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000-911 exam Dumps Source : System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server
Test Code : 000-911
Test designation : System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server
Vendor designation : IBM
: 142 real Questions
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System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server
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July 05, 2007 12:00 ET
New Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 to Enable Rapid Adoption of IDS 11 "Cheetah"
ARMONK, NY and unique YORK, NY--(Marketwire - July 5, 2007) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) and AGS Ltd., a privately held purveyor of management solutions for data servers, today announced that the unique Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 -- the principal suite of integrated system management tools for IBM Informix Dynamic Server (IDS) -- is now available, with editions offered by both IBM and AGS.
The IDS data server is a strategic element of IBM's Information Management software portfolio and the recently announced IDS 11 -- code named Cheetah -- delivers increased performance, reliability and scalability, along with the faculty to ply massive volumes of involved data at very high speeds. IDS 11 is likewise the industry's first data server to provide clustered data centers with continuous data availability and calamity recovery regardless of the geographic location or distance between backup data focus sites.
Server Studio and Sentinel together configuration a powerful infrastructure of multi-platform tools that serve both seasoned database professionals and novices alike manage IBM Informix data server environments with an unprecedented ease and productivity. autochthonous support of IDS 11 unique functionality in the Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel further enhances faculty to deliver optimal performance, availability and maintainability of Informix databases throughout their entire operational life cycle.
"Our long-term partnership with AGS underscores IBM's steadfast commitment to providing IDS clients with the performance optimization, availability and compliance management solutions they need," said Bernie Spang, director IBM data servers. "The unique Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel will serve protect the investment that their customers Have made in their Informix data server infrastructures."
The versatility, wealthy functionality and ease-of-use provided by Server Studio and Sentinel build on the legendary reliability and simple administration of IDS. The unique tool set offered by AGS helps companies and organizations ensure that faultfinding database applications remain up and fulfill at peak levels, allowing them to effectively manage change, ply regulatory compliance and assure availability of vital commerce information.
Bank of America recently selected Server Studio and Sentinel for its IDS environment -- one of the world's largest distributed data centers processing online monetary transactions.
"The latest release of Server Studio and Sentinel provide a collection of integrated, highly productive system management tools that developers and DBAs working with IBM's Informix data servers Have been demanding and waiting for. Informix now has very powerful graphical tools that exceed the capabilities of autochthonous and third party offerings available for any other database platform. couple this with outstanding technical support and you find products with excellent value and a quick ROI," said Kevin Kleinhomer, Vice President at Bank of America. "In their large distributed environment, Server Studio and Sentinel Have simplified and automated many DBA tasks. With these additions, IBM's Informix data servers Have been made significantly easier to administer and monitor."
Server Studio provides a comprehensive collection of easy-to-use, proven tools for DBAs and developers that help efficiency of performing common database tasks such as: SQL development and debugging, schema management, configuration auditing and change management, performance tuning, data storage management and reorganization, security administration and more -- any from an integrated graphical console that unites development, administration and maintenance activities for an entire Informix infrastructure at a central point of control.
Sentinel provides 24 × 7 operational monitoring, alerting, issue discovery, analysis and autonomic response automation infrastructure for IBM Informix data servers' environment. It's facile to deploy agent-less architecture equips DBAs with sophisticated diagnostics and remediation facilities which serve pinpoint and resolve the underlying causes of performance bottlenecks and resources contention issues that adversely move databases' availability and impact conclude users.
Smaller companies and organizations that execute not Have large IT staffs to manage large data servers infrastructure Have likewise benefited from the robust application development and administration capabilities provided by IDS and Server Studio.
"As a software developer and DBA, Server Studio is a tool that I exercise every day, and it is exactly what I claim from my tools -- stable, reliable, and powerful," said Sean Durity, Manager of IT for CornerCap Investment Counsel. "Even the 'small' features of Server Studio are broad timesavers. I can't imagine working with Informix and not using Server Studio. I won't drudgery with anything less."
The relationship between AGS and IBM began in 2000 when IBM began distributing AGS' Server Studio as the primary database development and administration tools suite with Informix data servers. Product management, engineering and QA teams of both companies drudgery closely on product direction, technology development and QA testing of Server Studio and Sentinel.
"We are haughty of and greatly value their strategic partnership with IBM. Selection of AGS data servers' management solutions by IBM is a testament to their industry-leading technology," said Anatole Vishon, CEO of AGS Ltd. "We understand the vital flash of Informix, particularly in the retail, financial, telecommunications, healthcare, government and SMB sectors. AGS is committed to supporting existing capabilities and developing unique technologies for Informix data servers to add value for IBM customers."
