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000-911 exam Dumps Source : System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server
Test Code : 000-911
Test cognomen : System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 142 real Questions
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IBM System and Administration: Informix
July 05, 2007 12:00 ET
New Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 to permit quick Adoption of IDS 11 "Cheetah"
ARMONK, ny and ny, titanic apple--(Marketwire - July 5, 2007) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) and AGS Ltd., a privately held purveyor of management solutions for facts servers, these days introduced that the current Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 -- the essential suite of integrated gadget administration outfit for IBM Informix Dynamic Server (IDS) -- is now accessible, with variants offered by means of both IBM and AGS.
The IDS statistics server is a strategic point of IBM's information management application portfolio and the these days announced IDS 11 -- code named Cheetah -- delivers multiplied efficiency, reliability and scalability, together with the means to address huge volumes of advanced statistics at very unreasonable speeds. IDS eleven is additionally the business's first data server to deliver clustered data centers with continuous facts availability and catastrophe healing despite the geographic district or distance between backup statistics middle websites.
Server Studio and Sentinel together benevolent a magnificent infrastructure of multi-platform outfit that assist both pro database professionals and beginners alike manage IBM Informix facts server environments with an unheard of ease and productiveness. native succor of IDS 11 current performance within the liberate 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel further enhances faculty to deliver most efficient efficiency, availability and maintainability of Informix databases during their gross operational actuality cycle.
"Our long-term partnership with AGS underscores IBM's steadfast commitment to offering IDS customers with the performance optimization, availability and compliance administration solutions they need," referred to Bernie Spang, director IBM statistics servers. "the current liberate 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel will aid present protection to the funding that their shoppers hold made of their Informix statistics server infrastructures."
the flexibility, affluent performance and ease-of-use provided through Server Studio and Sentinel construct on the legendary reliability and easy administration of IDS. the brand current implement set provided by using AGS helps businesses and companies develop confident that crucial database purposes remain up and accomplish at height ranges, enabling them to conveniently control alternate, handle regulatory compliance and guarantee availability of essential enterprise tips.
bank of the usa currently chosen Server Studio and Sentinel for its IDS environment -- one of the most world's largest disbursed data facilities processing on-line fiscal transactions.
"The latest free up of Server Studio and Sentinel give a group of built-in, highly productive device management tools that developers and DBAs working with IBM's Informix records servers hold been traumatic and awaiting. Informix now has very powerful graphical outfit that exceed the capabilities of native and third celebration offerings purchasable for any other database platform. brace this with spectacular technical succor and furthermore you score items with incredible charge and a short ROI," pointed out Kevin Kleinhomer, vice chairman at financial institution of the usa. "In their mammoth distributed environment, Server Studio and Sentinel hold simplified and automated many DBA tasks. With these additions, IBM's Informix information servers hold been made greatly simpler to manage and monitor."
Server Studio gives a finished assortment of effortless-to-use, proven tools for DBAs and developers that multiply efficiency of performing tolerable database projects similar to: SQL construction and debugging, schema management, configuration auditing and change management, performance tuning, information storage management and reorganization, safety administration and extra -- total from an built-in graphical console that unites construction, administration and protection actions for a gross Informix infrastructure at a principal ingredient of manage.
Sentinel provides 24 × 7 operational monitoring, alerting, concern discovery, analysis and autonomic response automation infrastructure for IBM Informix statistics servers' ambiance. it be easy to deploy agent-much less structure equips DBAs with sophisticated diagnostics and remediation facilities which aid pinpoint and unravel the underlying explanations of performance bottlenecks and elements competition issues that adversely hold an result on databases' availability and influence halt clients.
Smaller businesses and businesses that would not hold significant IT staffs to maneuver colossal information servers infrastructure hold additionally benefited from the mighty application construction and administration capabilities offered by means of IDS and Server Studio.
"As a software developer and DBA, Server Studio is a device that i seize odds of day by day, and it's exactly what I exact from my tools -- good, legit, and strong," mentioned Sean Durity, manager of IT for CornerCap investment information. "Even the 'small' elements of Server Studio are huge timesavers. I cannot reason about working with Informix and not the employ of Server Studio. I may not toil with anything less."
the relationship between AGS and IBM total started in 2000 when IBM total started distributing AGS' Server Studio as the fundamental database pile and administration outfit suite with Informix data servers. Product management, engineering and QA teams of both agencies toil intently on product direction, know-how construction and QA checking out of Server Studio and Sentinel.
"we are pleased with and significantly charge their strategic partnership with IBM. option of AGS facts servers' management solutions by using IBM is a testament to their industry-leading know-how," eminent Anatole Vishon, CEO of AGS Ltd. "We account the a must-have magnitude of Informix, particularly in the retail, fiscal, telecommunications, healthcare, govt and SMB sectors. AGS is committed to supporting existing capabilities and establishing current technologies for Informix facts servers so as to add charge for IBM shoppers."
Pricing and Availability
The liberate 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel can be organize now through IBM and AGS international. The Core edition of Server Studio is equipped by means of IBM to Informix customers at no further charge. Its fundamental functionality will furthermore be extended by means of buy of numerous top rate versions obtainable without detain from AGS.
additional information about Server Studio is accessible at: http://www.ibm.com/utility/statistics/informix/serverstudio/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/items/serverstudio/
more information about Sentinel is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/facts/informix/sentinel/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/sentinel/
additional information about Informix Dynamic Server is available at: http://www.ibm.com/application/information/informix/ids/
AGS, Server Studio and Sentinel are logos or registered logos of superior international programs, Ltd. For an inventory of extra AGS trademarks, gladden descry http://www.ags.com
IBM, Informix Dynamic Server and the IBM e-enterprise emblem are emblems or registered emblems of overseas enterprise Machines service provider. For a list of extra IBM trademarks, gladden descry www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml
All different company, product or provider names may be trademarks or registered logos of others. Statements regarding IBM's future pile plans and schedules are made for planning applications most effective, and are district to exchange or withdrawal devoid of be aware. Reseller fees may additionally fluctuate.
