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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test title : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 2
Vendor title : IBM
: 72 actual Questions

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IBM IBM kick Oriented Analysis

report: IBM Outpaces competitors in application development application marketplace for Seventh Straight year | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: IBM

June 13, 2008 08:00 ET

ARMONK, modern york--(Marketwire - June 13, 2008) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) nowadays introduced that analyst firm Gartner, Inc.* and market research firm Evans information Corp. bear ranked IBM because the leader in the application edifice utility market. These rankings attain simply as IBM is projecting greater than 12,000 individuals will attend its 2008 IBM Rational software edifice Conferences in 13 nations around the world.

Gartner named IBM the worldwide market share chief in application development in keeping with complete application salary in 2007 and Evans data Corp. survey respondents who bear been clients of IBM Rational utility Developer ranked it the no 1 built-in Developer atmosphere (IDE) for person pride. this is the seventh consecutive 12 months that Gartner has ranked IBM the leader and 2nd consecutive yr that IBM Rational software Developer changed into selected as the Developer's choice accurate IDE through the 1,200 developers global taking fragment in the survey.

according to the independent Gartner file, IBM is the main market share supplier in complete software revenue, with 37.8 percent market share -- better market share than its three closest opponents mixed. The global utility edifice software market grew greater than 10% percent in 2007 to nearly $6.9 billion, in line with Gartner.

IBM turned into also cited for its ordinary leadership based on complete utility salary for 2007 across software development market sub-classes, including SCCM dispensed, kick Oriented analysis & Design and Java Platform ad device. Telelogic, these days got via IBM, had a 2007 marketshare of 40.6 % in the necessities Elicitation and administration class in keeping with total utility earnings.

"With the upward push of globally disbursed utility development groups, consumers are trying to find skilled vendors to assist them collaborate in an open and transparent method," pointed out Dr. Daniel Sabbah, time-honored manager, IBM Rational software. "We believe the robust response from the Evans records and Gartner stories coincides with the feedback they now bear obtained from customers about IBM's approach round helpful application birth."

IBM Kicks off the realm's Most Attended Developer conference sequence

This marketshare word coincides with IBM's announcement that over 12,000 members are anticipated to attend the 15 IBM Rational software development Conferences planned worldwide. Following the event held final week in Orlando, FL, IBM will choose the disclose on the street to 17 cities together with Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt; San Paulo, Brazil; Bangalore, India; Shanghai, China; Rome and Milan, Italy.

For convention attendees the usage of an iPhone, IBM is releasing a conference scheduler written in enterprise technology Language (EGL) to allow iPhone users to dynamically adventure the IBM Rational software edifice convention via an interface that they reason comfy with. the expend of web 2.0 and social engineering ideas, clients can provide comments on and chat about sessions, navigate the conference searching for tracks and hobbies, and expend creative know-how that suggests which talks the person may silent attend next in line with preferences.

at the annual IBM Rational application development conference in Orlando, Florida, greater than three,500 attendees realized about modern application and programs that aid shoppers transform how they're start software on a worldwide scale. The announcement of latest products, features and trade companion initiatives are designed to radically change how IBM Rational application can aid customers power stronger charge and efficiency from their globally dispensed utility investments.

valued clientele unable to attend the convention in the community can view the keynote presentations on IBM tv.

IBM helps builders continue to subsist competitive in modern day speedy-paced construction ambiance. inventive courses comparable to IBM developerWorks, the premier technical useful resource for utility developers, and IBM alphaWorks, IBM's rising technologies outlet, deliver an internet group for the developers of nowadays and the following day. builders who are independent utility vendors can choose handicap of revenue and advertising equipment, ability-building lessons and technical assist by using joining the global IBM PartnerWorld program. IBM's tutorial Initiative and IBM Rational software edifice convention are examples of the ongoing discovering and group-constructing courses obligatory by means of students, educators and developers global.

For more assistance, consult with http://www.ibm.com/software/rational.

*"Market Share: application construction utility, international, 2007" through Laurie Wurster, Teresa Jones and Asheesh Raina, may 2008.


12 months in assessment: 5 themes that epitomized Java in 2018 | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

in case you need to forecast the future of Java, it helps to understand the Place they had been with Java in 2018. this is an issue they explored at TheServerSide outright 12 months to fulfill readers' curiosity about how Java fits with different programming languages, no matter if they could age effectively within the expertise profession, if Java nonetheless matters in an more and more Agile and DevOps landscape, and what the IBM-red Hat merger capability for the future of Java programming. These were one of the most most well liked themes for Java in 2018.

How a combined IBM and crimson Hat influences commercial enterprise Java

IBM's $34 billion greenback acquisition of purple Hat introduced two of commercial enterprise Java's precept forces collectively. In 2018, Oracle relinquished its maneuver of Java EE and the Java group procedure to the Eclipse foundation. each IBM and purple Hat played key roles within the creation of Jakarta EE, and each had a spot on its steerage Committee.