Pricing and Availability
The Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel are available now through IBM and AGS worldwide. The Core Edition of Server Studio is provided by IBM to Informix customers at no additional cost. Its basic functionality can breathe extended by purchase of various premium editions available directly from AGS.
Additional information about Server Studio is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/serverstudio/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/serverstudio/
Additional information about Sentinel is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/sentinel/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/sentinel/
Additional information about Informix Dynamic Server is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/ids/
AGS, Server Studio and Sentinel are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Global Systems, Ltd. For a list of additional AGS trademarks, delight remark http://www.ags.com
IBM, Informix Dynamic Server and the IBM e-business logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of International commerce Machines Corporation. For a list of additional IBM trademarks, delight remark www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml
All other company, product or service names may breathe trademarks or registered trademarks of others. Statements concerning IBM's future development plans and schedules are made for planning purposes only, and are theme to change or withdrawal without notice. Reseller prices may vary.
Nov 10, 2011
Although it is feasible to develop an efficient Vehicle Tracking System using any database server, and many such solutions are already available in the market, Informix offers many advantages. Informix can reduce your disk space requirement, help your query performance, and reduce your application development efforts, without special training or buying additional technology. The built-in technologies of Informix will reduce your total cost of ownership, so if these benefits are valuable to you, keep reading!
A Vehicle Tracking System (VTS) tracks vehicles and provides different analytics, such as the total distance travelled, the total fuel consumption, the best routes, and so on. Certainly having more and more different kinds of alerts improves the efficiency of system. This system encompasses three phases of implementation: instrumentation, integration, and intelligence.
Instrumentation: Each vehicle has a special device that records different parameters related to a vehicle, such as, speed, current location, fuel status, ignition status, and so on.
Integration: Devices implemented in the domain transmit information through an integrated system that includes a GPRS system and stores the information in a database.
Intelligence: The intelligence on the information collected from the domain is stored in a database, including different kinds of MIS reports, dashboards, current locations of vehicles, travel information, and reports of exceptions fancy geo-fence violations and fuel theft.
Some of the characteristics of a VTS are:
Information about vehicles is collected every few minutes or as often as every minute
The volume of the data is huge
Performance is critical
Accuracy of the data matters the most
The application logic is specific to the industry (for example, geo-fencing, distance calculations, and so on)
Now let's remark the advantages of Informix built-in technologies over the traditional relational approach.
Disk Space Saving (62%)
A vehicle tracking system collects the vehicle-related information, including a time stamp, with a specific frequency. Informix provides a data sort that stores this sort of time string information more efficiently than any traditional RDBMS approach. The following tables compare both approaches.
Traditional RDBMS approach
This table shows the structure of the tracking table in a traditional RDBMS.
Informix TimeSeries data sort approach
Informix stores time string data in a specialized data type, called TimeSeries, which stores any the time string data for a particular vehicle in the selfsame row. Informix supports two different types of time series: regular time string that stores the data with a fixed frequency, and irregular time string that stores the data for capricious points in time. A regular time string is the most suitable for a VTS. In a regular time series, the time stamp is stored only once as the inception of the time string and the time stamps of the rest of the rows are calculated using the offset from the origin.
This table shows the structure of the tracking table in Informix, using the TimeSeries data type.
[(72.844060, 19.116280,85.00,40.00), (72.853800, 19.113470,84.90, 39.00)....]
[(72.855370, 19.116570, 100.00,45.00), (72.885120, 19.106000, 99.90, 45.00)..]
The data for each vehicle is stored in contiguous disk space on a page.
Traditional RDBMS approach
We create the traditional RDBMS table for storing vehicle tracking information, called vehicle_tracking:
create table vehicle_tracking
vehicle_number integer, - 4 (bytes)
timestamp datetime year to fraction(5) - 11(bytes)
longitude decimal(10,8), - 6(bytes)
latitude decimal(10,8) - 6(bytes)
accelerate decimal(5,2) - 4(bytes)
We create an index on the vehicle_number and timestamp columns.
Suppose they Have 10,000 vehicles to breathe tracked every minute and they necessity to store information for 90 days. Let's cipher the storage requirements.