Feb 18, 2019 (Heraldkeeper by passage of COMTEX) -- long island, February 19, 2019: The fleet administration market is expected to attain US$ fifty one.5 Billion by means of 2024; growing to be at a CAGR of greater than 23.50% in the given forecast period.
this may halt any mistaken messing with them. it's going to likewise compose a proper succor plan.within the feeling of fleet administration, monitoring a car has two implications. The simple magnitude is preserving plenary and an accurate record of every thing which concerns that car, from gasoline stops to any upkeep, whether it’s a driver fitting an extra fan belt out and about in a cataclysm or a plenary administration. here's simple so peculiarities may furthermore be diagnosed and wondered. The 2nd significance basically is conscious of the dwelling cars are. This responsibility has been made plenty simpler since the innovation of GPS and discharging it for open use.
Fleet Managements project is a set of responsibilities which is required to maintain fleet of vehicles working effectively. The principal accountability of any fleet administrator is to grasp what is truly in their fleet at any given time. this could no longer best just implies that the fleet administrator should hold a checklist of total motors moreover but furthermore may soundless hold in an ideal world that they must hold a checklist of the entire serial portions of the diverse key elements which establish with each and every of their vehicles.
Browse plenary record: https://www.marketresearchengine.com/reportdetails/fleet-administration-market-file
The Fleet management Market has been segmented as beneath:
The Fleet management Market is segmented on the groundwork of reply type, Deployment type, carrier class, Connectivity category, perpendicular analysis and Regional analysis. by using solution classification this market is segmented on the groundwork of Driver management, Asset administration and Operation administration.
by Deployment type this market is segmented on the basis of Hybrid, On premises and Cloud. via provider category this market is segmented on the foundation of Managed functions, Integration and deployment carrier and Managed capabilities. by means of Connectivity classification this market is segmented on the foundation of mobile device and satellite tv for pc device.
via perpendicular analysis this market is segmented on the groundwork of construction, RetailEnergy and utilities, Transportation and logistics, govt and Manufacturing. by passage of Regional analysis this market is segmented on the groundwork of North the usa, EuropeAPAC and leisure of the area.
This report offers:
1) an overview of the world marketplace for fleet management and linked applied sciences.2) Analyses of global market trends, with information from 2015, estimates for 2016 and 2017, and projections of compound annual boom costs (CAGRs) via 2022.three) determine the brand current market alternatives and targeted promotional plans for fleet administration.four) discussion of research and building, and the exact for brand spanking current items and current purposes on the facts purchasable.5) finished commerce profiles of predominant players in the trade to explore further viable gains.
Request pattern document from perquisite here: https://www.marketresearchengine.com/reportdetails/fleet-management-market-record
desk of Contents
2 research Methodology
3 govt summary
four premium Insights
4.1 appealing Market opportunities in the Market4.2 Market with the aid of solution, 2016-20214.3 Fleet management Market: proper capabilities and Solutions4.four Lifecycle analysis, by means of Region4.5 Market funding scenario
5 Fleet administration Market Overview
6 industry trends
7 Fleet administration Market evaluation, by using Deployment class
8 Fleet administration Market analysis, by means of solution
9 Fleet management Market analysis, via Connectivity technology
10 Fleet administration Market analysis, with the aid of provider
eleven Fleet administration Market evaluation, by Vertical
12 Geographic analysis
13 competitive landscape
14 commerce Profiles
14.2 AT&T, Inc.
14.3 Cisco techniques, Inc.
14.4 Fleetmatics group PLC
14.5 IBM organization
14.6 Verizon Communications, Inc.
14.7 I.D. methods, Inc.
14.eight Trimble Navigation restrained
14.10 Zonar methods
14.11 Workwave LLC
different related Market analysis experiences:
international Fish Finder device Market Key avid gamers, Share, developments, sales, Segmentation and Forecast through 2023
circulate Battery Market measurement is Projected to be round US$ 1.09 Billion by passage of 2024
enterprise identify: Market analysis Engine
Contact grownup: John Bay
web site: https://www.marketresearchengine.com/
IBM supplies next-technology DB2 eight.2 Database
large Blue furthermore discloses plans to integrate its DB2 and Informix Dynamix Server product lines in future types of both products
by using Stephen Swoyer
IBM Corp. final week formally introduced the next unlock of its DB2 commonplace Database (UDB) edition eight.2, formerly code-named “Stinger.”
IBM introduced the first beta of Stinger remaining fall, followed in can furthermore by means of a public beta preview. The ensuing DB2 eight.2 database—packing a bevy of efficiency and availability points, together with current autonomic capabilities—will become often attainable this Friday.
For the list, large Blue final delivered an mammoth DB2 UDB supersede (edition eight.1) in November 2002—just weeks after it kicked off its eBusiness-On-Demand computing method.
In light of IBM’s constant emphasis on utility or “on-demand” computing, then, it’s now not surprising that officials had been anxious to tout the autonomic credentials of the current database. “These [autonomic] capabilities are via a long passage the leading factor [of the DB2 8.2 release],” says Jeff Jones, director of approach for IBM’s data management options. “The concept is that with these [autonomic] capabilities, fewer DBA elements are required, and the DBA is allowed to conclude other things, affection probably participate greater at design time, affection greater order detective work.”
Jones says that the revamped database will develop it less demanding for DBAs to install, configure, keep, and optimize DB2 databases on the fly. during this appreciate, officers factor to superior types of tools such as DB2 Configuration marketing consultant and DB2 Design guide, which provide DBAs a wizard-like interface to customise DB2 for different application and information warehousing necessities. Configuration marketing consultant, for example, asks questions on what type of utility a DBA plans to roll out and the passage many clients she expects to assist, after which tunes DB2 for this reason.
similarly, the current Design advisor lets DBAs extra simply tune DB2 because the database workload alterations, automate adjustments to the database constitution, and accomplish tasks such as database backup and restoration. Jones says it may well be specially helpful in complicated-query environments.
one of the vital largest current features in the revamped DB2 is in keeping with expertise IBM developed for its gaining scholarship of Optimization (LEO) analysis and pile venture. in line with Jones, LEO helps to automate, simplify, and accelerate queries without requiring a DBA’s attention. The LEO technology additionally offers up-to-date query facts about database use, storage, and efficiency.
nonetheless a different current characteristic is what IBM calls query Patroller, which introduces a query-based chargeback facility. “It lets you really computer screen [and] seize note the freight of queries, so you can conclude things affection chargeback. you can basically design how a Great deal query time these departments are the employ of and freight them for it,” mentioned Paul Rivot, global director of database servers at IBM, in an interview this may.
in other places, DB2 8.2 boasts a current characteristic called Autonomic demur preservation that automatically performs administration and upkeep features, corresponding to table alterations or facts backups.
in total probability fantastically, IBM’s DB2 eight.2 unencumber borrows heavily from applied sciences already blanketed within the Informix Dynamix Server, the thing-relational information shop IBM obtained with the purchase of Informix in 2001. for example, says Jones, the current edition of DB2 aspects a faculty referred to as Autonomic excessive-Availability-catastrophe-restoration (HADR) with autonomic client reroute, which supports computerized excessive-availability, catastrophe healing and customer reroute for clustered environments.