The incontrovertible fact that two of the six strategic businesses on the guidance Committee bear merged raised some considerations. Critics bear long taken Oracle to chore for the hegemonic course of Java EE. With two of trade Java's leading forces now merged, IBM-pink Hat can bear considerable pull over the route forward for Java programming.

or not it's questionable whether IBM and crimson Hat will direct the future of Java as Oracle once did. more than seemingly, the IBM-crimson Hat merger will quicken up trade Java's evolution into cloud-native and microservices so it may compete with environments such as JavaScript and Go.

should they nonetheless train Java in 2018 as a primary programming language?

a few decade ago, Java become nevertheless the go-to programming language in introductory computer science courses. Java in 2018, although, can not crow that difference. Many departments bear flipped to Python or C++ as their introductory language of choice.

It makes some sense that Java is no longer the first programming language college students subsist taught. Java is a verbose, compiled language with a bunch of different Java development Kits to choose upon and choose from. For programmers just starting out, it may also subsist less difficult to reduce your tooth on a simpler, object-oriented programming language and even an open supply scripting language.

Does this spell the conclusion of Java? Of route now not. Java silent boasts an magnificent ecosystem of apparatus and a strong aid group. Java might also not subsist the primary programming language college students gain scholarship of beyond 2018, but there's a ample possibility they'll expend it each day in their first job.

Is programming a profession to develop historical in?

Code, as contributor Bob Reselman explains, is an adolescent's video game. younger programmers can pull the all-nighters and drudgery the startup scene. it truly is why many skilled programmers finally obtain the exodus to management roles. but this is no longer the direction that each programmer wants to stroll. Some programmers wish to proceed to create code and resolve problems.

Reselman asked technologists Charles Petzold, Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols, Dave McCarter and Derek Zott why they selected the course closer to the code than to the C-suite. outright found fingers-on coding a achievable profession, but some discovered that management positions conclude not supply the liberty or creativity that lured them into the know-how industry.

subsequently, there may subsist one more path programmers can choose in the event that they eschew the bill Gates path to CEO glory. they could choose the equally challenging and beneficial path of the wizened technologist -- like Steve Wozniak, Martin Fowler and Grady Booch.

a route to become a pretty ample software architect in 13 steps

The role of the utility architect comprises more than just development and design. whereas not every architect should declare the mantle of replete stack developer, she or he should silent possess potential and journey in know-how, as smartly because the soft potential to subsist a superb chief and communicator.

contemporary software architects deserve to design the equipment, architecture and strategies that the construction group will use. utility architects are chargeable for constructing a assignment's coding specifications.

they may also should act as mediators between the trade and construction teams. This skill architects need to recognize development -- in addition to developers and trade goals -- and company leaders. Contributor charge Spritzler shares 13 steps which you could choose to develop into a a hit application architect.

a route to integrate DevOps practices with a dojo

Some businesses feel a DevOps transformation is as effortless as adopting a yoke of modern tools and handing them off to their builders. Verizon discovered a discrete means of doing things. It appealed to developer satisfaction and keenness in Place of assigning a preordained agenda. this is the dojo formula -- an occasion for hands-on apply without the pressures of the ordinary software start cycle.

The precise DevOps challenge isn't establishing a toolchain. companies the measurement of Verizon bear chummy ample toolchains. but Verizon is additionally so vast that getting 20,000 developers on the identical web page is essentially impossible.

it's these collaborative DevOps handicap -- a route to determine the kinks in a greater Agile workflow -- so that it will free up the capacity to carry pleasant software sooner. The a technique to obtain first rate at it is to result in an immersive learning atmosphere.


What Apple, Inc. gets from its modern iOS partnership with IBM | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

 

Editorial

Apple's newly introduced cell partnership with IBM has been greeted with the aid of a yoke of analysts and pundits as being each "no longer that massive a deal," or conversely, the theatrical reversal of an extended standing contention. each are wrong, here's why. No ample deal?

Piper Jaffray analyst Gene Munster offered one of the vital least enthusiastic views on the announcement, noting that Apple already has huge commercial enterprise penetration whereas postulating that even "if half of the Fortune 500 bear been to each purchase an incremental 2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads above what they had been planning to buy because of the IBM deal, it might insinuate about a half a % to CY15 income."

Munster also offered a extensive interpretation of the "exclusive partnership" the two corporations special, writing, "we forecast IBM to finally proffer identical solutions on Android over time."

"Robert X. Cringely" in a similar fashion offered a dim view of IBM's enterprise apps and flatly anticipated that "iOS cloud functions from IBM won't occur," concluding that "neither trade may subsist significantly littered with the different. it's simply not that great a deal."

IBM's existing cellular enterprise apps and cloud functions certainly conclude not look capable of dramatically boosting Apple's iOS income on their own. however this is not what the groups announced. as an alternative, both described "exclusive" plans to drudgery collectively to "transform commercial enterprise mobility via a brand modern ilk of trade apps."