Record size = 4+11+6+6+4 = 31
Record/slot overhead = 4 bytes
Total size of record = 31 + 4 = 35 bytes
Page overhead for maintaining page information = 28bytes per page
Total free space on 2 K page size = 2048-28 = 2020byte
Total records on each page = 2020/35=57
Total number of records = 10000*60*24*90 = 1296000000
Total number of pages used = 1296000000 / 57 = 22736842
Total space required for data = 22736842 * 2 KB = 43 GB
Total space required for the index = 34 GB
The total space required for the vehicle_tracking table = 43 + 34 = 77GB
Informix TimeSeries data sort approach
We create a TimeSeries data type, named vehicle_tracking_rt, and then create a table, named vehicle_tracking_ts, that includes the vehicle_tracking_rt column:
create row sort vehicle_tracking_rt
timestamp datetime year to fraction(5)
create table vehicle_tracking_ts
We create an index on only the vehicle_number column.
We store the vehicle number only once, hence the space required for the vehicle_number column = 10000*4 = 40000bytes=39 KB.
We create the index on only the vehicle_number column, hence the total space required for the index = 10000*4=40000 bytes = 39 KB.
We store the time stamp only once for each vehicle, hence the space required for the time stamp = 10000*11 = 110000 bytes = 107 KB.
The space required for any remaining columns is:
Record size = 6+6+4 = 16
Record/slot overhead = 4 bytes
Total size of record = 16 + 4 = 20 bytes
Page overhead for maintaining page information = 28bytes + 16 bytes slot overhead Total free space on 2 K page size = 2048-44 = 2004 bytes
Total records on each page = 2004/20=100
Total number of pages used per vehicle per day = 1440 / 100 = 15
Total pages used per day = 10000*15 = 150000
Total space required for data on first day = 150000 * 2 KB = 0.29 GB
Daily increment in data = 0.27 GB
Total space required for data of 90 days = 25 GB
The total space required for the vehicle_tracking_ts table = 25 GB +39 KB +29 KB+ 107 KB = 25 GB
This is a 68% disc space saving compared to a traditional RDBMS approach.
Performance (up to 54 times faster)
Let's consider few exercise cases:
Fuel theft information
Total fuel consumption
For any of these exercise cases, the application scans through the data for one day.
Traditional RDBMS performance
The report generation requires the following disk reads:
At least 5 disk reads through the index to attain to leaf nodes
Each vehicle has 60*24 records per day = 1440
Each vehicle needs 1440 non-cached disk reads
Total non-cached distributed disk reads = 1440 * 10000 = 14.4 million
Informix TimeSeries data sort performance
Because the index is only 39 KB, the scan pains is minimal.
Because the TimeSeries data sort stores data in contiguous space on a page, for a 2 K page size each page contains at least 2004/20 = 100 rows.
Each vehicle needs 1440/100 = 15 pages = 15 disk reads.
Total non-cached distributed disk reads = (15+ 1) * 10000 = 160,000
Informix TimeSeries type
68% space saving
54 times faster
The advantages of using the Informix TimeSeries implementation are:
Disk space reduction: almost 62% disc space saving
Performance improvement is multifold: up to 110 times faster
Faster development: Informix has more than 80 built-in SQL functions to fulfill different operations on time string data, such as, aggregation, running average, slimming algorithms, interpolation and extrapolation, and so on.
Customized development: Informix provides C and Java APIs to let developers develop their own time string functions.
Because many operations in a VTS application are time based, the available built-in routines for the Informix TimeSeries data sort makes development facile and fast.
If they want to remark the mediocre accelerate of vehicle every 30 minutes, the RDBMS approach requires a large programming pains and a performance challenge. Whereas, with the Informix TimeSeries data type, they exercise the simple AggregateBy office to roll-up the information to any required time frequency.
If they want to remark the mediocre accelerate of vehicle in eventual 30 days, the best passage is to examine its running mediocre (not its routine average). Again, showing the running mediocre accelerate of vehicles with the RDBMS approach is a broad programming and performance challenge. Whereas with the Informix TimeSeries data type, they exercise the simple TSRunningAvg office with the period and frequency that they want.
Another basic necessity of VTS is storing location-related information. Location information can breathe in the configuration of a point specifying the location of vehicle, a LineString specifying the route, or a Polygon specifying the geo-fence of the vehicle. The easiest passage to ply this sort of information is by using the Informix spatial data types. Informix spatial data types not only optimally maintain the data, but likewise provide built-in routines that help the accuracy and ease the development of your solution.
