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000-977 exam Dumps Source : Power Systems with POWER7 Common Sales Skills (R) v1
Test Code : 000-977
Test cognomen : Power Systems with POWER7 Common Sales Skills (R) v1
Vendor cognomen : IBM
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IBM Power Systems with POWER7
IBM Refreshes device P Line with POWER7-based mostly products
huge Blue's refresh comprises the gargantuan energy 795, which it pits in opposition t excellent-shelf methods from HP and Oracle.
by Stephen Swoyer
IBM Corp. final week refreshed its device p server line with a pair of modern POWER7-primarily based systems. The most up-to-date POWER7 entries won't ship except September 17.
they'll seemingly exist value the wait. massive Blue's revamped gadget p line contains the gargantuan 256-manner vigour 795, which IBM pits at once against accurate-shelf offerings from Hewlett-Packard Co. (HP) and Oracle Corp.
big Blue is never just thinking large, although: it moreover unveiled 4 gadget p "express" entries -- i.e., smaller, much less-expensive techniques slated for the mid-market. IBM's POWER7 thrust additionally comprises a committed paraphernalia -- viz., the sage Analytics paraphernalia 7700 -- designed for company intelligence (BI) and facts warehousing workloads. it's of a bit with the smart Analytics initiative that massive Blue kicked off closing summer season, just previous to its acquisition of analytics powerhouse SPSS Inc.
IBM's 256-core vigour 795 plays to device p's (and RISC/Unix's) natural strengths, and its smaller specific entries -- the power 710, 720, 730, and 740 techniques -- comprise huge Blue's latest endeavor to grapple with commodity x86 (or x64, as is universally the case) servers running chips from advanced Micro contraptions (AMD) Inc. and Intel Corp. previously, huge Blue had offered handiest a unique power-based mostly categorical gadget, the energy 720.
in this case, massive Blue is having a stake that a a gross lot lessen cost (enabled partly by using POWER7 chips that might in any other case had been discarded) in addition to an means to race AIX, device i and Linux workloads will benefit tip the scales in system p's choose. moreover, with POWER7, IBM is as soon as once more fielding a 2U kind-component server -- in fact, two 2U form-ingredient servers, the dash 710 and the vigour 730. Add it every up and you own what feels fancy an honest endeavor to tackle the commodity server aspect -- a historically challenging segment to crack.
In an trade that is poignant to commoditization (and relentlessly, at that), IBM Corp. is sticking to its proprietary guns.
To create sure, massive Blue is a creditable commodity participant -- its device x hardware line is powered by artery of chips from both AMD and Intel; its system x BladeCenter portfolio (which comprises an influence-based mostly offering) is not any. 2, normal, in the back of HP -- nevertheless it likewise is silent committed to homegrown silicon efforts corresponding to POWER7, which powers (in one configuration or another) its device i, gadget p, and system z hardware traces.
In a way, tall Blue's POWER7 CMOS now stands as the eventual of the Credible x86 alternate options.
HP and Intel continue to apportion money into IA64 (which is according to an EPIC structure); Oracle has pointed out lots of the commandeer issues about SPARC (which has nevertheless been hemorrhaging relevance for half a decade or more); and other avid gamers (akin to Fujitsu and Unisys Corp.) thrust their personal proprietary CMOS flavors, however not a soul can factor to the sort of income performance (relative to income of competitive, non-commodity systems) that IBM can.
It looks that greater and sooner transistors fabricated from graphene aren't every that IBM is engaged on, due to the fact its recent press unencumber speaks of a modern set of POWER7 servers for demanding rising functions.
even though not in reality concentrated on the customer market, IBM is one among largest names on the enterprise, commercial enterprise and industrial sectors so far as computing goes.
It has a huge portfolio of machine for each existing and rising purposes, with economic services, scientific analysis and healthcare administration being simply just a few of its retailers.
What the trade did most currently changed into deliver a modern batch of superior POWER7 blades and servers, which are additionally respectable for consolidation and virtualization.
"Our manner looks to exist paying off as further and further consumers choose power systems," referred to Tom Rosamilia, everyday supervisor of IBM dash and z systems.
One product is the 16-core, single-huge IBM BladeCenter PS703, which can exist a substitute for sprawling racks and is respectable for americans worried with energy effectivity.
The BladeCenter PS704 is similar to its sibling above, most efficacious it has double the quantity of cores and, hence, 60-p.c quicker performance in the identical house necessities as old-generation POWER7 products.
The announcement additionally mentions the upgraded IBM dash 750 specific and the improved energy 755, both with 32 POWER7 cores now.
"we are working billions of immoderate calculations in line with Einstein's conception of relativity on the POWER7 blades," mentioned Gaurav Khanna, professor of physics at UMass-Dartmouth.
"operating POWER7, i'm capable of Get results as a safe deal as eight times quicker than running the equal calculations on an Intel Xeon processor. Calculations that used to pick a month to race are actually accomplished in lower than every week. This potential that i can enact eight times extra science within the identical timeframe than I may enact before."