“We’re hugely automating the assignment of developing failover pairs, lower back up methods, to fail to when a prime gadget dies,” he explains. “This became doable in the past with DB2, but it become fairly slightly more guide. turns out that Informix has a real rich, real efficacious capability, so they decided, let’s score this going on DB2, as a result of this can vastly impact DB2.”
HADR gives a wizard-like interface that lets DBAs “construct and installation this [clustering] faculty and additionally the automated client re-route and the precise mechanical failover capabilities that are very quick and intensely computerized once whatever fails,” says Jones.
On the BI entrance, Jones says, DB2 8.2 points an extra contribution from Informix Dynamix Server. “The different is the Geodetic Extender it really is an present aspect known as the Geodetic information Blade,” he confirms. because of its Geodetic Extender part, DB2 8.2 can redeem third-dimensional geospatial statistics that's each place- and time-and-house-aware. This office should enchantment basically to clients in positive verticals (govt, protection, and transportation, together with restaurant chains and retailers) that on occasion employ spatial facts to identify current company opportunities, officers say.
somewhere else in BI additions, Jones says consumers can employ DB2 cube Views to define OLAP-centric metadata—including hierarchies, dimensions, attributes, and enterprise guidelines or formulas—and shop it as a limpid extension to DB2. within the revamped eight.2 unlock, this expertise has been tweaked to raise question performance.
DB2 and Informix Dynamix to Merge in Subsequent Revisions
IBM at the moment keeps sever pile groups for DB2 UDB and Informix Dynamix, but Jones says huge Blue has plans to merge both product strains in the future. “we hold the luxurious of having two pile teams innovating simultaneously and sharing their improvements with one one more, with the most efficient point of having the subsequent edition of DB2 and the next version of Informix Dynamix Server turn out to be being the equal issue,” he asserts.
Jones features to IBM’s existing interoperability toil with both facts retailers, together with pass-statistics-type aid and SQL standardization, which, he says, will develop it workable emigrate from side to side between the two information stores. “The approach then is to aid Informix Dynamix Server and raise it via person requirements, however try this with a continuous eye to getting closer and closer to regular functionality with DB2,” says Jones, who provides “that is a means off.”
in the close-term, says Jones, IBM will proceed to lead latest Informix Dynamix customers. “Informix Dynamic Server remains turning out to be and being superior. they now hold the Informix team nonetheless working on it, and we're assisting the Informix customer base,” he asserts.
IBM presents Public Preview of “Stinger” DB2http://www.esj.com/information/article.asp?editorialsId=954
IBM Database update activities BI-friendly Featureshttp://www.esj.com/business_intelligence/article.asp?id=7058&t=y
Stephen Swoyer is a Nashville, TN-based mostly freelance journalist who writes about technology.
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System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server
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July 05, 2007 12:00 ET
New Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 to Enable Rapid Adoption of IDS 11 "Cheetah"
ARMONK, NY and current YORK, NY--(Marketwire - July 5, 2007) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) and AGS Ltd., a privately held purveyor of management solutions for data servers, today announced that the current Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 -- the principal suite of integrated system management tools for IBM Informix Dynamic Server (IDS) -- is now available, with editions offered by both IBM and AGS.
The IDS data server is a strategic ingredient of IBM's Information Management software portfolio and the recently announced IDS 11 -- code named Cheetah -- delivers increased performance, reliability and scalability, along with the faculty to handle massive volumes of involved data at very tall speeds. IDS 11 is furthermore the industry's first data server to provide clustered data centers with continuous data availability and cataclysm recovery regardless of the geographic location or distance between backup data focus sites.
Server Studio and Sentinel together shape a powerful infrastructure of multi-platform tools that succor both seasoned database professionals and novices alike manage IBM Informix data server environments with an unprecedented ease and productivity. native advocate of IDS 11 current functionality in the Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel further enhances faculty to deliver optimal performance, availability and maintainability of Informix databases throughout their entire operational life cycle.
"Our long-term partnership with AGS underscores IBM's steadfast commitment to providing IDS clients with the performance optimization, availability and compliance management solutions they need," said Bernie Spang, director IBM data servers. "The current Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel will succor protect the investment that their customers hold made in their Informix data server infrastructures."
The versatility, affluent functionality and ease-of-use provided by Server Studio and Sentinel build on the legendary reliability and simple administration of IDS. The current implement set offered by AGS helps companies and organizations ensure that censorious database applications remain up and accomplish at peak levels, allowing them to effectively manage change, handle regulatory compliance and assure availability of vital commerce information.
Bank of America recently selected Server Studio and Sentinel for its IDS environment -- one of the world's largest distributed data centers processing online financial transactions.
"The latest release of Server Studio and Sentinel provide a collection of integrated, highly productive system management tools that developers and DBAs working with IBM's Informix data servers hold been demanding and waiting for. Informix now has very powerful graphical tools that exceed the capabilities of native and third party offerings available for any other database platform. brace this with outstanding technical advocate and you score products with excellent value and a quick ROI," said Kevin Kleinhomer, Vice President at Bank of America. "In their large distributed environment, Server Studio and Sentinel hold simplified and automated many DBA tasks. With these additions, IBM's Informix data servers hold been made significantly easier to administer and monitor."
Server Studio provides a comprehensive collection of easy-to-use, proven tools for DBAs and developers that ameliorate efficiency of performing common database tasks such as: SQL progress and debugging, schema management, configuration auditing and change management, performance tuning, data storage management and reorganization, security administration and more -- total from an integrated graphical console that unites development, administration and maintenance activities for an entire Informix infrastructure at a central point of control.
Sentinel provides 24 × 7 operational monitoring, alerting, issue discovery, analysis and autonomic response automation infrastructure for IBM Informix data servers' environment. It's easy to deploy agent-less architecture equips DBAs with sophisticated diagnostics and remediation facilities which succor pinpoint and resolve the underlying causes of performance bottlenecks and resources contention issues that adversely impress databases' availability and impact halt users.
