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000-633 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - allotment 1

Test Code : 000-633
Test denomination : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - allotment 1
Vendor denomination : IBM
: 105 existent Questions

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IBM kick Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented analysis and Design | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the publication 

evaluation emphasizes an investigation of the difficulty and necessities, in status of an answer. for instance, if a current on-line trading device is preferred, how will or not it's used? What are its features?

"evaluation" is a big term, most suitable qualified, as in necessities analysis (an investigation of the requirements) or object-oriented evaluation (an investigation of the domain objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual solution (in utility and hardware) that fulfills the requirements, in status of its implementation. as an example, an contour of a database schema and software objects. Design ideas frequently exclude low-stage or "obtrusive" particulars—glaring to the intended buyers. sooner or later, designs will likewise be implemented, and the implementation (akin to code) expresses the actual and comprehensive realized design.

As with analysis, the term is most useful certified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

advantageous evaluation and design were summarized in the phrase carry out the preempt thing (evaluation), and carry out the constituent privilege (design).


An routine to Assessing and evaluating Object-Oriented evaluation strategies | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

In-Depth

An routine to Assessing and comparing Object-Oriented evaluation strategies

Many object-oriented evaluation (OOA) strategies are now accessible for employ in device evaluation. The methods gain many dispassionate essential features. for instance, they build analysis models for techniques and provide an analysis system for pile these models. despite the fact, the details of the facets may likewise be described in a different way on account of the diverse goals of analyzing programs with kick orientation. The details ought to be assessed with a purpose to stand in intelligence the facets accurately in the system, or the points need to be compared precisely in diverse strategies. this text gifts a framework as a device for assessing the particulars of the conventional fundamental aspects in particular person OOA methods, and explores the dependency of the points.

Many object-oriented evaluation (OOA) methods are actually purchasable for analyzing and modeling a device with objects. My colleagues and that i gain used some of them in case reports 1, 2 and likewise analyzed a pair of OOA strategies in detail to locate how they back OOA. Their analysis found that each one of those OOA strategies gain seven an identical standard features: evaluation models, modeling ideas, primary principles, analysis strategies, evaluation procedures, requirement sources, and evaluation deliverables. These aspects exist with based relationships; that's, a feature may additionally rely on different aspects (see Fig. 1). any of those fundamental facets guide the ordinary aim of OOA strategies: to construct the article evaluation model for a gadget through an evaluation manner.

however, the methods might likewise define these essential facets with several particulars, as they are looking to build their own evaluation models for a system. as an example, the article Modeling technique (OMT) three defines the analysis for a gadget model with three miniature models (object, dynamic, and useful models). The Coad/Yourdon formulation 4 and the Wirfs-Brock components 5 contour just one mannequin for a equipment. yet another instance is that OMT three defines a category with attributes while the Wirfs-Brock formula four defines a class without attributes. hence, to purchase note the belt of expertise of an OOA system and its precise ameliorations from other OOA methods, they must find out how the routine defines particulars of the facets and likewise how the facets depend on each and every other. in addition, they may noiseless find out to what extent the similarities and differences between OOA methods are true, in preference to merely obvious, once they compare the methods in response to their elements.

Some comparative experiences of OO strategies were executed (e.g., Arnold et al., 6 de Champeaux and Faure, 7 Fowler, 8 and Monarchi and Puhr 9 ) during the past primarily based upon aspects corresponding to these outlined. youngsters, the studios or researchers result petite accent on examining the details of the features and the relationships between the elements in particular person OOA strategies. they gain created a framework that contains a group of commonplace basic aspects of OOA strategies and assesses the features with a based structure, in order that an OOA formulation will likewise be realized, analyzed, and assessed in the course of the particulars of its features.

THE FRAMEWORKThe framework used for assessing the generic simple points and their dependencies in individual OOA strategies is proven in determine 2. in the diagram, each rectangular container represents a function; each and every solid line represents a elegant relationship between two elements; and each arrow represents a probable requirement aid of analysis.

The typical elementary features covered by the framework are specified as follows:

  • The basic precept: simple legal guidelines of analysis.
  • The evaluation model: a view and representation of a equipment. different types of models could be built through a way to symbolize several views and elements of the device one after the other. A model is defined at the side of a set of modeling ideas. each modeling understanding is an summary theory at the back of the company of evaluation; that's, it abstracts and specifies a particular piece of the gadget.
  • The Notation: a set of diagrammatic or textual symbols used to symbolize a model.
  • the strategy of OOA: a technique for using the process of analysis.
  • The source of Requirement: the particulars of an analyzed device.
  • The manner of OOA: a routine of constructing the model step by step. each step may noiseless provide guidelines and criteria for pile the revise mannequin as it should be.
  • The Deliverable of analysis: the product generated through evaluation.
  • as an instance, table 1 indicates the primary elements of OMT three recognized the employ of the framework.

    The framework additionally hyperlinks the facets by way of their based relationships (represented through solid lines). as an instance, the notation is conditional upon the modeling ideas to be able to characterize them. The system of OOA is conditional upon the mannequin, as the procedure has to construct the model and the deliverable includes the model. The technique of OOA depends on the routine of OOA since it is pushed by means of a tactic of OOA , as an example, a data-pushed tactic creates the system to model objects and their attributes first, and a method-pushed tactic drives the process to mannequin objects and their operations first. Such elegant relationships between the facets can display how the details of a characteristic may move the particulars of an additional feature.

    THE procedure OF ASSESSING OOA methods the usage of THE FRAMEWORKWe illustrate a process of the usage of the framework to investigate an OOA routine in determine 3. each container in the diagram shows a step of the method. The tenacious arrows characterize the order of the steps. The dashed arrows symbolize the feature flows between the steps and the framework. In each and every step, a group of guidance is provided in accordance with the framework, which explores and assesses the particulars—corresponding to definitions—of the essential features of the OOA formulation. The answers are found in line with the tasks throughout the evaluation.

    In privilege here section, they clarify particulars of each and every step in the technique. OOA methods numbered from 1–10 (see desk 2) are assessed as examples of the usage of the framework throughout the process.

    determine simple concepts.

  • Which basic concepts does the OOA formulation employ for OOA? How are they described?

    Many OOA methods books interlard and clarify the primary principles employed by using the methods. You must be privy to the definition or import of each principle in every OOA components, as a precept could be termed otherwise or a time period may denomination just a few ideas with different meanings in diverse OOA methods. as an instance, table three lists the simple principles employed by the ten OOA methods.