This web page should silent own assistance on anything else related to IBMs smarter computing initiative.
past in this decade, when the hyperscalers and the teachers that race with them had been constructing desktop researching frameworks to transpose every kinds of facts from one layout to another – speech to textual content, textual content to speech, picture to text, video to text, and so on – they were doing so no longer just for scientific curiosity. They were making an attempt to decipher wholehearted enterprise problems and addressing the wants of consumers using their software.
on the equal time, IBM changed into attempting to lucid up a different difficulty, naming creating a query-answer gadget that would anthropomorphize the search engine. This endeavor turned into referred to as venture Blue J interior of IBM (not to exist puzzled with the open supply BlueJ integrated building ambiance for Java), turned into wrapped up into a utility stack known as DeepQA by means of IBM. It was this DeepQA stack, which become in keeping with the open supply Hadoop unstructured information storage and analytics engine that came out of Yahoo and one other challenge known as Apache UIMA, which predates Hadoop by artery of a few years and which become designed by means of IBM database specialists within the early 2000s to technique unstructured facts fancy text, audio, and video. This profound QA stack became embedded in the Watson QA system that became designed to play Jeopardy towards people, which they mentioned in detail here eight years in the past. The Apache UIMA stack turned into the significant thing a fragment of the WatsonQA system that did herbal language processing that parsed out the speech in a Jeopardy reply, converted it to textual content, and fed it into the statistical algorithms to create the Jeopardy question.
Watson won the competition towards human Jeopardy champs Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings, and a company – which invoked IBM founder Thomas Watson and his admonition to “feel” in addition to doctor Watson, the sidekick of fictional supersleuth Sherlock Holmes – was born.
as opposed to create Watson a product for sale, IBM offered it as a service, and pumped the QA device crammed with information to tackle the healthcare, economic capabilities, energy, advertising and media, and schooling industries. This was, perhaps, a mistake, but at the time, within the wake of the Jeopardy championship, it felt fancy everything turned into relocating to the cloud and that the SaaS model become the privilege means to go. IBM in no artery basically talked in bizarre detail about how DeepQA changed into developed, and it has in a similar artery no longer been selected about how this Watson stack has modified over time – eight years is a very long time within the computer gaining information of house. It isn't lucid if Watson is cloth to IBM’s revenues, but what is apparent is that desktop researching is strategic for its methods, utility, and functions groups.
So that's why IBM is at eventual bringing collectively every of its machine researching paraphernalia and putting them beneath the Watson manufacturer and, very importantly, making the Watson stack obtainable for buy so it can exist race on deepest datacenters and in other public clouds anyway the one which IBM runs. To exist precise, the Watson capabilities as well because the PowerAI machine gaining information of working towards frameworks and adjunct tools tuned up to race on clusters of IBM’s dash systems machines, are being brought collectively, and they'll exist apportion into Kubernetes containers and disbursed to race on the IBM Cloud deepest Kubernetes stack, which is accessible on X86 programs in addition to IBM’s own energy iron, in virtualized or bare metal modes. It is this encapsulation of this modern and finished Watson stack with IBM Cloud deepest stack that makes it transportable across deepest datacenters and other clouds.
incidentally, as a fragment of the mashup of these tools, the PowerAI stack that makes a speciality of profound gaining information of, GPU-accelerated desktop learning, and scaling and disbursed computing for AI, is being made a core fragment of the Watson Studio and Watson computing device researching (Watson ML) utility tools. This built-in software suite offers trade statistics scientists an end-to-end developer equipment. Watson Studio is an built-in development environment in line with Jupyter notebooks and R Studio. Watson ML is a set of computing device and profound getting to know libraries and mannequin and facts administration. Watson OpenScale is AI model monitoring and color and fairness detection. The application previously known as PowerAI and PowerAI commercial enterprise will continue to exist developed by artery of the Cognitive methods division. The Watson division, in case you don't look to exist standard with IBM’s organizational chart, is a fragment of its Cognitive solutions neighborhood, which includes databases, analytics tools, transaction processing middleware, and a variety of functions distributed either on premises or as a service on the IBM Cloud.
it is doubtful how this Watson stack may trade within the wake of IBM closing the red Hat acquisition, which should silent ensue earlier than the conclusion of the year. nevertheless it is cost-effective to anticipate that IBM will tune up every of this software to race on red Hat trade Linux and its personal KVM digital machines and OpenShift implementation of Kubernetes and then thrust in reality complicated.
it is likely positive to evaluate what PowerAI is every about after which exhibit how it is being melded into the Watson stack. before the mixing and the identify alterations (more on that in a second), here's what the PowerAI stack seemed like:
based on Bob Picciano, senior vp of Cognitive methods at IBM, there are greater than 600 enterprise clients which own deployed PowerAI tools to race computing device gaining information of frameworks on its dash methods iron, and clearly GPU-accelerated systems just fancy the vigour AC922 gadget it is at the heart of the “Summit” supercomputer at every rightRidge national Laboratory and the sibling “Sierra” supercomputer at Lawrence Livermore countrywide Laboratory are the main IBM machines people are using to enact AI work. here's a fine safe start for a nascent trade and a platform that is relatively modern to the AI crowd, but perhaps not so distinctive for trade consumers which own used dash iron of their database and software tiers for decades.
