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IBM IBM demur Oriented Analysis

Analyst firm Positions IBM in Leaders Quadrant of Magic Quadrant file | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

source: IBM

July 12, 2006 08:00 ET

SOMERS, ny -- (MARKET WIRE) -- July 12, 2006 -- IBM nowadays introduced that Gartner, Inc. has positioned IBM within the leaders quadrant in its Magic Quadrant document of the thing Oriented evaluation and Design equipment space. in keeping with the document*, Gartner estimates that IBM has greater than 50 percent of the market participate versus its two nearest competitors who mixed hold 30 % or extra of the market.

model-driven development helps software construction groups acquire in mind, doc and talk the enterprise manner of application and systems construction to demonstrate architecture resilience just before making full scale structure investments, and to define a carrier oriented structure roadmap resulting in industry transformation.

IBM's management within the demur Oriented evaluation and Design (OOA&D) equipment marketplace for 2H06-2H07 is the outcome of a finished portfolio of offerings which aid organizations employ fashions or patterns to drive their application building, together with:

-- IBM Rational utility Modeler, IBM Rational application Architect, and IBM Rational systems Developer -- IBM's award-profitable mannequin-pushed structure tools, based on Eclipse, to uphold development groups create potent purposes; -- endured steer of Microsoft environments through IBM Rational Rose demonstrates IBM's dedication to presenting a application development platform that goals a wide array of implementation technologies; -- IBM WebSphere industry Modeler -- the outcome of IBM's acquisition of Holosofx -- helps enterprise system analysis to shut the gap between an firm's traces of enterprise and their construction corporation's figuring out of the enterprise drivers; -- IBM Rational facts Architect -- an commercial enterprise data modeling and database design tool that moreover helps clients map information belongings to every different to greater readily create database and integration schemas. "Gartner's assessment of the OOA&D positions IBM within the leaders quadrant which they believe confirms their manner round mannequin-pushed construction," noted Danny Sabbah, time-honored supervisor, Rational software, IBM. "IBM's model-driven equipment uphold geographically distributed utility structure groups to talk their designs and requirements visually, casting off the risk of challenge failures as a result of mis-conversation resulting from language and cultural boundaries."

Gartner's Magic Quadrant positions companies alongside two dimensions: completeness of imaginative and prescient, and potential to execute on that vision. For 2006, demur Oriented analysis and Design equipment are smartly into mainstream employ attaining 20 p.c to 50 percent of the target viewers: information architects, analysts and builders. in keeping with the file, most agencies acquire converted to OOA&D strategies and tools in concert with implementing carrier oriented architectures (SOAs), resulting in a speedy explosion of this market from 2000-2004.

modern-day information builds on IBM's management in assisting shoppers govern their utility and systems construction. IBM turned into these days named the worldwide market participate chief in the application development and assignment and portfolio management utility market according to total application income for 2005 for the fifth consecutive yr, according to unbiased analyst firm Gartner Inc. based on the impartial record**, IBM become the main market participate vendor in complete software profits with 25.four p.c market share, more than double the percentage of its nearest competitor.

For more information, argue with http://www.ibm.com/software/rational.

concerning the Gartner Magic Quadrant

The Magic Quadrant is copyrighted June 1, 2006 via Gartner, Inc. and is reused with permission. The Magic Quadrant is a graphical representation of a market at and for a selected time duration. It depicts Gartner's analysis of how sure vendors measure in opposition t criteria for that market, as defined with the aid of Gartner. Gartner doesn't propound any dealer, product or carrier depicted within the Magic Quadrant, and doesn't hint know-how clients to select simplest these vendors placed within the "Leaders" quadrant. The Magic Quadrant is supposed entirely as a analysis tool, and isn't intended to live a particular book to action. Gartner disclaims any warranties, categorical or implied, with recognize to this research, including any warranties of merchantability or health for a specific aim.

* The Gartner Magic Quadrant for demur Oriented evaluation and Design (OOA&D) tools, 2H06-2H07 record changed into authored by means of Michael J. Blechar.

** The Gartner market data record is entitled "Market Share: application construction and venture and Portfolio administration, international, 2005" authored through Laurie Wurster and Fabrizio Biscotti.


net provider market analysis for 2018 purchasable in novel document | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

 world net capabilities Market is expected to develop at a Compound Annual augment rate (CAGR) of +7.46%. the bottom 12 months considered for the study is 2018 and the forecast duration regarded is 2018 To 2025.

 internet technologies, akin to HTTP, initially designed for human-desktop communication, are used to skedaddle desktop-to-desktop communications, notably machine-readable file codecs similar to XML and JSON. truly, net services customarily deliver an object-oriented web-primarily based interface to the database server.

as an instance, it will moreover live used through other web servers, or mobile clients can supply the quit person with a consumer interface. Many corporations that provide data with formatted HTML pages deliver this statistics in XML or JSON on the server, and are constantly provided through web services that permit syndication, corresponding to Wikipedia's export.

an additional software offered to conclusion clients can moreover live a mashup where the net server uses diverse net capabilities on diverse computers and compiles the content birthright into a unique consumer interface.