    The terms exhibit that some principles corresponding to abstraction are employed by a pair of formula and others corresponding to belt are simplest employed via one. despite the fact, the meanings of the ideas expose which time period represents the equal thing and which does not. as an example:

  • The abstraction principle refers to several types of abstraction within the strategies (see Step 2).
  • The encapsulation principle likewise skill counsel hiding in the methods apart from with the Wirfs-Brock formulation and HOOD: Encapsulation capability the separation of exterior facets of an kick from its inner ones, and simplest exterior features may likewise be seen through other objects. both methods contour "encapsulation" and "advice hiding" otherwise: Encapsulation skill the combination of the statistics and the operations that gain an result on statistics in objects, and counsel hiding aptitude to conceal the interior details of an kick from different objects.
  • The inheritance precept has the equal which means within the nine strategies that employ it. (HOOD doesn't employ this principle.)
  • the size precept within the Coad/Yourdon formulation is akin to the domain precept in Syntropy: Scale is a precept that courses a reader through a huge model by using partitioning it into smaller components. belt is a means of dividing a gear description, notwithstanding now not of gadget execution, into smaller parts, i.e., subsystem descriptions.
  • Why does the formula choose to employ such principles?

    distinctive OOA strategies may additionally settle to compose employ of diverse simple concepts for distinctive factors. as an instance, the Wirfs-Brock formula analyzes the useful connections as opposed to the facts relationships between objects. OMT focuses on the kick constitution but not on the messages flowing between objects. therefore, the principle "emphasis on kick constitution" is used by OMT and the principle "verbal exchange with messages" is used with the aid of the Wirfs-Brock formulation. Answering this query helps purchase into account the goals of the formulation more exactly and deeply.


  • Object-Oriented evaluation And Design — Introduction (part 1) | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The theory Of Object-Orientation

    Object-orientation is what’s called a programming paradigm. It’s no longer a language itself but a set of concepts that is supported by using many languages.

    if you aren’t standard with the ideas of object-orientation, you may purchase a examine at the sage of Object-Oriented Programming.

    If every petite thing they carry out in these languages is object-oriented, it capacity, we're oriented or concentrated round objects.

    Now in an object-oriented language, this one big application will instead be fracture up apart into self contained objects, well-nigh enjoy having a number of mini-courses, each kick representing a special a allotment of the software.

    and every kick consists of its personal data and its own logic, and they communicate between themselves.

    These objects aren’t random. They signify the manner you talk and believe concerning the difficulty you try to limpid up on your True existence.

    They characterize things enjoy personnel, images, bank debts, spaceships, asteroids, video section, audio data, or something exists to your software.

    Object-Oriented evaluation And Design (OOAD)

    It’s a structured routine for inspecting, designing a gadget with the aid of making employ of the article-oriented ideas, and promote a collection of graphical gadget models privilege through the development lifestyles cycle of the application.

    OOAD within the SDLC

    The software life cycle is customarily divided up into levels going from summary descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.

    The earliest tiers of this routine are evaluation (requirements) and design.

    The titanic disagreement between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.

    In evaluation builders drudgery with clients and domain experts to contour what the system is meant to do. Implementation particulars are supposed to be mostly or absolutely ignored at this phase.

    The aim of the analysis facet is to create a mannequin of the system regardless of constraints reminiscent of acceptable technology. here's customarily done by way of employ situations and summary definition of probably the most crucial objects using conceptual model.

    The design facet refines the evaluation model and applies the vital expertise and different implementation constrains.

    It specializes in describing the objects, their attributes, conduct, and interactions. The design mannequin may noiseless gain any of the details required in order that programmers can result in coerce the design in code.

    They’re highest attribute conducted in an iterative and incremental utility methodologies. So, the actions of OOAD and the developed fashions aren’t achieved as soon as, they are able to revisit and refine these steps invariably.

    Object-Oriented evaluation

    within the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit requirements: contour what does the application deserve to do, and what’s the issue the software making an attempt to resolve.
  • Specify requirements: picture the requirements, constantly, the usage of employ circumstances (and situations) or user reviews.
  • Conceptual model: identify the essential objects, refine them, and define their relationships and behavior and draw them in an smooth diagram.
  • We’re no longer going to cover the primary two activities, simply the eventual one. These are already defined in constituent in requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis facet identifies the objects, their relationship, and habits the usage of the conceptual mannequin (an abstract definition for the objects).

    whereas in design phase, they picture these objects (by means of developing type diagram from conceptual diagram — continually mapping conceptual mannequin to classification diagram), their attributes, habits, and interactions.

    besides applying the utility design concepts and patterns which could be lined in later tutorials.

    The enter for object-oriented design is supplied by using the output of object-oriented analysis. but, evaluation and design can likewise chance in parallel, and the outcomes of 1 pastime will likewise be used by way of the other.

    in the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the courses and their relationships the employ of type diagram.
  • Describe the interplay between the objects using sequence diagram.
  • follow utility design concepts and design patterns.
  • a class diagram gives a visual representation of the courses you want. And here is where you bag to be in fact particular about object-oriented ideas enjoy inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between these objects allows you to better stand in intelligence the tasks of the diverse objects, the behaviors they deserve to have.

    — other diagrams

    there are many other diagrams they will employ to model the gadget from distinctive perspectives; interactions between objects, constitution of the device, or the conduct of the device and the way it responds to routine.

    It’s at any times about determining the revise diagram for the revise want. you should definitely understand which diagrams may be constructive when brooding about or discussing a circumstance that isn’t clear.

    device modeling and the several fashions they are able to employ can be discussed subsequent.

    device Modeling

    gadget modeling is the manner of establishing fashions of the equipment, with each and every mannequin representing a special views of that device.

    probably the most captious constituent a few gear model is that it leaves out element; It’s an summary illustration of the gadget.

    The models are usually in response to graphical notation, which is almost always based on the notations within the Unified Modeling Language (UML). other fashions of the system enjoy mathematical mannequin; a minute gear description.

    fashions are used any the way through the analysis routine to support to elicit the necessities, during the design technique to picture the gear to engineers, and after implementation to document the gadget constitution and operation.

    diverse views

    We can likewise develop a model to picture the system from several perspectives.

  • external, where you model the context or the environment of the device.
  • interplay, where you model the interplay between add-ons of a device, or between a device and different methods.
  • Structural, where you model the corporation of the device, or the constitution of the statistics being processed via the equipment.
  • Behavioral, the status you mannequin the dynamic behavior of the device and the way it respond to movements.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language revolve into the regular modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, youngsters, the most diagrams which are conventional are:

  • Use case diagram: It indicates the interaction between a gear and it’s environment (users or programs) within a selected circumstance.
  • category diagram: It suggests the several objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It indicates the interactions between the diverse objects in the equipment, and between actors and the objects in a gadget.
  • State computer diagram: It indicates how the gear reply to external and internal routine.
  • exercise diagram: It indicates the current of the statistics between the procedures in the system.
  • which you could carry out diagramming drudgery on paper or on a whiteboard, at the least in the introductory levels of a assignment. but there are some diagramming tools with a view to assist you to draw these UML diagrams.


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    Object Oriented Analysis and Design - allotment 1

    Pass 4 confident 000-633 dumps | Killexams.com 000-633 existent questions | https://www.textbookw.com/

    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (Part 1) | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Who does this thing? Does it gain any benefit? If I carry out this, will my boss assume that I am wasting my time or making excuses to not work? gain these thoughts ever Come to your intelligence when you were desperate to properly design your next software?