The introductory PowerAI code from two years ago begun with types of the TensorFlow, Caffe, PyTorch, and Chainer computer researching frameworks that massive Blue tuned up for its vigour processors. The tall innovation with PowerAI is what is known as large model help, which makes exercise of the coherency between Nvidia “Pascal” and “Volta” Tesla GPU accelerators and Power8 and Power9 processors in the IBM dash methods servers – enabled through NVLink ports on the dash processors and tweaks to the Linux kernel – to permit an poverty-stricken lot better neural network training fashions to exist loaded into the system. the entire PowerAI code is open source and distributed as code or binaries, and to this point most efficacious on energy processors. (We suspect IBM will proceed agnostic on this ultimately, given that Watson paraphernalia should race on the huge public clouds, which with the exception now of the IBM Cloud, should not own vigour methods obtainable. (Nimbix, a professional in HPC and AI and a smaller public cloud, does present vigour iron and supports PowerAI, incidentally.)
under this, IBM has created a foundation known as PowerAI business, and this is not open source and it is barely accessible as a fragment of a subscription. PowerAI trade adds Message Passing Interface (MPI) extensions to the machine learning frameworks – what IBM calls dispensed profound gaining information of – as well as cluster virtualization and automated hyper-parameter optimization thoughts, embedded in its Spectrum Conductor for Spark (yes, that Spark, the in-memory processing framework) device. IBM has additionally added what it calls the profound getting to know impact module, which comprises paraphernalia for managing records (equivalent to ETL extraction and visualization of datasets) and managing neural community models, together with wizards that attest the artery to most desirable exercise records and fashions. On suitable of this stack, IBM’s first industrial AI software that it is promoting is known as PowerAI imaginative and prescient, which may moreover exist used to label photograph and video records for practising fashions and automatically educate fashions (or augment current fashions supplied with the license).
So after every of the alterations, here's what the modern Watson stack appears like:
As which you can see, the Watson computer getting to know stack supports much more desktop learning frameworks, specifically the SnapML framework that got here out of IBM’s analysis lab in Zurich it truly is offering a major efficiency competencies on power iron compared to operating frameworks fancy Google’s TensorFlow. here is most likely a extra finished stack for machine getting to know, together with Watson Studio for constructing models, the imperative Watson machine learning stack for practicing and deploying fashions in creation inference, and now Watson OpenScale (it's mislabeled in the chart) to pomp screen and benefit enrich the accuracy of fashions in line with how they are operating within the box as they infer issues.
For the moment, there is not any exchange in PowerAI commercial enterprise licenses and pricing during the primary quarter, however after that PowerAI trade could exist brought into the Watson stack so as to add the distributed GPU machine getting to know working towards and inference capabilities atop dash iron to that stack. So Watson, which begun out on Power7 machines enjoying Jeopardy, is coming returned domestic to Power9 with production desktop researching functions within the enterprise. They don't look to exist positive if IBM will present similar distributed desktop getting to know capabilities on non-vigour machines, nonetheless it appears doubtless it truly is clients are looking to race the Watson stack on premises or in a public cloud, it will exigency to. dash programs will must stand by itself merits if that comes to pass, and given the benefits that Power9 chips own in regards to compute, I/O and recollection bandwidth, and coherent reminiscence across CPUs and GPUs, that can moreover now not exist as a lot of an own an outcome on as they may think. The X86 architecture will exigency to win on its own deserves, too.
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Early adopters of LED lighting will remember 50,000 hour or even 100,000 hour lifetime ratings printed on the box. But during a recent trip to the hardware store the longest advertised lifetime I establish was 25,000 hours. Others claimed only 7,500 or 15,000 hours. And yes, these are brand-name bulbs from Cree and GE.
So, what happened to those 100,000 hour residential LED bulbs? Were the initial estimates just over-optimistic? Was it every marketing hype? Or, did they not know enough about LED aging to prognosticate the wholehearted useful life of a bulb?
I apportion these questions to the test. join me after the crash for some background on the light bulb cartel from the days of incandescent bulbs (not a joke, a cartel controlled the life of your bulbs), and for the destruction of some modern LED bulbs to observe why the lifetimes are clocking in a lot lower than the original wave of LED replacements.
Ghosts of Light Bulb Cartels Past
Any discussion of light bulb lifetime would exist incomplete without mention of the Phoebus cartel, an international organization formed in 1924 by the world’s leading light bulb manufacturers to manipulate the bulb market. As discussed by Markus Krajewski in “The much Lightbulb Conspiracy”, the cartel assigned territories to member companies, limited production, and dictated a shortened 1,000 hour bulb life. Previous bulbs had burned for a much longer 1,500 – 2,500 hours. Purportedly imposed to enlarge quality, efficiency, and light output, the modern 1,000 hour confine moreover resulted in many more bulb sales. Archived documents exhibit that significant research was expended to devise bulbs that lasted their 1,000 appointed hours and no more. It wasn’t only household lighting that took a hit: flashlight bulbs originally lasting for three sets of batteries were reduced to two, with a proposal to confine their lifetime to a unique set. Again, brightness increases were touted as the reason. However, that eventual step, halving bulb lifetime, would enlarge brightness only between 11%-16%, while doubling sales. This was about selling more bulbs and making more money.