Let's examine the exercise case of geo-fencing. Geo-fencing refers to the practice of limiting the vehicle movements to a specific geographical district by defining the latitude and longitude of the district in the configuration of a LineString or polygon.
A geo-fence system raises an warning if one of the vehicles leaves the fenced district and deviates from its designated route. This might befall because of the personal interest of the vehicle driver or because the vehicle is stolen.
Traditional RDBMS approach
We identify the different locations on the route the vehicle is reputed to travel and insert multiple rows into a fence table, comprising information fancy the vehicle ID and its location (latitude and longitude) information. If they necessity to track 200 different locations on the designated route for a particular vehicle, they insert 200 rows for that vehicle. To check if the vehicle is outside the fence area, they develop their own logic and rush the cursor through these 200 rows to check if the current location is within any two points.
To display the geo-fence on an online map, they create an XML file by running a cursor through any 200 records and then parse through the XML to display each point on the map.
Informix spatial data types approach
We define a column called geofence in the master table with a data sort of either polygon or LineString. They store any 200 location co-ordinates in this separate column.
To check if the vehicle is within the fence area, they exercise the SQL office ST_Within (curr_loc,geofence). If the office returns "True," the vehicle is within the fence area; if it returns "False," the vehicle is outside the fence area.
To display the geo-fence on an online map, they exercise SE_askml(geofence) function, which creates a KML file that they can import into the map.
Advantages of using Informix spatial data types
Faster development: functions fancy ST_within and SE_askml are readily available
Better performance: they don't necessity to rush through multiple records
Assured accuracy: they are using Open GIS Consortium-compliant function
More analytics: they can find the nearest location or the distance between any two locations using functions fancy Nearest and ST_distance
Systems fancy a Vehicle Tracking System can breathe developed using any kind of database as a back-end. But using by the Informix TimeSeries and spatial built-in data types, the selfsame system can breathe many times more efficient. The disk space saving of 60% and up to 54 times faster performance compared to traditional relational approach can enable you to increase the frequency of data collection, which means better accuracy. The built-in functions for the TimeSeries and spatial data types makes the application development stint easier and provides for increased accuracy.
About the author:
Vaibhav Dantale is a software engineer within IBM Information Management division. He has been working on Informix for eventual 12 years, in various development, QA and technical management roles. Currently, Dantale focuses on evangelizing Informix product in ASIA Pacific region. He is one of the Informix TimeSeries technical experts and has been involved in several customer engagements on Informix TimeSeries. He has patents under his designation and is co-author of a red engage on Informix security features.
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The process of choosing a suitable DBMS for enterprise database management is not as difficult as it used to be. The number of major DBMS vendors has dwindled due to industry consolidation and domination of the sector by a few very large players.
Yet, large and medium-size organizations typically rush multiple DBMS products, from as few as two to as many as ten. For example, it is not uncommon for a large company to exercise IMS or IDMS and DB2 on the mainframe, Oracle and MySQL on several different UNIX servers, Microsoft SQL Server on Windows servers, as well as pockets of other DBMS products such as Sybase, Ingres, Adabas, and PostgreSQL on various platforms, not to mention single-user PC DBMS products such as Microsoft Access, Paradox, and FileMaker. Who chose to install any these DBMSs and why?
Unfortunately, often the reply is that not much thought and planning went into the decision-making process. Sometimes the decision to purchase and install a unique DBMS is driven by a commerce necessity or a unique application. This is reasonable if your organization has no DBMS and must purchase one for the first time. This is rarely the case, though. Regardless of whether a DBMS exists on-site, a unique DBMS is often viewed as a requirement for a unique application. Sometimes a unique DBMS product is purchased and installed without first examining if the application could breathe successfully implemented using an existing DBMS. Or, more likely, the DBAs know the application can breathe implemented using an existing DBMS but lack the organizational power or support to reject a unique DBMS proposal.
There are other reasons for the existence of multiple DBMS platforms in a separate organization. Perhaps the company purchased a commercial off-the-shelf application package that does not rush on any of the current DBMS platforms. Sometimes the decision to buy a unique DBMS is driven by the crave to support the latest and greatest technology. For example, many mainframe shops affecting from a hierarchic (IMS) or CODASYL (IDMS) database model to the relational model deployed DB2, resulting in an additional DBMS to learn and support. Then, when client/server computing became popular, additional DBMSs were implemented on UNIX, Linux, and Windows servers.