As stated in more advantageous ingredient under, the language each businesses expend in describing their partnership shows that it isn't simply an application to promote just a few groups a further thousand iPads. Apple and IBM bear massive desires in intellect.

Apple and IBM bear loads of history as near allies

at the same time, Apple and IBM don't look to subsist suddenly working collectively for the primary time. We're a extremely long methods from 1982, when IBM entered the modern microcomputer market that Apple had ignited with the Apple II. Apple at the start "welcomed" IBM to the computing device market (under), as a lots higher competitor.

It subsequently portrayed great Blue as a 1984 huge Brother in 1984 with its iconic customary ad for the Macintosh. It then insulted IBM and its purchasers much more explicitly in "Lemmings," a 2d and even more provocative SuperBowl ad that portrayed blindfolded notebook clients marching themselves off a cliff.

by route of the late 80s, IBM had lost maneuver of the laptop to Microsoft by itself, and failed to win it back with its proprietary design for modern PS/2 programs. while IBM bought notebooks and tablets that competed in opposition t Apple's PowerBooks and Newton MessagePads in the 1990s, throughout that decade Apple and IBM definitely aligned to drudgery collectively in several essential projects.

The purpose Alliance between Apple, IBM and Motorola scaled down IBM's dash RISC server chipset into the PowerPC processor that became used in Macs starting in 1994 and carrying on with into 2006.

Apple additionally collaborated with IBM to strengthen "Macintosh utility services" to host PowerPC Mac software on IBM's AIX Unix workstations, and in parallel shipped IBM's AIX by itself tall abide Apple network Server in 1996.

In parallel with PowerPC, the Taligent mission teamed Apple's future plans for "red," a brand modern OS meant to change device 7, with IBM's parallel efforts for office OS. It meant to strengthen a modern OS microkernel able to supporting Macs, OS/2 and Unix, and developed kick oriented frameworks pattered after Steve Jobs' next. Taligent basically aimed to copy subsequent and steal away Jobs' early supporters (together with IBM, and later HP).

After the Taligent partnership collapsed, Apple determined to acquire subsequent as the foundation for its advanced modern Mac OS X instead.

Kaleida Labs changed into a third extravagant profile partnership between Apple in IBM in the early Nineties, geared toward creating a fade platform, scriptable multimedia development platform. The collaboration readily raided Apple's QuickTime crew of skill and spent tens of hundreds of thousands of greenbacks before collapsing in failure in 1996. Its position changed into supplanted by using Macromedia Director, and then with the aid of the net, peculiarly via plugins like Java and Flash.

Apple & IBM partnerships in the 2000s

Apple's acquisition of Jobs' subsequent in 1996 further helped to align the trade with IBM as a co-competitor to Microsoft and an ally to Unix and open source utility. In 2005 IBM offered its computing device company to Lenovo. It more and more threw its sheperd at the back of Linux, and in 2007 created a fork of OpenOffice that it bought as a Microsoft office competitor named IBM Lotus Symphony.

In 2007, IBM's research counsel functions performed a dissect that provided personnel with MacBook pros in Place of windows machines. worker remarks notable comments together with, "this can free us from the windows stranglehold," and "I actually bear been a accurate notebook stalwart for 2+ decades, but after making an attempt Vista, i am ready for a transformation."

The next yr, IBM ported its Informix records Server to OS X Server and introduced plans to deliver Lotus Notes (IBM's competitor to Microsoft's trade) and the Symphony workplace app suite to Apple's Mac and iOS structures.

IBM now has a portfolio of dozens of commercial enterprise apps for iOS, and turned into basically some of the first App deliver developers to embody the platform in 2008 earlier than Apple had even launched its iPhone SDK and App store.

IBM goals great information on the ample platform

The great word of the brand modern partnership between Apple and IBM for this intuition is neither that they are now working together for the first time, nor that IBM offers some apps for iOS devices. What's modern is the clearly emphasised exclusivity of the connection, and the longer term path for brand spanking modern iOS apps, management apparatus and cloud functions.

IBM already provides Android cell sheperd roughly on par with iPhone, and Android pill sheperd that is nearly the equal as its iPad's. It also presents advocate for BlackBerry, PlayBook, BB10, home windows telephone, windows RT and even Symbian. IBM's modern apps will completely target iOS however.

That makes sense as a result of IBM may subsist selling and leasing iOS contraptions, but additionally as a result of IBM can now seat of attention on constructing native apps for the single platform it really is already being broadly used within the business, with out spending lots of substances testing and maintaining capitalize for a huge array of OS models and APIs and a bewildering latitude of hardware devices.

In parallel with the edifice of Apple's iOS platform over the ultimate seven years, IBM has moved away from promoting workplace apps (forsaking its OpenOffice / Symphony suite) to as an alternative seat of attention on presenting managed cloud infrastructure, consulting and management functions, as well as "large statistics" analysis.

