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000-972 exam Dumps Source : ILE RPG Programmer
Test Code : 000-972
Test title : ILE RPG Programmer
Vendor title : IBM
: 72 real Questions
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IBM ILE RPG Programmer
February 6, 2019 Alex Woodie
We kicked off their 2019 soothsaying last week with predictions from IBM i leaders on what the novel year will deliver. They maintain the ball rolling this week with one other batch of predictions from their chums across the IBM i community.
based on Alison Butterill, IBM‘s the software director for providing management for IBM i, the platform will build off the momentum generated with closing 12 months’s 30th anniversary celebrant.
“The excitement begun in 2018 as they highlighted client innovation world wide will continue into 2019,” Butterill says. “The momentum continues to grow as consumers are taking a observe at how to supply solutions to enterprise problems with the aid of extending their IBM i purposes and statistics into the belt of AI and computing device researching. whereas some purchasers are just starting to view this as a means to the longer term, others are already integrating the expertise into their company solutions. 2019 might be an excellent 12 months for innovation.”
Nothing happens in IBM i – or any walk of life for that matter – devoid of individuals. To that end, they flip the mic over to Bob Langieri, a longtime IBM i recruiter and CEO of outstrip Technical capabilities.
“The trends that I actually occupy seen over the remaining six to 12 months are giving me greater assurance to relay what I espy from a recruiter’s standpoint,” Langieri writes. “while novel openings for RPG skill isn't at the stage they saw pre-Y2K, there turned into a particular up-tick in 2018 and going into 2019. The surest individuals are working and basically received’t travel away their agencies except their company is moving or getting off the IBM i. businesses are paying first rate americans higher salaries to preserve them. companies are calling me extra because a person on their body of workers is retiring. In some instances they search for a alternative worker, but in some instances, they are calling me for an element-time useful resource to augment their team of workers or to cover their skills gap earlier than someone retires.
“extra of the compress programming travail is long race rather than two-to-three month initiatives,” the Orange County, California, resident says. “there is a dwindling deliver of RPG skill obtainable, mainly with the perquisite competencies. while ILE and Freeform RPG are relatively an Awful lot the specifications, many shops nevertheless occupy an outstanding quantity of legacy RPG code that isn't coincident RPG. yet another problem is that documentation is either absent or extensively missing transparent workings of a software. In generic, most retail outlets are too understaffed to preserve up with the most answerable ‘most effectual practices’ for utility building, modernization, documentation, adapting novel applied sciences, testing their HA or catastrophe plan.
“Managers deserve to fight for more price ambit and staff,” Langieri continues. “I reliance that many shops don't look to be in a position to preserve up the utmost safety for their facts facilities. They reliance that the IBM i is so relaxed that they necessity not be concerned, yet the best of agencies are breached nearly every day. i'm seeing greater groups going off the platform to bag away from RPG, or going to the Cloud, partly as a result of they espy the pool of RPG developers retiring and not replenishing, however moreover because there are extra platforms that race open supply paraphernalia or massive scale ERP that overshadow RPG and the IBM i. while I completely disagree with their ample judgment, the assurance is faculties don’t train RPG.
“Linux is transforming into, Java, C, C++, VB.net, Python, C# and Hypertext Preprocessor dominate the top programming languages while RPG ranks someplace between 50 and 75. RPG isn't going away, and perquisite here to live after they baby-boomers are gone, nevertheless it is a extremely miniature piece of the IT pie. folks that can finish coincident RPG and blend it with tools like Ruby, personal home page or .web can nonetheless occupy their piece of the pie with ice cream on precise.”
Get in a position for extra open source innovation in 2019, predicts Steve Will, the manager architect for IBM i.
“As IBM i shoppers undertake greater open source expertise, taking expertise of the travail being done by way of the IBM i construction group together with community contributors, 2019 will convey endured growth of IBM i — in commerce consequences, in excitement around novel capabilities, and in a renewed attention of the value of the entire system – hardware and utility,” Will says. “Now that RPM has revolve into the defacto usual formula of making open software attainable for IBM i, the sheer variety of programs accessible will permit builders to without problems extend present purposes — in every commerce — and consist of up to date accessories.
“The 2019 IBM announcements regarding IBM i will bring a different degree of delight to a group that's already energized by means of the thirtieth anniversary. Many consumers are already adopting the latest and most advantageous IBM i has to offer.”
Shmuel Zailer, the CEO of Raz-Lee, is an optimist who works in a predominantly pessimistic container (safety). Zailer shares his suggestions on 2019 with IT Jungle:
“we are seeing fewer companies leaving the platform,” Zailer says. “biological boom in the benchmark computing market will ensure that the IBM i market will develop as smartly. The outcome is a ample market with perhaps some growth.
“a different vogue to examine is the persistent raise in recognition and usage of iASP, mainly for HA functions,” he continues. “more and more organizations are splitting their utility between a number of systems. They necessity integration options . . . to be capable of entry other databases without detain from RPGLE and COBOL. they will espy a improved variety of commandeer solutions in the marketplace.
“The GDPR stream will gain momentum,” Zailer says. “The random of fines and of harm to a company’s reputation when very own counsel is compromised will nonetheless occupy a huge impact on safety operations in 2019. those who thought GDPR didn’t exercise to them are realizing that it does. they are going to should assume the essential measures to originate positive sum their systems, including their IBM i, comply. more states and international locations will observe the GDPR lead. Many US states occupy already passed records coverage laws on the heels of the GDPR, such because the California purchaser privateness Act of 2018, which became signed in June 2018 and may travel into impact in under a year.