The cartel enforced production quotas and bulb lifetimes with a system of monetary fines, backed by the power of GE’s patent portfolio. Bulbs from each producer were tested, and penalties imposed for bulbs lasting significantly shorter or longer than 1,000 hours. Phoebus continued to exert influence on the market until World War II ended its reign. The cartel is often cited as one of the first instances of planned obsolescence: designing products with an artificially shortened lifespan. A 2010 documentary, “The Light Bulb Conspiracy,” explores the history of the cartel along with some more recent instances of planned obsolescence. I phenomenon what the conspirators would own thought of bulbs that supposedly eventual 100,000 hours? Or even 7,500?
Tucked into a lower shelf in the lighting isle at the hardware store, a few lonely incandescent bulbs waited for some Luddite consumer. Picking up a box, I read the rated lifetime: 1,000 hours.
Measuring Lifetime of a Bulb
What exactly does the box exist significant with this 1,000 hour lifetime? This is the bulb’s dispassionate Rated Life (ARL) — it’s the length of time for 50% of an initial sample of bulbs to fail (abbreviated B50). What “failure” means depends on the sort of bulb; we’ll explore this in more depth later on. The definition of B50 reveals a common misinterpretation, namely that a bulb will eventual for its rated lifetime. In reality, only half of them eventual that long, although this rating doesn’t inform you anything about the distribution of failures around the median lifetime.
Manufacturers exercise these ARL values to forecast how many years a bulb will eventual based on using the bulb a specified number of hours per day (typically 3). LED bulbs suffer less wear-out through power cycling than incandescents, so the conversion is just a division: years of service = ARL/(3*365). For example, half of a set of 100,000-hour bulbs would silent exist in service after 91 years according to this calculation. But this simple metric doesn’t inform the gross story. LED bulb failure mechanisms are involved and fundamentally different from the well-known incandescents. To understand more, they exigency to shed some light on the inner workings of a bulb.
Before leaving the store, I threw a few bulbs in my cart so I could observe firsthand what was inside.
What’s In a Bulb? Let’s cleave Some Apart!
Left-to-right: Teardown of GE 7,500 hour “Basic”, GE 15,000 hour “Classic”, and 25,000-hour Cree A19 LED bulbs.
There’s more to an LED bulb than just the LEDs. Outlets in their homes are actually fairly nasty sources of AC power. LEDs want clean, constant-current DC sources, so circuits inside the bulbs must rectify and filter the incoming AC, then confine current to the LED packages. To observe how this is done, I dissected three different A19 style bulbs: one each from the GE “Basic” and “Classic” lines (7,500 and 15,000 hours), and a Cree model offering a 25,000 hour life.
GE Basic A19 Bulb (7,500 Hours Advertised)
GE Basic A19 Bulb uses a circuit straight from the SM2082D datasheet.
This GE bulb has a plastic dome covering a circular aluminum PCB which carries eight LED packages and the driver electronics. The driver consists of an MB10F bridge rectifier, an electrolytic capacitor rated for 105 °C, and an SM2082D linear constant-current driver. There are three resistors on the PCB: one bleeds imbue from the capacitor when the bulb is off, and two others set the SM2082D current to 54 mA. In fact, the circuit looks fancy it was taken directly from the SM2082D datasheet.
Seven of the 3.5 x 2.8 mm LED packages exhibit around 18 V of forward drop when driven with 50 mA, indicating that they contain six LED dice in series. One LED on the board shows a drop of 9 V, so it has only three LED chips. every the LEDs, totaling 45 dice, are wired in train to drop approximately 135V.
GE Classic A19 Bulb (15,000 Hours Advertised)
When they instruct classic, they exist significant it. This bulb is in a glass envelope just fancy incandescents, and fancy those musty bulbs, the glass is easily removed with a ball-peen hammer. In Place of the tungsten filament is an aluminum PCB folded into a squat obelisk. Sixteen 3.5 x 2.8 mm LED packages are connected in train on the board, with each one showing a forward voltage of around 9 V at 50 mA. So, this version has 48 LED chips vs 45 for the Basic bulb, except they’re in twice as many packages – this is safe for keeping the LEDs cool.
Another dissimilarity with this longer-lived bulb is that the driver electronics are not thermally coupled to the LEDs; they are hidden on a divide PCB in the screw base. This keeps the comfort of the components from heating with the LEDs. On the driver PCB is a bridge rectifier, an electrolytic capacitor again rated for 105°C, and an SOIC-8 IC. Interestingly, this bulb moreover contains a metal-oxide varistor for fleeting suppression. Although I couldn’t determine what the house-marked (“BYSACT”) driver IC was, the lack of any inductive components on the PCB indicates this is another linear supply.