IBM's SmartCloud hosts public cloud functions for valued clientele (akin to Amazon web capabilities) and also offers inner most cloud features, the Place IBM sells the customer servers they then own and operate. apparatus can then again subsist leased from and/or managed onsite by means of IBM.

The partnership certainly outlined, "IBM's massive statistics and analytics capabilities, with the energy of greater than one hundred,000 IBM industry and domain consultants and utility developers in the back of it," should subsist used to "create apps that can seriously change particular points of how companies and employees drudgery the usage of iPhone and iPad."

One style of IBM's huge statistics analytics has seemed over the closing two smash shopping seasons. In 2012, the IBM Digital Analytics Benchmark highlighted (beneath) that almost outright searching become being accomplished on iOS contraptions--even before the media became manipulated to document that Apple had race out of "innovation" and that Android and Samsung had been "taking up" mobile contraptions.

here year, IBM's analytics published that the divide had grown even improved, with Apple's iOS clients now accounting for five times the orders of Android users. The media's handwringing about Apple outright the route through in 2013 had temporality affected the business's inventory price, but wasn't affecting the outcomes that depend in the apparatus market.

The potential to as it should subsist determine those kinds of trends--devoid of the data being contaminated by using want of scholarship or wishful considering--is critically essential to enterprise users. That explains why the partnership's announcement described modern apps powered with the aid of such analytics as "permitting agencies to obtain modern levels of efficiency, effectiveness and client satisfaction."

As Apple stated, IBM has "dependent the world's deepest portfolio in huge information and Analytics consulting and technology handicap in keeping with experiences drawn from more than forty,000 statistics and analytics customer engagements. This analytics portfolio spans research and construction, options, application and hardware, and includes more than 15,000 analytics consultants, four,000 analytics patents, 6,000 trade solution trade partners, and four hundred IBM mathematicians who are assisting valued clientele expend massive statistics to radically change their companies."

iWork business

Apple has its own iWork apps for miniature trade and schooling users, it recently gained Microsoft's workplace cell apps (at present completely) on iPad, and is now working with IBM to boost "a brand modern classification of 'made-for-company apps' targeting selected industry issues or opportunities in retail, healthcare, banking, commute and transportation, telecommunications and insurance, among others, that will become accessible birth this autumn and into 2015."

instead of simply being some modern App shop titles listed with the aid of IBM, the organizations bear outlined that IBM might subsist selling Apple's iOS as a fragment of its own MobileFirst platform, with a purpose to "deliver the capabilities required for an end-to-conclusion enterprise ability, from analytics, workflow and cloud storage, to fleet-scale machine administration, protection and integration."

additionally, "improved cellular management includes a personal app catalog, records and transaction security capabilities, and productivity suite for outright IBM MobileFirst for iOS solutions. apart from on-premise application solutions, outright these services might subsist purchasable on Bluemix--IBM's construction platform on the IBM Cloud market."IBM is presenting outright of the things Apple has never been very decent at or shown a whole lot hobby in doing itself

That capability IBM is featuring outright the issues Apple has never been very decent at or proven a whole lot hobby in doing itself, from selling consultation and assist services, to constructing and protecting server infrastructure and customized apps for valued clientele. That contains improving AppleCare for enterprise users with "on-web page provider delivered via IBM."

IBM is additionally presenting "equipment provide, activation and management services for iPhone and iPad, with leasing options." these once more are the styles of capabilities that HP and Dell were historically an terrible lot greater than Apple at providing for the notebook business.

With BYOD, Apple acquired its foot within the door and iOS instruments grew to become generally adopted with the aid of enterprise and government clients. Partnering with IBM, Apple can drudgery on turning its cell instruments into an enterprise quantity play.

Apple, IBM are considering massive

thus far, the market seems to bear considered Apple and IBM as an evident threat to BlackBerry, which actually does bear a whole lot left to lose: seventy two million subscribers as of the first quarter of 2014. iPhones bear taken a painful chew out of BlackBerry's trade revenue, but iPads goal something distinctive: universal PCs.

This makes Munster's estimates of Apple potentially selling best an further '2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads' to half of the Fortune 500 by route of some modern IBM apps primarily difficult. Apple reasonably obviously plans to aggressively target enterprise pc earnings--a considerable market--with its Place up-laptop cell devices. Tim cook dinner addresses the iPad's commonly stated talents to eclipse computing device earnings at each probability.

"We proceed to confidence that the pill market will surpass the laptop market in size in the following yoke of years and they accept as accurate with that Apple may subsist a major beneficiary of this fashion," cook pointed out in the enterprise's April profits call."We proceed to accept as accurate with that the tablet market will surpass the pc market in measurement within the following few years and they account that Apple will subsist an incredible beneficiary of this vogue " - Tim prepare dinner

Apple already has no difficulty promoting fleets of tens of heaps of iPhones and iPads to corporate, govt and training buyers. it could handiest want IBM's aid to goal the customary pc for mass eradication outright over the commercial enterprise, pushed using innovative, exclusive native apps able to radically changing how companies expend expertise. Apple's description of IBM makes it very clear it really is exactly what both groups procedure to achieve.

