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000-516 exam Dumps Source : DB/2 Administration for OS/390

Test Code : 000-516
Test designation : DB/2 Administration for OS/390
Vendor designation : IBM
: 118 true Questions

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IBM IBM DB/2 Administration for

IBM records Studio | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the e-book 

IBM facts Studio is protected in each DB2 version. IBM data Studio gives a single built-in ambiance for database administration and software construction. which you could operate initiatives that are concerning database modeling and design, constructing database purposes, administering and managing databases, tuning SQL efficiency, and monitoring databases any in one single tool. it is an astonishing device that may drastically handicap a team ambiance with different roles and responsibilities.

IBM facts Studio is available in three favors: replete client, administration client, and web console.

the replete customer comprises each the database administrative and the utility evolution capabilities. The structure ambiance is Eclipse-primarily based. This presents a collaborative construction atmosphere with the aid of integrating with different superior Eclipse-primarily based tools corresponding to InfoSphere statistics Architect and InfoSphere Optim pureQuery Runtime. notice that some of the advanced InfoSphere materiel are best included in the DB2 advanced editions and the DB2 Developer version. that you could too one by one purchase the advanced tools.

The administration client is a subset of the total customer. It noiseless provides a substantial orbit of database administrative functionality akin to DB2 specimen management, protest management, records management, and query tuning. primary utility evolution projects such as SQL Builder, query formatting, visual clarify, debugging, enhancing, and running DB2 routines are supported. exercise the total customer for advanced utility evolution points.

The net console, as the designation implies, it's an internet-based browser interface that provides health monitoring, job administration, and connection management.

IBM facts Studio Workspace and the assignment Launcher

when you've got correctly installed the IBM facts Studio, you are asked to supply a workspace identify. A workspace is a folder that saves your work and tasks. It refers back to the computer structure atmosphere, which is an Eclipse-based conception.

project Launcher is displayed, which highlights right here class of initiatives:

  • Design
  • develop
  • Administer
  • Tune
  • video display
  • each category is described in more detail in its own tab. click any tab, and too you contemplate the considerable thing and first initiatives listed in the container on the left. contemplate device 4.26 to find a concept on how to navigate the assignment Launcher.

    for instance, the determine indicates you the increase initiatives. that you can ascertain the key evolution tasks on the left. On the suitable appropriate, it lists more initiatives concerning development. On the backside right, IBM records Studio offers a pair of documentation hyperlinks where you can gain erudition of extra about construction. where acceptable, it additionally suggests the superior tools accessible within the InfoSphere Optim portfolio that keep to the project you believe chosen.

    Connection Profiles

    each chore you believe been to function against a database requires to first establish a database connection. To connect to a database from IBM data Studio, open the Database Administration perspective. On the properly usurp corner, click the Open perspective icon and pick Database Administration.

    On the Administration Explorer, appropriate-click on the white locality or below the recent menu, pick recent Connection to a database. From the brand recent Connection window, you contemplate that you can exercise the IBM statistics Studio to connect to distinct IBM facts sources, as well as non-IBM records sources. select the database supervisor and enter the integral connection parameters. device four.28 suggests an example.

    Figure 4.27

    figure 4.27 Open the Database Administration standpoint

    Pull down the JDBC driver drop-down menu, and you may select the class of JDBC driver to figure exercise of. JDBC category 4 driver is used by default.

    Use the test Connection button to figure positive the connection guidance you enter is valid. click on finish.

    At this point, you believe created a connection profile. Connection profiles embrace information about how to hook up with a database akin to indicating the class of authentication for exercise when connecting the database, specifying default schema, and configuring tracing options. different team individuals can import the connection profiles to their personal IBM statistics Studio and be capable of deploy a collection of consistent connection settings.

    To supersede the connection profile, right-click on the database and pick properties. residences for the database are displayed as proven in device four.29.

    generic Database Administration tools

    There are few different effective administration projects purchasable in the menu illustrated in device four.29.

    The manage Connection characteristic makes it workable for you to rename the connection profile, delete the connection profile, change the person id and password, and reproduction the profile. The again Up and restoration feature allows you to setup a database or desk locality backups. within the applicable editor, you could specify the ilk of backup, location of the backup photos, and performance alternate options for the backup. Database backup and restoration is discussed in Chapter 10, “holding, Backing Up, and getting better information.”

    The set up and Configure characteristic enables you to configure the database. Database configuration and this IBM information Studio characteristic are coated in ingredient in Chapter 5. be awake from the menu, that you may launch the Configure automated renovation editor. DB2 gives automatic protection capabilities for performing database backups, reorganizing tables and indexes, and updating the database data as critical. The editor permits you personalize the automated renovation policy (see device four.30).

    Figure 4.30

    determine four.30 pick the computerized renovation coverage alternate options

    The manage Database feature allows for you to mount and forestall the database. In DB2, that means activating and deactivating the database. Activating a database allocates the entire imperative database reminiscence and services or methods required. Deactivating a database releases the recollection and prevents DB2 functions and strategies.

    The video display characteristic launches the IBM records Studio net Console. consult with the area, “IBM statistics Studio net Console,” for introduction of the tool.

    The Generate DDL feature uses the DB2 command-based implement db2look to extract the statistics Definition Language (DDL) statements for the identified database objects or the complete database. This function and gear Come effortless in case you want to mimic a database, a collection of database objects, or the database information to one other database. as a result of the Generate DDL feature in IBM records Studio or the DB2 command db2look, you receive a DDL script. The script contains statements to re-create the database objects you've got chosen. contemplate determine 4.31 for a reference of the forms of statements that you can generate using the IBM data Studio.

    Figure 4.31

    figure four.31 Generate DDL characteristic within the IBM statistics Studio

    For finished options for the DB2 command db2look, mention to the DB2 tips center.

    The birth Tuning feature configures the database to enable question tuning. You may acquire a warning indicating that you simply need to activate the InfoSphere Optim query Workload Tuner (OQWT) license for advanced tuning capacity. notice that IBM DB2 superior commercial enterprise Server edition comes with OQWT. comply with the directions to keep the product license or click positive to configure the database server for tuning with the facets complementary within the IBM facts Studio.

    When the database is configured to figure exercise of the tuning advisors and equipment, you are introduced with the question Tuner Workflow Assistant, as proven in device 4.32.

    From the query Tuner Workflow Assistant, that you could achieve an announcement from a variety of sources and tune the remark. within the seize view, it gives you an inventory of sources where that you could trap the statements. device four.33 suggests an illustration on shooting the SQL statements from the package Cache. This illustration captures over a hundred statements. appropriate-click the remark in which you are interested and select display SQL commentary or dash Single-query Advisors and materiel on the chosen remark.

    Run the query advisors and materiel on the chosen statement. which you could now enter the Invoke view. The implement collects assistance and records and generates a data access passage (see device four.34).

    When the question tuning actions are comprehensive, you're brought to the evaluation view. It presents you the evaluation consequences and an usher advice, such because the one shown in device four.35. The device documentation recommends gathering and re-amassing any of principal facts of the question.

    you can too assessment the access passage graph generated by the DB2 clarify characteristic (see device four.36 for an instance). bethink to maintain the evaluation for future references and compare them if essential.