For pattern reproduction of this report: www.researchnreports.com/request_sample.php?identification=224901

foremost Key gamers during this document

Microsoft

Amazon

IBM

Salesforce

SAP

The international internet service Market research record is a advantageous source of insightful records for industry strategists. It offers the net provider industry overview with boom evaluation and ancient & futuristic charge, earnings, require and provide records (as applicable).

The research analysts supply an intricate description of the value chain and its distributor evaluation. This web provider n market study offers comprehensive records which enhances the realizing, scope and application of this document.

For more enquiry: bit.ly/2OnrVHb 

web capabilities are any utility that can live used on their personal over the internet and that employ a standardized XML messaging equipment. XML is used to encode any communications to an internet service.

for instance, the customer sends an XML message to invoke the net service after which waits for the corresponding XML response. because any verbal exchange is completed in XML, internet services don't appear to live tied to a unique working equipment or programming language.

Java can parley with Perl. home windows functions can talk with Unix purposes.

net features are self-contained, modular, allotted, dynamic purposes that may moreover live described, published, discovered, or invoked over the community to create items, techniques, and provide chains. These purposes can moreover live local, disbursed, or internet-based mostly.

net features are constructed on desirable of open specifications reminiscent of TCP/IP, HTTP, Java, HTML, and XML.  

 desk of Contents:

international web service Market analysis file 2018-2023

Chapter 1: internet carrier Market Overview 

Chapter 2: global economic influence on trade 

Chapter three: web carrier Market competition by using producers 

Chapter four: global construction, profits (price) by area 

Chapter 5: world deliver (construction), Consumption, Export, Import via areas 

Chapter 6: international creation, earnings (value), rate trend by using class 

Chapter 7: global Market evaluation by utility 

Chapter eight: Manufacturing can suffuse analysis 

Chapter 9: Industrial Chain, Sourcing manner and Downstream consumers 

Chapter 10: advertising and marketing manner analysis, Distributors/merchants 

Chapter eleven: internet carrier Market upshot factors evaluation 

Chapter 12: international net provider Market Forecast

This e mail tackle is being included from spambots. You want JavaScript enabled to view it.


Innovation: A application That Works | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Mary Jo Frederich and Peter Andrews portray IBM's First-of-a-type (FOAK) program, which promotes innovation that gives you actual, profitable industry cost.

This chapter is from the publication 

in case you had been tripping over uncut jewels and precious metallic ores, you'd likely locate a manner to purchase capabilities of it. IBM analysis can suppose relish that some days. in the hallways, you hear conversations about computers that understand natural language, superior evaluation of streaming statistics, or "green" ideas for reducing power and waste. around you're individuals who suppose for a dwelling, complicated at work—taking over intractable problems of securing fiscal institution information during disasters, optimizing give chains, or constructing programs that can simulate drug interactions. obliging issues are going on. unique things.

however for years, achieving out to the true world for innovation partnerships become no longer an evident alternative for IBM analysis. IBM has at any times had decent, artistic minds at work, helping valued clientele and creating the subsequent generation of basic equipment for enterprise and the public sector. but IBM kept the jewels to itself. Researchers (that really expert role emerged in 1945) labored in what appeared to live fabulous isolation. They managed to invent the disk power, random-entry reminiscence, FORTRAN, RISC computing, and dozens of different applied sciences that helped create ultra-modern digital world.

not by the way, IBM made some huge cash during this period. IBM had first-type questions it needed to reply, and it didn't requisite to witness outside for talents. almost everything turned into proprietary, and every minute thing that become essential for an entire reply took plot in the business. besides, IBM analysis was modeled after Bell Labs, and the notion become that terrifi isolation became each acceptable and integral. The actual world, with its budgets, cut-off dates, and messy issues, would most effective distract the foremost and the brightest. Naturally, there were ideas, issues, and relationships that stored IBM research important. It wasn't a completely closed device, however that changed into the primary standpoint.

IBM research had few formal ties past corporate headquarters unless the Nineteen Seventies. at the moment, different IBM divisions acquire been facing gigantic challenges, and they grew to become restive about making contributions to IBM analysis once they weren't getting any instant advantages. in accordance with this, so-called "Joint courses" acquire been based. For the first time, other divisions of IBM, those that developed and bought and struggled with customer problems, any started to at once repercussion the IBM research agenda and its funding.

instead of securing 100% of its expense scope during the industry enterprise, now IBM research become allocated most effective a portion of its annual funding. IBM analysis essential to relaxed the the leisure of its funding at once from the IBM manufacturers. This became meant to align a factor of the analysis labor with IBM manufacturer options, whereas nevertheless offering IBM research with the liberty to pursue pure, unconstrained exploration.

This funding model soundless exists nowadays. each year, each of the IBM manufacturers allocates a component of its budget to fund its Joint program with IBM analysis. For every dollar that a manufacturer invests in its Joint program, IBM research matches it. This matching-of-funds approach has ensured that IBM analysis focuses some of its labor on areas strategic to the IBM manufacturers. It additionally has supplied an excellent incentive for the manufacturers to effect investments of their Joint courses, because it is a mechanism for the brands to enhance the variety of people engaged on their products, whereas proposing only half of the funding. well-nigh, they rep added aid at a discount expense.