“2018 showed us that IBM i techniques are increasingly liable to novel cyber assaults, due to the fact sharing of IBM i IFS folders with other techniques exposes your IBM i to the hazards originated from those programs,” Zailer concludes. “Ransomware will proceed to trigger havoc for organizations in 2019. we're making exceptional strides during this fight and predict to espy some novel options this yr.”
one of the vital IBMers who has labored more often than not behind the scenes is Brandon Pederson. Now the international IBM power systems content material and neighborhood manager is taking a greater favourite role in shaping the narrative around IBM i.
“2019 should be yet another robust 12 months for the IBM vigour techniques neighborhood,” Pederson says. “we've simply introduced the brand novel category of IBM Champions for vigour programs featuring a number of novel contributors. These comprehend a couple of “clean faces” together with Stephanie Rabbani and Josh hall of Seiden group, Simon Thompson from The school of Birmingham, and Michael Karasienski of Carhartt. person businesses sum over may occupy yet another busy year, inserting on a number of conferences such because the huge North American common POWERUp2019 event and customary Europe Congress in addition to endemic movements like WMCPA, OCEAN and MAGIC.
As an utility modernization concede vendor with a belt of expertise in internet capabilities, Open Legacy has up on the latest cloud technology. however the commerce is sensing some pullback from the cloud on the participate of IBM i shops.
“This year corporations will realize that the cloud isn't a silver bullet,” Open Legacy tells IT Jungle. “youngsters the cloud solves lots of problems, it isn’t sum the time cheaper or less demanding to retain. It doesn’t sum the time maximize efficiency. And, the cloud creates dependencies on a separate seller. These distinctions are specially acute in functions designed for on-prem usage. The inequity between internet hosting within the cloud and using cloud applied sciences, which supports on-prem, is massive. 2019 is the 12 months AS/400 organization Tell ‘no’ to a cloud simplest concede and Tell ‘sure’ to hybrid, which enables companies the pliability to locate performance in the cloud or on-prem.”
2019 Predictions: IBM i trend recognizing
Utility Advances RPG Conversion
because the AS/four hundred continues alongside the path of becoming an more and more advanced and interactive system, the edifice languages that pave the style are required to progress to be able to accommodate this complexity. One concrete illustration of this progress is the transformation of RPG III and RPG/four hundred to ILE RPG, moreover referred to as RPG IV.
Recognizing the issue inherent in performing a language transformation, while additionally presenting incentive for this kindly of circulation, Linoma utility now presents its CVTILERPG conversion utility. CVTILERPG is designed to build upon the latest integrated Language atmosphere (ILE) RPG compiler and provide a few points no longer obtainable with IBM's fundamental RPG conversion tool.
"Some americans are only awaiting the perquisite instrument to assist them transmute to RPG IV," says Jeff Petermann, director of earnings for Linoma application, an Omaha, Neb.-based mostly division of Connections 2000 Inc. "CVTILERPG is a conversion utility that goes past the AS/four hundred's conversion command, which does not really transmute code to RPG IV layout however in its residence enables code to feature in an RPG IV world. Programmers then must travel returned in and replace the code manually at a later time."
whereas a circulation to RPG IV can deliver a few merits, it's a frightening transition for companies with huge quantities of RPG III legacy code that should be converted, says Bob Luebbe, president of Linoma application and author of CVTILERPG. Luebbe additionally facets out, however, that users necessity to reside latest with novel types of their programming language. "In continuing to live with RPG, they will continue to topple at the back of, as IBM continues to expand RPG IV."
RPG IV additionally eliminates many of RPG III's boundaries, according to Luebbe. "You used to only be able to occupy 50 information in an RPG III program," he says. "With RPG IV, the programmer can enable for an vast number of files--that could comprehend consumer info, order entry data, plus an unlimited number of different information where statistics is stored. In RPG III, there are additionally limitations on the lengths of box names. was best six character box names in RPG III. RPG IV continues to enable better container names sum the time."
Migration to RPG IV moreover turns into a practical bethink because the present millennium attracts to an in depth. "RPG IV is a fine language to transmute to for Y2K conversions, because the language makes it viable for for more desirable date and time manipulation than RPG III," Luebbe says. "What might moreover occupy taken a hundred lines of code to finish in RPG III, that you would be able to now finish in perhaps one line with RPG IV. we've sold their product to loads of folks doing Y2K conversion as a result of they are looking to assume competencies of the date and time manipulation features."
regardless of the event of visible languages and Java's expanding popularity, Luebbe suggests there is still a tough exact for RPG. "Most americans occupy relatively tons made up their reason to migrate from RPG III to RPG IV, as opposed to skip from RPG to a more recent language like Java," he says. "For one, the learning curve is lots shorter."
One analyst who concurs with Luebbe's evaluation of RPG's fitness is James Sinur, VP and research director for software progress with Gartner group (Stamford, Conn.). "RPG is a superbly structured language that would not require a sophisticated parser," he says, including, "it's the excellent language for relocating from one edition to one other."
in line with Sinur, programmers ought to account several facets when performing code conversion. the primary is to "make positive you occupy got a pretty ample observe at various mattress, since you necessity a benchmark," he says. "it's the simplest solution to check no matter if you could occupy had a a success conversion." additionally, reference websites must be checked to be positive the novel code works. builders should additionally "do a pilot with one of the dirtiest pieces of code you've gotten bought," he adds.