On its modern iPad trade web page, the enterprise states "Apple and IBM are working together to carry iPhone, iPad, and IBM MobileFirst for iOS apps to firms everywhere. Their unique international partnership will deliver a modern class of apps that link users to great records and analytics confiscate on their iOS gadgets with more ease and effectivity than ever earlier than. Apple and IBM are redefining the cell enterprise by route of combining the exponential energy of corporate facts with the realm's optimum mobile expertise."

In its common press unencumber Apple cited, "IBM's 5,000 cell specialists were at the forefront of mobile commercial enterprise innovation. IBM has secured more than four,300 patents in cell, social and security, that bear been integrated into IBM MobileFirst solutions that allow enterprise consumers to radically streamline and quicken up mobile adoption, advocate groups interact extra americans and capture modern markets."

moreover, "IBM has made a dozen acquisitions in safety during the past decade, has greater than 6,000 safety researchers and developers in its 25 safety labs global that drudgery on setting up business-type options."

Apple's personal strategy in acquisitions (in addition to in patents) has frequently focused the quick implementation of differentiating elements and technologies (reminiscent of palpate identification, the customized silicon in the A7 chip, and features ranging from Siri to puss consciousness to iTunes Radio to App hold enhancements).

through partnering with IBM, Apple can leverage outside capabilities in security, social and cell deployment devoid of distracting itself from its core competency in constructing hardware, utility and structures.

And now, a warning

on reflection, the historic partnerships between Apple and IBM didn't bear a distinguished song checklist. Taligent and Kaleida bear been total failures, whereas PowerPC did not sustain with the pace of the improved market. IBM Lotus Notes and Symphony didn't exactly transform the trade on any platform.

but cutting-edge Apple and IBM share shrimp in yardstick with their archaic incarnations within the Nineties. Apple is now no longer most effectual very successful and ecocnomic, but has a digital lock on cellular commercial enterprise items, and in selected instruments with a sophisticated native app edifice platform (as adverse to BlackBerry's messaging-centric platform built as a simple Java VM).

where Microsoft once dominated the trade and partnered with a sequence of companies that shut Apple out, it's now frantically making an attempt to retain the reputation quo for home windows (whilst its valued clientele reject Microsoft's existing direction) as it flip flops between strategic instructions in other markets.

From closing 12 months's "contraptions and services" plan, which in particular didn't sell contraptions, to its newest nebulous cloud strategy that failed to actually articulate a selected strategy at all, Microsoft is at present presiding over a stagnant market for Popular PCs that practically each market analysis enterprise sees as being overtaken by route of drugs, and especially Apple's iPad.

That fact highlights one more reality: when you account that the iPad's debut in 2010, marketing organizations bear deliberately framed it as a spot gadget with out a possible affect on notebook market, the expend of chosen statistics teased into conclusions that continuously flattered Microsoft inspite of the statistics concerned.

With an vast ally in IBM helping to promote its items, Apple will possible puss much less brazenly deceptive media insurance denying the now clear and obvious shift occurring as prevalent PCs are changed and augmented via greater mobile--and much easier to manage--post workstation devices.




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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test title : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 2
Vendor title : IBM
: 72 actual Questions

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 2

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Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Object-Oriented Analysis & DesignJune 2, 3, 9, 10Worcester situation CollegeTaught by Jan Bergandy, Computer Science, UMass, Dartmouth

Seminar Objectives:

  • To develop an in-depth understanding of object-oriented paradigm
  • To obtain a working scholarship of object-oriented analysis & design techniques
  • To learn object-oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  • To learn about basic design patterns and the role of patterns is software development
  • To understand the impact of kick paradigm on software development activities
  • To explore synergy between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming
  • To learn about key kick technologies
  • Who should attend:This workshop is addressed to faculty involved in teaching programming, software design, and other courses related to software development. It is addressed to those who puss a transition to kick technology and want to learn about challenges and benefits of this transition. The workshop does not require any prior scholarship of object-oriented programming or scholarship of kick paradigm. universal computer fluency and universal scholarship of issues associated with software and software development are expected.

    Seminar Organization:The course will subsist conducted as a project with instructor giving short presentations pertaining to a specific stage of the analysis and design process. During this course the participants will construct an analysis model for a selected problem. This model will subsist refined in to the detailed design level providing an occasion for discussion about the relationship between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming. Each student will receive a copy of the course materials and the textbook.

    Tools & Platforms:Rational-Rose CASE toolThe CASE instrument is used exclusively to expedite the process of model construction. The students expend no more than half an hour of their time during the entire class on learning how to expend the tool. Not using the CASE toll will obtain it almost impossible to tang hands-on outright the elements of the object-oriented analysis and design process.

