization of smart personal assistants such as Alexa and Google Home, voice search is a prime topic of conversion within the digital marketing realm. In order to subsist visible in results derived from these devices, hotels need to ensure they are optimizing their site and keyword strategy for voice search too. Since users are more likely to use longer natural queries via voice, employing niche, long-tail keywords is an effective mode to optimize for this trend.
Long-tail keywords are fruitless without the material content on a hotel or restaurant’s website. Hotels need to possess specific landing pages that parallel the niche keywords. If a hotel seeks ‘Hotels in Miami with rooftop pools’—a keyword likely used by the voice search user—it must flaunt in the material landing page.
Incorporating questions and answers within the site, perhaps via the ever-popular Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) page, is another effective way to accommodate voice search. With this strategy, hotels can provide answers not only about the property itself, but besides about their destination and local attractions as a result of quick detection by voice-activated devices.
It is essential to note that recently, numerous hotel properties and companies possess been contacted by law firms representing travel consumers with disabilities. These law firms report that websites are not abiding by accessibility guidelines in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). If a guest is unable to use a hotel website to find information or accomplish a reservation, hotels can in fact subsist fined. Today hotel websites must enable these assistive technologies to allow travel consumers with disabilities to obtain the information they need and complete any necessary transactions.
6. Adopt a ‘Mobile First’ Mantra
Much has been said about Google’s ‘mobile first’ index. This means Google will start to rank its search results based on the mobile version of the content, even in desktop search listings. If one thing is certain, websites need to subsist optimized to subsist mobile-friendly (responsive). Hotels need to ensure they launch a fully-responsive website that serves users of any device the selfsame consistent content. The more ‘mobile-friendly’ a site’s user undergo is, including factors such as typography, navigation map, and website design, the higher the site will rank on Google’s search.
7. Leverage Google Hotel Ads
Google Hotel cost Ads (HPA) showcases a hotel’s real-time (dynamic) rates on Google search across every bit of devices. Users will discern the hotel’s ad when they are actively looking to book a elbowroom in the area. However, the hotel only pays when the ad generates a click or a booking.
Google has recently introduced a unique call-to-action (CTA) button for booking hotels in its search results. A keyword can trigger a ‘BOOK A ROOM’ button to appear. Clicking this will activate a sub-menu to browse every bit of enlisted HPAs for the hotel, which includes booking direct and via OTAs.
This feature, which besides appears in Mobile and Maps, demonstrates Google’s determination to grow its cost Ads service. The increased exposure provides more incentive for hotels to capitalize on this shape of pay-per-click in order to promote direct bookings.
8. increase Backlinks, Actively
A backlink is as simple as a hyperlink to a website from another website. Yet, it carries a lot of weight when it comes to a hotel’s organic digital visibility. Each backlink tells the search engine that a hotel website has a ‘vote’ from another entity, which in recrudesce builds credibility and domain authority. Branded hotels possess the upper hand here since the company usually has a corporate parent site that a plethora of other websites will link to (such as Marriott.com or IHG.com).
There are technicalities to backlinks, including the quality of the backlink determined by elements such as anchor text and link context. These technical factors play a role in the algorithm the search engine uses to determine the value of a backlink. In theory, the more quality backlinks a hotel website has, the more chances to rank higher on search engines.
Actively pursuing material backlinks should subsist imperative for hotels to obtain first page ‘real-estate’. Obtaining links from local directories, current hotel vendors, editorial publications, and .EDU and .GOV sites should subsist the gateway for enhancing the site’s link equity. However, to continuously grow the number of backlinks, hotels need to subsist generating quality, shareable content that interlinks with convivial media initiatives.
9. recall Optimal convivial Media = (Quality + Authenticity) x Engagement
Much has been contemplated about what comprises a successful convivial media strategy. Although there is no ultimate recipe for the consummate convivial media post, three factors that boost performance are quality, authenticity, and engagement. Optimal convivial Media = (Quality + Authenticity) x Engagement. Each piece of content maximizes visibility, both organic and paid. When posts are unquestionable and of elevated quality, users are more likely to relate and validate them. When posts are authentic, of elevated quality, and facilitate some character of user engagement, the content becomes shareable.
When content generates more likes, followers, and overall visibility it establishes an influential ranking factor. Therefore, search engines tend to rank higher those brands that possess a robust organic convivial media basis (not paid or ‘spammy’ followers). This is why it is essential for hotels to intertwine their convivial media strategy with their SEO efforts by creating quality, authentic, and engaging content that increases overall digital exposure.
10. deem the Technicalities of SEO
Technical SEO is a science of its own and deserves its own team of specialists, budget, and time. Technical SEO means optimizing a website so search engines can successfully crawl and index its content. It lays a powerful foundation to give a hotel’s website the best casual it can to rank higher for material keywords. Technical factors comprise site speed, removing unnecessary tags, cleansing duplicate metadata, adding tags to images, and implementing proper redirects to maximize the site’s link equity. Whether there is a one-man team or a staff of professionals continually optimizing the website, there are tools to wait on provide the technical support.