Smaller companies and organizations that conclude not hold large IT staffs to manage large data servers infrastructure hold furthermore benefited from the robust application progress and administration capabilities provided by IDS and Server Studio.
"As a software developer and DBA, Server Studio is a implement that I employ every day, and it is exactly what I exact from my tools -- stable, reliable, and powerful," said Sean Durity, Manager of IT for CornerCap Investment Counsel. "Even the 'small' features of Server Studio are titanic timesavers. I can't imagine working with Informix and not using Server Studio. I won't toil with anything less."
The relationship between AGS and IBM began in 2000 when IBM began distributing AGS' Server Studio as the primary database progress and administration tools suite with Informix data servers. Product management, engineering and QA teams of both companies toil closely on product direction, technology progress and QA testing of Server Studio and Sentinel.
"We are supercilious of and greatly value their strategic partnership with IBM. Selection of AGS data servers' management solutions by IBM is a testament to their industry-leading technology," said Anatole Vishon, CEO of AGS Ltd. "We understand the vital importance of Informix, particularly in the retail, financial, telecommunications, healthcare, government and SMB sectors. AGS is committed to supporting existing capabilities and developing current technologies for Informix data servers to add value for IBM customers."
Pricing and Availability
The Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel are available now through IBM and AGS worldwide. The Core Edition of Server Studio is provided by IBM to Informix customers at no additional cost. Its basic functionality can be extended by purchase of various premium editions available directly from AGS.
Additional information about Server Studio is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/serverstudio/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/serverstudio/
Additional information about Sentinel is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/sentinel/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/sentinel/
Additional information about Informix Dynamic Server is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/ids/
AGS, Server Studio and Sentinel are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Global Systems, Ltd. For a list of additional AGS trademarks, gladden descry http://www.ags.com
IBM, Informix Dynamic Server and the IBM e-business logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of International commerce Machines Corporation. For a list of additional IBM trademarks, gladden descry www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml
All other company, product or service names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of others. Statements concerning IBM's future progress plans and schedules are made for planning purposes only, and are topic to change or withdrawal without notice. Reseller prices may vary.
Nov 10, 2011
Although it is workable to develop an efficient Vehicle Tracking System using any database server, and many such solutions are already available in the market, Informix offers many advantages. Informix can reduce your disk space requirement, ameliorate your query performance, and reduce your application progress efforts, without special training or buying additional technology. The built-in technologies of Informix will reduce your total cost of ownership, so if these benefits are significant to you, retain reading!
A Vehicle Tracking System (VTS) tracks vehicles and provides different analytics, such as the total distance travelled, the total fuel consumption, the best routes, and so on. Certainly having more and more different kinds of alerts improves the efficiency of system. This system encompasses three phases of implementation: instrumentation, integration, and intelligence.
Instrumentation: Each vehicle has a special device that records different parameters related to a vehicle, such as, speed, current location, fuel status, ignition status, and so on.
Integration: Devices implemented in the territory transmit information through an integrated system that includes a GPRS system and stores the information in a database.
Intelligence: The intelligence on the information collected from the territory is stored in a database, including different kinds of MIS reports, dashboards, current locations of vehicles, travel information, and reports of exceptions affection geo-fence violations and fuel theft.
Some of the characteristics of a VTS are:
Information about vehicles is collected every few minutes or as often as every minute
The volume of the data is huge
Performance is critical
Accuracy of the data matters the most
The application logic is specific to the industry (for example, geo-fencing, distance calculations, and so on)
Now let's descry the advantages of Informix built-in technologies over the traditional relational approach.
Disk Space Saving (62%)
A vehicle tracking system collects the vehicle-related information, including a time stamp, with a specific frequency. Informix provides a data type that stores this type of time series information more efficiently than any traditional RDBMS approach. The following tables compare both approaches.
Traditional RDBMS approach
This table shows the structure of the tracking table in a traditional RDBMS.
Informix TimeSeries data type approach
Informix stores time series data in a specialized data type, called TimeSeries, which stores total the time series data for a particular vehicle in the identical row. Informix supports two different types of time series: regular time series that stores the data with a fixed frequency, and irregular time series that stores the data for capricious points in time. A regular time series is the most suitable for a VTS. In a regular time series, the time stamp is stored only once as the inception of the time series and the time stamps of the leisure of the rows are calculated using the offset from the origin.
This table shows the structure of the tracking table in Informix, using the TimeSeries data type.
[(72.844060, 19.116280,85.00,40.00), (72.853800, 19.113470,84.90, 39.00)....]
[(72.855370, 19.116570, 100.00,45.00), (72.885120, 19.106000, 99.90, 45.00)..]
The data for each vehicle is stored in contiguous disk space on a page.
Traditional RDBMS approach
We create the traditional RDBMS table for storing vehicle tracking information, called vehicle_tracking:
create table vehicle_tracking
vehicle_number integer, - 4 (bytes)
timestamp datetime year to fraction(5) - 11(bytes)
longitude decimal(10,8), - 6(bytes)
latitude decimal(10,8) - 6(bytes)
hasten decimal(5,2) - 4(bytes)
We create an index on the vehicle_number and timestamp columns.
Suppose they hold 10,000 vehicles to be tracked every minute and they need to store information for 90 days. Let's design the storage requirements.
Record size = 4+11+6+6+4 = 31
Record/slot overhead = 4 bytes
Total size of record = 31 + 4 = 35 bytes
Page overhead for maintaining page information = 28bytes per page
Total free space on 2 K page size = 2048-28 = 2020byte
Total records on each page = 2020/35=57
Total number of records = 10000*60*24*90 = 1296000000
Total number of pages used = 1296000000 / 57 = 22736842
Total space required for data = 22736842 * 2 KB = 43 GB
Total space required for the index = 34 GB
The total space required for the vehicle_tracking table = 43 + 34 = 77GB
Informix TimeSeries data type approach
We create a TimeSeries data type, named vehicle_tracking_rt, and then create a table, named vehicle_tracking_ts, that includes the vehicle_tracking_rt column:
create row type vehicle_tracking_rt
timestamp datetime year to fraction(5)
create table vehicle_tracking_ts
We create an index on only the vehicle_number column.