Cree A19 Bulb (25,000 Hours Advertised)
The Cree bulb has a diffused plastic dome fancy the GE Basic model. Inside, a larger aluminum PCB holds (16) 3.5 x 2.8 mm LED packages. Each LEDs drops around 8.5 V at 50 mA, so they contain 3 chips; fancy the GE Classic bulb, this one uses 48 total LED dice. The LEDs are wired as eight sections of two paralleled LEDs, so the total drop is around 68 V. The LED PCB is coupled to a thick aluminum heat sink with silicone thermal compound.
As with the GE Classic bulb, the power supply electronics are on a divide PCB, thermally decoupled from the LEDs. The driver IC is an SOT23-5 package inscrutably marked with “SaAOC”, but the presence of a transformer and stout Schottky diode reveals that this is a switch-mode power supply. The filter capacitor on the switcher output is an aluminum electrolytic rated for 130 °C.
It’s not much to proceed on, but what conclusions can they draw from the design of these three bulbs? It helps to account how they typically fail, and what factors strike their lifetime.
LEDs “Outlast” Other Components
Since the LED bulbs contain a number of parts, it’s natural to inquire of which ones might exist liable for failures. The US Department of Energy (DoE)’s solid-state lighting program supports research and development of LED technologies, and their website contains volumes of data on LED lighting systems. Their Lifetime and Reliability Fact Sheet contains data on the failure rate of 5,400 outdoor lamps over 34 million hours of operation. Interestingly, the LEDs themselves account for only 10% of the failures; driver circuitry, on the other hand, was liable almost 60% of the time. The residuum of failures were due to housing problems, which may not exist as applicable for bulbs in indoor use. This data shows that at least for catastrophic failures (where the lamp ceases to emit light), extending lifetime means improving the power supplies.
Locate the Weakest Link: Component Lifetime
The lifetime of a bulb (or power supply) can exist no longer than the lifetime of any of its components. Among the components establish inside the bulbs, two stand out as life-limiters: the semiconductors and the electrolytic capacitors. Both of these components suffer from a failure rate that is a sturdy role of temperature. The typical model for this effect, based on the Arrhenius equation, predicts a doubling of lifetime for each 10 degree Celsius dwindle in temperature, at least over a limited range.
The two longer-lived bulbs exercise twice as many packages to carry approximately the identical number of LED dice as the GE Basic lamp, decreasing thermal resistance to their respective heatsinks, and presumably reducing their temperature. These bulbs moreover both mount the failure-prone driver electronics on divide PCBs from the LEDs to maintain them cool. Finally, the 25,000-hour Cree bulb uses an electrolytic capacitor rated for 130 °C as opposed to the 105 °C caps in the other two. For similar operating temperatures, this could multiply the expected life of the capacitor by a factor of five. Each of these measures probably contributes to delaying catastrophic failure of the bulb, resulting in the longer rated lifetimes.
But when it comes to the LEDs themselves, there is more to lifetime estimates than predicting catastrophic failure.
Just Fade Away
Like the soldiers in Douglas MacArthur’s famed line, musty LEDs don’t die, they just fade away. They every know what an incandescent lamp failure looks like: one second it’s burning bright; the next, it’s not (and every once-in-a-while, you hear a pop followed by a faint jingling as the liberated filament richochets inside the bulb). Power supplies aside, LEDs typically don’t fail with so much fanfare. Instead, they gradually lose brightness as they age. In the lighting industry, this is known as lumen depreciation, and is a divide failure mode from the catastrophic failure they usually deem about.
As it turns out, lumen depreciation happens to incandescent bulbs, too. By the discontinuance of their 1,000 hour life, the output has typically dropped 10-15%, but nobody ever notices. With LEDs, the outcome is much worse, and the output continues to topple as the device ages. At some point, the LED is no longer producing enough light to fulfill its original purpose, even though it hasn’t “burned out.” Research says that most users won’t notice a gradual 30% drop in light levels; accordingly the industry has defined L70, the time at which the output has dropped to 70% of its initial level, as an endpoint for measuring LED bulb lifetime. Based on how it’s estimated, this measure is typically stated as B50-L70, the point at which 50% of an initial sample of bulbs will retain 70% of their rated output.
Color Shift Happens But is Unpredictable
Something else happens as phosphor-based white LEDs age: they change color. The US DoE’s report on LED Luminaire Reliability: impact of Color Shift defines four color-shifts (blue, yellow, red, and green) observed in LED lamps, although the yellow shift dominates in high-power white LEDs. This gradual yellowing of the light output results from phosphor cracking, delamination, and thermal effects, since the phosphor temperature can exceed that of the LED junction by 30 C – 50 °C. Modeling and predicting color shift in LEDs is a difficult task, with every of the mechanisms not yet fully understood. As a result, no standards own yet been established for accelerated testing or projection of color stability over time.