The latest version of CVTILERPG, 1.forty two, is designed to assume expertise of sum ILE RPG IV facets when changing RPG III and RPG/four hundred supply code, in keeping with Luebbe. common facets always performed through CVTILERPG comprehend conversion of: IFxx, DOxx, WHxx, ANDxx and ORxx operations to originate utilize of the free figure expression area; SETON, SETOF and COMP operations to the EVAL operation; conclusion operations to their corresponding ENDxx operations (i.e. conclusion becomes ENDIF); and the regular of '1' to *ON and '0' to *OFF in indicator operations. The utility moreover generates a summary report of converted member(s), with any exception messages.
There are a few optional elements than can be became on or off sum the way through the conversion procedure. "Our product permits you to maneuver how many of the brand novel RPG IV features you necessity to assume expertise of," Luebbe says. Programmers can later update code that has already been converted.
even though Gartner's Sinur says his client foundation doesn't like dealing with invasive processes like language-to-language conversions, he has the selfsame conviction that RPG is "a ample deal more simplistic than parsing C, C++, Java, Assembler and even Cobol." Sinur provides that Cobol to Cobol is the most commonplace variety of code conversion, and that conversion of Cobol to Java has taken off as of late. "much more average than language-to-language conversion is GUI-wrapping," he says, as his valued clientele "like procedures that finish not tweak the code an Awful lot."
Feb eleven, 2019 (Heraldkeeper via COMTEX) -- global application Modernization services Market
WiseGuyRerports.com items "international software Modernization functions Market 2018 by producers, international locations, class and application, Forecast to 2023" novel document to its stories Database. The record accommodate 154 Pages With precise analysis.
application modernization is the refactoring, re-purposing or consolidation of legacy utility programming to align it greater closely with present enterprise needs.
The objective of an utility modernization venture is to create novel company cost from present functions. An application is a program designed to function a selected feature at once for the person or, in some situations, for one more application software. keeping legacy purposes working easily may moreover be a time-ingesting, resource-intensive manner, principally when the utility turns into so old-fashioned that it becomes incompatible with more moderen versions of the underlying operating system (OS) or device hardware.
Scope of the record:This file reviews the software Modernization features market status and outlook of global and essential regions, from angles of avid gamers, nations, product types and remain industries; this file analyzes the excellent avid gamers in international market, and splits the software Modernization services market via product sort and applications/conclusion industries.
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Market section by way of corporations, this record coversAccentureAtosBell IntegratorCapgeminiCognizantFujitsuHCLIBMMacrosoft Inc.Tech MahindraTCSWiproInfosysDXCBlu AgeTSRIModern SystemsTrinity MillenniumMicro FocusSoftware MiningSemantic DesignsEvolvewareMapadorFresche LegacyAsyscoExpersolveMetawareMOST TechnologiesFreesoftLanguage Portability solutions
Market angle through areas, regional evaluation coversNorth the united states (u.s., Canada and Mexico)Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)South the usa (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia)middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)
Market angle via class, coversCobolADAPL/1RPGAssemblerPowerBuilderOthers
Market segment by way of applications, may moreover be divided intoEmulationTranslationBusiness suggestions Extraction
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table of Contents -main Key features
1 software Modernization functions Market Overview1.1 Product Overview and Scope of application Modernization Services1.2 Classification of utility Modernization services by means of Types1.2.1 international utility Modernization capabilities profits evaluation by using types (2017-2023)1.2.2 world application Modernization services income Market participate by types in 20171.2.three Cobol1.2.four ADA1.2.5 PL/11.2.6 RPG1.2.7 Assembler1.2.eight PowerBuilder1.2.9 Others1.three global utility Modernization capabilities Market via Application1.three.1 international utility Modernization capabilities Market dimension and Market participate assessment through functions (2013-2023)1.three.2 Emulation1.3.three Translation1.3.4 enterprise suggestions Extraction1.four global application Modernization features Market through Regions1.4.1 global software Modernization services Market dimension (Million USD) evaluation by means of areas (2013-2023)1.4.1 North the usa (country, Canada and Mexico) utility Modernization services status and Prospect (2013-2023)1.4.2 Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy) application Modernization features fame and Prospect (2013-2023)1.4.3 Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia) utility Modernization capabilities fame and Prospect (2013-2023)1.4.4 South the us (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia) utility Modernization features reputation and Prospect (2013-2023)1.four.5 seat East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa) application Modernization services popularity and Prospect (2013-2023)1.5 international Market size of utility Modernization functions (2013-2023)
