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000-955 exam Dumps Source : High Volume Storage Fundamentals V2

Test Code : 000-955
Test designation : High Volume Storage Fundamentals V2
Vendor designation : IBM
: 69 true Questions

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IBM towering Volume Storage Fundamentals

Fundamentals of IBM Cloud Storage options | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Falk Pollok, Parijat Dube


With over 40,000 Github stars and adoption in cloud systems from IBM Cloud Kubernetes provider, Amazon Elastic Container carrier for Kubernetes (EKS) over Azure Kubernetes service (AKS) to without doubt Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE), Kubernetes has develop into one of the vital favorite cloud applied sciences. besides these public cloud examples it has in a similar artery superior in on-premise and hybrid cloud deployments from IBM Cloud inner most (ICP) to GKE on-prem and Redhat’s OpenShift. hence, it comes at no amaze that it's additionally heavily used within IBM research where they beget efficaciously tailored it for AI workloads. despite the fact, microservice architectures often require procedures and hence containers to be stateless which is for instance demanded in factor 6 of the Twelve factor App instructions. Sending facts over the community is among the main bottlenecks to avoid in any facts-centric workload from massive information jobs akin to Spark-primarily based facts science jobs to practising in abysmal studying and abysmal reinforcement researching up to neural network visualization. Storage options in Kubernetes beget considered a lot of adjustments over contemporaneous types leading to the present solution of Persistent quantity Claims and Flex Drivers as well as really expert storage drivers like Intel’s VCK. rather than focusing on a historic perspective they can in this article follow a extra hands-on approach and present sever storage alternate options in addition to a quick future outlook on this evolving box.

we are able to first appear on the three natural storage alternate options cloud demur storage (COS), file storage (NFS) and block storage (ext4 by means of iSCSI) as the main theme of this text after which in short contact upon AI-particular concerns and evolving technologies.

fundamental quantity Provisioning Mechanisms in Kubernetes Provisioning Volumes with Persistent Volumes and persistent extent Claims

There are two distinguished objects for Kubernetes volumes, Persistent Volumes (PV) and inveterate extent Claims (PVC), which allows a separation of considerations: administrators can provision PVs and developers can request storage via PVCs. Volumes can either be provisioned statically by artery of manually growing these objects or they may furthermore be provisioned dynamically via a storage category, wherein case the developer best creates a PVC that refers to a particular storage classification and Kubernetes will tackle the provisioning dynamically through storage drivers.

firstly, quantity plugins needed to be in-tree, i.e. they needed to be compiled with Kubernetes which was alleviated by artery of so referred to as Flex volumes that are the present state-of-the-artwork in productive used and should be used in this weblog post. Flex volumes allow exterior quantity plugins, but nevertheless often require root node entry because they require dependencies to be installed on the employees.

The Cloud demur Storage driver they contend beneath, as an example, depends upon s3fs binaries and should deploy them by using launching a daemonset that runs one pod on every employee node in order to then open a tunnel into the employee itself (which requires privileged entry) to replica its binaries.

a more robust system in the proximate future could be using CSI drivers with the objective to sprint completely containerized and for that reason no longer reckon upon advanced privileges. moreover, it is an impartial commonplace that furthermore applies to different cloud orchestrators (COs) like Docker and Mesos and it'll be used in the course of the equal Kubernetes primitives outlined above (PVs, PVCs and storage courses), so most of this blog post collection may noiseless be applicable even after the transition.

File Storage

File storage is the least difficult to install, for the reason that it is supported by default — we attain not deserve to install drivers and may without retard provision a Persistent extent claim with it. in the event you listing your storage courses (and grep for file storage in certain) you'll locate that there are diverse QoS courses:

$ kubectl derive sc | grep ibmc-filedefault 24dibmc-file-bronze 24dibmc-file-custom 24dibmc-file-gold 24dibmc-file-retain-bronze 24dibmc-file-hold-customized 24dibmc-file-continue-gold 24dibmc-file-preserve-silver 24dibmc-file-silver 24d

The bronze, silver and gold courses are so called SoftLayer endurance storage (roughly signification it determines IOPS by means of dimension and offers back for snapshots and replication) — that you could ascertain their exact specs in the storage class reference. customized storage allows one to specify with best granularity how many IOPS are required. The underlying difficult disk type is then decided by using the IOPS/GB ratio (<= 0.3 SATA, >0.3 SSD). hold determines no matter if your data are stored when you delete the corresponding PVC.

upon getting determined your storage classification which you could create a PVC as follows:

kubectl solemnize -f - <<EOFapiVersion: v1kind: PersistentVolumeClaimmetadata:name: nfspvcspec:accessModes:- ReadWriteOnceresources:requests:storage: 41GistorageClassName: ibmc-file-goldEOF

we can first conclude showing a artery to create PVCs for each and every storage category after which parade how to mount them interior a pod.

Block Storage

Block storage is benign of greater concerned, but furthermore very effortless to installation, since its helm charts are already provided within the IBM Cloud registry. subsequently, they are able to simply add the repository and sprint right here instructions to acquire a brand current set of storage courses:

helm inithelm repo add ibm https://registry.bluemix.web/helm/ibmhelm repo updatehelm deploy ibm/ibmcloud-block-storage-plugin

if you need to search utter accessible helm charts, sprint helm search. they can then provision a PVC similar to before:

kubectl solemnize -f - <<EOFapiVersion: v1kind: PersistentVolumeClaimmetadata:identify: regpvcspec:accessModes:- ReadWriteOnceresources:requests:storage: 1GistorageClassName: ibmc-block-goldEOF Cloud Object Storage

S3, the primary Storage carrier, originated as Amazon’s fifth cloud product over a decade ago. in keeping with SimilarTech it is used with the aid of over 200k sites, it's furthermore the imperative storage component for Netflix (which developed S3mper to deliver a constant secondary index on proper of an ultimately constant storage) in addition to Reddit, Pinterest, Tumblr and others. Arguably, more crucial than the success of someone product is its adoption as an API. With cloud demur storage options from various cloud vendors adapting it, it has been one of the vital first dealer-independent cloud standards. IBM’s Cloud demur Storage is S3 compatible and might as a result be used with any S3-appropriate tooling. In right here, they are able to setup a COS example, present censorious tools and contend the artery to readily steer it inside a Kubernetes cluster through FLEX drivers.

Setup of COS

seek “Cloud demur Storage” in IBM Cloud, click on on the “Object Storage” infrastructure carrier.

click on “Create”. that you would be able to consume default parameters.

Afterwards, you should create current credentials. please accomplish positive to set "HMAC":true as inline configuration parameter. this will be positive that an entry key id and covert access key pair are created that they can consume for a Watson laptop getting to know parade up as well as managing their COS buckets with the AWS CLI.

Afterwards, that you could swap to the Buckets tab and create a brand current bucket. please be positive that this designation has to be globally enjoyable.

once a bucket exists, they are able to manually add files to it. The picture depicts how to attain so by means of the GUI.

as an example, they could add the MNIST dataset.