    It is likewise possible that you gain tried designing some piece of software before, but you found that it was too just time-consuming and it had no benefits. But throughout your career, you might gain had these recurring thoughts that you should learn more about design patterns, mastering MVC, and designing something reusable, modular, and smooth to read.

    In this multi-part article series, I will cover the basics about how you can properly design your next software even if you gain failed eventual time.

    What Will You Learn?
  • Why your eventual design attempt failed
  • How to ply your manager/boss when you wanted to design
  • How to succeed in designing
  • The software development process
  • What is object-oriented analysis?
  • What is object-oriented design?
  • What are design patterns?
  • And anything in between that is confusing you
  • What Will You Not Learn?
  • You will not learn the syntax of Java, C#, or C++
  • You will not learn the disagreement between functions and variables
  • You will not be overwhelmed with a list of design patterns
  • You will not learn object-oriented programming here
  • "What?" you might exclaim after reading the eventual line. "No kick oriented programming? Then why am I wasting my time here?" This post is about object-oriented design, but not programming. They any know about object-oriented programming, i.e., how to write a class in C#.

    As one quote says, “Knowing how to hold a hammer does not compose you an architect.” True? Similarly, learning Java programming will not compose you a Good software engineer (or software programmer or developer or software architect).

    Background

    During the initial years of my undergraduate programs, I thought designing was the identical as writing an algorithm because I did not study object-oriented programming. Later, when I scholarly about object-oriented programming, I thought someone could conquer the world if they just scholarly everything that is there in 1,000 pages of a Deitel and Deitel book.

    object oriented programming book

    But that was not the case. I could not write a program without tearing my hair apart. I likewise noticed that if I opened my program again after six months, it looked enjoy such a mystery that even Sherlock Holmes could not decipher it.

    Then, in my fourth semester, I scholarly about object-oriented analysis and design as a subject. But unfortunately, the focus was on UML modeling. I thought that UML was a collected thing — you just generate some diagrams and hand them over to developers and they will Come up with code using your designs (which will compose you proud).

    But there was even an option in the UML modeling tool that their class was using at that time to automatically generate the code from your UML class diagrams. What a beauty, I thought. I could design using UML models and then generate the code, compile it, ship it to a customer, and bag moneyed enjoy Bill Gates. Awesome.

    UML

    Afterward, reality set in. I was never able to generate designs that were modular, smooth to extend, and smooth to understand (The code generated from these tools was never compiled, since it only generated stubs). Then, a period of chaos began.

    Later in my undergraduate study, I scholarly subjects related to software engineering, software architecture, software process models and software project management. But I was unable to suitable any things together until very late.

    Still, I view people struggling with these concepts, unable to suitable things together. They are overwhelmed with the unstructured data available to them. One key to comprehending any this information is to involve yourself in a project. The only output for that project should be a software that your users can use.

    In this post, I will participate some basic object-oriented analysis and design principles, practices, and some of my experiences that you can employ in your next project.

    Introduction to Software development Process Models

    We any employ some process or steps to develop software. The simplest process model that I employ is just writing 6 lines on the back of a piece of paper and call them feature list. Then, I open Visual Studio and start writing code. That's it. It's a process model I used during my college years.

    I wrote my first commercial software (which had 1 user, who abandoned it later) using Visual Basic 6.0 in my second year of college using this process model.

    There are many software development process models that I gain studied and applied throughout many projects.

    One process model (which is scolded by many authorities) is waterfall, which uses the process of gathering requirements, analysis, design, implementation, and testing.

    The problem with the waterfall process model is that you carry out any the things in the identical exact sequence as written above. First, any the requirements are collected from the customers. A team analyzes requirements, then documents and prepares specifications for the design team. The design team then develops the design using the specification and hands over the design to the implementation team. The implementation team writes code with respect to the design. Finally, test team tests the software against the specifications.

    software process model

    Everything is done sequentially, and a lot of time is spent (months and even years) before the final product is shipped to the customer. Statistics expose us that when a product is shipped to the customer using waterfall process models, a huge number of customers rejected it = because it did not meet their requirements.

    You may gain heard the phrase, “The customer is always right.” This truly applies to software development. If the customer does not enjoy the final product, then any the ail (months and years) is wasted.

    To cater to this problem, there is another philosophy — iterative and evolutionary development. Based on this philosophy, there are many software development process models. Some examples are Scrum, extreme programming(XP), and Rational Unified Process. They are the Agile development processes.

    The concept of iterative development is simple. Software development is organized into a succession of miniature projects called iterations. Each iteration has its analysis, design, implementation, and testing. At the desist of each iteration, the customer input is taken. If a customer did not agree, then the loss is minimal (usually weeks) as compared to waterfall process model.

    Now you understand the basic disagreement between iterative and sequential process models. Many organizations now employ iterative development process models, as the understanding is to minimize dissipate (months vs. weeks).

    Why I need to Understand Process Models

    For a long time, I believed that designing software was something enjoy that: I design everything in the rise and then, using this design, start coding. Then, once it compiles, I handed over the running software to the desist user.

    It turns out that this is not the best approach. You will gain to change your design strategy, which evolves over time. Therefore, the incremental and evolutionary process model is principal to understand. Flawless design is a myth. After subsequent iterations, one may realize that his or her initial design sucks.

    Another point is that one should not design for any the requirements at the beginning. compose a minute design map for the iteration you're currently working on.

    Therefore, the key takeaway is that you should employ an iterative development process where the complete design is not done at the start of the project. Similarly, whatever you design will not faultless and will be changed or evolved during the lifecycle of the project.

    This ends the first article of this four-part series. In this article, I discussed the importance of process models in object-oriented design. I likewise mentioned the common misconception attached to UML.

    In allotment 2, you will learn the following

  • Difference between process and methodology

  • 2 most principal object-oriented design principles that everyone should know

  • 1 edge of OOP that every developer would admire to gain in his or her code

  • To learn more about kick oriented programming visit here.


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, allotment 1 | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Benefits for LWN subscribers

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    June 1, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    Despite the fact that the Linux Kernel is mostly written in C, it makes broad employ of some techniques from the sphere of object-oriented programming. Developers wanting to employ these object-oriented techniques receive petite support or guidance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is often the case, this is a double-edged sword. The developer has enough flexibility to carry out really collected things, and equally the flexibility to carry out really dumb things, and it isn't always limpid at first glance which is which, or more accurately: where on the spectrum a particular approach sits.

    Instead of looking to the language to provide guidance, a software engineer must examine to established exercise to find out what works well and what is best avoided. Interpreting established exercise is not always as smooth as one might enjoy and the effort, once made, is worth preserving. To preserve that ail on your author's part, this article brings another installment in an occasional succession on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns in the Linux Kernel which result an object-oriented style of programming.