With the introduction of Joint classes, a substantial and becoming variety of IBMers any started to labor shoulder to shoulder with colleagues from throughout IBM. The collaboration become deep, with company division employees working at, and even directing, tasks in the analysis labs. The tasks of researchers extended to the products themselves, and it turned into no longer outlandish for the researchers to circulate their places of labor to a manufacturing or development website. And if a product didn't Come off the line with satisfactory best, or a consumer had an issue with an providing that a researcher had a hand in, that researcher may live referred to as in. Firefighting and problem decision became fraction of the job, and many researchers became widely wide-spread with the resorts in Burlington, Poughkeepsie, Endicott, Hursley, and Markham.

In 1993, IBM research took yet another step toward fitting greater externally focused with the introduction of the services, functions, and options (SAS) software. SAS aimed to carry IBM analysis knowledge and applied sciences to a lots greater variety of shoppers who were fighting company challenges that had no off-the-shelf options.

SAS identified that researchers lived within the state of the technique in lots of areas of science and technology. if they could ensue the very best of what IBM research had to actual-world issues, they may power massive cost for valued clientele and the IBM supplier.

past producing novel income for IBM, SAS led researchers to confront many tricky company challenges. It moreover forced the researchers to reflect more deeply and creatively about the expertise influence of their labor beyond the laboratory. searching again, viable remark how SAS and the Joint programs drove IBM analysis to live greater vital to IBM through guiding the researchers into areas that they may now not acquire in any other case explored. determine 1.1 suggests the evolution of IBM research from being internally focused to externally focused.

Figure 1.1

determine 1.1 IBM research goes from isolation to ever deeper partnering with different IBM organizations and shoppers.

youngsters IBM analysis did not welcome these adjustments enthusiastically, the cloud had a silver lining. beyond administration questions and fiscal pressures, it became clear that further and further of the action become going on the plot individuals from several groups labored collectively. Synergies, novel views, and sparkling ideas drove advances equivalent to parallel computing, object-oriented application, and everything that got here with the introduction of the internet. And with few exceptions, success within the industry relied on a tangled array of partnerships. brand novel competitor is any the time, doubtlessly, the next day's collaborator.




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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fraction 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test cognomen : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fraction 2
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 72 true Questions

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fraction 2

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Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Object-Oriented Analysis & DesignJune 2, 3, 9, 10Worcester state CollegeTaught by Jan Bergandy, Computer Science, UMass, Dartmouth

Seminar Objectives:

  • To develop an in-depth understanding of object-oriented paradigm
  • To obtain a working knowledge of object-oriented analysis & design techniques
  • To learn object-oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  • To learn about basic design patterns and the role of patterns is software development
  • To understand the repercussion of demur paradigm on software development activities
  • To explore synergy between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming
  • To learn about key demur technologies
  • Who should attend:This workshop is addressed to faculty involved in teaching programming, software design, and other courses related to software development. It is addressed to those who visage a transition to demur technology and want to learn about challenges and benefits of this transition. The workshop does not require any prior knowledge of object-oriented programming or knowledge of demur paradigm. common computer fluency and common knowledge of issues associated with software and software development are expected.

    Seminar Organization:The course will live conducted as a project with instructor giving short presentations pertaining to a specific stage of the analysis and design process. During this course the participants will construct an analysis model for a selected problem. This model will live refined in to the detailed design even providing an opening for discussion about the relationship between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming. Each student will receive a copy of the course materials and the textbook.

    Tools & Platforms:Rational-Rose CASE toolThe CASE tool is used exclusively to expedite the process of model construction. The students disburse no more than half an hour of their time during the entire class on learning how to employ the tool. Not using the CASE toll will effect it almost impossible to undergo hands-on any the elements of the object-oriented analysis and design process.

    Textbooks:M. Fowler, ÒUML DistilledÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-32563-2 (additional/optional )

    E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides, ÒDesign PatternÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63361-2

    Outline:

    June 2, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00Topics to live addressed:Object paradigm top-down - analysis & design perspectiveObject paradigm bottom-up - programming perspectiveBasic concepts: abstraction, encapsulation, information hiding, modularityResponsibility view of the requirementsClasses and objects emerging from responsibilitiesComparison of procedural and object-oriented paradigmsClasses and relationships as the structure blocks of software architectureCriteria of class qualityIntroduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)Static & dynamic modelActors and employ casesTransitioning from functional requirements to objects - introduction

    Project:Analysis of the requirements for the selected projectIdentifying actors and employ casesConstructing employ case diagrams

    June 3, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to live addressed:Transitioning from functional requirements to objectsIdentifying the first group of classesClass specificationClass as an encapsulation of a responsibilityClass, Utility Class, Parameterized Class and its instantiationClass diagram - introductionIdentifying relationships between classesAssociation relationshipsAssociation classesRepresenting relationships with cardinalityAggregation versus compositionRepresenting aggregation and composition relationshipsRepresenting generalization/ specialization (inheritance)PolymorphismAbstract classes and interfacesSpecification of relationshipsImplementing classes & relationships (bottom-up view of relationships)Class diagram

    Project:Identifying first group of classes based on responsibilitiesPreliminary class diagramIdentifying relationships between classesDefining cardinalitiesClass diagram

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00 (part I)Topics to live addressed:Static versus dynamic modelIdentifying scenarios through refinement of employ casesModeling scenarios using object-interaction and sequence diagrams

    Project:Refining employ casesDeveloping and modeling scenariosIdentifying methodsRefining class specifications