Cloud demur Storage Tooling AWS CLI

after getting a COS instance, you could access it during the S3 a fragment of the AWS CLI. besides the typical file instructions cp (reproduction), ls (record), mv (circulation) and rm (eliminate) time-honored from unixoid working systems it permits us to sync info, accomplish buckets (mb) and remove them (rb) [interested readers find the less used commands presign and website in the documentation]. In apply, this could spy as follows:

aws s3 rm --recursive --endpoint-url s3://<bucket_name> aws s3 ls --endpoint-url s3://<bucket_name>
  • replica file to COS (additionally works to down load COS info if parameters are flipped)
  • aws s3 cp --endpoint-url <local_file> s3://<target_bucket>
  • add utter info from current listing to COS
  • aws s3 cp --endpoint-url --recursive . s3://<target_bucket>

    To specify the credentials to accomplish consume of you can define the ambiance variables AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY both globally or simply in front of the command, e.g.


    however, you can regulate ~/.aws/credentials to encompass sever keys following the pattern

    [<PROFILE_NAME>]aws_access_key_id = <AWS_ACCESS_KEY>aws_secret_access_key = <AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>

    The entry where <PROFILE_NAME> is default is used in case you don't specify a profile within the CLI command. different entries will furthermore be used as follows:

    aws s3 ls --endpoint-url --profile <PROFILE_NAME> s3://<BUCKET_NAME> Mounting COS to file system by artery of s3fs and goofys

    as a substitute of at utter times specifying utter parameters and the exact bucket identify and performing utter operations through the AWS CLI, it's extra effortless to mount the bucket as a folder onto the existing file device. This can be performed by the consume of s3fs or goofys. To mount a bucket by means of goofys simply create a file ~/.aws/credentials that incorporates the credentials like this:

    [default]aws_access_key_id = <ACCESS_KEY>aws_secret_access_key = <SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>

    down load goofys with wget after which mount the extent by artery of

    ./goofys-latest --endpoint= <BUCKET_NAME> ~/testmount

    (assuming you beget got created the mount goal by the consume of mkdir ~/testmount and made goofys executable by the consume of chmod +x goofys-latest)

    that you could unmount the extent by means of sudo umount ~/testmount/

    however, you could consume s3fs. Create a credentials file ~/.cos_creds with:


    make positive neither your group nor others beget entry rights to this file, e.g. by means of chmod o-rwx ~/.cos_creds you can then mount the bucket by the consume of

    s3fs dlaas-ci-tf-practising-records-us-ordinary ~/testmount -o passwd_file= ~/.cos_creds -o url= -o use_path_request_style

    note that s3fs can optionally give huge logging guidance:

    s3fs dlaas-ci-tf-working towards-records-us-typical ~/testmount -o passwd_file= ~/.cos_creds -o dbglevel=data -f -o curldbg -o url= -o use_path_request_style &

    greater suggestions about s3fs can e.g. be discovered here.

    In simple test environments it may be enough to mount the folder as a number extent, e.g. into Minikube by the consume of minikube mount ~/testmount:/cosdata [Note: This will spawn a daemon that will preserve running so either set it in background or continue in current terminal] To test you could then ssh into Minikube (minikube ssh) and listing the files with ls /cosdata Then in rotate which you can mount the listing from inside the Minikube VM into a pod by the consume of hostPath binding:

    kubectl create -f proxymounttest.yml

    with proxymounttest.yml:

    apiVersion: v1kind: Podmetadata:name: ubuntuspec:containers:- name: ubuntuimage: ubuntu:14.04imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresentstdin: truestdinOnce: truetty: trueworkingDir: /cosdatavolumeMounts:- mountPath: /cosdataname: host-mountvolumes:- identify: host-mounthostPath:course: /cosdata

    Of course, you could achieve the identical through a PVC. both methods lead to the outcome that you should exec into the pod (kubectl exec -it ubuntu -- /bin/bash) and sprint ls /cosdata to listing the folder just like they did in the Minikube VM.

    however, for Kubernetes clusters in creation it is more captivating to adequately mount volumes by the consume of drivers and therefore they can focus on in here a artery to consume a Flex driver.

    Cloud demur Storage: Driver Setup

    Now that the Helm charts can be create in IBM Cloud it suffices to consume them to attain storage classes for COS, i.e.

    helm repo add stage repo updatehelm fetch --untar stage/ibmcloud-object-storage-pluginhelm plugin install ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin/helm-ibmchelm initkubectl derive pod -n kube-equipment | grep tiller# Wait & examine until situation is Runninghelm ibmc deploy stage/ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin –fibmcloud-object-storage-plugin/ibm/values.yaml

    which you could then checklist the current storage courses: kubectl derive sc

    Cloud demur Storage: steer Driver Setup

    IBM has launched an open supply COS plugin for Kubernetes. it is at the minute probably the most difficult to setup of utter classes, but it surely isn't unreasonable to await that helm charts for COS are soon added to the IBM repository after which the setup may be as convenient as block storage. nonetheless, it is an outstanding demonstration, due to the fact it suggests a artery to load customized drivers into IBM Cloud. The manual setup needs custom images, so that you want credentials for both an IBM Cloud container registry or for a personal Docker registry. The steps below signify on that you've set the atmosphere variables DOCKER_REPO, DOCKER_REPO_USER, DOCKER_REPO_PASS and DOCKER_NAMESPACE to your registry credentials as well as docker namespace.

    let us afterwards clone and bring together the driver:

    git clone ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin/install/binary-construct-and-installation-scripts/./

    We then should login to their registry and thrust the pictures they simply constructed.

    docker login --username=$DOCKER_REPO_USER --password=$DOCKER_REPO_PASS https://$DOCKER_REPO docker tag ibmcloud-object-storage-deployer:v001 $DOCKER_REPO/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE/ibmcloud-object-storage-deployer:v001docker tag ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin:v001 $DOCKER_REPO/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE/ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin:v001 docker thrust $DOCKER_REPO/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE/ibmcloud-object-storage-deployer:v001docker thrust $DOCKER_REPO/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE/ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin:v001

    Now they deserve to deploy the plugin and driver. As a primary step, they deserve to adjust the YAML descriptors to confer with their docker registry and namespace. due to the fact they try this by artery of sed and macOS doesn't consume GNU sed by means of default, they consume a variable CMD_SED to factor to the redress command. On macOS this assumes you installed GNU sed as gsed, e.g. by the consume of brew. They additionally need to create a docker-registry covert on the Kubernetes cluster so it will possibly authenticate against the container registry and tow the photos. finally, they will installation the plugin, provisioner and storage type.