    Rather than providing a brief introduction to the object-oriented style, tempting though that is, they will assume the reader has a basic erudition of objects, classes, methods, inheritance, and similar terms. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are plenty of resources to be found elsewhere on the web.

    Over two weeks they will examine for patterns in just two areas: routine dispatch and data inheritance. Despite their obvious simplicity they lead to some moneyed veins for investigation. This first article will focus on routine dispatch.

    Method Dispatch

    The big variety of styles of inheritance and rules for its usage in languages today seems to suggest that there is no uniform understanding of what "object-oriented" really means. The term is a bit enjoy "love": everyone thinks they know what it means but when you bag down to details people can find they gain very different ideas. While what it means to be "oriented" might not be clear, what they move by an "object" does appear to be uniformly agreed upon. It is simply an abstraction comprising both condition and behavior. An kick is enjoy a record (Pascal) or struct (C), except that some of the names of members refer to functions which act on the other fields in the object. These function members are sometimes referred to a "methods".

    The most obvious way to implement objects in C is to declare a "struct" where some fields are pointers to functions which purchase a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling convention for routine "foo" in kick "bar" would simply be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); While this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the paramount pattern so they will leave discussion of it until a petite later.

    As methods (unlike state) are not normally changed on a per-object basis, a more common and only slightly less obvious approach is to collect any the methods for a particular class of objects into a sever structure, sometimes known as a "virtual function table" or vtable. The kick then has a sole pointer to this table rather than a sever pointer for each method, and consequently uses less memory.

    This then leads to their first pattern - a pure vtable being a structure which contains only function pointers where the first dispute of each is a pointer to some other structure (the kick type) which itself contains a pointer to this vtable. Some simple examples of this in the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations structure which contains two function pointers each of which purchase a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which contains four function pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples display an obvious naming pattern - the structure holding a vtable is named for the structure holding the kick (possibly abbreviated) followed by "_operations". While this pattern is common it is by no means universal. Around the time of 2.6.39 there are approximately 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" structures, most if not any of which are vtables of some sort. There are likewise several structs such as struct mdk_personality which are essentially vtables but carry out not gain particularly helpful names.

    Among these nearly 200 vtable structures there is plenty of variability and so plenty of scope to examine for spirited patterns. In particular they can examine for common variations from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and determine how these variations contribute to their understanding of kick employ in Linux.

    NULL function pointers

    The first observation is that some function pointers in some vtables are allowed to be NULL. Clearly trying to call such a function would be futile, so the code that calls into these methods generally contains an express test for the pointer being NULL. There are a few different reasons for these NULL pointers. Probably easiest to justify is the incremental development reason. Because of the way vtable structures are initialized, adding a current function pointer to the structure definition causes any existing table declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. Thus it is possible to add a caller of the current routine before any instance supports that method, and gain it check for NULL and execute a default behavior. Then as incremental development continues those vtable instances which need it can bag non-default methods.

    A recent illustration is entrust 77af1b2641faf4 adding set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent entrust 42ab616afe8844 defines that routine for a particular device. This is simply the most recent illustration of a very common theme.

    Another common reason is that unavoidable methods are not particularly meaningful in unavoidable cases so the calling code simply tests for NULL and returns an preempt error when found. There are multiple examples of this in the virtual filesystem (VFS) layer. For instance, the create() function in inode_operations is only meaningful if the inode in question is a directory. So inode_operations structures for non-directories typically gain NULL for the create() function (and many others) and the calling code in vfs_create() checks for NULL and returns -EACCES.

    A final reason that vtables sometimes hold NULL is that an constituent of functionality might be being transitioned from one interface to another. A Good illustration of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a current method, unlocked_ioctl() was added which was called without the titanic kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when any drivers and filesystems had been converted to employ unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() was finally removed. During this transition a file system would typically define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

    A slightly more subtle illustration of this is read() and aio_read(), likewise in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() was introduced to support asynchronous IO, and if it is provided the regular synchronous read() is not needed (it is effected using do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() method). In this case there appears to be no aim of ever removing read() - it will remain for cases where async IO is not germane such as special filesystems enjoy procfs and sysfs. So it is noiseless the case that only one of each pair need be defined by a filesystem, but it is not simply a transition, it is a long-term state.

    Though there appear to be several different reasons for a NULL function pointer, almost every case is an illustration of one simple pattern - that of providing a default implementation for the method. In the "incremental development" examples and the non-meaningful routine case, this is fairly straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is simply to recrudesce an error. In the interface transition case it is only slightly less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would be to purchase the kernel lock and then call the ioctl() method. The default for read() is exactly do_sync_read() and some filesystems such as ext3 actually provide this value explicitly rather than using "NULL" to witness a default.

    With that in mind, a petite reflection suggests that if the existent goal is to provide a default, then maybe the best approach would be to explicitly give a default rather than using the circuitous route of using a default of NULL and interpreting it specially.

    While NULL is certainly the easiest value to provide as a default - as the C standard assures us that uninitialized members of a structure carry out bag set to NULL - it is not very much harder to set a more meaningful default. I am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the observation that C99 allows fields in a structure to be initialized multiple times with only the final value taking result and that this allows smooth setting of default values such as by following the simple model:

    #define FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = { FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, };

    This will declare my_foo with a predefined default value for baz and a localized value for bar. Thus for the miniature cost of defining a few "default" functions and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each declaration, the default value for any sphere can easily be chosen when the sphere is first created, and automatically included in every employ of the structure.

    Not only are meaningful defaults smooth to implement, they can lead to a more efficient implementation. In those cases where the function pointer actually is NULL it is probably faster to test and arm rather than to compose an roundabout function call. However the NULL case is very often the exception rather than the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not conventional practice. In the more common case when the function pointer is not NULL, the test for NULL is simply a dissipate of code space and a dissipate of execution time. If they disallow NULLs they can compose any call sites a petite bit smaller and simpler.

    In general, any testing performed by the caller before calling a routine can be seen as an instance of the "mid-layer mistake" discussed in a previous article. It shows that the mid-layer is making assumptions about the behavior of the lower plane driver rather than simply giving the driver liberty to behave in whatever way is most suitable. This may not always be an expensive mistake, but it is noiseless best avoided where possible. Nevertheless there is a limpid pattern in the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can sometimes be NULLable, typically though not always to enable a transition, and the call sites should in these cases test for NULL before proceeding with the call.

    The observant reader will gain noticed a hole in the above logic denouncing the employ NULL pointers for defaults. In the case where the default is the common case and where performance is paramount, the reasoning does not hold and a NULL pointer could well be justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an illustration of such a case for their examination.

    One of the data structures used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a denomination in the filesystem, and so each "dentry" has a parent, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is sever from the inode because a sole file can gain multiple names (so an "inode" can gain multiple "dentry"s). There is a dentry_operations vtable with a number of operations including, for example, "d_compare" which will compare two names and "d_hash" which will generate a hash for the denomination to guide the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems carry out not need this flexibility. They deal names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default compare and hash functions are the common case. A few filesystems define these to ply case-insensitive names but that is not the norm.