    The manage Privileges characteristic means that you can appoint database privileges to the users. mention to Chapter 8, “enforcing protection,” for details about privileges and database entry controls.

    standard Database construction tools

    IBM records Studio consolidates the database administration and database evolution capabilities. From the chore Launcher – enhance, you find an inventory of key structure projects such as developing and operating SQL statements, debugging saved methods, and consumer-described capabilities (UDFs). each project brings you to a device that helps you accomplish it.

    SQL and XQuery Editor

    The SQL and XQuery editor helps you create and dash SQL scripts that embrace more than one SQL and XQuery statements. To launch the editor, open the information mission Explorer; under SQL Scripts opt for recent > SQL or XQuery Script. As shown in device four.37, a pattern SQL script is entered. that you can configure the dash options for the script.

    The editor codecs the SQL statements nicely and offers syntax highlights for less demanding reading as you enter the SQL statements. The functionality content material aid is additionally very effective. It lists any of the existing schemas within the database so so that you can just opt for one from the drop-down menu. The editor too parses the commentary and validates the remark syntax. you could validate the syntax in scripts with dissimilar database parsers and dash scripts in opposition t distinct database connections.

    SQL query Builder

    The SQL question Builder makes it workable for you to create a single SQL commentary, but it doesn't assist XQuery. as the designation implies, the implement helps you build an SQL observation. It helps you behold on the underlying database schema or construct an expression, as shown in device 4.38.

    Database Routines Editor and Debugger

    saved approaches and consumer-described capabilities (UDFs) are database utility objects that encapsulate application logic at the database server rather than in application-stage code. exercise of software objects assist nick back overhead of SQL statements and the consequences that are passed throughout the community. kept strategies and UDFs are often known as routines. IBM records Studio helps routines construction and debugging.

    From the facts mission Explorer, create a recent facts structure project. within the venture, you can create a variety of forms of database software objects such as kept strategies and UDFs (see determine four.39). To debug a movements, right-click the pursuits and pick Debug.


    examining the IBM PureData gadget for Analytics materiel | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The IBM PureData gadget for Analytics statistics warehouse appliance grants standards-based mostly statistics warehouse and analytics capabilities. The appliance integrates a database management device, server, storage and advanced analytics capabilities into a single device. The latest version is PureData materiel for Analytics N3001.

    IBM PDA is used across a wide array of industries, from banking and economic capabilities to transportation and shipping. With a pair of N3001 models available, companies of any sizes can exercise the analytics faculty of the PDA gadget. Any traffic or company that wants to execute a variety of queries -- especially medium and complex -- and wishes to find outcomes to those queries straight away will capitalize from the PDA gadget. in addition, the product's simplicity and minimal administration requirements are smartly-appropriate for corporations that want an analytics information warehouse and don't believe a huge team of workers committed to administration of their IT ambiance.

    IBM PureData device for Analytics features

    IBM PDA is delivered as a complete, at ease, aim-developed materiel for facts warehousing. The plug-and-play PDA integrates database, server and storage as a pre-tuned appliance and requires minimal ongoing maintenance. It does not exercise indexes, further simplifying configuration and implementation as compared with most typical records warehouses.

    PDA is designed for prime-efficiency analytics. The structure of the materiel utilizes Snippet Processing units by means of Netezza. SPUs are smart storage nodes engineered for speedy efficiency that may process immense volumes of data through executing queries in parallel the usage of assorted container programmable gate arrays across facts slices. The PureData gadget for Analytics N3001 offers in-database analytic functions and the means for purchasers to write their own customized capabilities via user-defined extensions. This permits analytic processing to be pushed down into the database layer, proposing sooner consequences for complex queries.

    The N3001 appliance family unit includes on-disk encryption at no additional cost.

    For IBM mainframe purchasers, IBM offers the DB2 Analytics Accelerator (IDAA), which is a personalized edition of PDA. IDAA integrates with DB2 for z/OS to seamlessly bring high-speed, low-latency analytical capabilities to IBM mainframe records warehouses.

    The underlying operating materiel within IBM PDA is Linux running on Intel hardware -- selected by using IBM. The client can not change the hardware or utility accessories of the PDA.

    IBM PDA licensing, pricing and aid

    The N3001 appliances are sold by using IBM Analytics retailers and IBM traffic partners.

    The PureData materiel for Analytics is licensed as an established appliance. The N3001 techniques are available in eighth-rack N3001-001 (Mini-Mako); quarter-rack N3001-002; half-rack N3001-005; and entire-rack configurations of one, two, 4 or eight racks (N3001-010, N3001-020, N3001-040 and N3001-080 fashions). 

    All software is blanketed within the PDA equipment, so no extra licensing is required. For purchasers wanting a check or evolution ambiance (nonproduction use), a software-best license is additionally attainable that enables the PDA device software to be dash on Intel Linux platforms.

    For consumers that need to purchase greater systems in anticipation of growth, there's a growth on claim (GoD) licensing choice. With GoD, consumers acquire double their initial device dimension (i.e., a replete rack as an alternative of half) with best half of the processing power enabled. they could then develop the device in 12.5% increments unless the system is at replete potential.

    listing expenditures latitude from $one hundred seventy,000 to $18.5 million, reckoning on the model. Discounted pricing is available. setting up and 12-month warranty assist are protected, along with the add-ons for standard operation and maintenance of the product. The simplest added can impregnate is a replication portion if the customer needs a catastrophe restoration configuration; this situation of affairs would additionally require the client to purchase an additional PDA gadget for the DR site.

    in view that PDA is an equipment, there isn't a free trial. although, an on-web page proof of conception term can too be arranged through an IBM sales consultant.

    IBM PureData gadget for Analytics provides the universal annual renovation and assist compress that customers can be universal with from different IBM products, in line with a percent of the purchase rate. This allows for the customer to ameliorate the system utility freed from impregnate as recent releases become purchasable.


    IBM Multi-Cloud facts Encryption | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    abstract

    IBM Multi-Cloud facts Encryption takes a raid like approach, assisting agencies deal encryption and centralized administration to protect delicate data in a single cloud, distinctive clouds, and in hybrid environments. Its flexibility helps cloud IaaS eventualities and improves manageability.

    IBM’s Multi-Cloud statistics Encryption is FIPS 140-2 compliant and offers its consumers the flexibility to select encryption agent forms in accordance with their workloads. IBM brought protest shop encryption, storing statistics in S3-based mostly AWS storage. This makes statistics recuperation more convenient and allows for migration of encrypted information across diverse clouds beneath MDE management. MDE prevents unauthorized access by means of operating system privilege escalation and temporary coverage suspension with exterminate switch availability. Re-reviewing of audit logs within the event of a suspected trespass application is supported.

    The installing and setup section is a lengthy process for the intuition that there are constantly a few machines to setup, universal for any on-premises answer. They like that MDE presents each windows and Linux assist, comparable to RHEL and CentOS7. The setup documentation turned into convenient to comply with.