    operating_system=$(uname)if [[ "$operating_system" == 'Linux' ]]; thenCMD_SED=sedelif [[ "$operating_system" == 'Darwin' ]]; thenCMD_SED=gsedfi# exchange photograph tag in yaml descriptors to point to registry and namespace$CMD_SED -i "s/picture: \"ibmcloud-object-storage-deployer:v001\"/picture: \"$DOCKER_REPO\/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE\/ibmcloud-object-storage-deployer:v001\"/g" set up-plugin.yaml$CMD_SED -i "s/photograph: \"ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin:v001\"/image: \"$DOCKER_REPO\/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE\/ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin:v001\"/g" deploy-provisioner.yaml# Create secret, then deploy daemonset and pluginkubectl create covert docker-registry regcred --docker-server=$DOCKER_REPO --docker-username=$DOCKER_REPO_USER --docker-password=$DOCKER_REPO_PASS --docker-e -n kube-systemkubectl create -f deploy-plugin.yamlkubectl create -f deploy-provisioner.yamlcd ..kubectl create -f ibmc-s3fs-general-StorageClass.yaml kubectl create -f ibmc-s3fs-standard-StorageClass.yaml Provision Cloud demur Storage PVC and check Pod

    With the driving force it is now effortless to create a PVC, but not like the previous strategies they need a covert to hold their COS credentials. hence, they create the covert first:

    kubectl solemnize -f - <<EOFapiVersion: v1kind: Secrettype: ibm/ibmc-s3fsmetadata:name: spy at various-secretnamespace: defaultdata:entry-key: <AWS_ACCESS_KEY>secret-key: <AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>EOF

    Please note that the credentials need to be Base64 encoded, so please encode them by artery of echo -n "<SECRET>" | base64

    we will then create the PVC itself:

    kubectl solemnize -f - <<EOFkind: PersistentVolumeClaimapiVersion: v1metadata:name: s3fs-look at various-ds-pvcnamespace: "ibmc-s3fs-standard" "proper" "true" "<wonderful bucket_name>" "" "us-common" "check-secret"spec:accessModes:- ReadOnlyManyresources:requests:storage: 40GiEOF

    Now that every one PVCs were created they will create a pod that mounts utter of them:

    kubectl apply -f - <<EOFapiVersion: v1kind: Podmetadata:name: s3fs-look at various-podnamespace: defaultspec:containers:- identify: s3fs-look at various-containerimage: anaudiyal/countless-loopvolumeMounts:- mountPath: "/cos"identify: s3fs-look at various-quantity- mountPath: "/block"identify: block-examine-volume- mountPath: "/nfs"identify: nfs-examine-volumevolumes:- identify: s3fs-look at various-volumepersistentVolumeClaim:claimName: s3fs-test-pvc- name: block-check-volumepersistentVolumeClaim:claimName: regpvc- name: nfs-test-volumepersistentVolumeClaim:claimName: nfspvcEOF AI-particular Storage options: Intel vck

    Intel vck (formerly KVC — Kubernetes quantity Controller) is being developed by Intel AI and customized-tailor-made for AI workloads. It provides entry to a various set of facts sources via a customized aid Definition the inner workings of which were outlined in a weblog post through them. as an alternative of IBM Cloud they tried this in a local DIND Kubernetes cluster. with a purpose to set it up execute here:

    kubectl create namespace vcknskubectl config set-context $(kubectl config current-context) --namespace=vcknsgit clone && cd vckhelm init# Wait except kubectl derive pod -n kube-gadget | grep tiller shows operating state# regulate helm-charts/kube-extent-contoller/values.yaml to accomplish consume of legitimate tag from deploy helm-charts/kube-volume-controller/ -n vck --wait --set namespace=vcknskubectl derive crdexport AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=<aws_access_key>export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=<aws_secret_access_key>kubectl create covert chummy aws-creds --from-literal=awsAccessKeyID=$AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID --from-literal=awsSecretAccessKey=$AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEYkubectl create -f materials/customresources/s3/one-vc.yaml# content material of supplies/customresources/s3/one-vc.yaml:apiVersion: VolumeManagermetadata:name: vck-example1namespace: vcknsspec:volumeConfigs:- identification: "vol1"replicas: 1sourceType: "S3"accessMode: "ReadWriteOnce"nodeAffinity:requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:nodeSelectorTerms:- matchExpressions:- key: Invalues:- <SOME_K8S_WORKER_NODE_NAME>means: 5Gilabels:key1: val1key2: val2options:endpointURL: aws-credssourceURL: "s3://<BUCKET_NAME>/" kubectl create -f supplies/pods/vck-pod.yaml# content of materials/pods/vck-pod.yaml:apiVersion: v1kind: Podmetadata:name: vck-claim-podspec:affinity:# nodeAffinity and hostPath below beget been copied from output of# kubectl derive volumemanager vck-example1 -o yamlnodeAffinity:requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:nodeSelectorTerms:- matchExpressions:- key: Existsvolumes:- name: dataset-claimhostPath:course: /var/datasets/vck-aid-<LONG_ID>containers:- picture: busyboxcommand: ["/bin/sh"]args: ["-c", "sleep 1d"]identify: vck-sleepvolumeMounts:- mountPath: /var/dataname: dataset-declare

    that you could afterwards exec into the pod with kubectl exec -it vck-claim-pod sh and record the bucket content with ls /var/information.

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    IBM storage items derive another NVMe booster shot | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    IBM dropped its quarterly wave of storage products this week, focusing particularly on latency-decreasing NVMe technologies and managing growing volumes of unstructured information.

    IBM followed via on its roadmap to expand aid for end-to-conclusion NVMe from utility servers to storage arrays with the launch of a current Storwize V7000 gadget. The Storwize V7000 is the primary IBM midtier device to add back for NVMe-oF, offering a Fibre Channel (FC) alternative.

    other IBM storage products launched or upgraded encompass Spectrum Virtualize, Spectrum find, Storage Insights, IBM Cloud demur Storage, a FlashSystem A9000R array and a TS1160 enterprise tape pressure.

    "here's simply a different instance that we're within the yr of NVMe," said Scott Sinclair, an analyst at industry approach community. "Storage vendors are embracing the merits of NVMe know-how to deliver larger storage performance and more effectual statistics access."

    Eric Burgener, an IDC analyst, said it be vital for IBM to prolong NVMe steer across its portfolio. IDC analysis predicts that, by using 2021, methods that consume NVMe as opposed to SCSI as a basis technology will generate at least half of external simple storage revenue.

    "we beget had utter this infrastructure modernization going on and the brand current workloads that need to be managed consist of loads of precise-time massive statistics analytics that you simply just in reality can not sprint on SCSI," Burgener stated. "There are workloads that absolutely need to beget NVMe within the combine."

    IBM's FlashSystem 900 enabled NVMe over InfiniBand early this yr, and the FlashSystem 9100 shipped in August with conclusion-to-conclusion NVMe help.

    IBM Storwize V7000 all-flash array IBM Storwize V7000 is a midrange all-flash array that helps end-to-conclusion NVMe. NVMe over Fibre Channel help

    IBM now supports the NVMe over FC transport option in storage products that consume its Spectrum Virtualize application, including the brand current Storwize V7000. purchasers that purchased IBM's SAN extent Controller, FlashSystem 9100 and V9000 or Storwize V7000F after September 2016 can enable NVMe over FC through a nondisruptive update of the IBM Spectrum Virtualize code. IBM plans so as to add back for NVMe over Ethernet via Spectrum Virtualize in 2019, in line with Eric Herzog, chief marketing officer and vice president of international storage channels at IBM.