    Further, filename lookup is a common operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. Thus these two operations flaunt to be Good candidates where a test for NULL and an inlined default operation might be appropriate. What they find though is that when such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself enough. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a pair of other dentry operations) does not test these functions for NULL directly. Rather they require that a few flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) in the "dentry" are set up to witness whether the common default should be used, or whether the function should be called. As the flag sphere is likely to be in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations structure will often be not needed at all, this avoids a recollection fetch in a equatorial path.

    So they find that the one case where using a NULL function pointer to witness a default could be justified, it is not actually used; instead, a different, more efficient, mechanism is used to witness that the default routine is requested.

    Members other than function pointers

    While most vtable-like structures in the kernel hold exclusively function pointers, there are a significant minority that gain non-function-pointer fields. Many of these flaunt on the surface quite capricious and a few closer inspections suggest that some of them result of poor design or bit-rot and their removal would only improve the code.

    There is one exception to the "functions only" pattern that occurs repeatedly and provides existent value, and so is worth exploring. This pattern is seen in its most generic shape in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In particular this structure contains an "owner", a "name", and a "list". The "owner" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables gain string names, some gain numeric names, and it is often called something different enjoy "version", "family", "drvname", or "level". But conceptually it is noiseless a name. In the present illustration there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

    The "list", while allotment of the identical functionality, is less common. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the next struct file_system_type. The underlying understanding here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "final" definition of a class) to be usable, it must be registered in some way so that it can be found. Further, once it has been found it must be possible to ensure that the module holding the implementation is not removed while it is in use.

    There appear to be nearly as many styles of registration against an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register against, so finding tenacious patterns there would be a difficult task. However it is fairly common for a "vtable" to be treated as the primary ply on a particular implementation of an interface and to gain an "owner" pointer which can be used to bag a reference on the module which provides the implementation.

    So the pattern they find here is that a structure of function pointers used as a "vtable" for kick routine dispatch should normally hold only function pointers. Exceptions require limpid justification. A common exception allows a module pointer and possible other fields such as a denomination and a list pointer. These fields are used to support the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there is no list pointer it is very likely that the entire vtable will be treated as read-only. In this case the vtable will often be declared as a const structure and so could even be stored in read-only memory.

    Combining Methods for different objects

    A final common aberration from the "pure vtable" pattern that they view in the Linux kernel occurs when the first dispute to the function is not always the identical kick type. In a pure vtable which is referenced by a pointer in a particular data structure, the first dispute of each function is exactly that data structure. What reason could there be for deviating from that pattern? It turns out that there are few, some more spirited than others.

    The simplest and least spirited explanation is that, for no obvious reason, the target data structure is listed elsewhere in the dispute list. For illustration any functions in struct fb_ops purchase a struct fb_info. While in 18 cases that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the last. There is nothing obviously wrong with this election and it is unlikely to addle developers. It is only a problem for data miners enjoy your author who need to filter it out as an extraneous pattern.

    A slight aberration on this pattern is seen in struct rfkill_ops where two functions purchase a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *data. Further investigation shows that this opaque data is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->data, so set_block() could easily be defined to purchase a struct rfkill and simply to follow the ->data link itself. This aberration is sufficiently non-obvious that it could conceivably addle developers as well as data miners and so should be avoided.

    The next aberration in seen for illustration in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a few others. These purchase an odd assortment of arguments with no obvious pattern. However these are really very different sorts of vtable structures in that the kick they belong to are singletons. There is only one active platform, only one profiler, only one security policy. Thus the "object" on which these operations act is allotment of the global condition and so does not need to be included in the arguments of any functions.

    Having filtered these two patterns out as not being very spirited they are left with two that carry out serve to expose us something about kick employ in the kernel.

    quota_format_ops and export_operations are two different operations structures that operate on a variety of different data structures. In each case the obvious primary kick (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable structure dedicated to it (such as super_operations or dentry_operations) and these current structures add current operations. In each case the current operations shape a cohesive unit providing a related set of functionality - whether supporting disk quotas or NFS export. They don't any act on the identical kick simply because the functionality in question depends on a variety of objects.

    The best term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is probably the "mixin". Though the suitable may not be faultless - depending on what your exact understanding of mixin is - the understanding of bringing in a collection of functionality without using strict hierarchical inheritance is very immediate to the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

    Once they know to be on the lookout for mixins enjoy these they can find quite a few more examples. The pattern to be alert for is not the one that led us here - an operations structure that operates on a variety of different objects - but rather the one they found where the functions in an "operations" structure operate on objects that already gain their own "operations" structure. When an kick has a big number of operations that are germane and these operations naturally group into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into sever vtable-like structures. There are several examples of this in the networking code where for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already got a miniature set of dedicated operations.

    So the pattern of a "mixin" - at least as defined as a set of operations which apply to one or more objects without being the primary operations for those objects - is a pattern that is often found in the kernel and appears to be quite valuable in allowing better modularization of code.

    The eventual pattern which explains non-uniform function targets is probably the most interesting, particularly in its contrast to the obvious application of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this pattern abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops any appearing as useful examples. However they will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, particularly super_operations and inode_operations.

    There is a tenacious hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by a "super_block" - has a number of files (struct inode) which may gain a number of names or links (struct dentry). Further each file might store data in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a number of individual pages (struct page). There is a sense in which any of these different objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page needs to be loaded with data from a file, the filesystem knows how to carry out that, and it is probably the identical mechanism for every page in every file. Where it isn't always the same, the filesystem knows that too. So they could conceivably store every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could know what to carry out in each case.

    In exercise that extreme is not really helpful. It is quite likely that while there are similarities between the storage of a regular file and a directory, there are likewise principal differences and being able to encode those differences in sever vtables can be helpful. Sometimes miniature symbolic links are stored directly in the inode while larger links are stored enjoy the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for the two cases can compose the code a lot more readable.

    While the extreme of every operation attached to the one central structure is not ideal, it is equally True that the antithetical extreme is not example either. The struct page in Linux does not gain a vtable pointer at any - in allotment because they want to hold the structure as miniature as possible because it is so populous. Rather the address_space_operations structure contains the operations that act on a page. Similarly the super_operations structure contains some operations that apply to inodes, and inode_operations contains some operations that apply to dentries.

    It is clearly possible to gain operations structures attached to a parent of the target kick - providing the target holds a reference to the parent, which it normally does - though it is not quite so limpid that it is always beneficial. In the case of struct page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the profit is clear. In the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the profit of having some operations (such as destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

    As there are several vtable structures where any given function pointer could be stored, the actual election is in many cases petite more than historical accident. Certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations seems to be largely due to the fact that some of them used to act directly on the inode, but changes in the VFS eventually required this to change. For illustration in 2.1.78-pre1, each of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and some others which are now defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to purchase a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to be in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr were added for 2.3.48, it probably seemed completely natural to comprehend them in inode_operations despite the fact that they acted primarily on a dentry.