Hotels, restaurants, museums, attractions, and leisure activities every bit of need to assertively compete online to grab the attention of potential guests. Those who tend to the organic visibility possess a notable competitive. This and integrated paid search campaigns that mutually champion organic search strategies will wait on secure first page visibility. Overall, while the need to upkeep search engines’ potent algorithms and ranking methodologies will always remain, an understanding of the process will wait on smaller or independent hospitality businesses carve through the clutter in today’s complicated digital landscape.
PDF Version Available Here
Juan Lesmes is a digital marketing strategist specializing in SEO at HEBS Digital the leading hospitality technology, full-service digital marketing and website design firm. A 2017 graduate of Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (SHA), Juan’s previous undergo includes drudgery at hospitality marketing advisory LHL Communications, The Ritz London, and Lets obtain Weddy in London. Since his time at SHA, Juan has been recognized as a thought leader in hospitality marketing, with active contributions to the Boston Hospitality Review, HotelOnline and HospitalityNet.
Leora Halpern Lanz, ISHC, is principal of LHL Communications, a hospitality-focused marketing communications, branding, and media relations advisory. She is besides plenary time faculty at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (SHA), teaching advanced strategic marketing and digital marketing for hospitality at the undergraduate and graduate levels. She was named among the Top 25 Minds in Hotel Marketing for 2016 by the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International and was named 2017 Professor of the Year by the student government of SHA.
June 7th, 2017 in traffic Practices, Hotels, Marketing, Spring 2017, Technology, Uncategorized
Photo Source: Andrew Harrer/Bloomberg via Getty Images
By Nick Cohen
The year is 2001, and the world is noiseless recovering from the tragedy of September 11th. The travel industry is in a downward spiral as fears of flying and terrorism ripple across the United States and beyond, and hotels possess lost significant occupancy due to a diminish in demand.
Simultaneously, a fledgling technology is emerging which will eventually engage edge of the internet explosion, as well as hotel management’s desperation to fill rooms. It will reshape their industry forever, and this platform now commonly referred to as Online Travel Agencies, or OTAs, will allow hotels to easily sell their rooms on the internet through novel consumer facing websites such as Expedia, Travelocity and Orbitz.
Fast forward to 2017. The OTA’s possess gained the majority of market participate for online reservations, and digital platforms dote Booking.com and Ctrip.com possess loyal member volumes that far surpass brand websites. In many cases, the OTA companies are valued well beyond traditional hotel brands (as of May 2017, Priceline Group has a market capitalization of nearly USD 92 Billion). They possess besides helped to create a novel concept as they grew in popularity and scale over the terminal number of years, and it was the precedent of transparency. Pricing that was once hidden to the everyday user, could now subsist exposed to the whole world, publicly, with a few clicks online. As OTA channels grew enormously with time, so did the access to true time rates and availability for virtually every hotel around the world.
With this concept in mind, from the OTA’s they possess seen the rapid expansion of ‘meta search’ channels. These are one-stop cost comparison platforms where a customer can view a cost for a sole hotel elbowroom across multiple websites (without having to browse those websites one-by-one). Sites within this category comprise Kayak, Trivago, TripAdvisor, Qunar and Google, and they are every bit of working to simplify the travel research process for consumers.
Featured above are some of the most current meta search channels
With the OTA channels continuing to grow through massive marketing efforts and superior technology, and with meta search sites following their lead, a relatively novel challenge has emerged for hoteliers. It represents a very knotty dynamic between one of the most traditional ways to sell a hotel room, and one of the most modern ways to sell a hotel room. This once again every bit of comes back to the concept of cost transparency. Wholesale has been a core traffic driver in hotels for many years, helping properties build basis traffic through private negotiated rates and partnerships. Historically, these wholesalers would sell their inventory offline to their own private networks of contacts. Even though the pricing would typically subsist lower than publicly available RACK rates, it was a dependable foundation of occupancy for hotels to build off of.
As technology has become more sophisticated with Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) readily available, they possess seen the rapid growth of wholesale rates being sold publicly, online, through some of the powerful meta search channels mentioned above. This means that wholesalers are selling discounted rates, which directly undercut brand websites and OTAs, to anyone who has access to the internet. Beyond just meta search, some OTA websites are now even positioning themselves as ‘online marketplaces,’ where they too will sell wholesale inventory directly instead of the inventory provided by the hotels. To remain competitive and increase market share, online channels want to sell the lowest cost possible, even if it means reducing their own margins by selling a cheaper elbowroom to the customer.
Meta Search Websites such as HotelsCombined (shown above) showcase wholesale aggregator sites dote Amoma.com and HotelQuickly.com which possess prices that undercut the brand’s direct website and other OTA channels
You would mediate that hoteliers would want to fix this problem immediately. Online wholesale traffic undercuts channels which are much more profitable such as their direct brand website. This issue however is multi-layered and is not easy to remedy for the following key reasons:
Hotels noiseless want wholesale business!