2 manufacturers Profiles2.1 Accenture2.1.1 commerce Overview2.1.2 software Modernization services category and Applications188.8.131.52 Product A184.108.40.206 Product B2.1.3 Accenture application Modernization functions revenue, indecorous Margin and Market participate (2016-2017)2.2 Atos2.2.1 enterprise Overview2.2.2 application Modernization features category and Applications220.127.116.11 Product A18.104.22.168 Product B2.2.3 Atos software Modernization functions income, indecorous Margin and Market participate (2016-2017)2.three Bell Integrator2.three.1 enterprise Overview2.3.2 software Modernization functions class and Applications22.214.171.124 Product A2.three.2.2 Product B2.three.3 Bell Integrator utility Modernization services profits, indecorous Margin and Market participate (2016-2017)2.four Capgemini2.four.1 enterprise Overview2.4.2 application Modernization services class and Applications2.four.2.1 Product A126.96.36.199 Product B2.4.3 Capgemini software Modernization features income, indecorous Margin and Market participate (2016-2017)2.5 Cognizant2.5.1 enterprise Overview2.5.2 software Modernization functions category and Applications188.8.131.52 Product A184.108.40.206 Product B2.5.three Cognizant utility Modernization functions earnings, indecorous Margin and Market participate (2016-2017)2.6 Fujitsu2.6.1 commerce Overview2.6.2 software Modernization features sort and Applications220.127.116.11 Product A18.104.22.168 Product B2.6.3 Fujitsu utility Modernization functions revenue, indecorous Margin and Market participate (2016-2017)2.7 HCL2.7.1 company Overview2.7.2 software Modernization features category and Applications22.214.171.124 Product A126.96.36.199 Product B2.7.3 HCL utility Modernization functions revenue, indecorous Margin and Market participate (2016-2017)2.eight IBM2.8.1 commerce Overview2.8.2 software Modernization capabilities classification and Applications188.8.131.52 Product A2.eight.2.2 Product B2.eight.3 IBM application Modernization capabilities profits, indecorous Margin and Market participate (2016-2017)
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ILE RPG Programmer
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February 11, 2019 Timothy Prickett Morgan
If nothing else, the IBM i platform has exhibited extraordinary longevity. One might even Tell legendary longevity, if you want to assume its history sum the way back to the System/3 minicomputer from 1969. This is the real starting point in the AS/400 family tree and this is when mountainous Blue, for very sound legal and technical and marketing reasons, decided to fork its products to address the unique needs of big enterprises (with the System/360 mainframe and its follow-ons) and miniature and medium businesses (starting with the System/3 and moving on through the System/34, System/32, System/38, and System/36 in the 1970s and early 1980s and passing through the AS/400, AS/400e, iSeries, System i, and then IBM i on Power Systems platforms.
It has been a long race indeed, and many customers who occupy invested in the platform started way back then and there with the early versions of RPG and moved their applications forward and changed them as their businesses evolved and the depth and breadth of corporate computing changed, moving on up through RPG II, RPG III, RPG IV, ILE RPG, and now RPG free form. Being on this platform for even three decades makes you a relative newcomer.
There is a longer race ahead, since they believe that the companies that are still running IBM i systems are the accurate diehards, the ones who occupy no objective of leaving the platform and that, at least according to the survey data they occupy been privy too, are intending to continue investing in, or even expand their investments in, the IBM i platform.
Thus far, they are not in a recession and heaven willing there will not be one, so the priorities that IBM i shops occupy are not the ones that they had a decade ago during the height of the much Recession. Back then, as was the case in just about sum IT organizations, IBM i shops were hunkering down and were trying to crop costs in sum ways possible, including deferring system upgrades and migrations as well as cutting back on other projects. Only 29 percent of the 750 IBM i shops that participated in the 2019 IBM i Marketplace Survey, which HelpSystems did back in October 2018, were concerned about reducing IT spending. This is a remarkably low level, and I assume is indicative of how relatively tough the economy is – excepting some of the fits and starts they saw at the remain of 2018 and here in early 2019 that originate us nervous and could start putting pressure on things. Here are the top concerns as culled from the survey:
Dealing with the growth in data and in figuring out the analytics to chew on that data ranked a exiguous bit higher on the 2019 IBM i Marketplace Survey than did reducing costs, and I assume over the long haul these issues will become more primary than modernizing applications and dealing with the IBM i skills shortages that are a perennial worry. Both of these issues are being solved as novel programmers and novel tools to originate novel interfaces to database applications are becoming more common and as technologies such as free figure RPG, which looks more like Java, Python, and PHP, are being more widely deployed and, importantly, can be picked up more quickly by programmers experienced with these other languages.
Given the nature of the customer base, it seems unlikely to me that security and elevated availability will not continue to be primary concerns, despite the fact that the IBM i platform is among the most secure platforms on the planet (and not just because it is obscure, but because it is exceedingly difficult to hack) and it has a ambit of elevated availability and cataclysm recovery tools (from IBM, Syncsort, Maxava, and HelpSystems) available for those who want to double up their systems and protect their applications and data. The bar is often higher than simple backup and recovery for many IBM i shops in the banking, insurance, manufacturing, and distribution industries that dominate the platform. These companies can’t occupy security breaches, and they can’t occupy downtime.
There is a remarkable amount of stability in the IBM i customer foundation that they think, at this point, is reflective in the stability of the IBM i platform and mountainous Blue’s own faith that it needs a wholesome IBM i platform to occupy an overall wholesome Power Systems business. They sum know that the Power Systems hardware commerce has just turned in five quarters of revenue growth – something they discussed recently in developing their own revenue model for the Power Systems commerce – but what they did not know, and what you should know, is that in the second and third quarters of 2018, the IBM i portion of the commerce grew significantly faster than the overall Power Systems business, and the only reason that this did not befall in the final quarter of 2018 is that sales of IBM i machinery in Q4 2017 was quite tough and represented a very tough compare. The point is, the IBM i commerce has been raising the Power Systems class average. (These hints about the IBM i commerce advance compliments of Steve Sibley, vice president and offering manager of Cognitive Systems at IBM.)