    Textbooks:M. Fowler, ÒUML DistilledÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-32563-2 (additional/optional )

    E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides, ÒDesign PatternÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63361-2

    Outline:

    June 2, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00Topics to subsist addressed:Object paradigm top-down - analysis & design perspectiveObject paradigm bottom-up - programming perspectiveBasic concepts: abstraction, encapsulation, information hiding, modularityResponsibility view of the requirementsClasses and objects emerging from responsibilitiesComparison of procedural and object-oriented paradigmsClasses and relationships as the edifice blocks of software architectureCriteria of class qualityIntroduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)Static & dynamic modelActors and expend casesTransitioning from functional requirements to objects - introduction

    Project:Analysis of the requirements for the selected projectIdentifying actors and expend casesConstructing expend case diagrams

    June 3, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to subsist addressed:Transitioning from functional requirements to objectsIdentifying the first group of classesClass specificationClass as an encapsulation of a responsibilityClass, Utility Class, Parameterized Class and its instantiationClass diagram - introductionIdentifying relationships between classesAssociation relationshipsAssociation classesRepresenting relationships with cardinalityAggregation versus compositionRepresenting aggregation and composition relationshipsRepresenting generalization/ specialization (inheritance)PolymorphismAbstract classes and interfacesSpecification of relationshipsImplementing classes & relationships (bottom-up view of relationships)Class diagram

    Project:Identifying first group of classes based on responsibilitiesPreliminary class diagramIdentifying relationships between classesDefining cardinalitiesClass diagram

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00 (part I)Topics to subsist addressed:Static versus dynamic modelIdentifying scenarios through refinement of expend casesModeling scenarios using object-interaction and sequence diagrams

    Project:Refining expend casesDeveloping and modeling scenariosIdentifying methodsRefining class specifications

    June 10, 2001 (part II)Topics to subsist addressed:Events, states and actionsState diagramCriteria for using situation diagramsConcurrency, lively objectsMutual exclusion problemSequential, guarded, and synchronous objectsModeling concurrencyConcurrent situation diagramsActivity diagrams

    Project:Evaluating classes for the need of situation diagramsConstructing situation diagrams for selected classes(Constructing activity diagrams)Refining class specifications

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to subsist addressed:Introduction to design patterns: Creational patterns, Abstract Factory, Builder, Prototype, Singleton, Virtual Constructor

    Structural Patterns: Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Façade, Proxy

    Behavioral Patterns: Chain of Responsibility, Command, Iterator, Mediator, Memento

    Other vital topics to subsist covered in this course:What to expect from an object-oriented languageDynamic nature of object-oriented systems and the issues of garbage collectionEffective expend of inheritance and polymorphism and their impact on software qualitySingle versus multiple inheritancePolymorphism versus genericsClass design and data normalization (attribute dependence issues)


    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Conceptual Model (Part 2) | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Conceptual Model

    Once we’ve some expend cases or user stories, the next thing they can conclude is create a conceptual model of their system. It simply means you’re identifying the most vital objects.

    You shouldn’t subsist worried about software kick privilege now, but more generically what are the things in the application that they need to subsist vigilant of.

    Things like product, item, shopping cart, order, invoice, paycheck, spaceship, asteroid, level, that’s what we’re identifying here. Some of them will become actual classes and software object, but not outright of them.

    The Process

    So, we’re going to identify those objects, start to refine them, and then draw them in a simple diagram. And they can also display the relationship and interactions between them.

    An Advice

    Creating a simple conceptual model for most applications is not and should not subsist a long process. A few hours spent on this is usually more than enough.

    Don’t worry about perfection. First time through it will subsist incomplete, and that’s absolutely proper to miss out even vital objects, things that you will discover later on during programming.

    1. Identifying Objects

    What they conclude is to start collecting their expend cases, user stories, and any other written requirements together.

    Now, they are going to identify the most vital parts of their software; the most vital things, or objects.

    Objects will subsist in configuration of nouns. Those are the candidate objects, some of them will subsist actual objects in the system, and the leisure won’t, as you’ll espy later.

    Identifying objects

    You are just identifying the objects, you don’t dissect or arbitrator them. They also don’t worry about missing one, at the first spin, you may miss some objects, which is normal.

    2. Refining Objects

    After underlying on your candidate objects, you start refining them, you start choosing your actual objects that will subsist in the system. So, to conclude that, …

    Refining objects
  • Remove any duplicates. They may find same objects with different names, but they actually signify the same thing.
  • You may need to combine some objects, or, even splitting them into some other objects.
  • You may identify an assign as an kick instead.
  • You may identify a behavior as an kick instead.
  • An assign is a property or characteristic of the object. For example, when they boom “A car is red”, red here is a property for the car, which is the actual object.

    A behavior is something an kick can conclude (responsibility). For example, when they say, “A bird can fly”, cruise here is a behavior, while the bird is the actual object.

    You don’t bear to consume a lot of time refining your objects, don’t study for perfection, it’s proper to encounter some mistakes, or miss up some objects that will subsist figured out through the process.