    IBM’s Multi-Cloud statistics Encryption permits for the encryption of volumes of statistics, data saved in protest shops, and particular files with positive policies. there is a huge amount of potential and centrally managed policies. For administrators, after logging in you'll contemplate a clean, elementary dashboard exhibiting lately caused activities. The account view indicates roles and administrator varieties, allowing for separation of obligation. employees are simplest given entry integral to operate positive job features. No single administrator can unilaterally figure adjustments. This may too be totally personalized to require differing numbers of directors for diverse actions earlier than committing these alterations to the equipment.

    coverage keys are excellent-stage encryption used to wrap information encryption keys kept on the facts administration aspect. These are generated, managed, and maintained internally, but can be exported externally for off-web site key storage. This bolsters protection by passage of isolating keys from facts. Keys may too be revoked, cryptographically erasing any linked information.

    strategies, selectors, direction sets, and datatypes are any totally customizable. Selectors are specific clients or corporations that may too be granted access. path sets are the plot information lives. Datatypes are permissions assigned to the selectors. To create a coverage, pick a specific course and change the datatype and selectors based on your favored response to positive changes. if you are attempting to access disks, the system will no longer provide you entry because you don't appear to be the usage of the whitelisted application.

    this would be valuable in case your administrator account changed into compromised. if you had been the usage of a whitelist policy on accurate of an encryption policy, there would be no approach for any provider account to intimidate the customary ecosystem, even though it become compromised. as far as encryption goes, IBM’s MDE has numerous file varieties: file, object, and storage. that you may encrypt quantity disks, or partition. This encryption is the strongest commercially accessible encryption on the market nowadays (AES 256).

    IBM presents SIEM integration and reporting and might ship unauthorized entry attempts to an external SIEM like QRadar or Splunk for precise-time alerting and analysis. any consumers need confirmed entry to included materials any through and after a variety of failure situations. Contingency plans lengthen past server hardware and application. crucial facts ought to be available, even with environmental circumstance and there are lots of benefits of a incredibly available MDE environment: software stage clustering eliminates single elements of failure inside the administration console; automatic choices of attainable cluster contributors for recent connection requests; utilization of database clustering; and, average database ensures any cluster nodes believe entry to updated tips.

    most of the products available Come from legacy application, or an on-premises history reply adapted for the cloud. MDE was born in the cloud with the theory purchasers might believe complete control on the plot they want issues to be. The skill of protest store encryption offers the skills of comparatively cheap storage within the cloud, without compromising safety. information is nick up, in an application to decrypt it, cloud suppliers would should spoil into Amazon and Azure, and gain access to the corresponding encryption keys.

    MDE offers the capability to deploy protest maintain gateways that, below entry policies, encrypt statistics before being despatched to protest rescue repositories such as AWS S3, Azure, or IBM Cloud protest store. purchasers needn't depend on a single cloud protest rescue and may lumber cloud carrier suppliers at their leisure without it being a drawn out and intricate procedure.

    demonstrated by passage of: Matthew Hreben




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    000-516 exam Dumps Source : DB/2 Administration for OS/390

    Test Code : 000-516
    Test designation : DB/2 Administration for OS/390
    Vendor designation : IBM
    : 118 true Questions

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    DB/2 Administration for OS/390

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    DB2 Security with any the Trimmings | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    DB2 Security with any the Trimmings

    At a major recent England-area insurance provider, a database engineer who asked not to be identified in this article, describes the management of security for her mainframe databases as "a nearly-impossible, labor-intensive chore - if any they had to exercise were IBM's own security administration utilities."

    She reports that her company has over 600 IBM DB2 databases running in 13 LPARs across eight mainframes distributed across two, geographically divorce data centers.

    "About 8,000 quit users at the company believe controlled access to the literally hundreds of volumes of DB2 data on systems which they are migrating to DB2 version 5.1. They are too in the process of migrating from [IBM] MVS to the OS/390 operating system to achieve Year 2000 compliance," says the engineer.

    "While IBM did a remarkable job with DB2, its security administration tools are inadequate to maintain up with the changes that occur in their environment on an almost daily basis: changes in user access, the maintenance of protest security and the securing of access to recent transactions. Their database administrators (DBAs) would be spending any of their time just doing security work if any they had were DB2's own security utilities. It is just not an option not to believe a second [security] administration package for DB2."

    To enhance the security administration capabilities delivered with IBM DB2, the engineer reports that her company uses RC/Secure from Platinum Technology Inc. (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). With RC/Secure, she says, "We can let their security administration personnel execute the busywork of [granting and revoking access to DB2 database objects], while letting the DBAs focus on the intelligence work of database design. Platinum's product provides for cleaner security operations and productivity improvements over aboriginal DB2 security applications."

    In DB2's defense, the engineer concedes that her company has not looked closely at any changes in DB2 security delivered with the recent version of the IBM database. Platinum's RC/Secure has become a fixture at the company over a term of years and she has Little incentive to change something that works.

    DB2 Security: An opportunity to Enhance

    IBM, which has delivered DB2 since its branding in 1994 to more than 11,000 organizations and more than 40 million quit users worldwide, has been actively evolving the product from an MVS-only mainframe database to a universal data base, according to Hershel Harris, Director of Database Technology with IBM's Software Solutions Division.

    Harris briefly recounts some watershed accomplishments in the evolution of DB2. "In 1994, they released an AIX and OS/2 version of the product. In 1995, they provided a parallel edition for data warehousing and a UNIX edition for Sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard. In 1997, they released the Universal Database (UDB) edition, adding protest extensions, advocate for OLAP and OLTP applications and additional advocate for parallel databases that enabled data to be split across multiple nodes in a clustered environment. This year, they announced OS/390 DB2 UDB. Version 6, which should be available in 1999, extends the capability of UDB to understand objects. The family of products now runs across multiple operating environments, including NT, UNIX, OS/390, AIX and other flavors of UNIX. They are no longer a only mainframe product, but they are arrogant of their mainframe heritage."

    Built around the relational database model, says Hershel, DB2 delivers "built-in security based on privileges." He explains that, for every user with a telling ID or group membership, DB2 DBAs can exercise the product's aboriginal security features to control what the user can execute with the database objects.

    "This goes beyond access. For every protest and every user, specific privileges can be set up, including read, write, delete, update and run. The objects can be tables, views or procedures, and the privileges can be defined at a very granular level."

    Hershel says that generic SQL data control language statements such as concede and REVOKE may be used readily to control protest access. He adds that IBM will figure available in Version 6 of the OS/390 DB2 UDB product a suite of Administrative Tools similar to those that already ship with distributed platform versions of the product, "We believe in Version 5.2 [of their distributed systems product], an easy-to-use, NT-based Administration implement that allows both graphical and Web-based administration of any distributed DB2 servers. This implement set is being added to [our OS/390 DB2 product] with its release in 1999."

    Hershel is awake of the availability and exercise of third party products in conjunction with the IBM database, which he describes as "complimentary to the product."

    "IBM encourages complimentary product evolution by other companies. In the locality of DB2 security administration, there are probably a number of companies that deliver products to enhance the capabilities delivered with DB2. These tools may provide a graphical user interface to security administration using IBM's application programming interface. Some products emphasize enhanced query capabilities or enhanced reporting. Some try to integrate system flat security with DB2. One company showed me a demonstration recently of an application that enabled speech recognition technology and its exercise with DB2 database security administration. In general, they are very supportive of these efforts."

    Opportunities to enhance DB2 in a complimentary manner believe been exploited by numerous companies, including Platinum Technology, according to Pete Peterson, Vice President for Database Administration Products at Platinum.

    Peterson says that RC/Secure answers a need within companies to simplify the model for managing authority, "With DB2 version 5, IBM allows RACF or external security products to be used in administering security within DB2. It is not a very straightforward procedure and it is difficult to create application and user domains using IBM utilities. Companies can gain a lot of [security administration efficiency] if they had a simple passage to pass a hierarchy of privileges from one user to another without having to redo everything."