IBM’s own financial stability of the Power platform – which has been bolstered by a pace into Linux clusters for analytics and elevated performance computing simulation and modeling as well as by the adoption of the HANA in-memory database by SAP customers on mountainous iron machines including Power8 and now Power9 systems – helps IBM i customers feel more confident in investing in the current IBM i platform. The recent evidence from several different surveys, not just the one done by HelpSystems every year, suggests that companies are by and big either continuing to invest in the platform or even in some cases are planning to expand their spending on the IBM i platform in 2019.
As you can see, the pattern of investment plans for the IBM i platform, as shown in the chart above, has not changed very much at sum in the past four years. It is a remarkably stable pattern with but a exiguous wiggling here and there that may not even be statistically significant. Just under a quarter of IBM i shops occupy reported in the past four years that they project to expand their investment in the platform in each year, and just under half Tell that they are holding steady. This does not suggest that the selfsame companies, year after year, are investing more and other companies are staying pat, year after year. It is far more likely that every handful of years – more like four or five – customers upgrade their systems and expand their capacity, and they then sit tight. The phenomenon is that the split isn’t showing far fewer companies investing and far more sitting tight. That more than a tenth of the shops don’t know what their project is as each prior year comes to a proximate is a bit disturbing, but it is honest and shows that a significant portion of shops occupy other priorities aside from hardware and operating system upgrades. They occupy said this before and they will Tell it again: They assume that the people who respond to surveys and read weekly publications focused on the IBM i platform are the most dynamic shops – the ones more likely to remain relatively current on hardware and software. So the pace of adoption for novel technologies, and the rate of investment, should be higher than in the actual base, much of which does not change much at all.
So if they had to adjust this data to assume on the total base, there might be far fewer sites that are investing more money, far more companies that are sitting tight, and maybe fewer sites that are contemplating moving off the IBM i platform. I assume the distribution of data is probably something like 10 percent of shops occupy no thought what they are doing investment judicious with IBM this year, 5 percent are thinking about moving some or sum of their applications to another platform, maybe 10 percent are investing more this year, and the remaining 75 percent are sitting tight. This is just a guess, of course. As far as they can tell, the rate of attrition – how many sites they actually lose each year – just a tad over 1 percent. So the rate of movement of applications off the platform, or incidences of unplugging IBM i databases and applications, may not be anywhere near as elevated in the overall foundation as the data above suggests. What is alarming, perhaps, is that the rate of moving some or sum applications off the platform is balanced against those who Tell they will expand investments. Perhaps these are hopeful survey takers, and those who assume it is light to pace find it is not and those who assume they will find the money to invest will not.
What they finish know is that if the rate of application attrition was anywhere near as elevated as these surveys suggest, then the IBM i commerce would not be growing, but shrinking. And they know it is not shrinking, so they assume there is a disconnect between planning and reality, both on the upside and the downside.
If you drill down into the data for the 2019 IBM i Marketplace Survey, there were 13 percent of shops that said they would be moving some applications to a novel platform, and another 9 percent that said they were going to pace sum of their applications off IBM i. (This number is consistent with the recent ALL400s survey done by John Rockwell.)
Anyway, ample luck with that.
Porting applications from one platform to another, of buying a novel suite on that novel platform, is an exceedingly difficult task. It is not like trying to change a tire while driving down the road, as is a common metaphor, but rather like trying to assume the tire off one car moving down the highway and installing it on another car driving beside it in the adjacent lane without crashing either car or smashing into anyone else on the road. Optimism abounds, but when propel comes to shove, very few companies try such a maneuver, and when they do, it is usually because there is a corporate mandate, more times than not caused by a merger or acquisition, that pits some other platform against IBM i running on Power Systems. Companies that Tell they are making such a pace off IBM i are sanguine for their own personal reasons, perhaps, but they are not necessarily realistic about how long it might take, what disruption it will cost, and what ultimate benefit, if any, will be realized.
If you finish the math on the chart above, eight-tenths of the foundation has no thought how long a pace will take, another 1.7 percent thinks it will assume more than five years, and 3 percent Tell it will assume between two years and five years. Only 3.4 percent of the total foundation Tell they can finish it in under two years. They assume sum of these numbers are optimistic, and the companies who could easily leave OS/400 and IBM i already did a long time ago and those that are remain occupy a harder time, not an easier time, moving. If this were not true, the IBM i foundation would be a hell of a lot smaller than the 120,000 customers they assume are out there, based on what mountainous Blue has told us in the past. This is the inequity between fright or pressure or culture and the reality of trying to pace a commerce off one platform and onto another. These moves are always a lot harder than they look on the front end, and they suspect many of the benefits moreover don’t materialize for those who finish jump platforms.