    3. Drawing Objects

    What you need to conclude now is using your pencil and paper, just draw the conceptual model by box outright objects.

    There are some tools you may use, but for now, a pencil, and piece of paper are more than enough.

    Conceptual model 3. Identifying kick Relationships

    You start betoken the relationships between your objects.

    It’s very obvious that these objects will interact with each other. For example, a customer can Place an order, a student can enroll in a course, an admin can update a post, and so on.

    Drawing a line between objects, and writing the relationship verbs is enough to denote there is a relationship.

    Define kick relationships 4. Identifying kick Behaviors

    Behaviors are the things (verbs) the kick can do, or, in other words, the responsibilities of an object, that will become the methods in their kick class.

    So, they can fade back to the expend case or a user story, and study for verbs and verb phrases to pick responsibilities.

    Identifying kick behaviors (responsibilities)

    Things like verifies items, provides payment and address, process sale, validate payment, authenticate order, provide order number, check order status, and send order details email.

    Now, not outright of these will become behaviors, some will subsist combined, some will need to subsist split apart, and some will just not subsist needed or subsist replaced by something else, but they are a ample starting point.

    Assigning responsibilities Whose Responsibility Is This?

    What isn’t always obvious is where these responsibilities belong, particularly if they affect different objects. It’s because the expend case describes what initiates a behavior, not necessarily who’s responsible to accomplish that behavior.

    So, even though it’s the customer who wants to know the status of the order, it’s the responsibility of the order to check it’s status. The customer should require the order kick to report it’s own status.

    When you require whose responsibility is this? Always recall that an kick should subsist responsible for itself.

    The Generic Verbs

    We can change the generic verb provide to set and obtain instead to obtain it clear for what they are trying to do.

    The “System” Object

    Now, here’s another issue that often comes up. It’s common to espy phrases like “system” validates payment or “system”will send the customer an email at expend cases, and that can lead to people creating a system kick and putting a huge amount of responsibilities in it.

    These phrases really signify that some fragment of this system validates payment, some fragment of this system will send an email, and it’s their job to pattern out what fragment of the system should subsist responsible for that behavior.

    The God Object

    If you bear an kick that has a lot of responsibilities, chances are, you are doing it wrong.

    You may need to re-think about the responsibility of each object, and dispense the responsibilities among the objects. recall that an kick should subsist responsible for itself as much as possible.

    Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) Cards

    Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) is another technique for organizing the objects.


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, fragment 2 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This article brought to you by LWN subscribers

    Subscribers to LWN.net made this article — and everything that surrounds it — possible. If you esteem their content, gladden buy a subscription and obtain the next set of articles possible.

    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first fragment of this analysis they looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular they examined routine dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where sever vtables were eschewed in preference for storing role pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion they will explore a second vital aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The configuration that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most like subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" ilk inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. They will convoke this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can subsist said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can subsist found in the Linux kernel, and outright can subsist seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but also the least flexible, is to declare a union as one ingredient of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained barren until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in 2.4.14.2 when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is also a bit clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every modern filesystem implementation needs to add an extra field to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not look like a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will subsist the same size and will subsist great enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as they will espy shortly. The second is a actual problem and the universal ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 development series this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u also added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only confiscate remembrance to store its own structure without any need to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to subsist solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first difficulty is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always Place the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of ilk safety and makes it harder to systematize fields in the inode to obtain optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to expend the list_entry() macro to accomplish the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to expend this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the nonstandard name. This practice lasted until 2.5.28 when a modern container_of() macro was added which implemented the same functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more ilk safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second difficulty was that the filesystem had to subsist responsible for allocating the inode - it could no longer subsist allocated by common code as the common code did not bear enough information to confiscate the revise amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As notable earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding modern filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more field that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer field called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and confiscate a sever structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced modern problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it also required writing more error-handling code. also there was remembrance used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra remembrance dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often need to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra remembrance dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad expend of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is silent in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the same purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only route to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux embrace files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data ilk by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could subsist converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effectual vehicle to interlard these three patterns they conclude not display the replete scope of any of them so it is useful to study further afield and espy what else they can learn.

    A survey of the expend of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide scope of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a miniature fixed number of subtypes of the base ilk and there is shrimp expectation of more being added. A simple example of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file assign information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the inequity encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the same information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever subsist extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal ilk has a different ilk of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to subsist the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not clear whether these examples should subsist considered as the same pattern as the original struct inode. conclude they really portray different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one ilk with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not advocate variant types at outright except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to handle outright usages of union as a configuration of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to obtain a choice. So the respond is not clear.

    For their purposes it doesn't really matter what they convoke it as long as they know where to expend each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly display that when outright of the variants are understood by a single module, then a union is a very confiscate mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to mention to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely sever pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The expend of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an example of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so easy to classify. It would probably subsist unbiased to boom that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can subsist very useful but they can also lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you study at a void pointer, like looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is like a "goto destination" command - almost meaningless without reading lots of context.