    Possibly they could simplify things by getting rid of dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not stir them any there? While dentries are not as populous as struct page there are noiseless a lot of them and removing the "d_op" sphere could redeem 5% of the recollection used by that structure (on x86-64).

    With two exceptions, every active filesystem only has a sole dentry operations structure in effect. Some filesystem implementations enjoy "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one active per super-block. So it would appear that the operations in dentry_operations could be moved to super_operations, or at least accessed through "s_d_op". The two exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems employ different d_revalidate() operations in different parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - different d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions could easily be made in per-superblock versions of these operations. carry out these cases justify the 5% space cost? Arguably not.

    Directly embedded function pointers

    Finally it is preempt to reflect on the alternate pattern mentioned at the start, where function pointers are stored directly in the kick rather than in a sever vtable structure. This pattern can be seen in struct request_queue which has nine function pointers, struct efi which has ten function pointers, and struct sock which has six function pointers.

    The cost of embedded pointers is obviously space. When vtables are used, there is only one copy of the vtable and multiple copies of an kick (in most cases) so if more than one function pointer is needed, a vtable would redeem space. The cost of a vtable is an extra recollection reference, though cache might reduce much of this cost in some cases. A vtable likewise has a cost of flexibility. When each kick needs exactly the identical set of operations a vtable is good, but if there is a need to individually tailor some of the operations for each object, then embedded function pointer can provide that flexibility. This is illustrated quite nicely by the comment with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

    /* Zoom video behaviour is so chip specific its not worth adding this to _ops */

    So where objects are not very populous, where the list of function pointers is small, and where multiple mixins are needed, embedded function pointers are used instead of a sever vtable.

    Method Dispatch Summary

    If they combine any the pattern elements that they gain found in Linux they find that:

    Method pointers that operate on a particular type of kick are normally collected in a vtable associated directly with that object, though they can likewise appear:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects related functionality which may be selectable independently of the base type of the object.
  • In the vtable for a "parent" kick when doing so avoids the need for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • Directly in the kick when there are few routine pointers, or they need to be individually tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables rarely hold anything other than function pointers, though fields needed to register the kick class can be appropriate. Allowing these function pointers to be NULL is a common but not necessarily example technique for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code they gain found that even though it is not written in an object-oriented language, it certainly contains objects, classes (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It likewise contains concepts not normally found in object-oriented languages such as delegating kick methods to a "parent" object.

    Hopefully understanding these different patterns and the reasons for choosing between them can lead to more uniform application of the patterns across the kernel, and hence compose it easier for a newcomer to understand which pattern is being followed. In the second allotment of their examination of kick oriented patterns they will explore the various ways that data inheritance is achieved in the Linux kernel and dispute the strengths and weaknesses of each approach so as to view where each is most appropriate.

    (Log in to post comments)

    Java and Object-Oriented Programming | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    Many seasoned Java developers will scoff at the fact that this section even exists in this book. It is here for two very principal reasons. The first is that I continually run across Java applications built with a procedural mind-set. The fact that you know Java doesn't move that you gain the aptitude to transform that erudition into well-designed object-oriented systems. As both an instructor and consultant, I view many data-processing shops send COBOL and/or Visual Basic developers to a three-day class on UML and a five-day class on Java and await miracles. Case in point: I was recently asked to review a Java application to assess its design architecture and found that it had only two classes—SystemController and ScreenController—which contained over 70,000 lines of Java code.

    The second reason for the accent on how the language maps to object-oriented principles is that people enjoy language comparisons and how they stack up to their counterparts. To appease those that live and die by language comparisons, let's result Java under the scrutiny of what constitutes an object-oriented language.

    No definitive definition of what makes a language object-oriented is globally accepted. However, a common set of criteria I personally find useful is that the language must support the following:

  • Classes
  • Complex types (Java reference types)
  • Message passing
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • These are discussed in the next subsections.

    Java and Classes

    Java allows classes to be defined. There are no stray functions floating around in Java. A class is a static template that contains the defined structure (attributes) and behavior (operations) of a real-world entity in the application domain. At runtime, the class is instantiated, or brought to life, as an kick born in the image of that class. In my seminars, when several folks current to the kick world are in attendance, I often employ the analogy of a cookie cutter. The cookie cutter is merely the template used to stamp out what will become individually decorated and unique cookies. The cookie cutter is the class; the unique blue, green, and yellow gingerbread man is the kick (which I dependence supports a champ operation).

    Java exposes the class to potential outside users through its public interface. A public interface consists of the signatures of the public operations supported by the class. A signature is the operation denomination and its input parameter types (the recrudesce type, if any, is not allotment of the operation's signature).

    Good programming exercise encourages developers to declare any attributes as private and allow access to them only via operations. As with most other languages, however, this is not enforced in Java. motif 2-1 outlines the concept of a class and its interface.

    FIGURE 2-1 Public interface of a class

    The motif uses a common eggshell metaphor to picture the concept of the class's interface, as well as encapsulation. The internal details of the class are hidden from the outside via a well-defined interface. In this case, only four operations are exposed in the classes interface (Operation_A, B, C, and D). The other attributes and operations are protected from the outside world. Actually, to the outside world, it's as if they don't even exist.

    Suppose you want to create an Order class in Java that has three attributes—orderNumber, orderDate, and orderTotal—and two operations—calcTotalValue() and getInfo(). The class definition could examine enjoy this:

    /** * Listing 1 * This is the Order class for the Java/UML book */ package com.jacksonreed; import java.util.*; public class Order { private Date orderDate; private long orderNumber; private long orderTotal; public Order() { } public boolean getInfo() { recrudesce true; } public long calcTotalValue() { recrudesce 0; } public Date getOrderDate() { recrudesce orderDate; } public void setOrderDate(Date aOrderDate) { orderDate = aOrderDate; } public long getOrderNumber() { recrudesce orderNumber; } public void setOrderNumber(long aOrderNumber) { orderNumber = aOrderNumber; } public long getOrderTotal() { recrudesce orderTotal; } public void setOrderTotal(long aOrderTotal) { orderTotal = aOrderTotal; } public static void main(String[] args) { Order order = current Order(); System.out.println("instantiated Order"); System.out.println(order.getClass().getName()); System.out.println(order.calcTotalValue()); try { Thread.currentThread().sleep(5*1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) {} } }

    A few things are notable about the first bit of Java code presented in this book. Notice that each of the three attributes has a bag and a set operation to allow for the retrieval and setting of the Order object's properties. Although doing so is not required, it is common exercise to provide these accessor-type operations for any attributes defined in a class. In addition, if the Order class ever wanted to be a JavaBean, it would gain to gain "getters and setters" defined in this way.

    Some of the routine code in the main() operation does a few things of note. Of interest is that a try obscure exists at the desist of the operation that puts the current thread to sleep for a bit. This is to allow the console display to freeze so that you can view the results.