At the average attrition rate suggested by this survey data – 9 percent pace off the platform in somewhere between one year and more than five years, with most companies not being able to espy more than five years into the future that is a spruce trick – the installed foundation would shrink dramatically. It is tough to Tell how far because of the wide ambit of timeframes in the survey. If it was 9 percent of the foundation within two years – summon it 4.5 percent of the foundation per year – then within a decade the overall foundation would shrink from 120,000 IBM i sites worldwide down to about 72,000. This would melodramatic indeed. But at a 1 percent attrition rate per year, the foundation is still at 107,500 unique customers (not sites and not installed machines, both of which are larger) by 2029. They assume there is every random that the attrition rate will actually leisurely and drop underneath 1 percent as IBM demonstrates commitment to the Power Systems platform and its IBM i operating system. There are always some novel customers being added in novel markets, to be sure, but the bleed rate (even if it is small) is still probably an order of magnitude larger than the feed rate.
When they finish assume about making the move, IBM i shops know exactly where they want to go, and this concede has been gradually changing over the years: Linux as an alternative to IBM i is on the surge and Windows Server as an alternative is on the wane. In the latest survey, 52 percent of the companies that said they were moving sum or some of their applications to another platform said they were choosing Windows Server, while 34 percent chose Linux. This reflects the relative popularity of Windows Server and Linux in the datacenters of the world at large, and may be tipped just a exiguous more heavily towards Linux compared to the leisure of the world. Interestingly, 10 percent of those polled who said they were moving were looking at AIX platforms, and another 4 percent were going upscale to System z mainframes – as unlikely as this may seem. Platforms minister to roll downhill; they finish not usually challenge gravity like that.
The thing about such surveys is that they expose intent, not action. They often intend to finish a lot more than they actually can accomplish, and moving platforms after spending decades of edifice up expertise is not usually a very smart pace unless the platform is in real wretchedness – like the Itanium systems from Hewlett Packard Enterprise running OpenVMS or HP-UX or the HP 3000s running MPE or the Sparc systems from Oracle running Solaris. These were once much platforms with huge installed bases and tremendous revenue streams, but now, IBM is the last of these Unix and proprietary platforms with its Power Systems line. And it is by far the biggest and for positive the only one showing any growth.
The IBM i foundation Did Indeed pace On Up
The IBM i foundation Is Ready To pace On Up
Investment And Integration Indicators For IBM i
Security still Dominates IBM i Discussion, HelpSystems’ 2018 Survey Reveals
The IBM i foundation Not As Jumpy As It Has Been
The Feeds And Speeds Of The IBM i Base
IBM i Priorities For 2017: Pivot To Defense
IBM i Trends, Concerns, And Observations
IBM i Survey Gets Better As Numbers Grow
Where finish Those IBM i Machines Work?
Finding IBM i: A Game Of 40 Questions
It Is Time To bid Us What You Are Up To
IBM i Marketplace Survey: The weight Of Being Earnest
What’s Up In The IBM i Marketplace?
IBM i Marketplace Survey Fills In The Blanks
Many of you occupy heard about one of the oldest programming languages, COBOL, and you occupy moreover heard that COBOL programmers are much asked for nowadays to maintain antediluvian legacy code. There’s another old-timer which few know about and which is still in utilize and will be in utilize for quite a while for applications in various specific fields (i.e. finance, banking, etc.). Its title is IBM RPG.
Once upon a time…
RPG is a high-level programming language for commerce applications. It is an IBM proprietary programming language and its later versions are available only on IBM i- or OS/400-based systems.
RPG has been around for more than half a century. By the remain of the 1950s, IBM had built a huge number of electromechanical devices called tabulating machines. The last mass-produced tabulator model was the IBM 407 Accounting Machine:
Figure 1. IBM 407 at U.S. Army’s Redstone Arsenal, 1961
By the way, this tabulator rented from $800 to $920 per month ($8100 to $9300 per month in 2016 dollars), depending on the model. They were withdrawn from marketing on December 17, 1976.
As you know, scientific and technological progress was striding forward at the time, and the remain of the 1950s saw the birth of the first transistor computers. The first IBM computer of this sort was IBM 1401 built in 1959:
Figure 2. IBM 1401 at the Endicott History and Heritage Center
The Computer History Museum has one working unit. assume a observe at how it sum worked — that’s really consuming (I especially like the phrase “We necessity a exiguous bit of cooling” at 4:41):
To facilitate ease of transition for their customers to the novel transistor computers, IBM developed two tools in 1959 to replicate punched-card processing on computers: FARGO (Fourteen-o-one Automatic Report Generation Operation) and RPG (Report Program Generator). Both languages’ syntax resembled that of the instruction language of electromechanical tabulators. FARGO and RPG moreover replicated an primary feature of tabulators: cyclic processing mode (known as the program cycle), in which tabulators read punched cards, summarized their contents, and printed a result. IBM still maintains backward compatibility with the program cycle even in the latest dialect, RPG IV.
Even though RPG was developed under much influence of FARGO, it took RPG just a few years to replace its predecessor as a more superior language. The next system to receive RPG champion was mainframe IBM System/360 Model 20:
Figure 3. IBM System/360 Model 20 at the Deutsches Museum
A couple of years later (at the remain of the 1960s), IBM released the next dialect, RPG II, for midrange computer System/3:
Figure 4. Midrange computer IBM System/3 Model 10 and the operator at work
RPG has since evolved into an HLL equivalent to COBOL and PL/I. Its distinctive feature (in contrast to modern languages) was the so called fixed-format syntax, so programs were difficult to read without a special debugging template.