We store the vehicle number only once, hence the space required for the vehicle_number column = 10000*4 = 40000bytes=39 KB.
We create the index on only the vehicle_number column, hence the total space required for the index = 10000*4=40000 bytes = 39 KB.
We store the time stamp only once for each vehicle, hence the space required for the time stamp = 10000*11 = 110000 bytes = 107 KB.
The space required for total remaining columns is:
Record size = 6+6+4 = 16
Record/slot overhead = 4 bytes
Total size of record = 16 + 4 = 20 bytes
Page overhead for maintaining page information = 28bytes + 16 bytes slot overhead Total free space on 2 K page size = 2048-44 = 2004 bytes
Total records on each page = 2004/20=100
Total number of pages used per vehicle per day = 1440 / 100 = 15
Total pages used per day = 10000*15 = 150000
Total space required for data on first day = 150000 * 2 KB = 0.29 GB
Daily increment in data = 0.27 GB
Total space required for data of 90 days = 25 GB
The total space required for the vehicle_tracking_ts table = 25 GB +39 KB +29 KB+ 107 KB = 25 GB
This is a 68% disc space saving compared to a traditional RDBMS approach.
Performance (up to 54 times faster)
Let's account few employ cases:
Fuel theft information
Total fuel consumption
For total of these employ cases, the application scans through the data for one day.
Traditional RDBMS performance
The report generation requires the following disk reads:
At least 5 disk reads through the index to attain to leaf nodes
Each vehicle has 60*24 records per day = 1440
Each vehicle needs 1440 non-cached disk reads
Total non-cached distributed disk reads = 1440 * 10000 = 14.4 million
Informix TimeSeries data type performance
Because the index is only 39 KB, the scan ail is minimal.
Because the TimeSeries data type stores data in contiguous space on a page, for a 2 K page size each page contains at least 2004/20 = 100 rows.
Each vehicle needs 1440/100 = 15 pages = 15 disk reads.
Total non-cached distributed disk reads = (15+ 1) * 10000 = 160,000
Informix TimeSeries type
68% space saving
54 times faster
The advantages of using the Informix TimeSeries implementation are:
Disk space reduction: almost 62% disc space saving
Performance improvement is multifold: up to 110 times faster
Faster development: Informix has more than 80 built-in SQL functions to accomplish different operations on time series data, such as, aggregation, running average, slimming algorithms, interpolation and extrapolation, and so on.
Customized development: Informix provides C and Java APIs to let developers develop their own time series functions.
Because many operations in a VTS application are time based, the available built-in routines for the Informix TimeSeries data type makes progress easy and fast.
If they want to descry the tolerable hasten of vehicle every 30 minutes, the RDBMS approach requires a large programming ail and a performance challenge. Whereas, with the Informix TimeSeries data type, they employ the simple AggregateBy office to roll-up the information to any required time frequency.
If they want to descry the tolerable hasten of vehicle in final 30 days, the best system is to examine its running tolerable (not its commonplace average). Again, showing the running tolerable hasten of vehicles with the RDBMS approach is a titanic programming and performance challenge. Whereas with the Informix TimeSeries data type, they employ the simple TSRunningAvg office with the era and frequency that they want.
Another basic need of VTS is storing location-related information. Location information can be in the shape of a point specifying the location of vehicle, a LineString specifying the route, or a Polygon specifying the geo-fence of the vehicle. The easiest passage to handle this type of information is by using the Informix spatial data types. Informix spatial data types not only optimally maintain the data, but furthermore provide built-in routines that ameliorate the accuracy and ease the progress of your solution.
Let's examine the employ case of geo-fencing. Geo-fencing refers to the exercise of limiting the vehicle movements to a specific geographical district by defining the latitude and longitude of the district in the shape of a LineString or polygon.
A geo-fence system raises an alarm if one of the vehicles leaves the fenced district and deviates from its designated route. This might befall because of the personal interest of the vehicle driver or because the vehicle is stolen.
Traditional RDBMS approach
We identify the different locations on the route the vehicle is conjectural to travel and insert multiple rows into a fence table, comprising information affection the vehicle ID and its location (latitude and longitude) information. If they need to track 200 different locations on the designated route for a particular vehicle, they insert 200 rows for that vehicle. To check if the vehicle is outside the fence area, they develop their own logic and Run the cursor through these 200 rows to check if the current location is within any two points.
To panoply the geo-fence on an online map, they create an XML file by running a cursor through total 200 records and then parse through the XML to panoply each point on the map.
Informix spatial data types approach
We define a column called geofence in the master table with a data type of either polygon or LineString. They store total 200 location co-ordinates in this single column.
To check if the vehicle is within the fence area, they employ the SQL office ST_Within (curr_loc,geofence). If the office returns "True," the vehicle is within the fence area; if it returns "False," the vehicle is outside the fence area.
To panoply the geo-fence on an online map, they employ SE_askml(geofence) function, which creates a KML file that they can import into the map.
Advantages of using Informix spatial data types
Faster development: functions affection ST_within and SE_askml are readily available
Better performance: they don't need to Run through multiple records
Assured accuracy: they are using Open GIS Consortium-compliant function
More analytics: they can find the nearest location or the distance between any two locations using functions affection Nearest and ST_distance
Systems affection a Vehicle Tracking System can be developed using any benevolent of database as a back-end. But using by the Informix TimeSeries and spatial built-in data types, the identical system can be many times more efficient. The disk space saving of 60% and up to 54 times faster performance compared to traditional relational approach can enable you to multiply the frequency of data collection, which means better accuracy. The built-in functions for the TimeSeries and spatial data types makes the application progress stint easier and provides for increased accuracy.
About the author:
Vaibhav Dantale is a software engineer within IBM Information Management division. He has been working on Informix for final 12 years, in various development, QA and technical management roles. Currently, Dantale focuses on evangelizing Informix product in ASIA Pacific region. He is one of the Informix TimeSeries technical experts and has been involved in several customer engagements on Informix TimeSeries. He has patents under his cognomen and is co-author of a red engage on Informix security features.
Establishing a usable database environment requires a Great deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will profile the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.
This chapter is from the engage
One of the primary tasks associated with the job of DBA is the process of choosing and installing a DBMS. Unfortunately, many commerce executives and IT professionals without database management background assume that once the DBMS is installed, the bulk of the toil is done. The verisimilitude is, choosing and installing the DBMS is hardly the most difficult section of a DBA’s job. Establishing a usable database environment requires a Great deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will profile the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.