    June 10, 2001 (part II)Topics to live addressed:Events, states and actionsState diagramCriteria for using state diagramsConcurrency, dynamic objectsMutual exclusion problemSequential, guarded, and synchronous objectsModeling concurrencyConcurrent state diagramsActivity diagrams

    Project:Evaluating classes for the requisite of state diagramsConstructing state diagrams for selected classes(Constructing activity diagrams)Refining class specifications

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to live addressed:Introduction to design patterns: Creational patterns, Abstract Factory, Builder, Prototype, Singleton, Virtual Constructor

    Structural Patterns: Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Façade, Proxy

    Behavioral Patterns: Chain of Responsibility, Command, Iterator, Mediator, Memento

    Other essential topics to live covered in this course:What to await from an object-oriented languageDynamic nature of object-oriented systems and the issues of garbage collectionEffective employ of inheritance and polymorphism and their repercussion on software qualitySingle versus multiple inheritancePolymorphism versus genericsClass design and data normalization (attribute dependence issues)


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, fraction 2 | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first fraction of this analysis they looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular they examined manner dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where part vtables were eschewed in preference for storing function pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion they will explore a second essential aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The configuration that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most relish subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" kind inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. They will convene this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the conduct that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can live said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can live institute in the Linux kernel, and any can live seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but moreover the least flexible, is to declare a union as one factor of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained empty until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in 2.4.14.2 when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is moreover a bit clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every novel filesystem implementation needs to add an extra province to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not appear relish a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will live the very size and will live big enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as they will remark shortly. The second is a true problem and the common ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 development succession this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u moreover added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only allocate memory to store its own structure without any requisite to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to live solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first vicissitude is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always plot the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of kind safety and makes it harder to sort fields in the inode to rep optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to employ the list_entry() macro to effect the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to employ this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the outlandish name. This drill lasted until 2.5.28 when a novel container_of() macro was added which implemented the very functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more kind safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second vicissitude was that the filesystem had to live amenable for allocating the inode - it could no longer live allocated by common code as the common code did not acquire enough information to allocate the reform amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As noted earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding novel filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more province that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer province called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and allocate a part structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced novel problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it moreover required writing more error-handling code. moreover there was memory used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra memory dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often requisite to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra memory dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad employ of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is soundless in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the very purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only way to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux include files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data kind by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could live converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effective vehicle to introduce these three patterns they Do not panoply the full scope of any of them so it is useful to witness further afield and remark what else they can learn.

    A survey of the employ of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide scope of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a diminutive fixed number of subtypes of the base kind and there is minute expectation of more being added. A simple example of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file credit information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the incompatibility encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the very information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever live extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal kind has a different kind of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to live the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not clear whether these examples should live considered as the very pattern as the original struct inode. Do they really portray different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one kind with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not uphold variant types at any except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to deal any usages of union as a configuration of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to effect a choice. So the reply is not clear.

    For their purposes it doesn't really matter what they convene it as long as they know where to employ each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly intricate that when any of the variants are understood by a unique module, then a union is a very usurp mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to mention to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely part pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The employ of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an example of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so simple to classify. It would probably live impartial to Say that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can live very useful but they can moreover lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you witness at a void pointer, relish looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is relish a "goto destination" command - almost irrational without reading lots of context.

    Examining any the different uses that void pointers can live upshot to would live well beyond the scope of this article. Instead they will restrict their attention to just one novel usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it difficult to recognize their employ in data inheritance. The example they will employ to intricate this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it simple to synthesize simple text files relish some of those in /proc. The "seq" fraction of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a unique line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a novel seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data province of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward example of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base kind and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private province which is a void pointer and it can live used by clients of seq_file to add extra state to the file. For example md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private province of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a unique pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to mention to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private province itself. This certainly seems relish a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a unique pointer would live a blow - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you witness at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To effect it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being relish a union of every different viable pointer type. If the value that needs to live stored is a pointer, it can live stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a unique pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when they remark a void pointer being used it may not live obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally live embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure soundless has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private employ by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will live realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a shroud device which stores your filesystem might live realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't requisite to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would live embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which employ this field, one appears to ensue that end while the other two employ it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to live used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately clear that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is clear is that an apparently "private" void pointer can live intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as they acquire seen in two different circumstances, they may not live used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly abysmal examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before they leave unions and void pointers behind a witness at struct page may live interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden a bit due to historical baggage. This example is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux memory is divided into pages, and these pages are upshot to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to reply kmalloc() requests. Others are simply fraction of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to live used. Each of these different employ cases could live seen as a subtype of the common class of "page", and in most cases requisite some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the very struct page describing it, so if the effective kind of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of memory change over time - the kind of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many kind systems are designed assuming that the kind of an demur is immutable, they find here that the kernel has a very true requisite for kind mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first even of subtyping there are only a diminutive number of different subtypes as listed above; these are any known to the core memory management code, so a union would live ideal here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over any three, thus hiding the true structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in employ has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private province that can live used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the very size and this is one of them. Most users of this province actually store a pointer here and acquire to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and rep this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative example of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can live used, and where the list of viable subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to live increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a full understanding of it they will again requisite to explore a minute bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly quick-witted going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second employ is the data inheritance embedding that they acquire already discussed. The third is relish it but importantly different. This third employ is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The employ of an embedded anchor relish struct list_head can live seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a unique demur can acquire several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if they include the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to reflect of this sort of embedding more relish a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can live mixed-in to other objects, an whimsical number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the existence of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not live shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every demur with an independent existence will acquire a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more express struct kref. When an demur is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could live buried quite deeply. For example a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in gyrate live embedded in a structure for some specific device) does acquire a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These acquire no reference counter, acquire no independent existence and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when upshot this way, it is useful to recall that a unique demur cannot acquire two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to acquire two counters relish s_active and s_count in struct super_block which weigh different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only configuration of multiple inheritance that can labor is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It moreover means that, when designing a data structure, it is essential to reflect about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should acquire its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an demur in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really novel and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an essential incompatibility with void pointers is that it is relatively simple to change your intelligence later and switch an extension structure to live a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the birthright decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing novel instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() function is called which can optionally allocate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to live allocated by the lowest even device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode example from above which has an alloc_inode() manner in the super_block to request allocation, they find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() uphold functions. The first of these is used when the previous employ of a piece of memory is unknown, the second is enough by itself when they know that the memory was previously used for some other inode. They remark this very pattern of an initializer function part from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can live recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.