An RPG program once typically started off with File Specifications, listing sum files being written to, read from, or updated, followed by Data Definition Specificationscontaining program elements such as Data Structures and dimensional arrays, much like a “Working-Storage” section of a COBOL program or “var” statements in Pascal. A variable is defined with a fixed-format Definition Specification. In the Definition Specification, denoted by a missive D in column 6 of a source line, the data sort character (see the table below) would be encoded in column 40. Also, if the data sort character is omitted, that is, left blank, the default will be A if no decimal positions are specified. Otherwise, the default will be P.
Further the Calculation Specifications were given, which are the list of commands for execution. Output Specifications could moreover follow, they determined the layout of other files or reports.
The following is the description of sum the specifications types:
The U or Auto Report spec is only required for Auto Report programs.
The H or Header spec is at the top of the program and describes compiler options such as maximum compile size, whether the program is an MRT (Multiple Requestor Terminal) program, and what sort of listing is generated when the program is compiled. The demur title of the program created is located in columns 75–80; if a source does not occupy an H spec, the title RPGOBJ is used.
The F or File spec(s) are next, and describes the files used in the program. Files may be disk files (DISK) or may be devices such as a printer (PRINTER), the workstation (WORKSTN), keyboard (KEYBORD), unformatted pomp (CRT or DISPLAY), or user-defined (SPECIAL). Record size, block size, overflow indicators, and external indicators are described. It is viable that an RPG program will not utilize any F specs.
The E or Extension spec(s) are next, and picture arrays and tables, which may be prefetched from disk files (an Input table), drawn from constants placed at the remain of the source between ** and /* symbols, or built from calculations.
The L or Line Counter spec(s) are next, and if present, picture the figure to be printed. It defines the number of lines in a page and the positions where printing begins and ends.
The I or Input specs are next, and picture the data areas within files. RPG II permits redefinition of data areas so that a bailiwick named FLDA might occupy the selfsame belt as an array AR that contains 8 elements of 1 character each. Non-record areas such as data structures can be described. Depending on the values of the input record, indicators may be conditioned.
The C or Calculation spec(s) are next. Total fields may be described and accumulated. complex computations and string manipulations are possible. Indicators may be conditioned.
The last specification(s) are O or Output specifications, which picture the output record in terms of fields and output positions.
Now, here’s a miniature case for you to exercise reading RPG programs (F and D specifications are omitted):
* Asterisk (*) in column 7 defines a remark line
* In column 6, you write a character denoting* the specification sort to be used. The sort of specification* defines what the source line does (i.e. definitions section,* calculations section, etc.).* "C" spec (calculation) describes calculations to be done.C HOURS IFLE 40C HOURS MULT RATE PAYC ELSEC RATE MULT 40 PAY 72C HOURS SUB 40 OTIME 30C RATE MULT 1.5 OTRATE 94C OTRATE MULT OTIME OTPAY 72C ADD OTPAY PAYC END
This code looks complicated, doesn’t it? And that’s just a simple payroll tax calculation for an hourly employee (employees bag time and a half for hour worked beyond the first 40).
In 1978, IBM introduced midrange computer System/38 and a novel RPG dialect, RPG III, for it:
Figure 6. Midrange computer IBM System/38
From that second on, IBM was gradually abolishing the limitations of the language; programmers were allowed to write specifications in free form:
If Hours <= 40;
Pay = Hours * Rate;
Pay = (40 * Rate) + ((Hours — 40) * (Rate * 1.5));
Finally, the last version, RPG IV (aka RPGLE, ILE RPG), was released in 1994. Its three prominent features are built-in functions, procedures, and free-form programming. Until November 2013, the free format applied exclusively to the calculation specifications. With the V7R1 TR7 upgrade to the language, the “/free” and “/end-free” calculations are no longer necessary, and the language has finally broken the ties to punched cards.
I moreover recommend looking at this document where IBM demonstrates the drastic changes made to the language. RPG remains a favorite programming language on the IBM i operating system, which runs on IBM Power i platform hardware:
Figure 7. IBM Power i server series
All in all, the RPG programming language has been used on 1401, /360, /3, /32, /34, /36, /38 AS/400 and System i systems. There occupy moreover been implementations for the Digital VAX, Sperry Univac BC/7, Univac system 80, Siemens BS2000, Burroughs B700, B1700, Hewlett Packard HP3000, ICL 2900 series, Honeywell 6220 and 2020, Four-Phase IV/70 and IV/90 series, Singer System 10 and WANG VS, as well as heterogeneous compilers and runtime environments for Unix-based systems, such as Infinite36 (formerly Unibol 36), and PCs (Baby/400, Lattice-RPG).
Today, RPG IV is a more robust language. Editing can still be done via SEU, the simple green-screen editor:
Figure 8. Green-screen editor
However, a long progression of tools has been developed over time. Some of these occupy included Visual Age for RPG, which was developed by IBM and promoted by Jon Paris and others. Currently the preferred editing platform is IBM’s Websphere progress Studio client, now named RDi (Rational Developer for i), which is a customized implementation of Eclipse:
Figure 9. Rational Developer for i
There is moreover an RPG compiler for Microsoft .NET. This version contains extensions to RPG IV beyond that of the foundation IBM compiler. These extensions provide Microsoft Windows and .NET hooks in the endemic and System 36 environment, as well as the skill to port DB/2 files to Microsoft Access and Microsoft SQL Server databases via ODBC.