The process of choosing a suitable DBMS for enterprise database management is not as difficult as it used to be. The number of major DBMS vendors has dwindled due to industry consolidation and domination of the sector by a few very large players.
Yet, large and medium-size organizations typically Run multiple DBMS products, from as few as two to as many as ten. For example, it is not uncommon for a large company to employ IMS or IDMS and DB2 on the mainframe, Oracle and MySQL on several different UNIX servers, Microsoft SQL Server on Windows servers, as well as pockets of other DBMS products such as Sybase, Ingres, Adabas, and PostgreSQL on various platforms, not to mention single-user PC DBMS products such as Microsoft Access, Paradox, and FileMaker. Who chose to install total these DBMSs and why?
Unfortunately, often the reply is that not much thought and planning went into the decision-making process. Sometimes the conclusion to purchase and install a current DBMS is driven by a commerce need or a current application. This is reasonable if your organization has no DBMS and must purchase one for the first time. This is rarely the case, though. Regardless of whether a DBMS exists on-site, a current DBMS is often viewed as a requirement for a current application. Sometimes a current DBMS product is purchased and installed without first examining if the application could be successfully implemented using an existing DBMS. Or, more likely, the DBAs know the application can be implemented using an existing DBMS but lack the organizational power or advocate to reject a current DBMS proposal.
There are other reasons for the actuality of multiple DBMS platforms in a single organization. Perhaps the company purchased a commercial off-the-shelf application package that does not Run on any of the current DBMS platforms. Sometimes the conclusion to buy a current DBMS is driven by the desire to advocate the latest and greatest technology. For example, many mainframe shops touching from a hierarchic (IMS) or CODASYL (IDMS) database model to the relational model deployed DB2, resulting in an additional DBMS to learn and support. Then, when client/server computing became popular, additional DBMSs were implemented on UNIX, Linux, and Windows servers.
Once a DBMS is installed, removal can be difficult because of incompatibilities among the different DBMSs and the necessity of converting application code. Furthermore, when a current DBMS is installed, old-fashioned applications and databases are usually not migrated to it. The old-fashioned DBMS remains and must continue to be supported. This complicates the DBA’s job.
So what should be done? Well, the DBA group should be empowered to develop the DBMS decisions for the organization. No commerce unit should be allowed to purchase a DBMS without the consent of the DBA group. This is a difficult provision to implement and even more difficult to enforce. commerce politics often toil against the DBA group because it frequently possesses less organizational power than other commerce executives.
Choosing a DBMS
The DBA group should set a policy regarding the DBMS products to be supported within the organization. Whenever possible, the policy should minimize the number of different DBMS products. For a shop with multiple operating systems and multiple types of hardware, pick a default DBMS for the platform. dispirit aberration from the default unless a compelling commerce case exists—a commerce case that passes the technical inspection of the DBA group.
Most of the major DBMS products hold similar features, and if the feature or functionality does not exist today, it probably will within 18 to 24 months. So, exercise caution before deciding to pick a DBMS based solely on its faculty to advocate a specific feature.
When choosing a DBMS, it is sapient to select a product from a tier-1 vendor as listed in Table 2.1. Tier 1 represents the largest vendors having the most heavily implemented and supported products on the market. You cannot travel wrong with DB2 or Oracle. Both are common and advocate just about any type of database. Another major player is Microsoft SQL Server, but only for Windows platforms. DB2 and Oracle Run on multiple platforms ranging from mainframe to UNIX, as well as Windows and even handheld devices. Choosing a DBMS other than these three should be done only under specific circumstances.
Table 2.1. Tier-1 DBMS Vendors
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
500 Oracle Parkway
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
Phone: (650) 506-7000
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone: (425) 882-8080
After the titanic three foster MySQL, Sybase, Teradata, and Informix. Table 2.2 lists these tier-2 DBMS vendors. total of these offerings are quality DBMS products, but their installed foundation is smaller, their products are engineered and marketed for niche purposes, or the companies are smaller with fewer resources than the titanic Three (IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft), so there is some risk in choosing a DBMS from tier 2 instead of tier 1. However, there may be solid reasons for deploying a tier-2 solution, such as the tall performance offered by Informix or the data warehousing and analytics capabilities of Teradata.
Table 2.2. Tier-2 DBMS Vendors
Informix Dynamic Server
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
Sybase Inc. (an SAP Company)
Adaptive Server Enterprise
6475 Christie Avenue
Emeryville, CA 94608
Phone: (510) 922-3500
10000 Innovation Drive
Dayton, OH 45342
Phone: (937) 242-4030
MySQL (a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation)
Phone: (208) 338-8100
Of course, there are other DBMS products on the market, many of which are fine products and worthy of consideration for specialty processing, unavoidable predefined needs, and niche roles. If your company is heavily into the open-source software movement, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, or MySQL might be viable options. If an demur DBMS is significant for a specific project, you might account ObjectDesign or Versant. And there are a variety of NoSQL DBMS offerings available, too, such as Hadoop, Cassandra, and MongoDB.1
However, for the bulk of your data management needs, a DBMS from a tier-1, or perhaps tier-2, DBMS vendor will deliver adequate functionality with minimal risk. A myriad of DBMS products are available, each with unavoidable features that develop them worthy of consideration on a case-by-case basis. Choosing any of the lower-tier candidates—even such major names as Software AG’s Adabas and Actian’s Ingres—involves incurring additional risk. refer to Appendix B for a list of DBMS vendors.
I conclude not want it to sound as if the selection of a DBMS is a no-brainer. You will need a strategy and a procedure for selecting the usurp DBMS for your specific situation. When choosing a DBMS, be confident to account each of these factors:
Operating system support. Does the DBMS advocate the operating systems in employ at your organization, including the versions that you are currently using and procedure on using?
Type of organization. seize into consideration the corporate philosophy when you pick a DBMS. Some organizations are very conservative and affection to retain a tense rein on their environments; these organizations watch to gravitate toward traditional mainframe environments. Government operations, financial institutions, and insurance and health companies usually watch to be conservative. More-liberal organizations are often willing to account alternative architectures. It is not uncommon for manufacturing companies, dot-coms, and universities to be less conservative. Finally, some companies just conclude not trust Windows as a mission-critical environment and prefer to employ UNIX; this rules out some database vendors (Microsoft SQL Server, in particular).