    Conclusion

    In exploring the employ of manner dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel they find that while some patterns appear to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost any data inheritance could live implemented using structure embedding, unions provide true value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very essential and the ability to delegate methods to a related demur can live valuable.

    We moreover find that there are patterns in employ with minute to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may acquire an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can cause confusion, and could nearly always live replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to argue default conduct is similarly a penniless choice - when the default is essential there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is moreover a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to true problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to abet ameliorate their mind, and pursue the latter to abet ameliorate the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might live of interest to some.

    Exercises
  • As inodes now employ structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not live necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was noted in the text, struct seq_file can live extended both through "void pointer" and a limited configuration of "union" data inheritance. intricate how seq_open_private() allows this structure to moreover live extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an example by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". regard submitting a patch if this appears to live an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a demur to hold fields that not any users are interested in. This can argue that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can live represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could live a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more common employ of the proposed open() manner for inodes might abet here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an demur model that would meet any the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

  • (Log in to post comments)

    Java and Object-Oriented Programming | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    Many seasoned Java developers will scoff at the fact that this section even exists in this book. It is here for two very essential reasons. The first is that I continually hurry across Java applications built with a procedural mind-set. The fact that you know Java doesn't live essential that you acquire the ability to transform that knowledge into well-designed object-oriented systems. As both an instructor and consultant, I remark many data-processing shops ship COBOL and/or Visual Basic developers to a three-day class on UML and a five-day class on Java and await miracles. Case in point: I was recently asked to review a Java application to assess its design architecture and institute that it had only two classes—SystemController and ScreenController—which contained over 70,000 lines of Java code.

    The second understanding for the emphasis on how the language maps to object-oriented principles is that people relish language comparisons and how they stack up to their counterparts. To appease those that live and die by language comparisons, let's upshot Java under the scrutiny of what constitutes an object-oriented language.

    No definitive definition of what makes a language object-oriented is globally accepted. However, a common set of criteria I personally find useful is that the language must uphold the following:

  • Classes
  • Complex types (Java reference types)
  • Message passing
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • These are discussed in the next subsections.

    Java and Classes

    Java allows classes to live defined. There are no stray functions floating around in Java. A class is a static template that contains the defined structure (attributes) and conduct (operations) of a real-world entity in the application domain. At runtime, the class is instantiated, or brought to life, as an demur born in the image of that class. In my seminars, when several folks novel to the demur world are in attendance, I often employ the analogy of a cookie cutter. The cookie cutter is merely the template used to stamp out what will become individually decorated and unique cookies. The cookie cutter is the class; the unique blue, green, and yellow gingerbread man is the demur (which I confidence supports a bite operation).

    Java exposes the class to potential outside users through its public interface. A public interface consists of the signatures of the public operations supported by the class. A signature is the operation cognomen and its input parameter types (the return type, if any, is not fraction of the operation's signature).

    Good programming drill encourages developers to declare any attributes as private and allow access to them only via operations. As with most other languages, however, this is not enforced in Java. device 2-1 outlines the concept of a class and its interface.

    FIGURE 2-1 Public interface of a class

    The device uses a common eggshell metaphor to portray the concept of the class's interface, as well as encapsulation. The internal details of the class are hidden from the outside via a well-defined interface. In this case, only four operations are exposed in the classes interface (Operation_A, B, C, and D). The other attributes and operations are protected from the outside world. Actually, to the outside world, it's as if they don't even exist.