    RC/Secure, according to Peterson, is designed as a "management layer on top of DB2 - but not a run-time layer." He explains that changes made to security privileges may be applied on an ad hoc basis or in batch mode and suggests that the latter fashion continues to be preferred by security administrators. He adds that Platinum's RC/Query product too enhances DB2's query facilities and may be employed in connection with RC/Secure to verify updated objects within user and application domains.

    Peterson anticipates a continuing claim for DB2 enhancement products despite IBM's pretension that Version 6 will liquidate the need for positive types of enhancement products. Says Peterson, while IBM is trying to lumber toward a goal of a Universal Database to enable administration across platforms, "there are differences in the mainframe DB2 product that were consequence there to cater to the MVS folks and to capitalize on the characteristics of that platform that will continue to impede this goal."

    Computer Associates: Enhancement Equals Replacement

    Mark Combs agrees that IBM opened doors to third parties with version 5 of its DB2 implementation on MVS. Combs, who is Senior Vice President for Research and evolution with Computer Associates (CA) in Islandia, NY, sees the opportunity created less in terms of enhancing DB2 than as an opportunity to supersede RACF with either ACF2 or Top underhand - both CA mainframe security management products.

    "Companies need to lumber to real, rules-based security - that is, a situation in which traffic rules determine access. Today, in many mainframe environments, about 75 percent of the rules are controlled by system management products such as CA-ACF2, CA-Top underhand or RACF from IBM. Another 25 percent are actually established or enforced using much less robust SQL database security capabilities in products like DB2. What is needed is an integrated management infrastructure that enable centralized, rules-based security across the entire environment and that provide administrative tools on the mainframe, as well as graphical user interface-based tools on the desktop," says Combs.


    How to find DB2 admin certified | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    I'm interested in doing certification in DB2 administration for OS/390. I would like to master the subject, not just find the certification.

    Well, the best passage to master any theme is by doing it. So, with that in mind, you should secure a position where you believe access to DB2 and need to work with it to effect your job. But, I'm guessing that your objective is to find a job and that you are looking to find certified to obtain one. If that is the case, then there are some steps you can take. First of all, consider obtaining the following books for study and reference: DB2 Developer's Guide, 5th edition by Craig S. Mullins Db2 For The Z/os Version 8 Certification by Susan Lawson DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 v7.1 Application Certification usher by Susan Lawson You should too download, and review, any of the DB2 for z/OS manuals from the IBM Web site. Additionally, regularly review the in-depth technical articles published by IBM at its developerWorks site. Other noble Web sites to bookmark and review embrace Search390.com, SearchDatabase.com, dbazine.com, DB2 for OS390, and DB2 Times. Regarding your final question, I would thunder that the best passage to obtain my DBA reserve is via amazon.com.

    Editor's note: execute you disagree with this expert's response? If you believe more to share, post it in one of their .VO7aaqqaAFk.0@/search390>discussion forums.


    Basic SQL Coding for DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Take a behold at the four primary statements of DML: Select, Update, Insert, and Delete. You will learn the function each of these can play in your efforts to master DB2. You will too behold at various aspects of SQL, a necessary language to understand though the comprehension flat will vary depending on the user's activity.

    This chapter is from the reserve 

    In the previous chapter, they discussed the definitions of various database objects using the Data Definition Language (DDL). In this chapter, they start manipulating the database objects using the portion of SQL known as Data Manipulation Language (DML). They will be populating (inserting) data into the database and retrieving the data using many powerful methods. Depending on the sophistication of the database users, they can exercise SQL to query the database. The majority of the SQL statements within a DB2 application involve DML statements. Therefore, application developers must understand the various methods of inserting, updating, and retrieving data from the database. They will start with simple retrieval statements and gradually interject more complex methods of data manipulation. The DB2 Certification database will be used for most of the examples. There are four main DML SQL statements they consider: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

    SQL is based on mathematical principles, specifically on set theory and relational algebra. The data is stored in the database as unordered sets of data records. SQL is a set-oriented language, and many of its language elements are directly related to relational algebraic terms, such as permutation, projection, restriction, and join.

    A set of data is represented in a DB2 database as a table or a view and is stored in a DB2 table without admiration to order. To retrieve data in a particular order, an ORDER BY phrase must be added to a SELECT statement. Similarly, if the data is to be grouped, then a GROUP BY phrase must be added to the statement.

    Now, let's review the DB2CERT database design defined in the previous chapter and manipulate data using various SQL statements. There are three main tables: CANDIDATE, TEST, and TEST_CENTER. Each table represents a set of records that correspond to a test candidate (person), a test, and a test center (location).

    There is an associative table, known as the TEST_TAKEN table, that is used to reflect the relationships among the three main tables. The TEST_TAKEN table is used to schedule the test candidates and too to maintain their test scores.

    NOTE

    The longest SQL statement is 32,765 bytes.

    Remember that to execute any operation, the user must believe the necessary privileges.

    Retrieving the Entire Table

    The most basic of any retrieval command involves the SELECT statement with no operators other than the designation of the table. This SQL statement retrieves any of the candidates who believe taken a DB2 Certification exam. The information requested is contained in the table TEST_TAKEN.

    SELECT * FROM db2cert.test_taken

    SQL is a data access language that consists of language statements and clauses. There are many optional clauses that can be used to modify the output. The output of a SELECT statement is known as a result set or result table. The results from the SELECT statement are shown next. In this example, using an asterisk or star character (*) for column selection, the columns will be returned to the user in the order in which they are defined in the table.

    CID TCID NUMBER DATE_TAKEN START_TIME FINISH_TIME SCORE PASS_FAIL SEAT_NO --- ---- ------ ---------- ---------- ----------- ----- --------- ------- 111 TX01 500 01/01/2000 11:30:00 12:30:00 65 Y 1 111 TX01 501 02/02/2000 10:30:00 11:45:00 73 Y 1 111 TX01 502 03/03/2000 12:30:00 13:30:00 67 Y 1 222 TR01 500 01/01/2000 14:00:00 15:30:00 55 N 2 222 TR01 502 01/02/2000 09:00:00 10:15:00 53 N 2 222 TR01 502 02/18/2000 10:00:00 11:30:00 75 Y 2 333 TX01 500 03/01/2000 11:30:00 13:00:00 82 Y 2 333 TX01 501 12/29/2000 14:00:00 - - - 1 333 TX01 502 03/02/2000 14:00:00 14:30:00 92 Y 1 9 record(s) selected.

    In SQL, the * is used to bespeak that any columns of a table are being referenced. In this example, the SQL statement refers to any of the columns defined for the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table. If the table is altered and a recent column is added to the table definition, the result set would hold the recent column.

    NOTE

    Adding a recent column to an existing table will result in default values being populated for the existing rows.

    Since the output of the SQL statement using * character varies according to the table definition, it is recommended that you specify any of the column names you want to contemplate in the SELECT statement. They could believe obtained the selfsame result as the statement using SELECT * with the following SQL statement.

    SELECT cid, tcid, number,date_taken,start_time, finish_time,score,seat_no FROM db2cert.test_taken;

    NOTE

    The * character is used to mention to any of the columns defined for a table. The order of the columns in the result table is the selfsame order as specified in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement.

    What is returned to the user is known as the result set. If the result set is large it is advisable to be positive to filter the data using a WHERE predicate.