Once a DBMS is installed, removal can breathe difficult because of incompatibilities among the different DBMSs and the necessity of converting application code. Furthermore, when a unique DBMS is installed, dilapidated applications and databases are usually not migrated to it. The dilapidated DBMS remains and must continue to breathe supported. This complicates the DBA’s job.
So what should breathe done? Well, the DBA group should breathe empowered to configuration the DBMS decisions for the organization. No commerce unit should breathe allowed to purchase a DBMS without the leave of the DBA group. This is a difficult provision to implement and even more difficult to enforce. commerce politics often drudgery against the DBA group because it frequently possesses less organizational power than other commerce executives.
Choosing a DBMS
The DBA group should set a policy regarding the DBMS products to breathe supported within the organization. Whenever possible, the policy should minimize the number of different DBMS products. For a shop with multiple operating systems and multiple types of hardware, choose a default DBMS for the platform. discourage aberration from the default unless a compelling commerce case exists—a commerce case that passes the technical inspection of the DBA group.
Most of the major DBMS products Have similar features, and if the feature or functionality does not exist today, it probably will within 18 to 24 months. So, exercise caution before deciding to choose a DBMS based solely on its faculty to support a specific feature.
When choosing a DBMS, it is sage to select a product from a tier-1 vendor as listed in Table 2.1. Tier 1 represents the largest vendors having the most heavily implemented and supported products on the market. You cannot fade wrong with DB2 or Oracle. Both are accepted and support just about any sort of database. Another major player is Microsoft SQL Server, but only for Windows platforms. DB2 and Oracle rush on multiple platforms ranging from mainframe to UNIX, as well as Windows and even handheld devices. Choosing a DBMS other than these three should breathe done only under specific circumstances.
Table 2.1. Tier-1 DBMS Vendors
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
500 Oracle Parkway
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
Phone: (650) 506-7000
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone: (425) 882-8080
After the broad three attain MySQL, Sybase, Teradata, and Informix. Table 2.2 lists these tier-2 DBMS vendors. any of these offerings are attribute DBMS products, but their installed foundation is smaller, their products are engineered and marketed for niche purposes, or the companies are smaller with fewer resources than the broad Three (IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft), so there is some risk in choosing a DBMS from tier 2 instead of tier 1. However, there may breathe solid reasons for deploying a tier-2 solution, such as the high performance offered by Informix or the data warehousing and analytics capabilities of Teradata.
Table 2.2. Tier-2 DBMS Vendors
Informix Dynamic Server
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
Sybase Inc. (an SAP Company)
Adaptive Server Enterprise
6475 Christie Avenue
Emeryville, CA 94608
Phone: (510) 922-3500
10000 Innovation Drive
Dayton, OH 45342
Phone: (937) 242-4030
MySQL (a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation)
Phone: (208) 338-8100
Of course, there are other DBMS products on the market, many of which are fine products and worthy of consideration for specialty processing, confident predefined needs, and niche roles. If your company is heavily into the open-source software movement, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, or MySQL might breathe viable options. If an remonstrate DBMS is valuable for a specific project, you might consider ObjectDesign or Versant. And there are a variety of NoSQL DBMS offerings available, too, such as Hadoop, Cassandra, and MongoDB.1
However, for the bulk of your data management needs, a DBMS from a tier-1, or perhaps tier-2, DBMS vendor will deliver sufficient functionality with minimal risk. A myriad of DBMS products are available, each with confident features that configuration them worthy of consideration on a case-by-case basis. Choosing any of the lower-tier candidates—even such major names as Software AG’s Adabas and Actian’s Ingres—involves incurring additional risk. mention to Appendix B for a list of DBMS vendors.
I execute not want it to sound as if the selection of a DBMS is a no-brainer. You will necessity a strategy and a draw for selecting the preempt DBMS for your specific situation. When choosing a DBMS, breathe confident to consider each of these factors:
Operating system support. Does the DBMS support the operating systems in exercise at your organization, including the versions that you are currently using and draw on using?
Type of organization. recall into consideration the corporate philosophy when you choose a DBMS. Some organizations are very conservative and fancy to keep a tense rein on their environments; these organizations minister to gravitate toward traditional mainframe environments. Government operations, monetary institutions, and insurance and health companies usually minister to breathe conservative. More-liberal organizations are often willing to consider alternative architectures. It is not uncommon for manufacturing companies, dot-coms, and universities to breathe less conservative. Finally, some companies just execute not faith Windows as a mission-critical environment and prefer to exercise UNIX; this rules out some database vendors (Microsoft SQL Server, in particular).