    Suppose you want to create an Order class in Java that has three attributes—orderNumber, orderDate, and orderTotal—and two operations—calcTotalValue() and getInfo(). The class definition could witness relish this:

    /** * Listing 1 * This is the Order class for the Java/UML book */ package com.jacksonreed; import java.util.*; public class Order { private Date orderDate; private long orderNumber; private long orderTotal; public Order() { } public boolean getInfo() { return true; } public long calcTotalValue() { return 0; } public Date getOrderDate() { return orderDate; } public void setOrderDate(Date aOrderDate) { orderDate = aOrderDate; } public long getOrderNumber() { return orderNumber; } public void setOrderNumber(long aOrderNumber) { orderNumber = aOrderNumber; } public long getOrderTotal() { return orderTotal; } public void setOrderTotal(long aOrderTotal) { orderTotal = aOrderTotal; } public static void main(String[] args) { Order order = novel Order(); System.out.println("instantiated Order"); System.out.println(order.getClass().getName()); System.out.println(order.calcTotalValue()); try { Thread.currentThread().sleep(5*1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) {} } }

    A few things are notable about the first bit of Java code presented in this book. Notice that each of the three attributes has a rep and a set operation to allow for the retrieval and setting of the Order object's properties. Although doing so is not required, it is common drill to provide these accessor-type operations for any attributes defined in a class. In addition, if the Order class ever wanted to live a JavaBean, it would acquire to acquire "getters and setters" defined in this way.

    Some of the manner code in the main() operation does a few things of note. Of interest is that a try shroud exists at the quit of the operation that puts the current thread to sleep for a bit. This is to allow the console panoply to freeze so that you can remark the results.

    If you kind in this class and then compile it and execute it in your favorite development tool or from the command prompt with

    javac order.java //* to compile it java order //* to hurry it

    you should rep results that witness relish this:

    instantiated Order com.jacksonreed.Order 0

    NOTE

    Going forward, I swear you will remark no code samples with class, operation, or credit names of foo, bar, or foobar.

    More on Java and Classes

    A class can moreover acquire what are called class-level operations and attributes. Java supports these with the static keyword. This keyword would proceed birthright after the visibility (public, private, protected) component of the operation or attribute. Static operations and attributes are needed to invoke either a service of the class before any true instances of that class are instantiated or a service that doesn't directly apply to any of the instances. The classic example of a static operation is the Java constructor. The constructor is what is called when an demur is created with the novel keyword. Perhaps a more business-focused example is an operation that retrieves a list of Customer instances based on particular search criteria.

    A class-level credit can live used to store information that any instances of that class may access. This credit might be, for example, a weigh of the number of objects currently instantiated or a property about Customer that any instances might requisite to reference.

    Java and tangled Types (Java Reference Types)

    A tangled type, which in Java is called a reference type, allows variables typed as something other than primitive types (e.g., int and boolean) to live declared. In Java, these are called reference types. In object-oriented systems, variables that are "of" a particular class, such as Order, Customer, or Invoice, must live defined. Taken a step further, Order could consist of other class instances, such as OrderHeader and OrderLine.

    In Java, you can define different variables that are references to runtime objects of a particular class type:

    Public Order myOrder; Public Customer myCustomer; Public Invoice myInvoice;

    Such variables can then live used to store actual demur instances and subsequently to serve as recipients of messages sent by other objects. In the previous code fragment, the variable myOrder is an instance of Order. After the myOrder demur is created, a message can live sent to it and myOrder will respond, provided that the operation is supported by myOrder's interface.

    Java and Message Passing

    Central to any object-oriented language is the ability to pass messages between objects. In later chapters you will remark that labor is done in a system only by objects that collaborate (by sending messages) to accomplish a goal (which is specified in a use-case) of the system.

    Java doesn't allow stray functions floating around that are not attached to a class. In fact, Java demands this. Unfortunately, as my previous yarn suggested, just saying that a language requires everything to live packaged in classes doesn't live essential that the class design will live robust, let solitary correct.

    Java supports message passing, which is central to the employ of Java's object-oriented features. The format closely resembles the syntax of other languages, such as C++ and Visual Basic. In the following code fragment, assume that a variable called myCustomer, of kind Customer, is defined and that an operation called calcTotalValue() is defined for Customer. Then the calcTotalValue() message being sent to the myCustomer demur in Java would witness relish this:

    myCustomer.calcTotalValue();

    Many developers feel that, in any other structured language, this is just a fancy way of calling a procedure. Calling a procedure and sending a message are similar in that, once invoked, both a procedure and a message implement a set of well-defined steps. However, a message differs in two ways:

  • There is a designated receiver, the object. Procedures acquire no designated receiver.

  • The interpretation of the message—that is, the how-to code (called the method) used to respond to the message—can vary with different receivers. This point will become more essential later in the chapter, when polymorphism is reviewed.

  • The concepts presented in this book confidence heavily on classes and the messaging that takes plot between their instances, or objects.

    Java and Encapsulation

    Recall that a class exposes itself to the outside world via its public interface and that this should live done through exposure to operations only, and not attributes. Java supports encapsulation via its ability to declare both attributes and operations as public, private, or protected. In UML this is called visibility.

    Using the code from the previous Order example, suppose you want to set the value of the orderDate attribute. In this case, you should Do so with an operation. An operation that gets or sets values is usually called a getter or a setter, respectively, and collectively such operations are called accessors. The local copy of the order date, orderDate, is declared private. (Actually, any attributes of a class should live declared private or protected, so that they are accessible only via operations exposed as public to the outside world.)