Although RPG is quite an exotic language, it is a fact that there exists a big amount of code written in it in specific fields such as finance, banking, and the like. The language is quite diverse: it includes 4 dialects and supports both fixed- and free-form programming. The necessity to maintain antediluvian legacy code and write novel code coerce companies to hunt RPG developers, who look to be on the Red List for threatened species. Given the circumstances, additional code-quality control tools such as static analyzers are much called for.
You must occupy already guessed what the reason for writing this article is and what they are driving at. You’re right: they are now considering the thought of creating a static code analyzer for the RPG language. I believe such an analyzer would be a much aid to those who still maintain and develop RPG programs. But they haven’t advance to a conclusion yet. Needless to say, it’s quite a specific niche.
That’s why they necessity you to bid us if you want PVS-Studio analyzer to become a instrument that could detect bugs in RPG programs. Dear potential users of PVS-Studio RPG, they are looking for you. Don’t waver to email us!
Utility Advances RPG Conversion
As the AS/400 continues along the path of becoming an increasingly complex and interactive system, the progress languages that pave the way are required to progress in order to accommodate this complexity. One concrete case of this progression is the transformation of RPG III and RPG/400 to ILE RPG, moreover known as RPG IV.
Recognizing the difficulty inherent in performing a language transformation, while moreover providing incentive for such a move, Linoma Software now offers its CVTILERPG conversion utility. CVTILERPG is designed to build upon the existing Integrated Language Environment (ILE) RPG compiler and provide a number of features not available with IBM's basic RPG conversion tool.
"Some people are just waiting for the perquisite instrument to attend them transmute to RPG IV," says Jeff Petermann, director of sales for Linoma Software, an Omaha, Neb.-based division of Connections 2000 Inc. "CVTILERPG is a conversion utility that goes beyond the AS/400's conversion command, which doesn't truly transmute code to RPG IV format but instead allows code to function in an RPG IV world. Programmers then occupy to travel back in and update the code manually at a later time."
While a pace to RPG IV can provide a number of benefits, it is a daunting transition for companies with big quantities of RPG III legacy code that must be converted, says Bob Luebbe, president of Linoma Software and author of CVTILERPG. Luebbe moreover points out, however, that users want to remain current with novel versions of their programming language. "In continuing to remain with RPG, they're going to continue to topple behind, as IBM continues to enhance RPG IV."
RPG IV moreover eliminates many of RPG III's limitations, according to Luebbe. "You used to only be able to occupy 50 files in an RPG III program," he says. "With RPG IV, the programmer can allow for an unlimited number of files--which can comprehend customer files, order entry files, plus an unlimited number of other files where data is stored. In RPG III, there are moreover limitations on the lengths of bailiwick names. Used to be only six character bailiwick names in RPG III. RPG IV continues to allow larger bailiwick names sum the time."
Migration to RPG IV moreover becomes a practical matter as the current millennium draws to a close. "RPG IV is a much language to transmute to for Y2K conversions, because the language allows for better date and time manipulation than RPG III," Luebbe says. "What may occupy taken 100 lines of code to finish in RPG III, you can now finish in maybe one line with RPG IV. We've sold their product to a lot of folks doing Y2K conversion because they want to assume handicap of the date and time manipulation features."
Despite the prevalence of visual languages and Java's increasing popularity, Luebbe indicates there is still a tough exact for RPG. "Most people occupy pretty much made up their reason to migrate from RPG III to RPG IV, rather than skip from RPG to a newer language like Java," he says. "For one, the learning curve is much shorter."
One analyst who agrees with Luebbe's assessment of RPG's health is James Sinur, VP and research director for application progress with Gartner Group (Stamford, Conn.). "RPG is a perfectly structured language that doesn't require a sophisticated parser," he says, adding, "It's the perfect language for moving from one version to another."
According to Sinur, programmers must account several aspects when performing code conversion. The first is to "make positive you occupy a ample test bed, because you necessity a benchmark," he says. "It's the only way to determine whether you've had a successful conversion." In addition, reference sites must be checked to originate positive the novel code works. Developers should moreover "do a pilot with one of the dirtiest pieces of code you've got," he adds.
The latest version of CVTILERPG, 1.42, is designed to assume handicap of sum ILE RPG IV features when converting RPG III and RPG/400 source code, according to Luebbe. benchmark features always performed by CVTILERPG comprehend conversion of: IFxx, DOxx, WHxx, ANDxx and ORxx operations to utilize the free figure expression area; SETON, SETOF and COMP operations to the EVAL operation; remain operations to their corresponding ENDxx operations (i.e. remain becomes ENDIF); and the constant of '1' to *ON and '0' to *OFF in indicator operations. The utility moreover generates a summary report of converted member(s), with any exception messages.
There are a number of optional features than can be turned on or off during the conversion process. "Our product lets you control how many of the novel RPG IV features you want to assume handicap of," Luebbe says. Programmers can later update code that has already been converted.
Though Gartner's Sinur says his client foundation does not like dealing with invasive procedures like language-to-language conversions, he agrees that RPG is "much more simplistic than parsing C, C++, Java, Assembler and even Cobol." Sinur adds that Cobol to Cobol is the most common figure of code conversion, and that conversion of Cobol to Java has taken off as of late. "Even more common than language-to-language conversion is GUI-wrapping," he says, as his clients "like approaches that don't tweak the code much."