Benchmarks. What performance benchmarks are available from the DBMS vendor and other users of the DBMS? The Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) publishes official database performance benchmarks that can breathe used as a guideline for the basic overall performance of many different types of database processing. (Refer to the sidebar “The Transaction Processing Performance Council” for more details.) In general, performance benchmarks can breathe useful as a broad indicator of database performance but should not breathe the only determinant when selecting a DBMS. Many of the TPC benchmarks are rush against database implementations that are not representative of most production database systems and therefore are not indicative of the actual performance of a particular DBMS. In addition, benchmarks are constantly updated to note unique and improved performance measurements for each of the major DBMS products, rendering the benchmark “winners” obsolete very quickly.
Scalability. Does the DBMS support the number of users and database sizes you intend to implement? How are large databases built, supported, and maintained—easily or with a lot of pain? Are there independent users who can authenticate the DBMS vendor’s scalability claims?
Availability of supporting software tools. Are the supporting tools you require available for the DBMS? These items may involve query and analysis tools, data warehousing support tools, database administration tools, backup and recovery tools, performance-monitoring tools, capacity-planning tools, database utilities, and support for various programming languages.
The Transaction Processing Performance Council is an independent, not-for-profit organization that manages and administers performance benchmark tests. Its mission is to define transaction processing and database benchmarks to provide the industry with objective, verifiable performance data. TPC benchmarks measure and evaluate computer functions and operations.
The definition of transaction espoused by the TPC is a commerce one. A typical TPC transaction includes the database updates for things such as inventory control (goods), airline reservations (services), and banking (money).
The benchmarks produced by the TPC measure performance in terms of how many transactions a given system and database can fulfill per unit of time, for example, number of transactions per second. The TPC defines three benchmarks:
TPC-C, for planned production workload in a transaction environment
TPC-H, a decision support benchmark consisting of a suite of business-oriented ad hoc queries and concurrent data modifications
TPC-E, an updated OLTP workload (based on monetary transaction processing)
Additional information and in-depth definitions of these benchmarks can breathe organize at the TPC Web site at www.tpc.org (see device 2.1).
Technicians. Is there a sufficient supply of skilled database professionals for the DBMS? consider your needs in terms of DBAs, technical support personnel (system programmers and administrators, operations analysts, etc.), and application programmers.
Cost of ownership. What is the total cost of ownership of the DBMS? DBMS vendors freight wildly varying prices for their technology. Total cost of ownership should breathe calculated as a combination of the license cost of the DBMS; the license cost of any required supporting software; the cost of database professionals to program, support, and administer the DBMS; and the cost of the computing resources required to operate the DBMS.
Release schedule. How often does the DBMS vendor release a unique version? Some vendors Have rapid release cycles, with unique releases coming out every 12 to 18 months. This can breathe fine or bad, depending on your approach. If you want cutting-edge features, a rapid release cycle is good. However, if your shop is more conservative, a DBMS that changes frequently can breathe difficult to support. A rapid release cycle will antecedent conservative organizations either to upgrade more frequently than they would fancy or to live with outdated DBMS software that is unlikely to Have the selfsame flush of support as the latest releases.
Reference customers. Will the DBMS vendor supply current user references? Can you find other users on your own who might provide more impartial answers? converse with current users to elicit issues and concerns you may Have overlooked. How is support? Does the vendor respond well to problems? execute things generally drudgery as advertised? Are there a lot of bug fixes that must breathe applied continuously? What is the attribute of unique releases? These questions can breathe answered only by the folks in the trenches.
When choosing a DBMS, breathe confident to recall into account the complexity of the products. DBMS software is very involved and is getting more involved with each unique release. Functionality that used to breathe supported only with add-on software or independent programs is increasingly being added as features of the DBMS, as shown in device 2.2. You will necessity to draw for and support any the features of the DBMS. Even if there is no current requirement for confident features, once you implement the DBMS the programmers and developers will find a reason to exercise just about anything the vendor threw into it. It is better to draw and breathe prepared than to allow features to breathe used without a draw for supporting them.
Figure 2.2. Convergence of features and functionality in DBMS software
The supporting architecture for the DBMS environment is very faultfinding to the success of the database applications. One wrong selection or poorly implemented component of the overall architecture can antecedent indigent performance, downtime, or unstable applications.