    Like many IBM storage products, the current Storwize V7000 ships with Spectrum Virtualize utility to carry commercial enterprise facts functions to IBM and third-birthday party storage techniques. These functions encompass snapshots, replication, at-relaxation encryption and synthetic intelligence-based facts tiering.

    The Storwize V7000 now includes hardware-based mostly compression and encryption to minimize the efficiency repercussion of those features. Herzog observed IBM uses further processor chips in its current FlashCore Modules to enable the hardware-based mostly at-relaxation statistics encryption and compression.

    a brand current NVMe-based mostly 19.2 TB FlashCore Module furthermore serves to multiply the density of the Storwize system. The all-flash Storwize V7000 presents a highest raw potential of 461 TB per maneuver enclosure and as lots as 32 PB in a four-manner cluster. glitter force skill alternate options are four.eight TB, 9.6 TB and 19.2 TB, and IBM claims it might bring 5-to-1 facts compression.

    Enabling off-the-shelf NVMe SSDs

    Storwize ships with IBM's current 2.5-inch FlashCore Modules by means of default, however purchasers can pick industry ordinary NVMe-based mostly SSDs or add HDDs from third-birthday party vendors. Herzog referred to IBM's FlashCore Modules present higher performance, diminish latency and an extended seven-12 months guarantee than open-market SSDs which are usually positive for 3 to 5 years.

    Burgener observed IBM's shift to enable using off-the-shelf NVMe SSDs "actually shows that they don't mediate there is that a safe deal of a performance change associated with custom hardware anymore."

    "in case you wish to sprint inline facts capabilities, like compression and encryption, you could attain this with diminish latencies on those FlashCore Modules. but if you're no longer attracted to that, then the NVMe SSDs are basically a much less towering priced option. That, to me, is their future direction," Burgener mentioned.

    also amongst current IBM storage items is a current 18 TB customized glitter module that can double the highest potential of its FlashSystem 900. a current 15.36 TB glitter module boosts storage density in IBM's excessive-conclusion DS8880F arrays concentrated on the Unix, Linux and mainframe markets. a brand current DS8880 zHyperLink card improves latency.

    IBM furthermore delivered an entry-stage configuration of the FlashSystem A9000R tackle designed for cloud storage.

    Spectrum ascertain product aimed at 'statistics oceans'

    IBM's current Spectrum find product is designed to automate the cataloging of unstructured records through regular metadata and newly created customized metadata to facilitate statistics analytics, governance and storage optimization. The application deploys as a VMware virtual tackle and comprises an API to allow facts analytics, compliance and different purposes to access the metadata.

    "overlook facts lakes. you've gotten now obtained oceans of facts. how will you leverage that ocean of data to derive value out of it?" Herzog stated.

    using custom metadata tags, Spectrum find can back to velocity the records scanning manner, specifically with compliance functions that deserve to search through doubtlessly billions of info, Herzog referred to. With analytics workloads, information scientists commonly must labor with storage directors to prepare the records, and Spectrum find may automate and streamline the method, he added.

    "The fastest array on earth might not aid if you don't know what your facts is," wrote Steve McDowell, an analyst at Moor Insights & strategy, in an e mail. "IBM's Spectrum find will resolve real-world problems in statistics management. I believe they are going to contemplate others emulating IBM on this entrance."

    Spectrum ascertain is in keeping with know-how from IBM research and helps unstructured records in IBM Cloud demur Storage tackle and IBM Spectrum Scale. IBM plans so as to add back for Dell EMC Isilon subsequent yr.

    extra updates to IBM storage products

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    Extra Space Storage Inc (EXR) Q4 2018 Earnings Conference summon Transcript | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Extra Space Storage Inc  (NYSE:EXR)

    Logo of jester cap with thought bubble.

    Image source: The Motley Fool.

    Q4 2018 Earnings Conference CallFeb. 21, 2019, 1:00 p.m. ET

  • Prepared Remarks
  • Questions and Answers
  • Call Participants
  • Prepared Remarks:


    Good day ladies and gentlemen and welcome to the Fourth Quarter 2018 Extra Space Storage Inc. Earnings Conference Call. At this time, utter participants will be in a listen-only mode. Later, they will conduct a question-and-answer session and instructions will be given at that time (Operator Instructions) As a reminder, this summon is being recorded.

    I would now like to rotate the summon over to Jeff Norman. You may begin.

    Jeff Norman -- Vice President of Investor Relations

    Thank you, Michelle. Welcome to Extra Space Storage's fourth quarter and year cessation 2018 earnings call. In addition to their press release, they beget furnished unaudited supplemental financial information on their website. please recollect that management's prepared remarks and answers to your questions may contain forward-looking statements as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act. Actual results could differ materially from those stated or implied by their forward-looking statements, due to risks and uncertainties associated with the company's business.

    These forward-looking statements are qualified by the cautionary statements combined in the company's latest filings with the SEC, which they hearten their listeners to review. Forward-looking statements depict management's estimates as of today, Thursday, February 21st, 2019. The company assumes no responsibility to revise or update any forward-looking statements, because of changing market conditions, or other circumstances after the date of this conference call.

    I would now like to rotate the summon over to Joe Margolis, Chief Executive Officer.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thank you, Jeff, and hello everyone. Thank you for joining us for their fourth quarter and year-end call. It was stately to beget so many of you here eventual month for their Investor Day and they treasure your interest in and back of Extra Space Storage.

    2018 was another solid year. Same-store revenue was in line with expectations. Their diversified portfolio and best-in-class platform are maintaining very towering occupancies, while producing positive rate growth despite a challenging environment, with current supply in many markets. Expenses were furthermore generally in line with expectations, with the exception of a couple of uncontrollable expenses which hit in the first half of the year. Their team stepped up and did a stately job with controllable expenses, especially in the eventual two quarters, and create ways to offset some of the expense growth through savings and efficiencies.

    Our same-store NOI grew 4% for the year, despite a challenging operating environment. Same-store NOI was enhanced by their strong external growth from third-party management and off-market acquisitions, resulting in core FFO growth of 6.6%, which was above the towering cessation of their annual guidance.

    Looking forward to 2019, many of the themes are similar to 2018. They continue to contemplate current supply delivered in many markets. The rate of deliveries has started to slow. And while they noiseless believe current openings in 2019 will be lower than in 2018, they await the repercussion of current supply to be greater, due to the cumulative repercussion of several years of elevated development.

    These concerns are the identical concerns they discussed on their summon a year ago. However, there are furthermore some encouraging themes from eventual year, that will continue into 2019. First, the economy continues to be healthy. Second, they are in a need-based industry, with equable require and solid fundamentals. Third, concerns about declining consume of storage, due to millennials, disruptive current businesses or otherwise, are proving to be ill-founded. And fourth, big operators continue to beget a significant technology edge over most of the industry.

    As a result, occupancy remains very strong and they beget positive rate growth in most markets. They beget a geographically diverse portfolio and a platform built to drive traffic to their stores, their website and their summon center. In short, Extra Space is well prepared to navigate today's competitive landscape.