Hotels noiseless maintain sturdy relationships with a number of wholesale partners, tall and small, and they confidence on these partnerships to generate basis business. Turning off these channels would potentially stand for the loss of significant revenues, at least in the short term. Although wholesale channels can undercut other websites when sold online, they besides noiseless generate incremental traffic when sold offline through the traditional method
Finding the source of whole traffic online can subsist very difficult
When wholesale rates appears online, it’s generally very difficult to know which wholesaler specifically is providing that inventory. The wholesale partners themselves don’t generally sell rooms through their own websites, but sell their rates through wholesale aggregation channels such as Amoma.com. It’s channels dote Amoma who then sell the rates online through their own interface, and promote their rates through larger meta search intermediaries such as Trivago and TripAdvisor. Generally the only way to find the just source is to accomplish a test booking online, and then track how that reservation comes into the hotel’s central reservation system (each reservation is typically flagged with an inventory source). Many hotels are reluctant to accomplish this since a booking requires use of a credit card and sometimes even pre-payment, and then cancellation of that test booking is not always easy to do. The test booking process is both cumbersome to manage at scale, and is besides financially risky for a hotel if those booking cannot subsist cancelled.
Room bookings can subsist made through Amoma.com and other wholesale aggregator websites by anyone online. However, the back discontinuance wholesale source for each booking from Amoma and other channels dote it can subsist very challenging for a hotel to identify.
Employee incentives are at stake
Within hotel sales departments, team members are noiseless incentivized to drive wholesale volume, regardless of where that volume is being sold (offline or online). Wholesale partners generally don’t provide specifics on how they are selling their inventory, and as long as elbowroom allotments are sold, the accountable sales team members are satisfied. This is creating an unavoidable rift between the direction of some sales leaders with the revenue management and digital strategy teams.
So what’s next?
Hotel companies are dealing with this situation in a variety of ways. Some are cutting off wholesale altogether since they simply can’t control where their inventory is ending up. Others are maintaining the partnerships, but are working to slither away from static elbowroom allotments and over to dynamic pricing and availability where the hotels possess more control over the inventory they ship to the wholesalers. This is a major problem facing the industry that very much remains unsolved.
If they engage ourselves back to the 2001, cost transparency was a challenge for hoteliers. Properties simply didn’t possess direct access to a large enough segment of customers, therefore traditional partnerships dote wholesale was an absolute necessity. With the growth of the OTAs though, and the emergence of novel technologies such as meta search, that access is no longer an issue. The world is accessible for each hotel with a few quick key strokes on a computer. It is now only a matter of time until hoteliers accomplish one of the following decisions:
Utilize wholesalers purely as another online distribution channel, selling rates that are parity with every other website (brand.com and OTAs)
Remove wholesale out of the channel blend altogether, realizing that elbowroom inventory can subsist be sold among the legion of websites and digital platforms already available
PDF Version Available Here
Nick Cohen is based in Hong Kong and leads digital strategy for Hyatt Hotels in Asia Pacific. He oversees online marketing efforts for every bit of Hyatt brands and properties across the region, and manages a variety of e-Commerce and digital platform projects to wait on increase online revenues for the company. Prior to joining Hyatt, Nick held senior e-Commerce and digital marketing roles at Langham Hospitality Group, Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Sabre Hospitality Solutions. Earlier in his career, working on-property for various hotels he developed extensive erudition in operations, along with Sales & Marketing and Revenue Management expertise. Nick besides holds a graduate diploma in Hotel and Tourism traffic Management from Boston University.
Save huge amounts of cash when you buy international edition textbooks from TEXTBOOKw.com. An international edition is a textbook that has been published outside of the US and can be drastically cheaper than the US edition.
** International edition textbooks save students an average of 50% over the prices offered at their college bookstores.
Computer Security: Principles and Practice By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017) ISBN10 : 0134794109 ISBN13 : 9780134794105 Our ISBN10 : 1292220619 Our ISBN13 : 9781292220611 Subject : Computer Science & Technology
Urban Economics By Arthur O’Sullivan Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018) ISBN10 : 126046542X ISBN13 : 9781260465426 Our ISBN10 : 1260084493 Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498 Subject : Business & Economics
Urban Economics By Arthur O’Sullivan Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018) ISBN10 : 0078021782 ISBN13 : 9780078021787 Our ISBN10 : 1260084493 Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498 Subject : Business & Economics
Understanding Business By William G Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018) ISBN10 : 126021110X ISBN13 : 9781260211108 Our ISBN10 : 126009233X Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332 Subject : Business & Economics
Understanding Business By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018) ISBN10 : 1260682137 ISBN13 : 9781260682137 Our ISBN10 : 126009233X Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332 Subject : Business & Economics
Understanding Business By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018) ISBN10 : 1260277143 ISBN13 : 9781260277142 Our ISBN10 : 126009233X Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332 Subject : Business & Economics
Understanding Business By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018) ISBN10 : 1259929434 ISBN13 : 9781259929434 Our ISBN10 : 126009233X Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332 Subject : Business & Economics
00M-246 By Peter W. Cardon Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2017) ISBN10 : 1260128474 ISBN13 : 9781260128475 Our ISBN10 : 1259921883 Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889 Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
00M-246 By Peter Cardon Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017) ISBN10 : 1260147150 ISBN13 : 9781260147155 Our ISBN10 : 1259921883 Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889 Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media