    Encapsulation provides some powerful capabilities. To the outside world, the design can screen how it derives its credit values. If the orderTotal credit is stored in the Order object, the corresponding rep operation defined previously looks relish this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { return orderTotal; }

    This snippet of code would live invoked if the following code were executed by an interested client:

    private long localTotal; private Order localOrder; localOrder = novel Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    However, suppose the credit orderTotal isn't kept as a local value of the Order class, but rather is derived via another mechanism (perhaps messaging to its OrderLine objects). If Order contains OrderLine objects (declared as a Vector or ArrayList of OrderLine objects called myOrderLines) and OrderLine knows how to obtain its line totals via the message getOrderLineTotal(), then the corresponding rep operation for orderTotal within Order will witness relish this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myOrderLines.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myOrderLines[i].getOrderLineTotal(); } return totalAmount; }

    This code cycles through the myOrderLines collection, which contains any the Orderline objects related to the Order object, sending the getOrderLineTotal() message to each of Order's OrderLine objects. The getOrderTotal() operation will live invoked if the following code is executed by an interested client:

    long localTotal; Order myOrder; myOrder = novel Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    Notice that the "client" code didn't change. To the outside world, the class soundless has an orderTotal attribute. However, you acquire hidden, or encapsulated, just how the value was obtained. This encapsulation allows the class's interface to remain the very (hey, I acquire an orderTotal that you can examine me about), while the class retains the flexibility to change its implementation in the future (sorry, how they Do industry has changed and now they must derive orderTotal relish this). This benign of resiliency is one of the compelling industry reasons to employ an object-oriented programming language in general.

    Java and Inheritance

    The inclusion of inheritance is often the most cited understanding for granting a language object-oriented status. There are two kinds of inheritance: interface and implementation. As they shall see, Java is one of the few languages that makes a clear distinction between the two.

    Interface inheritance (Figure 2-2) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface will live amenable for implementing any of the manner code of each operation defined in that interface. Only the signatures of the interface are inherited; there is no manner or how-to code.

    FIGURE 2-2 Interface inheritance

    Implementation inheritance (Figure 2-3) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface may, at its option, employ the manner code implementation already established for the interface. Alternatively, it may elect to implement its own version of the interface. In addition, the class inheriting the interface may extend that interface by adding its own operations and attributes.

    FIGURE 2-3 Implementation inheritance

    Each kind of inheritance should live scrutinized and used in the usurp setting. Interface inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The base class presents a generic facility, such as a table lookup, or a derivation of system-specific information, such as operating-system semantics or unique algorithms.

  • The number of operations is small.

  • The base class has few, if any, attributes.

  • Classes realizing or implementing the interface are diverse, with minute or no common code.

  • Implementation inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The class in question is a domain class that is of primary interest to the application (i.e., not a utility or controller class).

  • The implementation is complex, with a big number of operations.

  • Many attributes and operations are common across specialized implementations of the base class.

  • Some practitioners contend that implementation inheritance leads to a symptom called the frangible base class problem. Chiefly, this term refers to the fact that over time, what were once common code and attributes in the superclass may not remain common as the industry evolves. The result is that many, if not all, of the subclasses, override the conduct of the superclass. Worse yet, the subclasses may find themselves overriding the superclass, doing their own work, and then invoking the very operation again on the superclass. These practitioners espouse the idea of using only interface inheritance. Particularly with the advent of Java and its raising of the interface to a first-class type, the concept and usage of interface-based programming acquire gained tremendous momentum.

    As this book evolves, keeping in intelligence the pointers mentioned here when deciding between the two types of inheritance will live helpful. Examples of both constructs will live presented in the theme project that extends throughout this book.

    Implementation Inheritance

    Java supports implementation inheritance with the extends keyword. A class wanting to purchase advantage of implementation inheritance simply adds an extendsClassName statement to its class definition. To continue the previous example, suppose you acquire two different types of orders, both warranting their own subclasses: Commercial and Retail. You would soundless acquire an Order class (which isn't instantiated directly and which is called abstract). The previous fragment showed the code for the Order class. Following is the code for the Commercial class.

    package com.jacksonreed; public class Commercial extends Order { public Commercial() { } /* Unique Commercial code goes here */ }

    Implementation inheritance allows the Commercial class to utilize any attributes and operations defined in Order. This will live done automatically by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in conjunction with the language environment. In addition, implementation inheritance has the ability to override and/or extend any of Order's behavior. Commercial may moreover add completely novel conduct if it so chooses.

    Interface Inheritance

    Java supports interface inheritance with the implements keyword. A class wanting to realize a given interface (actually being amenable for the manner code) simply adds an implements InterfaceName statement. However, unlike extension of one class by another class, implementation of an interface by a class requires that the interface live specifically defined as an interface beforehand.

    Looking again at the previous example with Order, let's assume that this system will hold many classes—some built in this release, and some built in future releases—that requisite the ability to expense themselves. recall from earlier in this chapter that one of the indicators of using interface inheritance is the situation in which there is minute or no common code but the functional intent of the classes is the same. This pricing functionality includes three services: the abilities to calculate tax, to calculate an extended price, and to calculate a total price. Let's convene the operations for these services calcExtendedPrice(), calcTax(), and calcTotalPrice(), respectively, and allocate them to a Java interface called IPrice. Sometimes interface names are prefixed with the note I to distinguish them from other classes:

    package com.jacksonreed; interface IPrice { long calcExtendedPrice(); long calcTax(); long calcTotalPrice(); }

    Notice that the interface contains only operation signatures; it has no implementation code. It is up to other classes to implement the actual conduct of the operations. For the Order class to implement, or realize, the IPrice interface, it must include the implements keyword followed by the interface name:

    public class Order implements IPrice { }

    If you try to implement an interface without providing implementations for any of its operations, your class will not compile. Even if you don't want to implement any manner code for some of the operations, you soundless must acquire the operations defined in your class.