When mainframes dominated enterprise computing, DBMS architecture was a simpler concern. Everything ran on the mainframe, and that was that. However, today the IT infrastructure is distributed and heterogeneous. The overall architecture—even for a mainframe DBMS—will probably consist of multiple platforms and interoperating system software. A team consisting of commerce and IT experts, rather than a separate person or group, should configuration the final architecture decision. commerce experts should involve representatives from various departments, as well as from accounting and legal for software contract issues. Database administration representatives (DA, DBA, and SA), as well as members of the networking group, operating system experts, operations control personnel, programming experts, and any other interested parties, should breathe included in this team.
Furthermore, breathe confident that the DBMS you select is preempt for the nature and sort of processing you draw to implement. Four levels of DBMS architecture are available: enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile.
An enterprise DBMS is designed for scalability and high performance. An enterprise DBMS must breathe capable of supporting very large databases, a large number of concurrent users, and multiple types of applications. The enterprise DBMS runs on a large-scale machine, typically a mainframe or a high-end server running UNIX, Linux, or Windows Server. Furthermore, an enterprise DBMS offers any the “bells and whistles” available from the DBMS vendor. Multiprocessor support, support for parallel queries, and other advanced DBMS features are core components of an enterprise DBMS.
A departmental DBMS, sometimes referred to as a workgroup DBMS, serves the middle ground. The departmental DBMS supports diminutive to medium-size workgroups within an organization; typically, it runs on a UNIX, Linux, or Windows server. The dividing line between a departmental database server and an enterprise database server is quite gray. Hardware and software upgrades can allow a departmental DBMS to tackle tasks that previously could breathe performed only by an enterprise DBMS. The steadily falling cost of departmental hardware and software components further contributes to lowering the total cost of operation and enabling a workgroup environment to scale up to serve the enterprise.
A personal DBMS is designed for a separate user, typically on a low- to medium-powered PC platform. Microsoft Access, SQLite, and FileMaker2 are examples of personal database software. Of course, the major DBMS vendors likewise market personal versions of their higher-powered solutions, such as Oracle Database Personal Edition and DB2 Personal Edition. Sometimes the low cost of a personal DBMS results in a misguided attempt to choose a personal DBMS for a departmental or enterprise solution. However, execute not breathe lured by the low cost. A personal DBMS product is suitable only for very small-scale projects and should never breathe deployed for multiuser applications.
Finally, the mobile DBMS is a specialized version of a departmental or enterprise DBMS. It is designed for remote users who are not usually connected to the network. The mobile DBMS enables local database access and modification on a laptop or handheld device. Furthermore, the mobile DBMS provides a mechanism for synchronizing remote database changes to a centralized enterprise or departmental database server.
A DBMS designed for one sort of processing may breathe ill suited for other uses. For example, a personal DBMS is not designed for multiple users, and an enterprise DBMS is generally too involved for separate users. breathe confident to understand the differences among enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile DBMS software, and choose the preempt DBMS for your specific data-processing needs. You may necessity to choose multiple DBMS types—that is, a DBMS for each level—with usage determined by the needs of each development project.
If your organization requires DBMS solutions at different levels, favor the selection of a group of DBMS solutions from the selfsame vendor whenever possible. Doing so will minimize differences in access, development, and administration. For example, favor Oracle Database Personal Edition for your single-user DBMS needs if your organization uses Oracle as the enterprise DBMS of choice.
Clustering is the exercise of multiple “independent” computing systems working together as a single, highly available system. A modern DBMS offers clustering support to enhance availability and scalability. The two predominant architectures for clustering are shared-disk and shared-nothing. These names execute a fine job of describing the nature of the architecture—at least at a high level.
Shared-nothing clustering is depicted in device 2.3. In a shared-nothing architecture, each system has its own private resources (memory, disks, etc.). The clustered processors communicate by passing messages through a network that interconnects the computers. In addition, requests from clients are automatically routed to the system that owns the resource. Only one of the clustered systems can “own” and access a particular resource at a time. In the event a failure occurs, resource ownership can breathe dynamically transferred to another system in the cluster. The main handicap of shared-nothing clustering is scalability. In theory, a shared-nothing multiprocessor can scale up to thousands of processors because they execute not meddle with one another—nothing is shared.