    The FROM clause is required for the DML SQL statement, since it describes the location (table or view) of the data. Their specimen references a single table called DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN. The SELECT and FROM clauses are required in any data retrieval statements. The list of columns following the SELECT keyword is referred to as the select list.

    Projecting Columns from a Table

    Projection is a relational operation that allows you to retrieve a subset of the defined columns from a table. The next specimen restricts the output from the SELECT command so that only the candidate ID, test center, and test number attributes from the TEST_TAKEN table are shown.

    SELECT cid,tcid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken

    The output of this SELECT statement is shown below.

    CID TCID NUMBER --- ---- ------ 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 222 TR01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 333 TX01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 9 record(s) selected.

    The order of the columns in the result table will always match the order in the select list. The order of the columns as they were defined in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement is ignored when a select list is provided in the SQL statement. In this example, the order of the columns is similar to the order in the CREATE TABLE statement, since the CID column was defined prior to TCID and NUMBER columns.

    Changing the Order of the Columns

    Permutation is the relational operation that allows you to change the order of the columns in your result table. Permutation is used every time you select columns in an order different than the order defined in the CREATE TABLE statement. For example, to display the test center ID prior to the candidate IDs and the test number, you could execute the following:

    SELECT tcid,cid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken

    The result of this SELECT statement specifies a select list in a different order than was defined in the table definition.

    TCID CID NUMBER ---- --- ------ TX01 111 500 TX01 111 501 TX01 111 502 TR01 222 500 TR01 222 502 TR01 222 502 TX01 333 500 TX01 333 501 TX01 333 502 9 record(s) selected.

    NOTE

    We mention to the output of a SELECT statement as the result table because the output of any SELECT statements can be considered a relational table.

    Restricting Rows from a Table

    Restriction is a relational operation that will filter the resulting rows of a table. Restriction can be accomplished through the exercise of predicates defined in a SQL WHERE clause. To restrict the result set, they need to add a WHERE clause to the SQL statement.

    NOTE

    A predicate is a condition placed on the data. The result of the condition is TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN.

    The WHERE clause specifies conditions or predicates that must be evaluated by DB2 before the result table is returned to the quit user. There are many telling types of predicates that can be used. In the following example, the equality (=) predicate is used to restrict the records to only those candidates who believe taken a DB2 Certification test at the test center TR01.

    SELECT tcid,cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid ='TR01'

    The WHERE clause too accepts other comparison operators, such as greater than (>), less than (<), greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (<=), and not equal to (<>).This statement is an specimen of a basic predicate. A basic predicate compares two values. In addition, more complex predicates, such as LIKE, BETWEEN, and IN, are too telling and will be discussed later.

    NOTE

    Trying to execute this specimen SQL statement will result in a data ilk compatibility error, because the column TCID is defined with a user-defined data ilk (UDT).

    Predicate Evaluation for UDTs

    The column TCID was defined as a user-defined data type. To figure the comparison in the WHERE clause valid, a casting function needs to be used. This is not mandatory if the comparison is to a literal or host variable. This technique is however demonstrated below:

    SELECT tcid, cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid=CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id)

    Predicate evaluation requires that the data types be compatible (same data ilk or a compatible data type). They can accomplish the data ilk conversion (cast) using one of two methods:

  • Use the CAST expression.
  • Use a casting function.
  • Refer to Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming," for more information on casting for UDTs.

    NOTE

    Although not always mandatory, casting is recommended to ensure compatible data types are compared, including length and scale. This allows DB2 to resolve these as indexable rather than stage 2 predicates.

    Restricting Rows Using Multiple Conditions

    It is workable to combine multiple conditions (predicates) in a single SQL statement. The predicates can be combined using Boolean operators, such as the AND or OR operators. These operators allow you to combine multiple conditions in a single SQL statement. The order of the predicate evaluation will not strike the result set (known as set closure).

    The next specimen retrieves the records for the test candidates who took a test at test center TR01 and achieved a score greater than 65. The rows that answer the predicates are known as the qualifying rows. The following specimen is an SQL statement using multiple predicates:

    SELECT tcid,cid,score FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid= CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id) AND score > 65 Selecting Columns from Multiple Tables

    There are basically two operations that combine columns from multiple tables in a single SQL statement. These operations are

    Cartesian Product

    A Cartesian product is a relational operation that will merge any the values from one table with any the values from another table. This operation is not used frequently because the result table can be very large. The number of rows in the result table is always equal to the product of the number of rows in the qualifying rows for each of the tables being accessed.

    NOTE

    The DB2 optimizer may pick to utilize a Cartesian product of unrelated tables if this is deemed to be an efficient fashion of accessing multiple tables. An specimen would be two single-row tables that are joined with a large table. The cross-product of 1 ∴ 1 = 1; thus the large table access is deferred as late as possible, with a potential increase in the restrictive predicates that can be applied without incurring the overhead of a large Cartesian result. This fashion of table access is typical in processing queries against a star schema data model.

    The following specimen is a Cartesian product of any test numbers and test names from the TEST table, with any candidates from the TEST_TAKEN table. First, select from the TEST table.

    SELECT number, designation FROM db2cert.test NUMBER NAME ------ -------------------------------------------------- 500 DB2 Fundamentals 501 DB2 Administration 502 DB2 Application Development 3 record(s) selected. Next select of any candidates from the test_taken table. SELECT cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken CID TCID --- ---- 222 TR01 222 TR01 222 TR01 111 TX01 111 TX01 111 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 9 record(s) selected.

    Then combine the two tables to figure a Cartesian product result table.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 27 record(s) selected.

    There are two tables referenced in the FROM clause of this query. The tables are separated by commas. There is no relationship expression in the WHERE clause. This ilk of query results in a Cartesian product.

    The result table is a representation of any workable combinations of the input tables. The TEST table has three rows, and the TEST_TAKEN table has nine rows. Therefore, the SELECT statement shown above returns 27 rows. Note the first column designation in this query. It is necessary to fully qualify the column designation by providing the schema designation and table designation with the column designation because this column exists in both the TEST table and TEST_TAKEN table. In this case, they needed to specify that the NUMBER column is to be retrieved from the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table and not from the DB2CERT.TEST table.

    By adding a predicate to a Cartesian product SQL query, the result table can delineate a more useful representation of the data. In the specimen below, the query represents any of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid='111' NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 9 record(s) selected.

    Adding a WHERE clause to your query does not always provide the desired result. In the specimen shown above, you want to know any of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111, and the query returns nine rows. But they know from previous queries that the candidate took only three tests. The query in the specimen above has a WHERE clause to filter out the candidate whose ID is 111 from the TEST_TAKEN table, but there was no filter on the TEST_CENTER table. Therefore, the result of the query would always be a multiple of the number of testing centers. Usually, when multiple tables are referenced, you should embrace a cross-table relationship using a table merge or connect method, as shown in the following example. They will examine table connect methods further in the next section.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid= '111' AND db2cert.test_taken.number=db2cert.test.number NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 3 record(s) selected.

    To avoid data redundancy, it is recommended that the database tables be normalized. Following a normalization process, a number of related tables will exist. To answer some of the required queries, the tables must be reconstructed. The tables are reconstructed temporarily, using a table connect strategy to relent a single-result table.