Eventually, these effects can exist as detrimental to the role of the bulb as catastrophic failure. Given that lumen depreciation and color shift will in time render the LEDs ineffective, it may not create sense for manufacturers to design bulbs with very long electrical lifetimes. It’s practicable that the reduced lifetime ratings they observe on current bulbs simply reflect better information about actual performance of existing LED technology over time.
Lumen Depreciation in the Kitchen
Heavily-used LED bulb (left) vs seldom-used bulb (right) after 8+ years.
I’ve seen lumen depreciation and color shift first-hand. In June of 2010, I replaced twelve 65W incandescent PAR30 floodlight bulbs in their kitchen with LED equivalents. At the identical time, I moreover replaced three lights in another room with identical LED bulbs. These three bulbs observe much less use, so in preparation for this article, I took one bulb from each location and apportion them side-by-side to observe if I could inform the dissimilarity in output. The recessed light fixtures in both rooms are identical, so I hope that the bulbs are exposed to similar temperatures when on: any dissimilarity should only exist due to aging effects. The results were shocking. Since these two bulbs were in different rooms, I never saw them side-by-side, so didn’t notice how contaminated the lumen depreciation and color shift had become. Sure, I knew they were dimmer and yellower than when I installed them, but had no credit it was this bad.
These bulbs were advertised with a 30,000 hour lifetime. I evaluate the total exercise at 15,000-20,000 hours. During the 8 ½ years these were in service, one failed completely. Instead of replacing it with a newer bulb which would not match the color of the older ones (or replacing them all), I left that socket empty.
In the hardware store, I noticed modern 9-watt BR30 LED bulbs for $5 each. The PAR30s I purchased in 2010 were $45 and consume 11 watts. A quick calculation says that the musty bulbs paid for themselves more than three times over in electricity savings relative to the incandescents they replaced, and apportion that much less carbon into the atmosphere. They may well continue to char for another 15,000 hours, but after weighing the degraded output and the cost to supplant them with brighter, more efficient versions, I’m headed back to the store.
Making Sense of It All
This bulb has burned for over 1 million hours.
I’ve taken a leer at some of the technical issues in LED lighting. Of course, there is more to LED bulbs than lifetime — color temperature and color rendering index (CRI) should factor into any purchase decision. There are moreover a number of larger problems involved, including issues of economics and sustainability. Some of these are addressed in J.B. MacKinnon’s 2016 article, The L.E.D. Quandary: Why There’s No Such Thing as “Built to Last”, in The modern Yorker.
Certainly poignant away from incandescent bulbs to more efficient lighting makes sense, but maybe they never really needed 100,000 hour bulbs in the first place. The lifetime of even 7,500-hour bulbs is long compared to the rapid pace of foster in lighting technology. Does it makes sense to buy expensive long-lived bulbs today, when better, cheaper, more efficient ones may exist available in the near future?
The oldest surviving incandescent light, known as the Centennial Bulb (click to observe a webcam of the lamp), is a dim carbon-filament bulb that’s been burning nearly continuously since 1901 — over 1 million hours. In its current state, it throws off as much light as a modern 4-watt incandescent. Would it own made sense to pay a premium for such “million hour bulbs” at the rotate of the 20th century if they had any inkling of the advances that would Come in the next 117 years?
The modern $5 BR30 LED bulbs I just installed in the kitchen are amazingly incandescent and crisp: tests with a lux meter exhibit the illuminance is more than 60% higher. Plus, they’ll more than pay for themselves in electricity savings compared to the old, inefficient LED bulbs they replaced.
Ask HN: Why is nearing completion so demotivating?
534 points by danschumann 9 months ago | cloak | past | web | favorite | 165 comments
So I've been working on animation software for over two years. fragment of me is very excited for launch so I can own money again ( I've been freelancing a minimum amount these eventual two years, and went car-less, moved, cleave lifestyle into a third ). I should exist wholeheartedly excited, but I'm ardor tired and generally sluggish regarding the project. I silent create consistent progress, but it takes a lot of will power.
Part of me thinks it might exist an aversion to sales. fragment of me thinks this could own been built up so much in my head that anything short of overnight millions would exist a disappointment (though I would exist joyful with 1500 bucks a month ), fragment of me thinks I might exist bashful of success ( or bashful of surpassing my parents )(media attention), fragment of me fears the attacks that might Come with success ( having something to lose ), fragment of it is the un-fun-ness of ripen projects where the focus is on polish and bugs rather than broad modern features, and fragment of me is bashful of commitment: if I succeed I own to stick with this (freedom value), fragment of me wonders what will betide when more people become involved, if I will exist able to maintain my creative direction, since I'm scratching my own itch. fragment of me wonders if diet and exercise isn't a factor.
A combination, likely...
Nintendo's range of amiibo toys has been a commercial success, shipping over 10 million units (at the eventual count) and giving the company a much-needed additional revenue stream during a time of considerable turmoil and upheaval. However, the amiibo legend hasn't been entirely positive, with some figures proving to exist impossible to find in stores and scalpers having a domain day as claim effortlessly outstrips supply. The discontinuance result is damaged consumer self-possession and frustrated fans, and while Nintendo is finally taking steps to remedy this situation, it's lucid that the public hunger for amiibo is insatiable - and into this boiling storm of dashed dreams and disappointment they own the world's first device for cloning and distributing amiibo data, though a device solely for backing up data from figures you own has previously been released.