In a shared-disk environment, any the connected systems participate the selfsame disk devices, as shown in device 2.4. Each processor noiseless has its own private memory, but any the processors can directly address any the disks. Typically, shared-disk clustering does not scale as well for smaller machines as shared-nothing clustering. Shared-disk clustering is better suited to large-enterprise processing in a mainframe environment. Mainframes—very large processors—are capable of processing mammoth volumes of work. powerful benefits can breathe obtained with only a few clustered mainframes, while many PC and midrange processors would necessity to breathe clustered to achieve similar benefits.
Shared-disk clustering is usually preferable for applications and services requiring only modest shared access to data and for applications or workloads that are very difficult to partition. Applications with weighty data update requirements are probably better implemented as shared-nothing. Table 2.3 compares the capabilities of shared-disk and shared-nothing architectures.
Table 2.3. Comparison of Shared-Disk and Shared-Nothing Architectures
Quick adaptability to changing workloads
Can exploit simpler, cheaper hardware
Almost unlimited scalability
Performs best in a weighty read environment
Works well in a high-volume, read-write environment
Data necessity not breathe partitioned
Data is partitioned across the cluster
The major DBMS vendors provide support for different types of clustering with different capabilities and requirements. For example, DB2 for z/OS provides shared-disk clustering with its Data Sharing and Parallel Sysplex capabilities; DB2 on non-mainframe platforms uses shared-nothing clustering. Oracle’s real Application Clusters provide shared-disk clustering.
For most users, the primary profit of clustering is the enhanced availability that accrues by combining processors. In some cases, clustering can serve an enterprise to achieve five-nines (99.999 percent) availability. Additionally, clustering can breathe used for load balancing and failover.
As a rule of thumb, create a policy (or at least some simple guidelines) that must breathe followed before a unique DBMS can breathe brought into the organization. Failure to execute so can antecedent a proliferation of different DBMS products that will breathe difficult to support. It can likewise antecedent confusion regarding which DBMS to exercise for which development effort.
As mentioned earlier, there is a plethora of DBMS vendors, each touting its benefits. As a DBA, you will breathe bombarded with marketing and sales efforts that attempt to convince you that you necessity another DBMS. Try to resist unless a very compelling reason is given and a short-term recur on investment (ROI) can breathe demonstrated. Even when confronted with cogent reasons and fine ROI, breathe confident to double-check the arguments and ROI calculations. Sometimes the reasons specified are outdated and the ROI figures execute not recall everything into account—such as the additional cost of administration.
Remember, every DBMS requires database administration support. Moreover, each DBMS uses different methods to fulfill similar tasks. The fewer DBMS products installed, the less complicated database administration becomes, and the better your chances become of providing effectual data management resources for your organization.
When establishing a database environment for application development, selecting the DBMS is only fragment of the equation. The hardware and operating system on which the DBMS will rush will greatly impact the reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of the database environment. For example, a mainframe platform such as an IBM zEC12 running z/OS will probably provide higher RAS than a midrange IBM xSeries machine running AIX, which in circle will probably exceed a Dell server running Windows. That is not to issue everything should rush on a mainframe; other issues such as cost, experience, manageability, and the needs of the applications to breathe developed must breathe considered. The bottom line is that you must breathe confident to factor hardware platform and operating system constraints into the DBMS selection criteria.
Cloud Database Systems
Cloud computing (see the sidebar) is increasing in usage, especially at diminutive to medium-size businesses. A cloud implementation can breathe more cost-effective than structure an entire local computing infrastructure that requires management and support.
A cloud database system delivers DBMS services over the Internet. The trade-off essentially comes down to trusting a cloud provider to store and manage your data in recur for minimizing database administration and maintenance cost and effort. Using cloud database systems can enable organizations, especially smaller ones without the resources to invest in an enterprise computing infrastructure, to focus on their commerce instead of their computing environment.
By consolidating data sources in the cloud, it is feasible to help collaboration among partners, offshoot offices, remote workers, and mobile devices, because the data becomes accessible as a service. There is no necessity to install, set up, patch, or manage the DBMS software because the cloud provider manages and cares for these administrative tasks. Of course, the downside is that your data is now stored and controlled by an external agent—the cloud provider. Another inherent risk of cloud computing is the possibility of nefarious agents posing as legitimate customers.
An instance of a cloud database platform is Microsoft SQL Azure. It is built on SQL Server technologies and is a component of the Windows Azure platform.