    The result tables in the previous examples usually provided candidate ID numbers and not the complete designation of the test candidates. The candidate IDs are stored in the TEST_TAKEN table, and the replete names are stored in the CANDIDATE table. To obtain the designation of a candidate, the data must be retrieved from the CANDIDATE table, using a relationship or connect strategy.

    Consider an specimen that will list the names and phone numbers of candidates who were registered to swipe a DB2 Certification test in 2000. To accomplish this, they need to select data from two different tables:

  • db2cert.candidate
  • db2cert.test_taken
  • Let's retrieve a list of candidate names, phone numbers, and IDs from the CANDIDATE table. The candidate names were stored in multiple columns to allow for facile retrieval by eventual name.

    SELECT fname,initial,lname,hphone,cid FROM db2cert.candidate

    The output of this specimen follows. Pay special attention to the values in the CID column. It will be used as the connect column in the next example.

    FNAME INITIAL LNAME HPHONE CID -------- ------- ---------- ---------- --- Bill B Wong 1115551234 111 George Baklarz 2226543455 222 Susan M Visser 4442314244 333 Glen R Sheffield 5552143244 444 Jim G Stittle 6662341234 555 Kevin W Street 7773142134 666 Bert F Nicol 8886534534 777 Paul C Zikopoulos 9992112212 888 8 record(s) selected.

    Now, let's retrieve the ID numbers of those candidates who were registered to swipe the test in 2000.

    SELECT distinct cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 CID --- 222 111 333 3 record(s) selected.

    The candidate IDs in the TEST_TAKEN table must correspond to a candidate ID in the CANDIDATE table because of the declarative referential integrity constraints. The parent table in the relationship is the CANDIDATE table and the child table (dependent table) is the TEST_TAKEN table.

    The result table from the above query does not embrace the test candidate 444, since that candidate did not believe a test scheduled for 2000. They need to connect the two result tables based on the candidate ID values. This column is known as the connect column.

    NOTE

    Query performance can significantly ameliorate if the connect columns are appropriately indexed.

    The following single query will answer the end-user requirement.

    SELECT distinct fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.candidate WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND db2cert.test_taken.cid=db2cert.candidate.cid

    A table connect requires a predicate that includes an expression based on columns from the tables referenced in the FROM clause. This is known as a connect predicate. The FROM clause has not changed from the Cartesian product examples. The only inequity is in the connect predicate (test_taken.cid = candidate.cid).

    NOTE

    An alternative figure of the FROM clause for joins involves explicitly coding the connect keyword between the tables (rather than using a comma) and coding the connect predicates in the ON clause rather than in the WHERE clause. This fashion of coding will be covered in more detail in Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding."

    The table names needed to be explicitly stated because there is a column named CID in both of the referenced tables. When multiple tables are being accessed in a single query, any selected columns that occur in more than one table must be qualified with the table name.

    NOTE

    An error will occur if the columns being referenced are obscure (not properly qualified).

    The maximum number of base tables that can be in a single SQL statement is 225; however, you are limited to 15 tables in a connect (the FROM clause).

    NOTE

    The 15-table limit can be increased by updating the macro SPRMMXT to a value greater than 15.

    This kindly of connect operation shown in the above specimen is too known as an inner join. An inner connect displays only the rows that are present in both of the joined tables.

    Using Correlation Names

    If each of the columns needed to be fully qualified with the table name, such as tableschema.tablename.columnname, the queries would become very large and cumbersome to work with. Fortunately, there is an easier passage to qualify the obscure columns resulting from a multitable SELECT statement.

    The columns can be qualified using a correlation name. A correlation designation is a temporary alias for the tables referenced in an SQL statement. They rewrite the previous query using correlated names as follows:

    SELECT distinct fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken tt, db2cert.candidate c WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND tt.cid = c.cid

    The correlation designation immediately follows the designation of the table as stated in the FROM clause. In this example, the correlated designation for the TEST_TAKEN table is tt, and the correlated designation for the CANDIDATE table is c.

    NOTE

    Correlation names can be optionally prefixed with the AS keyword, such as DB2CERT.CANDITATE AS C. This is purely for readability.

    The correlated names are accessible within the SQL statement only. Following the execution of the SQL statement, the correlation designation is no longer defined. Once a correlation designation has been defined, it can be referenced in the comfort of the query instead of the table name. However, the table designation can noiseless be referenced.

    NOTE

    Use simple, easy-to-remember correlation names. Table initials are noble candidates for correlation names.

    Sorting Your Output

    We believe been retrieving data from one or more tables. The order of the result table has not been specified in any of the SQL statements. Therefore, the data is retrieved in an undetermined order if there is no ORDER BY clause in the SQL statement.

    NOTE

    The only guaranteed passage to return data in the required sequence is with the ORDER BY clause. Any data retrieval that is currently returned in sequence without this clause is purely based upon the data retrieval fashion at the time. A future access path change may not return the data in the selfsame sequence.

    The following specimen produces a list of the test candidates in alphabetical order by eventual designation for the candidates who believe taken a DB2 Certification test at the TR01 test center.

    SELECT lname,initial,fname FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY lname

    This specimen contains a recent clause, ORDER BY. After the ORDER BY clause, you can list the columns that will specify the sort order and the ilk of sort.

    NOTE

    Appropriate indexing may allow DB2 to avoid sorting the data to match the ORDER BY clause. If the data is already sequenced via the index, DB2 may pick to utilize the index and avoid sorting the data. DB2 cannot avoid a sort for an ORDER BY involving columns from more than one table. Where possible, embrace columns from only one table in the ORDER BY to give DB2 greater opportunity for sort avoidance.

    The SQL can be modified so that the output is changed to descending order by eventual designation and a secondary order column on the first designation in ascending order.

    SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid= 'TR01' ORDER BY lname DESC, fname

    In this example, the DESC keyword that follows the lname column indicates that the result table should be in descending order based on the eventual name. More than one record can believe the selfsame eventual name. This situation is quite common. There is a second column specified in the ORDER BY clause, fname. There is no keyword specifying the sort sequence based on the fname column. Therefore, the default ordering sequence (ascending) is used.

    The next specimen contains three columns lname, fname, and hphone. You can reference the column that should be used to sort the data using the column designation or by specifying its position in the select list. Using the column position is useful when the column in the select list is made up of derived columns (calculated columns) that believe no definite name.

    SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2

    In this example, the sort order is specified using the column position. Therefore, the query result is exactly the selfsame as the in previous example.

    You can too allocate an alternative column designation using column renaming. The assigned designation can then be referenced in the ORDER BY clause, and it appears as the column heading where appropriate.

    NOTE

    Although useful, coding a column position rather than a column (or renamed column) in the ORDER BY clause may lead to a different sequence if another column is inadvertently added to the query that alters the column positioning.

    The ORDER BY clause must succeed any subselects in the FULLSELECT statement. The only clauses that can succeed the ORDER BY clause are the for FOR FETCH ONLY, FOR READ ONLY, OPTIMIZE, WITH QUERYNO, FETCH FIRST n ROWS clauses.

    Derived Columns

    There are some cases when you will need to effect calculations on the data. The SQL language has some basic mathematical and string functions built in. Mathematical operations embrace standard addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

    The calculation can be defined in the WHERE clause of the SQL statement or the select list. Suppose that you need to calculate a passing rate for a DB2 test. The passing rate is defined as the percentage of candidates that pass the test (totalpassed*100/totaltaken). The following SQL statement will accomplish this for us for test number 500:

    SELECT number, totalpassed*100/totaltaken FROM test WHERE number='500'

    In this example, the second column of the output list is a calculated column. bethink that you must exercise the column position if you want to exercise this calculated column for the ORDER BY clause unless you designation it (as they now discuss).