    One very powerful aspect of interface inheritance is that a class can implement many interfaces at the very time. For example, Order could implement the IPrice interface and perhaps a search interface called ISearch. However, a Java class may extend from only one other class.

    Java and Polymorphism

    Polymorphism is one of those $50 words that dazzles the uninformed and sounds really impressive. In fact, polymorphism is one of the most powerful features of any object-oriented language.

    Roget's II: The novel Thesaurus cross-references the term polymorphism to the main entry of variety. That will Do for starters. Variety is the key to polymorphism. The Latin root for polymorphism means simply "many forms." Polymorphism applies to operations in the object-oriented context. So by combining these two thoughts, you could Say that operations are polymorphic if they are identical (not just in cognomen but moreover in signatures) but proffer variety in their implementations.

    Polymorphism is the ability of two different classes each to acquire an operation that has the very signature, while having two very different forms of manner code for the operation. Note that to purchase advantage of polymorphism, either an interface inheritance or an implementation inheritance relationship must live involved.

    In languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, defining a routine to have the very cognomen as another routine will cause a compile error. In object-oriented languages such as Java and C++, several classes might acquire an operation with the very signature. Such duplication is in fact encouraged because of the power and flexibility it brings to the design.

    As mentioned previously, the implements and extends keywords let the application purchase advantage of polymorphism. As they shall see, the sample project presented later in this book is an order system for a company called Remulak Productions. Remulak sells musical equipment, as well as other types of products. There will live a Product class, as well as Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies classes.

    Suppose, then, that differences exist in the fundamental algorithms used to determine the best time to reorder each kind of product (called the economic order quantity, or EOQ). I don't want to let too much out of the bag at this point, but there will live an implementation inheritance relationship created with Product as the progenitor class (or superclass) and the other three classes as its descendants (or subclasses). The scenario that follows uses implementation inheritance with a polymorphic example. Note that interface inheritance would submit the very benefits and live implemented in the very fashion.

    To facilitate extensibility and live able to add novel products in the future in a sort of plug-and-play fashion, they can effect calcEOQ() polymorphic. To Do this in Java, Product would define calcEOQ() as abstract, thereby informing any inheriting subclass that it must provide the implementation. A key concept behind polymorphism is this: A class implementing an interface or inheriting from an progenitor class can live treated as an instance of that progenitor class. In the case of a Java interface, the interface itself is a cogent type.

    For example, assume that a collection of Product objects is defined as a property of the Inventory class. Inventory will uphold an operation, getAverageEOQ(), that needs to calculate the mediocre economic order quantity for any products the company sells. To Do this requires that they iterate over the collection of Product objects called myProducts to rep each object's unique economic order quantity individually, with the goal of getting an average:

    public long getAverageEOQ() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myProducts.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myProducts[i].calcEOQ(); } return totalAmount / myProducts.length; }

    But wait! First of all, how can Inventory acquire a collection of Product objects when the Product class is abstract (no instances were ever created on their own)? recall the maxim from earlier: Any class implementing an interface or extending from an progenitor class can live treated as an instance of that interface or extended class. A Guitar "is a" Product, SheetMusic "is a" Product, and Supplies "is a" Product. So anywhere you reference Guitar, SheetMusic, or Supplies, you can substitute Product.

    Resident in the array myProducts within the Inventory class are individual concrete Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies objects. Java figures out dynamically which demur should rep its own unique calcEOQ() message. The beauty of this construct is that later, if you add a novel kind of Product—say, Organ—it will live totally transparent to the Inventory class. That class will soundless acquire a collection of Product types, but it will acquire four different ones instead of three, each of which will acquire its own unique implementation of the calcEOQ() operation.

    This is polymorphism at its best. At runtime, the class related to the demur in question will live identified and the reform "variety" of the operation will live invoked. Polymorphism provides powerful extensibility features to the application by letting future unknown classes implement a predictable and well-conceived interface without affecting how other classes deal with that interface.



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    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
    By Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones
    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 129217613X
    ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Our ISBN10 : 129217613X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $75.00
    Computer Security: Principles and PracticeComputer Security: Principles and Practice
    By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown
    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
    ISBN10 : 0134794109
    ISBN13 : 9780134794105
    Our ISBN10 : 1292220619
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292220611
    Subject : Computer Science & Technology
    Price : $65.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126046542X
    ISBN13 : 9781260465426
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $39.00
    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 0078021782
    ISBN13 : 9780078021787
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260084498
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $65.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William G Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
    ISBN13 : 9781260211108
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260682137
    ISBN13 : 9781260682137
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260277143
    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
    Price : $77.00
    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1259929434
    ISBN13 : 9781259929434
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2017)
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    ISBN13 : 9781260128475
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
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    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
    ISBN10 : 1260147150
    ISBN13 : 9781260147155
    Our ISBN10 : 1259921883
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    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
    Price : $64.00
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