    Examining outright the different uses that void pointers can subsist Place to would subsist well beyond the scope of this article. Instead they will restrict their attention to just one modern usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it difficult to recognize their expend in data inheritance. The example they will expend to explain this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it easy to synthesize simple text files like some of those in /proc. The "seq" fragment of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a single line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a modern seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data field of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward example of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base ilk and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private field which is a void pointer and it can subsist used by clients of seq_file to add extra situation to the file. For example md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private field of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a single pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to mention to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private field itself. This certainly seems like a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a single pointer would subsist a consume - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you study at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To obtain it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being like a union of every different possible pointer type. If the value that needs to subsist stored is a pointer, it can subsist stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a single pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when they espy a void pointer being used it may not subsist obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally subsist embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure silent has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private expend by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will subsist realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a shroud device which stores your filesystem might subsist realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't need to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would subsist embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which expend this field, one appears to result that end while the other two expend it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to subsist used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately clear that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is clear is that an apparently "private" void pointer can subsist intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as they bear seen in two different circumstances, they may not subsist used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly profound examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before they leave unions and void pointers behind a study at struct page may subsist interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden a bit due to historical baggage. This example is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux remembrance is divided into pages, and these pages are Place to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to respond kmalloc() requests. Others are simply fragment of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to subsist used. Each of these different expend cases could subsist seen as a subtype of the universal class of "page", and in most cases need some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the same struct page describing it, so if the effectual ilk of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of remembrance change over time - the ilk of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many ilk systems are designed assuming that the ilk of an kick is immutable, they find here that the kernel has a very actual need for ilk mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first level of subtyping there are only a miniature number of different subtypes as listed above; these are outright known to the core remembrance management code, so a union would subsist model here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over outright three, thus hiding the actual structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in expend has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private field that can subsist used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the same size and this is one of them. Most users of this field actually store a pointer here and bear to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and obtain this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative example of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can subsist used, and where the list of possible subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to subsist increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a replete understanding of it they will again need to explore a shrimp bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly arresting going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second expend is the data inheritance embedding that they bear already discussed. The third is like it but importantly different. This third expend is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The expend of an embedded anchor like struct list_head can subsist seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a single kick can bear several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if they embrace the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to reason of this sort of embedding more like a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can subsist mixed-in to other objects, an arbitrary number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the actuality of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not subsist shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every kick with an independent actuality will bear a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more explicit struct kref. When an kick is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could subsist buried quite deeply. For example a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in gyrate subsist embedded in a structure for some specific device) does bear a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These bear no reference counter, bear no independent actuality and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when Place this way, it is useful to recall that a single kick cannot bear two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to bear two counters like s_active and s_count in struct super_block which weigh different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only configuration of multiple inheritance that can drudgery is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It also means that, when designing a data structure, it is vital to reason about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should bear its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an kick in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really modern and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an vital inequity with void pointers is that it is relatively easy to change your mind later and switch an extension structure to subsist a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the privilege decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing modern instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() role is called which can optionally confiscate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to subsist allocated by the lowest level device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode example from above which has an alloc_inode() routine in the super_block to request allocation, they find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() advocate functions. The first of these is used when the previous expend of a piece of remembrance is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when they know that the remembrance was previously used for some other inode. They espy this same pattern of an initializer role sever from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can subsist recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.

    Conclusion

    In exploring the expend of routine dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel they find that while some patterns look to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost outright data inheritance could subsist implemented using structure embedding, unions provide actual value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very vital and the skill to delegate methods to a related kick can subsist valuable.

    We also find that there are patterns in expend with shrimp to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may bear an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can cause confusion, and could nearly always subsist replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to betoken default behavior is similarly a poverty-stricken choice - when the default is vital there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is also a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to actual problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to capitalize ameliorate their mind, and pursue the latter to capitalize ameliorate the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might subsist of interest to some.

    Exercises
  • As inodes now expend structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not subsist necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was notable in the text, struct seq_file can subsist extended both through "void pointer" and a limited configuration of "union" data inheritance. explain how seq_open_private() allows this structure to also subsist extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an example by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". account submitting a patch if this appears to subsist an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a kick to accommodate fields that not outright users are interested in. This can betoken that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can subsist represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could subsist a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more universal expend of the proposed open() routine for inodes might capitalize here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an kick model that would meet outright the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
    ISBN13 : 9781260211108
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260682137
    ISBN13 : 9781260682137
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $80.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260277143
    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $77.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1259929434
    ISBN13 : 9781259929434
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $76.00
    000-634000-634
    By Peter W. Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260128474
    ISBN13 : 9781260128475
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $39.00
    000-634000-634
    By Peter Cardon
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260147150
    ISBN13 : 9781260147155
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
    Our ISBN13 : 9781259921889
    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $64.00
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