    The challenges presented by current supply furthermore continued to bring us opportunities. In 2018, they added 153 stores to their third party platform and continue to beget a robust pipeline for 2019. They invested $580 million in acquisitions, $145 million of which was invested in certificate of occupancy, or evolution deals.

    We were successful at finding accretive acquisition opportunities through their partners and other relationships before they were exposed to the broader market. 84% of utter 2018 acquisition volume was completed through off market transactions. This off-market acquisition trend has continued into 2019, as they recently completed the buyout of one of their joint venture partners in 12 properties in Los Angeles and the Bay Area. These are well located, purpose-built properties that they developed ourselves in the early 2000, in top tier infill markets with heartfelt barriers to entry. Extra Space realized the $72.8 million promote in the joint venture through the transaction, which was applied to the purchase price.

    While 2019 will not be without its challenges, they are making the necessary investments to strengthen their platform and back their growth, while maintaining operational excellence in the current environment.

    I would now like to rotate the time over to Scott.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Thanks Joe and hello everyone. Their core FFO for the quarter was $1.22 per partake and their core FFO for the year was $4.67 per share, ahead of their guidance. The beat was primarily due to property performance and G&A savings. Core FFO, includes a $0.02 adjustment for the write-off of deferred financing costs related to the prepayment of notes payable to trusts. They continue to evolve their poise sheet which has never been stronger. During the quarter, they amended their credit facility, access to their ATM, and increased their unencumbered pool, which now stands at $5.6 billion. These efforts are fragment of their goal to further diversify their capital structure, ladder their maturities, and minimize their unconcerned interest rate, while extending the unconcerned term. This will ensure that they continue to beget capacity to fund future growth through multiple sources of capital.

    Last night, they provided guidance in annual assumptions for 2019. Their current same-store pool increased by 38 stores to a total of 821. Same-store revenue is expected to multiply 2% to 3% in 2019. As Joe mentioned, they believe the repercussion from current supply will be greater in 2019 than it was in 2018. The flat of this repercussion will depend on the timing of deliveries and the hurry of absorption in impacted markets, specifically the major Florida and Texas markets.

    Our guidance furthermore assumes some revenue growth moderation in markets not heavily impacted by current supply. This is due to multiple years of outsized growth, resulting in tough comps. Same-store expense growth is expected to multiply 3.75% to 4.75%. The multiply in expenses is primarily driven by outsized growth in property taxes and marketing spend. Their revenue and expense guidance results in NOI growth of 1.25% to 2.75%.

    Our plenary year core FFO is estimated to be $4.73 to $4.83 per share. In 2019, they anticipate total dilution of $0.23 from value add and C of O acquisitions, up $0.03 from 2018. They recognized the short-term headwind this causes to their core FFO growth rate, but believe me investment in these lease up stores continues to improve the attribute of the portfolio, and generates long-term value for their shareholders.

    With that, let's rotate it over to Jeff to start their mp;A.

    Jeff Norman -- Vice President of Investor Relations

    Thanks Scott. In order to ensure they beget adequate time to address everyone's questions, I would await that everyone preserve your initial questions brief. If time allows, they will address follow-on questions, once everyone has had the opportunity to await their initial questions. With that, let's rotate it over to Michelle to start their mp;A.

    Questions and Answers:


    (Operator Instructions) Their first question comes from Jeff Spector of Bank of America. Your line is open.

    Shirley Wu -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

    Good morning, guys. This is Shirley Wu with Jeff Spector. So thanks for the actual color on supply. I mediate in previous earnings calls, you've mentioned that the percentage of your portfolio being affected by the current supply would be around 60% in 2019, has that changed and what attain you mediate 2020 is going to spy like?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    So their view of 2019 has not changed. The only thing that's changed on the ground, is a positive number of developments that they expected to be delivered in 2018 were in fact delayed and now will be delivered in 2019. But they await the identical thing to betide in 2019, at some of the properties that are scheduled to be delivered late in 2019 will in fact be delayed and not delivered in 2020. So their view continues to be that deliveries will be higher in 2018 than in 2019, although peak repercussion is in 2019, because of a cumulative effect.

    As to 2020 and their views frankly, it's utter matter to the trend continuing of decreasing current developments. If in fact people start putting more shovels in the ground, then they could be wrong and we'd just beget to wait and contemplate what happens.

    Shirley Wu -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

    That's fair. So could you talk about achieved street rate in 4Q and maybe how that's going to spy in 1Q of 2019 as well?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Yeah Shirley. Their street rates in the fourth quarter were -- this is their achieved street rate -- they achieved street rates that were in the low lone digits, and it was about 2% in January.

    Shirley Wu -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

    Got it. Thanks guys.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thanks Shirley.


    Our next question comes from Jeremy Metz of BMO Capital Markets. Your line is open.

    Jeremy Metz -- BMO -- Analyst

    Hey guys. Did you mention the drag from discounting at all? I know eventual quarter it was about an 80 basis points drag. It was suppositious to update a slight bit here in the fourth quarter, what was it, sorry?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    So in the fourth quarter, there was really no drag or no profit from discounts, it was flat . And their guidance for 2019 assumes same. No profit or drag.

    Jeremy Metz -- BMO -- Analyst

    So if they combine that with the 2% effectual rate you had just mentioned here, it obviously takes a while to roll through identical store, but as they mediate where you're at today and where your guidance is, does that 2.5% midpoint for revenue assume you actually paddle negative on net effectual rents, and it sounds like January is holding, but are you seeing any sort of signs already maybe in February of some slowing, that's making you more cautious?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    February is not significantly different than January. And I mediate guidance utter depends on where you are in that range.

    Jeremy Metz -- BMO -- Analyst

    Okay and then just one eventual one, Joe, at the Investor Day you touched on the current bridge financing program you started. Can you just give an update on where that stands today and what sort of activity you're seeing out there and how much capital allocation are you putting in the budget here for 2019?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Sure, Jeremy, would be helping to. For those of you who weren't at Investor Day, they started -- initiated a bridge lending program. The goal of which is to expand their management platform, to form additional relationships across the industry, because they create through management plus and other activities they attain with those relationships frequently rotate out to relent acquisitions or other benefits, and to fill, what they perceive as a capital void in the market and accomplish some money by lending to non-stabilized stores. They will not be lending to evolution stores. They don't want to beget to purloin over a half finished development. But they believe there is an opportunity to lend on stores that are not yet stabilized. We're just starting this program. We've made a couple of loans. They beget a few in the hopper. We're getting very safe reception in the marketplace. But they are just beginning. We're going to walk before they run. We're going to contemplate how the market reacts to this, and I would not await it to be a significant capital allocation in 2019.

    Jeremy Metz -- BMO -- Analyst

    Thanks guys.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Thanks, Jeremy.


    Our next question comes from Ronald Kamdem of Morgan Stanley. Your line is open.