    If you type in this class and then compile it and execute it in your favorite development tool or from the command prompt with

    javac order.java //* to compile it java order //* to run it

    you should bag results that examine enjoy this:

    instantiated Order com.jacksonreed.Order 0

    NOTE

    Going forward, I swear you will view no code samples with class, operation, or ascribe names of foo, bar, or foobar.

    More on Java and Classes

    A class can likewise gain what are called class-level operations and attributes. Java supports these with the static keyword. This keyword would fade privilege after the visibility (public, private, protected) component of the operation or attribute. Static operations and attributes are needed to invoke either a service of the class before any existent instances of that class are instantiated or a service that doesn't directly apply to any of the instances. The classic illustration of a static operation is the Java constructor. The constructor is what is called when an kick is created with the current keyword. Perhaps a more business-focused illustration is an operation that retrieves a list of Customer instances based on particular search criteria.

    A class-level ascribe can be used to store information that any instances of that class may access. This ascribe might be, for example, a weigh of the number of objects currently instantiated or a property about Customer that any instances might need to reference.

    Java and complex Types (Java Reference Types)

    A complex type, which in Java is called a reference type, allows variables typed as something other than primitive types (e.g., int and boolean) to be declared. In Java, these are called reference types. In object-oriented systems, variables that are "of" a particular class, such as Order, Customer, or Invoice, must be defined. Taken a step further, Order could consist of other class instances, such as OrderHeader and OrderLine.

    In Java, you can define different variables that are references to runtime objects of a particular class type:

    Public Order myOrder; Public Customer myCustomer; Public Invoice myInvoice;

    Such variables can then be used to store actual kick instances and subsequently to serve as recipients of messages sent by other objects. In the previous code fragment, the variable myOrder is an instance of Order. After the myOrder kick is created, a message can be sent to it and myOrder will respond, provided that the operation is supported by myOrder's interface.

    Java and Message Passing

    Central to any object-oriented language is the aptitude to pass messages between objects. In later chapters you will view that drudgery is done in a system only by objects that collaborate (by sending messages) to accomplish a goal (which is specified in a use-case) of the system.

    Java doesn't allow stray functions floating around that are not attached to a class. In fact, Java demands this. Unfortunately, as my previous sage suggested, just motto that a language requires everything to be packaged in classes doesn't move that the class design will be robust, let solitary correct.

    Java supports message passing, which is central to the employ of Java's object-oriented features. The format closely resembles the syntax of other languages, such as C++ and Visual Basic. In the following code fragment, assume that a variable called myCustomer, of type Customer, is defined and that an operation called calcTotalValue() is defined for Customer. Then the calcTotalValue() message being sent to the myCustomer kick in Java would examine enjoy this:

    myCustomer.calcTotalValue();

    Many developers feel that, in any other structured language, this is just a fancy way of calling a procedure. Calling a procedure and sending a message are similar in that, once invoked, both a procedure and a message implement a set of well-defined steps. However, a message differs in two ways:

  • There is a designated receiver, the object. Procedures gain no designated receiver.

  • The interpretation of the message—that is, the how-to code (called the method) used to respond to the message—can vary with different receivers. This point will become more principal later in the chapter, when polymorphism is reviewed.

  • The concepts presented in this book rely heavily on classes and the messaging that takes status between their instances, or objects.

    Java and Encapsulation

    Recall that a class exposes itself to the outside world via its public interface and that this should be done through exposure to operations only, and not attributes. Java supports encapsulation via its aptitude to declare both attributes and operations as public, private, or protected. In UML this is called visibility.

    Using the code from the previous Order example, suppose you want to set the value of the orderDate attribute. In this case, you should carry out so with an operation. An operation that gets or sets values is usually called a getter or a setter, respectively, and collectively such operations are called accessors. The local copy of the order date, orderDate, is declared private. (Actually, any attributes of a class should be declared private or protected, so that they are accessible only via operations exposed as public to the outside world.)

    Encapsulation provides some powerful capabilities. To the outside world, the design can shroud how it derives its ascribe values. If the orderTotal ascribe is stored in the Order object, the corresponding bag operation defined previously looks enjoy this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { recrudesce orderTotal; }

    This snippet of code would be invoked if the following code were executed by an interested client:

    private long localTotal; private Order localOrder; localOrder = current Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    However, suppose the ascribe orderTotal isn't kept as a local value of the Order class, but rather is derived via another mechanism (perhaps messaging to its OrderLine objects). If Order contains OrderLine objects (declared as a Vector or ArrayList of OrderLine objects called myOrderLines) and OrderLine knows how to obtain its line totals via the message getOrderLineTotal(), then the corresponding bag operation for orderTotal within Order will examine enjoy this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myOrderLines.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myOrderLines[i].getOrderLineTotal(); } recrudesce totalAmount; }

    This code cycles through the myOrderLines collection, which contains any the Orderline objects related to the Order object, sending the getOrderLineTotal() message to each of Order's OrderLine objects. The getOrderTotal() operation will be invoked if the following code is executed by an interested client:

    long localTotal; Order myOrder; myOrder = current Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    Notice that the "client" code didn't change. To the outside world, the class noiseless has an orderTotal attribute. However, you gain hidden, or encapsulated, just how the value was obtained. This encapsulation allows the class's interface to remain the identical (hey, I gain an orderTotal that you can inquire me about), while the class retains the flexibility to change its implementation in the future (sorry, how they carry out business has changed and now they must derive orderTotal enjoy this). This kindly of resiliency is one of the compelling business reasons to employ an object-oriented programming language in general.

    Java and Inheritance

    The inclusion of inheritance is often the most cited reason for granting a language object-oriented status. There are two kinds of inheritance: interface and implementation. As they shall see, Java is one of the few languages that makes a limpid distinction between the two.

    Interface inheritance (Figure 2-2) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface will be accountable for implementing any of the routine code of each operation defined in that interface. Only the signatures of the interface are inherited; there is no routine or how-to code.

    FIGURE 2-2 Interface inheritance

    Implementation inheritance (Figure 2-3) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface may, at its option, employ the routine code implementation already established for the interface. Alternatively, it may choose to implement its own version of the interface. In addition, the class inheriting the interface may extend that interface by adding its own operations and attributes.

    FIGURE 2-3 Implementation inheritance

    Each type of inheritance should be scrutinized and used in the preempt setting. Interface inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The base class presents a generic facility, such as a table lookup, or a derivation of system-specific information, such as operating-system semantics or unique algorithms.

  • The number of operations is small.

  • The base class has few, if any, attributes.

  • Classes realizing or implementing the interface are diverse, with petite or no common code.

  • Implementation inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The class in question is a domain class that is of primary interest to the application (i.e., not a utility or controller class).

  • The implementation is complex, with a big number of operations.

  • Many attributes and operations are common across specialized implementations of the base class.