We reported on the existence of Amiiqo recently and predictably the legend gained a lot of interest. We've since gotten their hands on one of these devices and decided that a unique feature was required not only to clarify what it's every about, but moreover to leer at the circumstances surrounding its creation and whether or not it's something you should account supporting yourself by making a purchase. Is Amiiqo promoting piracy? Does its mere existence exist significant that amiibo sales are going to plummet? Or is it an respond to the problem of archiving amiibo data? Hopefully by the discontinuance of this piece you'll exist able to create up your own reason on the matter, but first, let's pick a closer leer at this thing.
What exactly is Amiiqo?
Amiiqo is a plastic disc about the identical size as the base on an amiibo figure. It's a rather unremarkable item, with the only notable features being a button - which we'll Come to in a bit - and a sticker, which on their unit was subject to a rather hapless printing mistake which hardly seems acceptable on something which costs £50 / $80 (Edit: since this piece was written the cost has dropped to just under $50). There's a cavity in the middle of the disc, but we're not entirely positive what purpose this serves. Because the Amiiqo uses NFC tech - just fancy amiibo figures themselves - it doesn't require power to operate, so there's no battery inside and therefore no exigency to open up the device.
The disc is capable of storing up to 200 different amiibo "images", and these can exist fresh, unaltered images or backups of figures you've already levelled up in Super Smash Bros. on Wii U or 3DS. Using the companion Android application, you can dump amiibo data to the device for storage - a prime consideration when you pick into account that Nintendo doesn't currently allow any artery of "banking" your amiibo data, and amiibo figures can only store one portion of "write" information at any one time.
How does it work?
Spot the ethical concern
The Amiiqo itself acts just fancy an amiibo toy, and when placed on your Wii U GamePad or modern Nintendo 3DS touchscreen will mimic whichever amiibo character is currently loaded as the default. Up to 200 different amiibo characters can exist "banked" at any one time, not that you'd want to because the only artery to cycle through each pattern is to hold down the Amiiqo's button and tap it on the sensor. The power drawn from the console allows the device to switch to the next character in the bank's queue, but it's a fiddly process which means you'll probably want to maintain the number of characters banked to a minimum. Also, outside of the Android companion app, you own no artery of knowing which character comes next in the queue.
Controlling your bank of characters is every done via this free-to-download application, and it goes without proverb that you'll exigency an Android handset with NFC capability as well. Tapping the Amiiqo on to the phone shows the amiibo data currently banked on the device, and edits are carried out in the app. Changes are only actioned when you tap the Amiiqo a second time.
Using the app, you can actually dump data from your existing amiibos in .bin format and load them onto the Amiiqo, which is of course one potential exercise of this particular - storing every of your precious amiibo data in one Place without having to carry around those expensive figures. Of course, a less ethical application is that amiibo data obtained online can exist loaded onto the Amiiqo, completely removing the exigency to purchase amiibo figures. It's moreover worth noting that's not practicable to write data back to a everyday amiibo pattern that you've previously dumped for archiving - at least, they weren't able to. This makes the notion of using the device as a artery of managing your amiibo data a miniature hollow - sure, you can dump and retain your progress using this device, but it will remain on the amiiqo forever and won't exist able to exist copied back to the amiibo which generated it.
So there's the basics. To outline the positives and negatives of this controversial device, we're going to own a miniature debate. Editorial director Damien McFerran will play fragment defender, fragment devil's advocate, while Editor Thomas Whitehead will apportion forward the case against Amiiqo. Court is now in session - maintain it down at the back, please.
The dispute in favour
I admire the amiibo concept, and I've done my bit by collecting a few figures here and there. I admire what Nintendo has created with this unique pick on the toys-to-life concept, and - unlike rivals Activision and Disney - I prize the fact that Nintendo has ensured that these toys own longevity by making them compatible with multiple games. The figures themselves are moreover great, boasting plenty of detail and character, and I deem this has been instrumental in their success at retail; even grown adults who don't own a Wii U or modern 3DS are buying these toys, as they delineate characters that they were in admire with as a child.
And therein lies my point regarding the Amiiqo, a device which some own accused of promoting piracy - when you buy an amiibo, you're not just buying its functionality and connectivity with games, but rather the toy itself as a physical collectable. As someone who has limited space at home and a wife who simply wouldn't tolerate a shelf packed with plastic knick knacks, my amiibo collecting days are effectively numbered unless I want to shove them every in a drawer out of sight. However, I crave the savory unlocks that these figures provide - Captain Falcon's costume in Mario Kart 8 is needed to Get the complete outcome of the iconic Blue Falcon kart, while the Splatoon toys - rarer than rocking horse droppings in my fragment of the world - grant access to loads of modern challenges and items. fancy a petulant child who notices the candy jar is just a miniature too far out of reach, I want every of this stuff, but I don't want to own to line the pockets of some opportunist on eBay for a plastic pattern which is useless to me after I've used it to access such unlockable goodness.