    Ronald Kamdem -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

    Hey, thanks guys. Just following up on the same-store expenses, I mediate you mentioned outsized property taxes and marketing spend. Just snoopy if you can find more details, how does that -- how does the growth rate compare for those versus 2018 and if there is any markets or any benign of a one-time thing that's really driving this outsized nature of these expenses?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Yeah. Their property tax budgets for 2019 assume about 4.5% multiply year-over-year. They continue to contemplate pressure across multiple markets. So it's actually down slightly from 2018, but continues to be higher than inflation. 2019 marketing expend is about 11% in -- is what they budgeted, which is up from their annual sprint rate of 2018 and that comes from a couple of things, one is just overall inflation from more people bidding on using the search engines and that's driving the cost of the bids up as well as, you know, they are in a supply cycle and wanting to accomplish positive that they stay top of mind in people's buying decisions.

    Ronald Kamdem -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

    Great. And then just at a quick one on development, maybe could you just observation versus three, six, nine months ago beget you seen any incremental token from developers, whether it's relent compression, whether it's projects taking longer to lease up, any incremental color on slowing that supply pipeline?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    I mediate they are seeing the factors you described, relent compression, increased costs and just an awareness that many markets are over-built or fully built and some more caution. So they are seeing a pullback in current supply in some areas, current developments, in some areas. But there noiseless are people who beget either a more optimistic views or lower relent requirements that are noiseless trying to paddle forward.

    Ronald Kamdem -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

    Great. And the eventual one from me is just -- just noticed in the release that Miami was added to markets lagging and Philly was adding -- added to the markets that are outperforming. Can you just -- maybe a slight bit more color on what's going on there? Is that -- is there anything to note there?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    I mediate that's directly related to current supply. Miami has had a very big influx of current evolution that is impacting their performance, and they haven't seen the identical thing in Philadelphia.

    Ronald Kamdem -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

    Helpful. Thank you.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thank you, Ronald.


    Our next question comes from Smedes Rose of Citi. Your line is open.

    Smedes Rose -- Citigroup -- Analyst

    Hi, thank you. I wanted to await you the sequential decline in period cessation occupancy from 3Q to 4Q was steeper than what we've seen in several years now. Did that amaze you at all, or can you maybe provide a slight more color on, I guess, vacates over the course of the quarter?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    So this means -- first of utter I would order you, I mediate sometimes people focus too much on rentals and vacates. I mediate if you spy at their year-end occupancy, it was quite strong, maybe slightly stronger at the cessation of the third quarter. But again the goal here, obviously is to maximize revenue. You'll contemplate it plus or minus 10, 15, 20, 30 basis points depending on the month, depending on the quarter. But I don't mediate the fourth quarter played out significantly different than what they were expecting, and they felt like they had a strong ending to the quarter and the year.

    Smedes Rose -- Citigroup -- Analyst

    Okay. But you were looking for that flat of benign of sequential decline, so nothing that surprised at all.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Not necessarily decline, but on an annual basis, they were expecting no profit from occupancy, and that's largely where they ended up and the identical is heartfelt for 2019. Their budgets and their estimates are no profit from occupancy. But again we're not focused entirely on occupancy.

    Smedes Rose -- Citigroup -- Analyst

    Okay. And then I just wanted to await you -- you mentioned that these third-party platform maybe has an opportunity, as conditions are more challenging across the industry. beget you seen a pickup in inquiries or just private operators looking to combine a larger platform like yours?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    We have. We've had a pretty robust pipeline for several years now. I mediate they are seeing more inquiries from folks who are having some problems at their stores, meeting the numbers that they would like to hit. And I await as things derive tough, that will continue.

    Smedes Rose -- Citigroup -- Analyst

    Okay. Thank you guys.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thanks, Smedes.


    Our next question comes from Todd Thomas with KeyBanc Capital Markets. Your line is open.

    Todd Thomas -- KeyBanc Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Hi, thanks. In terms of the dilution from the lease-up stores $0.23 versus $0.20 in 2018, you beget more deliveries both wholly owned and JV planned in 2019, but a slight less than 2018. Would you await that dilution to continue increasing throughout the year and into 2020 or attain you anticipate that the dilution will flat off and open moderating during 2019?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    I was -- I am sorry Scott.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Go ahead.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Part of it depends on what they buy. A safe deal of what they bought in 2018 were non-stabilized stores and I mediate there will be an opportunity again, as operating conditions derive tougher and some owners settle their best that might be to sell, they may beget an opportunity to buy stores that are not fully stabilized and may even be benign of dilutive, depending on where they are in the first year. So I mediate that's the biggest variable in which direction the dilution goes.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Currently their budgets for C of Os, Todd are -- it's pretty even throughout the year, but that could move, depending on deliveries. They beget seen deliveries continue to purloin longer. But right now, it's pretty flat. Specifically for the C of Os, not the lease up stores Joe is talking about.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    I mediate it's distinguished to note that in a number of things they were talking about today, they are very focused on creating long-term value for their shareholders. And if they beget the opportunity to buy a safe store at a safe price, that they know long term, will relent value, will be accretive, then we're willing to accept a positive amount of short-term dilution to derive there.

    Todd Thomas -- KeyBanc Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay, that's helpful. And then can you provide an update or some color on the $300 million acquisition assumption that you beget for operating stores in 2019?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Sure. So we've closed $240 million worth of acquisitions already in 2019. They beget under compress another $100 million worth of stores, and they assume like in the prior years, that it's going to be difficult for us to be competitive in the bid-auction market and to be the towering bidder, and win a lot of stores that way. But their experience tells us that every year, they are able to buy a positive number of stores out of their management platform, from their joint venture partners or from their relationships in off market transactions, and while they can identify those today, history tells us that they will beget some success in that area.

    Todd Thomas -- KeyBanc Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay, got it. Right. So that includes the buyout of the JV partners' interests that beget closed to-date. Okay, and then just lastly, I was just snoopy if you could talk about the multiply in G&A expense that you're forecasting and what that's attributable to specifically?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Yeah, the multiply in 2019 in terms of their G&A, if you spy at it in terms of a percentage increase, it's actually in line with the multiply in the number of stores we've added over the eventual couple of years, and specifically what we're forecasting to add in 2019. Now that being said, about a third of the multiply that they will incur in 2019 has to attain with some outsized investments we're making in some technology opportunities, and some technology initiatives that should provide a platform for us to grow in the future, and to furthermore achieve some economies of scale. I would order you, they don't await to grow one-for-one G&A with their property count, but this is a year we've chosen to invest more heavily in technology that will assist us in the future.

    Todd Thomas -- KeyBanc Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay. Thank you.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thanks, Todd.


    Our next question comes from Ki Bin Kim of SunTrust. Your line is open.

    Ki Bin Kim -- SunTrust -- Analyst

    Hey guys. So this might be a difficult question to answer. But from your perspective, what percent of evolution deals attain you mediate are missing pro forma expectations?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Well, I don't mediate they can reply that question, Ki Bin. I would order you that on the deals that they do, their CO deals, evolution deals, we've been very delighted with their underwriting and as a whole, they are meeting or exceeding expectations. But they beget no artery of knowing what other people are underwriting or how they are actually performing.