  • Some practitioners contend that implementation inheritance leads to a symptom called the brittle base class problem. Chiefly, this term refers to the fact that over time, what were once common code and attributes in the superclass may not remain common as the business evolves. The result is that many, if not all, of the subclasses, override the behavior of the superclass. Worse yet, the subclasses may find themselves overriding the superclass, doing their own work, and then invoking the identical operation again on the superclass. These practitioners espouse the idea of using only interface inheritance. Particularly with the advent of Java and its raising of the interface to a first-class type, the concept and usage of interface-based programming gain gained tremendous momentum.

    As this book evolves, keeping in intelligence the pointers mentioned here when deciding between the two types of inheritance will be helpful. Examples of both constructs will be presented in the theme project that extends throughout this book.

    Implementation Inheritance

    Java supports implementation inheritance with the extends keyword. A class wanting to purchase edge of implementation inheritance simply adds an extendsClassName statement to its class definition. To continue the previous example, suppose you gain two different types of orders, both warranting their own subclasses: Commercial and Retail. You would noiseless gain an Order class (which isn't instantiated directly and which is called abstract). The previous fragment showed the code for the Order class. Following is the code for the Commercial class.

    package com.jacksonreed; public class Commercial extends Order { public Commercial() { } /* Unique Commercial code goes here */ }

    Implementation inheritance allows the Commercial class to utilize any attributes and operations defined in Order. This will be done automatically by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in conjunction with the language environment. In addition, implementation inheritance has the aptitude to override and/or extend any of Order's behavior. Commercial may likewise add completely current behavior if it so chooses.

    Interface Inheritance

    Java supports interface inheritance with the implements keyword. A class wanting to realize a given interface (actually being accountable for the routine code) simply adds an implements InterfaceName statement. However, unlike extension of one class by another class, implementation of an interface by a class requires that the interface be specifically defined as an interface beforehand.

    Looking again at the previous illustration with Order, let's assume that this system will hold many classes—some built in this release, and some built in future releases—that need the aptitude to cost themselves. recollect from earlier in this chapter that one of the indicators of using interface inheritance is the situation in which there is petite or no common code but the functional intent of the classes is the same. This pricing functionality includes three services: the abilities to motif tax, to motif an extended price, and to motif a total price. Let's call the operations for these services calcExtendedPrice(), calcTax(), and calcTotalPrice(), respectively, and assign them to a Java interface called IPrice. Sometimes interface names are prefixed with the epistle I to distinguish them from other classes:

    package com.jacksonreed; interface IPrice { long calcExtendedPrice(); long calcTax(); long calcTotalPrice(); }

    Notice that the interface contains only operation signatures; it has no implementation code. It is up to other classes to implement the actual behavior of the operations. For the Order class to implement, or realize, the IPrice interface, it must comprehend the implements keyword followed by the interface name:

    public class Order implements IPrice { }

    If you try to implement an interface without providing implementations for any of its operations, your class will not compile. Even if you don't want to implement any routine code for some of the operations, you noiseless must gain the operations defined in your class.

    One very powerful aspect of interface inheritance is that a class can implement many interfaces at the identical time. For example, Order could implement the IPrice interface and perhaps a search interface called ISearch. However, a Java class may extend from only one other class.

    Java and Polymorphism

    Polymorphism is one of those $50 words that dazzles the uninformed and sounds really impressive. In fact, polymorphism is one of the most powerful features of any object-oriented language.

    Roget's II: The current Thesaurus cross-references the term polymorphism to the main entry of variety. That will carry out for starters. Variety is the key to polymorphism. The Latin root for polymorphism means simply "many forms." Polymorphism applies to operations in the object-oriented context. So by combining these two thoughts, you could exclaim that operations are polymorphic if they are identical (not just in denomination but likewise in signatures) but proffer variety in their implementations.

    Polymorphism is the aptitude of two different classes each to gain an operation that has the identical signature, while having two very different forms of routine code for the operation. Note that to purchase edge of polymorphism, either an interface inheritance or an implementation inheritance relationship must be involved.

    In languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, defining a routine to have the identical denomination as another routine will occasions a compile error. In object-oriented languages such as Java and C++, several classes might gain an operation with the identical signature. Such duplication is in fact encouraged because of the power and flexibility it brings to the design.

    As mentioned previously, the implements and extends keywords let the application purchase edge of polymorphism. As they shall see, the sample project presented later in this book is an order system for a company called Remulak Productions. Remulak sells musical equipment, as well as other types of products. There will be a Product class, as well as Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies classes.

    Suppose, then, that differences exist in the fundamental algorithms used to determine the best time to reorder each type of product (called the economic order quantity, or EOQ). I don't want to let too much out of the bag at this point, but there will be an implementation inheritance relationship created with Product as the progenitor class (or superclass) and the other three classes as its descendants (or subclasses). The scenario that follows uses implementation inheritance with a polymorphic example. Note that interface inheritance would submit the identical benefits and be implemented in the identical fashion.

    To facilitate extensibility and be able to add current products in the future in a sort of plug-and-play fashion, they can compose calcEOQ() polymorphic. To carry out this in Java, Product would define calcEOQ() as abstract, thereby informing any inheriting subclass that it must provide the implementation. A key concept behind polymorphism is this: A class implementing an interface or inheriting from an progenitor class can be treated as an instance of that progenitor class. In the case of a Java interface, the interface itself is a telling type.

    For example, assume that a collection of Product objects is defined as a property of the Inventory class. Inventory will support an operation, getAverageEOQ(), that needs to motif the dispassionate economic order quantity for any products the company sells. To carry out this requires that they iterate over the collection of Product objects called myProducts to bag each object's unique economic order quantity individually, with the goal of getting an average:

    public long getAverageEOQ() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myProducts.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myProducts[i].calcEOQ(); } recrudesce totalAmount / myProducts.length; }

    But wait! First of all, how can Inventory gain a collection of Product objects when the Product class is abstract (no instances were ever created on their own)? recollect the maxim from earlier: Any class implementing an interface or extending from an progenitor class can be treated as an instance of that interface or extended class. A Guitar "is a" Product, SheetMusic "is a" Product, and Supplies "is a" Product. So anywhere you reference Guitar, SheetMusic, or Supplies, you can substitute Product.

    Resident in the array myProducts within the Inventory class are individual concrete Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies objects. Java figures out dynamically which kick should bag its own unique calcEOQ() message. The beauty of this construct is that later, if you add a current type of Product—say, Organ—it will be totally transparent to the Inventory class. That class will noiseless gain a collection of Product types, but it will gain four different ones instead of three, each of which will gain its own unique implementation of the calcEOQ() operation.

    This is polymorphism at its best. At runtime, the class related to the kick in question will be identified and the revise "variety" of the operation will be invoked. Polymorphism provides powerful extensibility features to the application by letting future unknown classes implement a predictable and well-conceived interface without affecting how other classes deal with that interface.



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    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
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    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
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    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
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