Having said every of that, if I knew tomorrow that I could walk into my local video game store and buy a Splatoon amiibo for the recommended UK retail cost of £10.99, I'd enact it without hesitation, despite my previously-asserted stance on pointless plastic figures. However, because I know that no store in a 100 mile radius has these things in stock, Amiiqo suddenly becomes a more viable alternative.
You could quarrel that the Amiiqo is therefore the example device for people fancy myself, who, without it, are unlikely to purchase any more amiibo toys. It offers a artery of getting access to subsidy content which I might otherwise miss. Until Nintendo follows through on its pledge of cheaper - and abundant - amiibo NFC cards, then this really is my only realistic option. The straw that broke the camel's back for me was the aforementioned Splatoon amiibo, which - as I previously mentioned - seems to exist impossible to track down anywhere for a reason price. Why pay through the nose online from a scalper when I can Get an Amiiqo for the identical cost and avoid such disappointment in the future?
I know I don't discourse for everyone, and I am in a miniature artery depriving Nintendo of potential cash by accessing features I should, by rights, exist paying money for. However, it seems indelicate to lump this in with software piracy, which involves entire games being downloaded without exchanging any money. Amiiqo doesn't create a physical amiibo toy display in the palm of your hand, and I'd quarrel that most collectors just want a cool-looking Link or Samus to apportion on their bookshelf, rather than the NFC unlocks contained within. With Amiiqo, you're essentially getting a very miniature fragment of its value, which is the functionality within games - games you've already had to pay for separately, it should exist noted. As such, the Amiiqo's appeal to hardcore amiibo collectors is limited, as they arguably covet the toy more than the functionality, which, in most cases, is merely a sweetener.
I quarrel that Amiiqo is a product of its time - Nintendo has failed to maintain up with claim and as a result there are many people who now resent the fact that portions of their games - purchased with hard-earned cash - are off-limits purely because they aren't prepared to sell a kidney to buy a lump of plastic from unscrupulous resellers. As such, it's a convincing response to a situation which sadly should never own happened. Oh, and it moreover means I don't own to endure the prospect of a cupboard complete of toys which I never use.
The dispute against
As I sit here looking every bit fancy Keanu Reeves (not really) I feel compelled to maintain my side of the dispute simple. Heck, I'm barely going to talk about game industry ins and outs, because it's a basic ethical perspective.
All people should, as fragment of their human rights, receive dispassionate treatment from the the law and - in a better world - own key essentials to live; I'm talking about the nitty gritty of water, food, a decent Place to live and an break to Get by within a fairer society. Many don't own those things, but this isn't The modern York Times or The Guardian, so I'm hardly going to Get into that in any detail privilege now. My point - and I enact own one - is that some people of privilege (which anyone with internet access and a computer reading this most assuredly is) own warped ideas of what they deserve to enjoy, wanting to pay miniature or nothing for life's pleasures. Illegally downloading TV shows, movies and video game copies without paying for them is theft, then, modest and simple. I'm not proverb punishments for this should exist harsher or anything fancy that, I'm just calling a spade a spade.
So, using a cloning device to create, deal or download amiibo data is piracy, it's theft and it's mischievous. Damien deliberately showed Falco amiibo data scanning out of the device in an image as a reminder of what this thing really is - that pattern won't even exist on sale until 20th November. Not only does Amiiqo Come loaded with data for an amiibo they don't own, it's for an amiibo that no-one should own.
Bearing in reason that Damien's taken the bullet of defending this device, I own the simple job. I can Get on my elevated horse and instruct it shouldn't exist, and that there's a reason it's sold on shady miniature websites and not by major retailers. It steals Nintendo content and let's anyone exercise it, facilitating the darker side of the web.
As highlighted above there can exist a tendency, I've noticed, for some people to want a lot of stuff for nothing - "it's unfair", "I can't afford it", "I don't approve of amiibo so I'll exist a rebel and savor them for free". That's every rationalising something that's ethically wrong. I quite fancy amiibo, but now I've figured out their limits I'm picky about them, only buying those I simply must own. Sure, I'd admire the Splatoon content from that game's amiibo, too, but I can't find the figures for less than £20 each online, on a safe day. I've decided I don't deem that's a dispassionate cost - and I own limited funds for these sorts of things - so I don't own them. Never mind, life goes on, I can live without it.
I could, of course, benefit myself to the data on the toys to unlock the game's content. But here's the thing, I don't account myself a thief, and I deem if someone makes a product they're entitled to receive payment for it from customers. If I don't agree with the cost they set I don't uphold it, but I don't Get to savor it either. That's fairness.
Amiiqo isn't designed primarily for backing up existing files (another product called PowerSaves is, but does slightly naughty stuff fancy boosting a figure's stats), it's just a minor feature that happens to exist included. It's designed to let you exercise data and access content for amiibo you don't own. savor the content without paying Nintendo - that's not ethical.
That's my perspective on this product. It is what it is, there's no lipstick that can create this pig more attractive.