    Ki Bin Kim -- SunTrust -- Analyst

    Yeah, I express I asked that question, just to contemplate if there is any kinds of trend and people are missing their yields. Well, that's probably the only reason why evolution will behind down, right? And on your expense growth expectations of 4.25%, attain you await that to continue on to 2020, 2021, or is this a benign of unusual year, where you beget some long-term resets that are happening and hitting in 2019?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    So in terms of their property expense growth being elevated, I mediate you saw eventual year and this year largely as a result of property taxes. They hope that moderates. We're furthermore seeing pressure on pay-per-click advertising, and so that continues to increase. But they hope in the future to be able to paddle back more toward inflationary expense growth.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    One thing that has damage us in the past few years is that values of self-storage properties has increased dramatically, excuse me. We've had property tax increases commensurate with that and as taxes snare up and derive to property values, you would mediate outsized property tax growth would halt and will just be inflationary (inaudible).

    Ki Bin Kim -- SunTrust -- Analyst

    Okay. And on -- just eventual one, when you proximate street rates, how proximate is that to the actual paddle in rate that you experience in any given quarter? Is that pretty close?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    So when I suppose achieved rates are up 2%, that is actually their paddle in rate. Their street rates are going to be higher than that.

    Ki Bin Kim -- SunTrust -- Analyst

    Got it. Alright thank you guys.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer


    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Thanks Ki Bin.


    Our next question comes from Jonathan Hughes of Raymond James. Your line is open.

    Jonathan Hughes -- Raymond James -- Analyst

    Hey safe afternoon. What's the contribution from the current identical store assets on revenue growth guidance, and how should that trend throughout the year?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Jonathan, it's about 10 to 15 basis points of revenue contribution and it is -- at the cessation of the year, it's basically zero. And so if you straight lined it, summon it 30 at the start of the year and zero at the cessation for a contribution of between 10 to 15 basis points.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Similar in 2018 and 2019, right?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer


    Jonathan Hughes -- Raymond James -- Analyst

    Okay. And then has there been any change to customer behavior and acceptance of renewal rate increases, as competition has increased? I mean, are there any knowledgeable customers out there using these current deliveries and benign of leveraging that and pushing back on, say, 9% 10% rate hikes?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    No, they really haven't seen any change in customer behavior in that area.

    Jonathan Hughes -- Raymond James -- Analyst

    Okay. That's just surprising. unprejudiced enough. And then I realize this isn't in the guidance, but any plans to spy at maybe recycling capital from some of your weaker non-core markets, sell those, focus on better longer term growth markets?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Well they set one property under compress yesterday. So that's one event, and they attain beget a list of properties that are always considered for either recap into a joint venture or outright sale. And they periodically spy at the portfolio and try to spy at where those opportunities would accomplish sense. They don't -- to reply your question, they don't specifically beget any portfolio on the market today. But it's always an option for us.

    Jonathan Hughes -- Raymond James -- Analyst

    Okay. I'll jump off. Thanks for the time.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Thank you.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thanks Jonathan.


    Our next question comes from Eric Frankel of Green Street Advisors. Your line is open.

    Eric Frankel -- Green Street Advisors -- Analyst

    Thank you. I just want to paddle back to the same-store calculations. Can you just corroborate -- so you suppose it's a 15 basis point track. Can you just corroborate the number of stores that can be added in the same-store pool?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    We are adding -- so their current pool is 783 and the current pool goes to 821. So an add of 38.

    Eric Frankel -- Green Street Advisors -- Analyst

    All right. And the unconcerned occupancy for the -- roughly I guess 40 or so stores. Is that significantly lower or the identical as what you currently have?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    It's pretty much the same. They're very proximate to being right on top of each other.

    Eric Frankel -- Green Street Advisors -- Analyst

    Okay. Okay. Just trying to understand that better. And then I know you've -- an earlier question just regarding your capital allocation guidance and the investments you beget under compress and what you're hoping to close. But it seems like you are 70% the artery they are essentially, in terms of what you beget under the contractor or beget closed and what you've guided to. That seems benign of conservative, maybe you could provide a slight more color on how you're thinking. I guess you beget -- it's roughly $160 million of deals that you haven't gone under compress or closed down, but it's benign of -- baked to your guidance. Any reason why that shouldn't be higher, just benign of given utter the the trends that you're referring to?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    The only thing I could suppose is, it's very difficult for us to call when we're going to beget opportunities to transact on an off-market basis. And as I said earlier, that's really where they are able to be successful. So they could talk to the brokers and they can understand the pipeline and what they mediate is coming forward. But we're not going to -- they know we're not going to be very successful there. So is it viable that they exceed their guidance and buy more? Absolutely. The accretive opportunities are available, safe deals, they beget a poise sheet and capital flexibility to execute on those transactions. So I hope they attain exceed their guidance in 2019, like they did in 2018. But we're not banking that.

    Eric Frankel -- Green Street Advisors -- Analyst

    Okay. Thanks everyone.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Thanks, Eric.


    (Operator Instructions) Their next question comes from Wes Golladay of RBC Capital Markets. Your line is open.

    Wes Golladay -- RBC Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Hi guys. When rent growth slows, is it driven more by change in distribution channels or lower street rates?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    The street rates are really going to drive your rent growth. I express their current -- your current street rates, your current achieved rate at some point flows through and becomes your rental rate growth. And so street rates are going to probably be more influential than anything.

    Wes Golladay -- RBC Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay. And then going back to that three-year rolling supply, when attain you contemplate that peaking and attain you await a gradual decline or a acute decline or how should they spy at that going forward?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    So they believe that 2018 was the peak delivery year and they await a gradual decline, and that's fully caveated by -- they don't know what people are going to attain in terms of picking up development. We're looking at current trends and assuming that they continue. But if -- for whatever reason, a bunch of people throw capital into evolution and start putting shovels in the ground where they shouldn't, then they could be wrong.

    Wes Golladay -- RBC Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay. And then -- and maybe going back to Ki Bin's question about the developers not getting returns; are there positive markets where you contemplate maybe in the next year or two, you can beget an opportunistic fund and purloin edge of some of this?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    I mediate that is likely. I mediate there are going to be opportunities to purchase projects that are not hitting pro forma or not doing as well as a lender would like or an equity partner would like, and their acquisition guys are fully focused on that.

    Wes Golladay -- RBC Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay. That's utter from me. Thank you for taking the questions.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thank you.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Thanks Wes.


    Our next question comes from Todd Stender of Wells Fargo. Your line is open.

    Todd Stender -- Wells Fargo -- Analyst

    Hi, thanks. Just to paddle back to the $0.23 dilution expected from C of O and value-add, beget you guys separated those two and how much attain you ascribe to those two buckets, each, if you have?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    It's about $0.16 from C of Os, and about $0.07 from lease-up properties.

    Todd Stender -- Wells Fargo -- Analyst

    Okay. Thank you, Scott. It could be a pretty safe source of upside to earnings. You've got 12 of the 17 project -- projected openings, I guess, opening in the first half of the year. But I furthermore want to contemplate potential offset -- offsetting that. beget you tapped the ATM already in January, February, just because you've acquired so much, just seeing where your capital is coming from?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    We used the ATM in the fourth quarter and in the current quarter they beget not, they beget not hit the ATM.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Third and fourth quarter.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Right. Third and fourth quarter of eventual year they used the ATM.