Benchmarks. What performance benchmarks are available from the DBMS vendor and other users of the DBMS? The Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) publishes official database performance benchmarks that can be used as a guideline for the basic overall performance of many different types of database processing. (Refer to the sidebar “The Transaction Processing Performance Council” for more details.) In general, performance benchmarks can be useful as a broad indicator of database performance but should not be the only determinant when selecting a DBMS. Many of the TPC benchmarks are Run against database implementations that are not representative of most production database systems and therefore are not indicative of the actual performance of a particular DBMS. In addition, benchmarks are constantly updated to note current and improved performance measurements for each of the major DBMS products, rendering the benchmark “winners” obsolete very quickly.
Scalability. Does the DBMS advocate the number of users and database sizes you intend to implement? How are large databases built, supported, and maintained—easily or with a lot of pain? Are there independent users who can corroborate the DBMS vendor’s scalability claims?
Availability of supporting software tools. Are the supporting tools you require available for the DBMS? These items may comprehend query and analysis tools, data warehousing advocate tools, database administration tools, backup and recovery tools, performance-monitoring tools, capacity-planning tools, database utilities, and advocate for various programming languages.
The Transaction Processing Performance Council is an independent, not-for-profit organization that manages and administers performance benchmark tests. Its mission is to define transaction processing and database benchmarks to provide the industry with objective, verifiable performance data. TPC benchmarks measure and evaluate computer functions and operations.
The definition of transaction espoused by the TPC is a commerce one. A typical TPC transaction includes the database updates for things such as inventory control (goods), airline reservations (services), and banking (money).
The benchmarks produced by the TPC measure performance in terms of how many transactions a given system and database can accomplish per unit of time, for example, number of transactions per second. The TPC defines three benchmarks:
TPC-C, for planned production workload in a transaction environment
TPC-H, a conclusion advocate benchmark consisting of a suite of business-oriented ad hoc queries and concurrent data modifications
TPC-E, an updated OLTP workload (based on financial transaction processing)
Additional information and in-depth definitions of these benchmarks can be organize at the TPC Web site at www.tpc.org (see design 2.1).
Technicians. Is there a adequate supply of skilled database professionals for the DBMS? account your needs in terms of DBAs, technical advocate personnel (system programmers and administrators, operations analysts, etc.), and application programmers.
Cost of ownership. What is the total cost of ownership of the DBMS? DBMS vendors freight wildly varying prices for their technology. Total cost of ownership should be calculated as a combination of the license cost of the DBMS; the license cost of any required supporting software; the cost of database professionals to program, support, and administer the DBMS; and the cost of the computing resources required to operate the DBMS.
Release schedule. How often does the DBMS vendor release a current version? Some vendors hold rapid release cycles, with current releases coming out every 12 to 18 months. This can be salubrious or bad, depending on your approach. If you want cutting-edge features, a rapid release cycle is good. However, if your shop is more conservative, a DBMS that changes frequently can be difficult to support. A rapid release cycle will reason conservative organizations either to upgrade more frequently than they would affection or to live with outdated DBMS software that is unlikely to hold the identical plane of advocate as the latest releases.
Reference customers. Will the DBMS vendor supply current user references? Can you find other users on your own who might provide more impartial answers? talk with current users to elicit issues and concerns you may hold overlooked. How is support? Does the vendor respond well to problems? conclude things generally toil as advertised? Are there a lot of bug fixes that must be applied continuously? What is the quality of current releases? These questions can be answered only by the folks in the trenches.
When choosing a DBMS, be confident to seize into account the complexity of the products. DBMS software is very involved and is getting more involved with each current release. Functionality that used to be supported only with add-on software or independent programs is increasingly being added as features of the DBMS, as shown in design 2.2. You will need to procedure for and advocate total the features of the DBMS. Even if there is no current requirement for unavoidable features, once you implement the DBMS the programmers and developers will find a reason to employ just about anything the vendor threw into it. It is better to procedure and be prepared than to allow features to be used without a procedure for supporting them.
Figure 2.2. Convergence of features and functionality in DBMS software
The supporting architecture for the DBMS environment is very censorious to the success of the database applications. One wrong election or poorly implemented component of the overall architecture can reason poverty-stricken performance, downtime, or unstable applications.
When mainframes dominated enterprise computing, DBMS architecture was a simpler concern. Everything ran on the mainframe, and that was that. However, today the IT infrastructure is distributed and heterogeneous. The overall architecture—even for a mainframe DBMS—will probably consist of multiple platforms and interoperating system software. A team consisting of commerce and IT experts, rather than a single person or group, should develop the final architecture decision. commerce experts should comprehend representatives from various departments, as well as from accounting and legal for software compress issues. Database administration representatives (DA, DBA, and SA), as well as members of the networking group, operating system experts, operations control personnel, programming experts, and any other interested parties, should be included in this team.
Furthermore, be confident that the DBMS you select is usurp for the nature and type of processing you procedure to implement. Four levels of DBMS architecture are available: enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile.
An enterprise DBMS is designed for scalability and tall performance. An enterprise DBMS must be capable of supporting very large databases, a large number of concurrent users, and multiple types of applications. The enterprise DBMS runs on a large-scale machine, typically a mainframe or a high-end server running UNIX, Linux, or Windows Server. Furthermore, an enterprise DBMS offers total the “bells and whistles” available from the DBMS vendor. Multiprocessor support, advocate for parallel queries, and other advanced DBMS features are core components of an enterprise DBMS.
A departmental DBMS, sometimes referred to as a workgroup DBMS, serves the middle ground. The departmental DBMS supports diminutive to medium-size workgroups within an organization; typically, it runs on a UNIX, Linux, or Windows server. The dividing line between a departmental database server and an enterprise database server is quite gray. Hardware and software upgrades can allow a departmental DBMS to tackle tasks that previously could be performed only by an enterprise DBMS. The steadily falling cost of departmental hardware and software components further contributes to lowering the total cost of operation and enabling a workgroup environment to scale up to serve the enterprise.
A personal DBMS is designed for a single user, typically on a low- to medium-powered PC platform. Microsoft Access, SQLite, and FileMaker2 are examples of personal database software. Of course, the major DBMS vendors furthermore market personal versions of their higher-powered solutions, such as Oracle Database Personal Edition and DB2 Personal Edition. Sometimes the low cost of a personal DBMS results in a misguided attempt to pick a personal DBMS for a departmental or enterprise solution. However, conclude not be lured by the low cost. A personal DBMS product is suitable only for very small-scale projects and should never be deployed for multiuser applications.