    NOTE

    Occasionally, the results of a derived column may not display as expected. The specimen using totalpassed*100/totaltaken will result in a value of 66 being retrieved. Since both the totalpassed and totaltaken columns are integers, the final result is too an integer, and the fractional portion is discarded. If this is not your desired result, you should exercise other functions (like decimal) to change the passage the calculation is performed or displayed.

    Naming Derived/Calculated Columns

    You can specify a column designation for any expression. When you provide the derived (calculated) column with a name, the ORDER BY clause can reference the derived designation to allow for a more readable SQL statement.

    The following SQL calculates the percentage of people that believe passed the DB2 Certification exams and orders the output in descending order of the passing rate.

    SELECT number,totalpassed*100/totaltaken AS PassedRate FROM test ORDER BY PassedRate DESC

    The AS clause is used to rename the default designation of an ingredient in the select list. In this example, they are giving the designation of PassedRate to the result of the division of columns totalpassed by totaltaken. The named column is used in the query to specify the column that should be used for sorting the output.

    NOTE

    The AS keyword is optional, although it should be added for readability. Without the AS clause, it may be unclear whether the objective was to rename a column or a comma was missed between two retrieved columns.

    Functions

    In DB2, there are different types of functions provided. For example, two types of functions provided by DB2 are scalar and column functions (a third ilk of function called a table function is discussed in Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming."

  • Scalar functions (also known as row functions) provide a result for each row of the result table. A scalar function can be used any plot an expression is allowed.

  • Column functions (also known as vector functions) work with a group of rows to provide a result. The group is specified using a FULLSELECT and optionally grouped using the GROUP BY clause.

  • In this section, they interject you to some of the SQL functions provided with DB2. SQL functions are categorized by their implementation type. Either the functions are built in or they are extensions of DB2 and are known as user-defined functions (UDFs).

  • Built-in functions are defined within the SQL standards, and they are provided by DB2. These can be either scalar or column functions.

  • UDFs are not defined within the SQL standards because they are extensions of the current SQL language. These functions can be developed by a DB2 administrator or application developer. UDFs can be either scalar or table functions, but not column functions. Once the UDFs believe been created, they can be invoked by any quit user with the proper privileges. For more information about UDFs, mention to Chapter 15.

  • Scalar Functions

    Scalar functions are applied to each row of data, and there is a per-row result provided. If they want to retrieve only the first three digits of telephone numbers for each candidate, they could exercise a scalar function. The function that is used is called SUBSTR. The arguments for this function embrace a string data ilk column, a mount offset, and length. The output data ilk and ascribe of the function depend on the input data ilk and attribute. The following specimen retrieves the telephone locality code for the column wphone.

    SELECT lname, SUBSTR(CHAR(wphone),1,3) FROM db2cert.candidate

    The SUBSTR function is a scalar function. In this example, SUBSTR returns a character string of three characters. The result string corresponds to the first three characters of the wphone column. This function is known as a string function because it works with any string data type. If they wanted to provide the output column with a meaningful name, they could provide an alias, as was done for calculated columns.

    In the specimen above, the substring starts from the mount of the string, because they bespeak one (1) as the second parameter of the function. The length of the resulting string is indicated in the third argument. In their example, the length is three. Note that the data ilk of the wphone column is phone, so a casting function is used to transform the phone data ilk to the char data type.

    The following query will provide the month when the exam was taken. The input for this function is a DATE string, and the output is an integer.

    SELECT fname, MONTH (date_taken) FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid Column Functions

    Column functions provide a single result for a group of qualifying rows for a specified table or view. Many common queries can be satisfied using column functions where they embrace common tasks, such as finding the smallest value, the largest value, or the average value for a group of data records. In the following specimen you can obtain the maximum length of time of any of the DB2 Certification exams:

    SELECT MAX("length") FROM test

    Because the length column shares its designation with the length scalar function, the column designation is encased within double-quotes to distinguish this as a column and not a function.

    If they added a WHERE clause to this example, the maximum would delineate the maximum length for the qualifying rows, since the predicate is used to filter the data prior to the application of the MAX function.

    This next specimen calculates the average of the number of seats for any of the test centers. Notice the column function AVG is used in this example:

    SELECT AVG(noseats) FROM test_center

    DB2 provides many more built-in functions. If you are interested in calculating statistical information, you can exercise statistical functions, such as VARIANCE, STDDEV, or a sampling of these functions.

    NOTE

    MAX and MIN functions can be either column or scalar functions depending on the input arguments.

    Grouping Values

    Many queries require some flat of aggregated data. This is accomplished in SQL through the exercise of the GROUP BY clause. The following SQL obtains the average number of seats for each country:

    SELECT country, AVG(noseats) FROM test_center GROUP BY country

    This SQL statement obtains the average number of seats per country, and the GROUP BY clause tells DB2 to group together the rows that believe the selfsame values in the columns indicated in the GROUP BY list. In their example, they are grouping countries into subsets. As the subsets are created, DB2 calculates the average of each of those groups or subsets, in this case, by each country.

    When you combine column functions and other elements, such as column names, scalar functions, or calculated columns, you must exercise the GROUP BY clause. In this case, you must embrace every ingredient that is not a column function in the GROUP BY list. The only elements that can be omitted in the GROUP BY list are constant values.

    The next SQL statement obtains a list that includes the average nick score and minimum test length for the DB2 Certification exams. They group this list by the ilk of exam, as follows:

    SELECT type, AVG(cut_score), MIN("length") FROM test GROUP BY type

    NOTE

    Appropriate indexing can allow DB2 to avoid a sort to group the data rows to match the GROUP BY clause.

    It is workable to sort the output of the previous specimen using an ORDER BY clause.

    NOTE

    GROUP BY may return data in the selfsame order as an ORDER BY, but this is not guaranteed and is based upon the access path. The only fashion to guarantee data sequence is with an ORDER BY.

    Restricting the exercise of Sets of Data

    Up to now, they believe discussed how to restrict output based on row conditions. With SQL, it is too workable to restrict that output using column functions and the GROUP BY clause. Suppose you want a list of any the test centers that believe administered more than five DB2 Certification exams. To figure it easier to understand, let's first find the number of tests that believe been taken in each test center.

    SELECT tcid, count(*) FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid

    We exercise the signify column function to find the total number of tests that believe been taken in each test center. When you exercise an asterisk (*) with the signify function, you are indicating that you want the number of rows in a table that meet the criteria established in the SQL statement. In this example, they are grouping by TCID because they believe a number of occurrences for any the test centers in the TEST_TAKEN table. The TEST_TAKEN table has an entry for every DB2 Certification exam that has been taken. Finally, the output is restricted to only those test centers that believe administered more than four exams.

    SELECT tcid FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid HAVING COUNT(*) > 4

    This specimen introduces the HAVING clause. The HAVING clause is equivalent to the WHERE clause for groups and column functions. The HAVING clause will restrict the result set to only the groups that meet the condition specified in it. In their example, only the test centers that believe administered more than four DB2 Certification exams will be displayed.