    Todd Stender -- Wells Fargo -- Analyst

    Okay. Thank you. And then just finally, excluding the 12 assets you described in California that you've already gotten, where are the other locations? I know you've got a couple C of O deals that are wholly owned, that you've acquired already in the first quarter. Where are those markets?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Plantation, Florid; Louisville, Kentucky and Manayunk, Pennsylvania. Actually they just closed one in Brooklyn too eventual week. Was that eventual week?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Yes. They beget several that are closing -- they beget three that are closing, two in Brooklyn, one in Queens. And then also, Massachusetts, Maryland, so they're benign of throughout the country.

    Todd Stender -- Wells Fargo -- Analyst

    Okay. Great, thank you.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thank you.


    Our next question comes from Tayo Okusanya of Jefferies. Your line is open.

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Hi. safe afternoon. couple of questions. The first one is, the 2% multiply in street rates that you guys discussed, is that net of concessions, or is that without concessions?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    It is not net of concessions. That is just their achieved rate, it's the unconcerned someone is paying, no matter which channel they Come from.

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Okay. The --

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Just going to say, discounts year-over-year, there is no change.

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Okay. So that's the first thing. Then going back to a question that was asked earlier on, not getting a lot of pushback from in-place tenants on rent increases. But I was just curious, the guidance contemplates a slower rate of rent increases going forward, because of supply or no?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    No. They really don't believe supply impacts their skill to multiply rents to tenants when appropriate.

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Okay, that's helpful. And then could you back us understand what the mark-to-market is in the portfolio, like today if a tenant moves out, unconcerned rents are X versus, if a tenant moves in, they will probably paddle in at an unconcerned at this particular rent?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Yeah. If you spy at their in-place rents and compare those two -- or achieved rents, so what people are renting out when they Come in the door. On unconcerned for the year, it is mid-single digits. So summon it 5%. That is considerably higher in the off season. So right now it's -- summon it, double digits and then it goes to zero in the summer months. So depending on the time of the year, they typically -- their rates are typically higher in the summer, when more people are moving, and lower in the off-season, when fewer people moving. So that roll down is higher in the colder months. And I would order you to be observant to assume that's the roll down on everybody, because you beget many people that paddle in and paddle right back out, and so they're at very proximate to what the street rate is.

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Got you. Okay. That's helpful. Thank you.

    Unidentified Speaker --

    Thanks Tayo.


    There are no further questions. I will rotate the summon back over to Joe Margolis, CEO for any closing remarks.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thank you everyone for joining us today. They await another stately year for Extra Space in 2019 despite the challenges we're utter vigilant of and we've utter discussed. They operate in a resilient sector. Their require is need based. They are able to achieve towering occupancies and positive rate growth, and they beget significant external growth opportunities. They continue to invest heavily in technology, their digital marketing and revenue management systems continue to evolve and improve. But zilch this would be viable without their people. They beget an incredible abysmal team of dedicated motivated, and engaged employees, who live their values every day and are driving their performance. And I want to recognize their contributions to their efforts in their success.

    Thank you utter for your interest and we'll talk to you soon.


    Ladies and gentlemen, thank you for participating in today's conference. This does conclude the program, and you may utter disconnect. Everyone beget a stately day.

    Duration: 39 minutes

    Call participants:

    Jeff Norman -- Vice President of Investor Relations

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer

    Shirley Wu -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

    Jeremy Metz -- BMO -- Analyst

    Ronald Kamdem -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

    Smedes Rose -- Citigroup -- Analyst

    Todd Thomas -- KeyBanc Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Ki Bin Kim -- SunTrust -- Analyst

    Jonathan Hughes -- Raymond James -- Analyst

    Eric Frankel -- Green Street Advisors -- Analyst

    Wes Golladay -- RBC Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Todd Stender -- Wells Fargo -- Analyst

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Unidentified Speaker --

    More EXR analysis

    Transcript powered by AlphaStreet

    This article is a transcript of this conference summon produced for The Motley Fool. While they strive for their fatuous Best, there may be errors, omissions, or inaccuracies in this transcript. As with utter their articles, The Motley Fool does not assume any responsibility for your consume of this content, and they strongly hearten you to attain your own research, including listening to the summon yourself and reading the company's SEC filings. please contemplate their Terms and Conditions for additional details, including their Obligatory Capitalized Disclaimers of Liability.

    Motley Fool Transcribers has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.

    Will sheds retain value? | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Andrew Allen

    But recommendations around prospective value or growth typically obscure multiple angles with admiration to investing. towering require from investors supports values, which is safe for existing asset owners, but a big question remains about future deployment of capital into the sector.

    Will the sector be as rewarding in the long term as some anticipate, or match the premium it has yielded in the recent past? In their view, the sector noiseless offers compelling risk and return characteristics.

    Where’s the rent?

    Strong occupier require continues to buoy UK rental levels, but attribute of space is key. Statements around supply volumes need to be considered against supply quality.

    Contemporary logistics businesses position an increasingly towering requirement on the type of space they need. Typically, the demands relate to floor loading, eave heights, vehicle circulation space and flexibility with admiration to loading docks and so on. Ultimately, this means that much of the existing stock is not really optimal. This in rotate compresses require into the most suitable buildings, which strongly implies ongoing rental growth for the right, but not all, buildings.

    Is the UK logistics market too expensive?

    As ever, the reply depends on perspective. With admiration to rent affordability, the sophistication of modern supply chains means calculations will be different. For example, the volume of movement of stored goods may now be a more distinguished consideration for occupiers than storage capacity.

    The determining factor must be the ultimate nature of the logistics occupier: is the industry simply focused on storage, or is it more about movement of high-value product for last-mile fulfilment? There are considerable differences between last-mile logistics and long-leased big ‘boxes’. The former relates to growth underpinned by surging require and fundamental land shortages; the latter is more determined by the underlying lease and covenant and, most likely, will contemplate more constrained, but noiseless positive, rental growth.

    Warehouse lorries

    Is logistics a one-way investment success?

    Most likely, yes, for the majority of buildings in the short term. But, broadly, we’re very mindful of the potential for these buildings to become obsolete in terms of physical characteristics and location. These factors are probably being understated by some investors keen to access the sector, but whose understanding of ongoing changes in the supply chain is limited.

    As for wider considerations, there are the obvious challenges of Brexit and the inevitability of technological change such as the potential repercussion of semi-autonomous vehicles. They prefer to focus on the known fundamentals, such as the scarcity of safe stock to back the market.

    Ultimately, safe logistics investments will be those where investors are confident that the underlying buildings or sites will retain a pertinent role beyond the lease term.

    Andrew Allen is global head of investment research, true estate, at Aberdeen yardstick Investments

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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
    ISBN13 : 9781260211108
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260682137
    ISBN13 : 9781260682137
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $80.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260277143
    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $77.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1259929434
    ISBN13 : 9781259929434
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $76.00
    By Peter W. Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260128474
    ISBN13 : 9781260128475
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $39.00
    By Peter Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260147150
    ISBN13 : 9781260147155
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $64.00
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