Finally, the mobile DBMS is a specialized version of a departmental or enterprise DBMS. It is designed for remote users who are not usually connected to the network. The mobile DBMS enables local database access and modification on a laptop or handheld device. Furthermore, the mobile DBMS provides a mechanism for synchronizing remote database changes to a centralized enterprise or departmental database server.
A DBMS designed for one type of processing may be ill suited for other uses. For example, a personal DBMS is not designed for multiple users, and an enterprise DBMS is generally too involved for single users. be confident to understand the differences among enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile DBMS software, and pick the usurp DBMS for your specific data-processing needs. You may need to pick multiple DBMS types—that is, a DBMS for each level—with usage determined by the needs of each progress project.
If your organization requires DBMS solutions at different levels, favor the selection of a group of DBMS solutions from the identical vendor whenever possible. Doing so will minimize differences in access, development, and administration. For example, favor Oracle Database Personal Edition for your single-user DBMS needs if your organization uses Oracle as the enterprise DBMS of choice.
Clustering is the employ of multiple “independent” computing systems working together as a single, highly available system. A modern DBMS offers clustering advocate to enhance availability and scalability. The two predominant architectures for clustering are shared-disk and shared-nothing. These names conclude a salubrious job of describing the nature of the architecture—at least at a tall level.
Shared-nothing clustering is depicted in design 2.3. In a shared-nothing architecture, each system has its own private resources (memory, disks, etc.). The clustered processors communicate by passing messages through a network that interconnects the computers. In addition, requests from clients are automatically routed to the system that owns the resource. Only one of the clustered systems can “own” and access a particular resource at a time. In the event a failure occurs, resource ownership can be dynamically transferred to another system in the cluster. The main odds of shared-nothing clustering is scalability. In theory, a shared-nothing multiprocessor can scale up to thousands of processors because they conclude not meddle with one another—nothing is shared.
In a shared-disk environment, total the connected systems partake the identical disk devices, as shown in design 2.4. Each processor soundless has its own private memory, but total the processors can directly address total the disks. Typically, shared-disk clustering does not scale as well for smaller machines as shared-nothing clustering. Shared-disk clustering is better suited to large-enterprise processing in a mainframe environment. Mainframes—very large processors—are capable of processing mammoth volumes of work. Great benefits can be obtained with only a few clustered mainframes, while many PC and midrange processors would need to be clustered to achieve similar benefits.
Shared-disk clustering is usually preferable for applications and services requiring only modest shared access to data and for applications or workloads that are very difficult to partition. Applications with weighty data update requirements are probably better implemented as shared-nothing. Table 2.3 compares the capabilities of shared-disk and shared-nothing architectures.
Table 2.3. Comparison of Shared-Disk and Shared-Nothing Architectures
Quick adaptability to changing workloads
Can exploit simpler, cheaper hardware
Almost unlimited scalability
Performs best in a weighty read environment
Works well in a high-volume, read-write environment
Data need not be partitioned
Data is partitioned across the cluster
The major DBMS vendors provide advocate for different types of clustering with different capabilities and requirements. For example, DB2 for z/OS provides shared-disk clustering with its Data Sharing and Parallel Sysplex capabilities; DB2 on non-mainframe platforms uses shared-nothing clustering. Oracle’s real Application Clusters provide shared-disk clustering.
For most users, the primary capitalize of clustering is the enhanced availability that accrues by combining processors. In some cases, clustering can succor an enterprise to achieve five-nines (99.999 percent) availability. Additionally, clustering can be used for load balancing and failover.
As a rule of thumb, create a policy (or at least some simple guidelines) that must be followed before a current DBMS can be brought into the organization. Failure to conclude so can reason a proliferation of different DBMS products that will be difficult to support. It can furthermore reason confusion regarding which DBMS to employ for which progress effort.
As mentioned earlier, there is a plethora of DBMS vendors, each touting its benefits. As a DBA, you will be bombarded with marketing and sales efforts that attempt to convince you that you need another DBMS. Try to resist unless a very compelling reason is given and a short-term revert on investment (ROI) can be demonstrated. Even when confronted with sound reasons and salubrious ROI, be confident to double-check the arguments and ROI calculations. Sometimes the reasons specified are outdated and the ROI figures conclude not seize everything into account—such as the additional cost of administration.
Remember, every DBMS requires database administration support. Moreover, each DBMS uses different methods to accomplish similar tasks. The fewer DBMS products installed, the less complicated database administration becomes, and the better your chances become of providing efficacious data management resources for your organization.
When establishing a database environment for application development, selecting the DBMS is only section of the equation. The hardware and operating system on which the DBMS will Run will greatly impact the reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of the database environment. For example, a mainframe platform such as an IBM zEC12 running z/OS will probably provide higher RAS than a midrange IBM xSeries machine running AIX, which in turn will probably exceed a Dell server running Windows. That is not to inform everything should Run on a mainframe; other issues such as cost, experience, manageability, and the needs of the applications to be developed must be considered. The bottom line is that you must be confident to factor hardware platform and operating system constraints into the DBMS selection criteria.
Cloud Database Systems
Cloud computing (see the sidebar) is increasing in usage, especially at diminutive to medium-size businesses. A cloud implementation can be more cost-effective than pile an entire local computing infrastructure that requires management and support.
A cloud database system delivers DBMS services over the Internet. The trade-off essentially comes down to trusting a cloud provider to store and manage your data in revert for minimizing database administration and maintenance cost and effort. Using cloud database systems can enable organizations, especially smaller ones without the resources to invest in an enterprise computing infrastructure, to focus on their commerce instead of their computing environment.
By consolidating data sources in the cloud, it is workable to ameliorate collaboration among partners, fork offices, remote workers, and mobile devices, because the data becomes accessible as a service. There is no need to install, set up, patch, or manage the DBMS software because the cloud provider manages and cares for these administrative tasks. Of course, the downside is that your data is now stored and controlled by an external agent—the cloud provider. Another inherent risk of cloud computing is the possibility of nefarious agents posing as legitimate customers.
An sample of a cloud database platform is Microsoft SQL Azure. It is built on SQL Server technologies and is a component of the Windows Azure platform.