    Eliminating Duplicates

    When you execute a query, you might find duplicate rows in the reply set. The SQL language provides a special clause to remove the duplicate rows from your output. The following SQL generates a list of names and phone numbers for any the candidates who believe taken a test. In the following example, they liquidate the duplicate rows from their output list using the distinct clause.

    SELECT distinct fname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c,test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid

    The distinct clause can too be used with the signify function. When you exercise distinct inside a signify function, it will not signify the duplicate entries for a particular column. The following specimen allows you to signify how many different test centers believe candidates registered.

    SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT tcid) FROM test_taken

    This specimen provides the number of test centers that are registered in the TEST_TAKEN table. bethink that any the candidates who believe registered for DB2 Certification exams are stored in this table. figure positive that you understand the inequity between COUNT(*), COUNT(colname), and COUNT(DISTINCT colname). They are very similar in syntax but vary in function.

    NOTE

    COUNT(*) returns a signify of any rows that qualify against the WHERE clause. COUNT(colname) returns a signify of any rows that qualify against the WHERE clause, with null occurrences of colname removed. COUNT(DISTINCT colname) counts distinct occurrences of colname, with nulls removed.

    Searching for String Patterns

    SQL has a powerful predicate that allows you to search for patterns in character string columns. This is the like predicate. Suppose you want to generate a list of the candidates whose first designation starts with the epistle G.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname like 'G%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    In this query, they exercise a wildcard character with the like predicate. In SQL, the percent character (%) is a substitute for zero or more characters. The search string G% can be substituted with names like George, Gary, Ginger, and so on (since the percent character can substitute zero or more characters, the search string can too be a single epistle G).

    The percent character can be used any plot in the search string. It too can be used as many times as you need it. The percent symptom is not case-sensitive, so it can swipe the plot of uppercase or lowercase letters. However, the constant characters included in your search string are case-sensitive.

    Another wildcard character used with the like predicate is the underline character (_). This character substitutes one and only one character. The underline character can swipe the plot of any character. However, the underline character cannot be substituted for an vacuous character.

    NOTE

    If the pattern needs to search for occurrences of the wildcard characters % and _ as their actual values, then the escape clause is used to specify a character that precedes the percent or underscore in the pattern.

    The previous SQL can be modified to embrace any candidates' names and the telephone numbers for those candidates whose designation has a lowercase epistle "a" as its second letter.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname like '_a%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    This specimen uses two wildcard characters that work with the like predicate. The search string in this specimen can embrace names, such as Paul, Gabriel, or Natalie. (The first character may be any character, the lowercase epistle "a" is the second character in the string, and the string ends with any number of characters.)

    NOTE

    When the pattern in a like predicate is a fixed-length host variable, the rectify length must be specified for the string to be returned. 'G%' assigned to an 8-byte variable (LIKE :variable) will search for any occurrences of 'G% ' (G, followed by any character, followed by 6 blank characters). To find rows that originate with a G, then 'G%%%%%%%' should be assigned to the fixed-length variable.

    Searching for Data in Ranges

    SQL too offers us a orbit operator. This operator is used to restrict rows that are in a particular orbit of values. consider the requirement to list those candidates whose scores in the DB2 Certification exam are between 60 and 75.

    SELECT distinct fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75

    The BETWEEN predicate includes the values that you specify for searching your data. An considerable fact about the BETWEEN predicate is that it can work with character ranges as well.

    In addition to the score requirement, this specimen modifies the SQL to embrace only those candidates whose eventual designation begins with a epistle between B and G.

    SELECT distinct fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75 AND lname BETWEEN 'B' AND 'GZ'

    In this example, the second BETWEEN predicate contains character values. They need to specify the GZ value to embrace any the workable names that start with the epistle G. This was done assuming that the epistle Z is the eventual workable value in the alphabet.

    NOTE

    The arguments of the BETWEEN clause are not interchangeable; the first must specify the low value, and the second, the lofty value. BETWEEN 1 AND 2 will return any values within the orbit (inclusive of 1 and 2). BETWEEN 2 AND 1 will return zero rows.

    Searching for Null Values

    Null values delineate an unknown value for a particular happening of an entity. They can exercise a null value in the cases where they don't know a particular value of a column. Let's thunder that they want a list of any those candidates whose score is not yet input. This condition is represented with a null value.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score IS NULL

    The IS predicate is used to search for the null value in this example. bethink that the null value means "unknown." Because it has no particular value, it can't be compared with other values. You can't exercise conditional operands, such as equal (=) or greater than (>), with null values.

    Searching for Negative Conditions

    The BETWEEN, IS, and like predicates always behold for the values that meet a particular condition. These predicates can too be used to behold for values that don't meet a particular criterion.

    The NOT predicate can be used to behold for the contrary condition, combined with the LIKE, BETWEEN, and IS predicate, to accomplish negative searches, as shown in the following example. This specimen has a like predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want a list of those candidates whose eventual names execute not start with the epistle S.

    SELECT distinct fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE lname NOT like 'S%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    The next specimen has a BETWEEN predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want the list of those candidates whose score, in any test, is not in the orbit 60 to 75.

    SELECT distinct fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND integer(score) NOT BETWEEN 60 and 75

    In this example, the NOT predicate will exclude any the values that are in the orbit 60 to 75.

    Negation can too be applied to the null value. This SQL produces a report that searches for those candidates that believe a seat number assigned. This is expressed with a NOT NULL value.

    SELECT distinct fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND seat_no IS NOT NULL

    NOTE

    The NOT operator can too be used to negate the standard comparison operators, =, <, <=, >, and >=.

    When dealing with nulls, NOT or negation may not return the contrary of the positive logic. For example, WHERE SEAT_NO = 1 will return only the rows for seat number 1. Any value other than 1 is discarded, as these rows are FALSE, including nulls, since these are unknown. WHERE SEAT_NO <> 1 excludes rows where the seat number is 1, and too discards nulls because these are unknown.

    Searching for a Set of Values

    In SQL, it is workable to establish a restriction condition based on a set of values. Suppose that you need a list of the test centers that believe candidates registered for the DB2 Fundamentals test and for the DB2 Application evolution test. This can be queried with the following statement:

    SELECT distinct name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND (number = '500' or number ='502')

    To simplify structure multiple OR conditions when multiple values for the selfsame column are being compared, it is workable to rewrite the statement using the IN clause.

    SELECT distinct name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND number IN ('500','502')

    The IN clause is used to denote a set of values. In this example, they exercise a constant set of values.

    You can too exercise the NOT predicate with the IN clause. In this case, the condition will be proper when a value is not present in the set of values provided to the IN clause. You can exercise as many values as you wish in the IN clause, within the defined limits of the size of a SQL statement.

    Advanced Selection Functionality

    In Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding," they will behold at more of the functionality and power of the SELECT statement. They will cover topics such as

  • Subqueries
  • Inner and outer joins
  • Nested table expressions
  • CASE expressions
  • Row expressions
  • Unions


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    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
    By Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones
    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 129217613X
    ISBN13 : 9781292176130
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    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Computer Security: Principles and PracticeComputer Security: Principles and Practice
    By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown
    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
    ISBN10 : 0134794109
    ISBN13 : 9780134794105
    Our ISBN10 : 1292220619
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    Subject : Computer Science & Technology
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    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126046542X
    ISBN13 : 9781260465426
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    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William G Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
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    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
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    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
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    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
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    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
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    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
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