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000-516 exam Dumps Source : DB/2 Administration for OS/390

Test Code : 000-516
Test denomination : DB/2 Administration for OS/390
Vendor denomination : IBM
: 118 real Questions

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IBM IBM DB/2 Administration for

IBM data Studio | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the reserve 

IBM statistics Studio is covered in every DB2 version. IBM statistics Studio gives a lone integrated atmosphere for database administration and application building. that you can discharge tasks which are related to database modeling and design, establishing database purposes, administering and managing databases, tuning SQL efficiency, and monitoring databases multi role lone tool. it's an valuable device that can significantly improvement a group environment with distinctive roles and obligations.

IBM statistics Studio is available in three favors: replete customer, administration client, and internet console.

the all customer includes both the database administrative and the application structure capabilities. The construction atmosphere is Eclipse-primarily based. This offers a collaborative construction ambiance by pass of integrating with different superior Eclipse-primarily based gear equivalent to InfoSphere facts Architect and InfoSphere Optim pureQuery Runtime. notice that probably the most advanced InfoSphere tools are most effective blanketed within the DB2 advanced variants and the DB2 Developer version. that you can additionally one by one purchase the advanced tools.

The administration customer is a subset of the complete client. It nevertheless offers a wide purview of database administrative performance akin to DB2 illustration administration, demur administration, records management, and question tuning. fundamental application construction initiatives similar to SQL Builder, question formatting, visual explain, debugging, editing, and operating DB2 routines are supported. exercise the replete client for advanced utility construction features.

The web console, as the identify implies, it is a web-based browser interface that gives fitness monitoring, job administration, and connection administration.

IBM records Studio Workspace and the project Launcher

if in case you contain efficaciously attach in the IBM facts Studio, you are requested to supply a workspace name. A workspace is a folder that saves your drudgery and projects. It refers to the laptop progress ambiance, which is an Eclipse-based mostly thought.

project Launcher is displayed, which highlights here category of initiatives:

  • Design
  • develop
  • Administer
  • Tune
  • computer screen
  • every class is described in additional element in its own tab. click on any tab, and also you remark the key and first tasks listed in the container on the left. remark determine four.26 to procure an thought on the pass to navigate the task Launcher.

    for instance, the determine shows you the further projects. which you can locate the valuable thing construction projects on the left. On the accurate correct, it lists greater initiatives concerning development. On the backside right, IBM facts Studio provides a few documentation links where which you can study more about construction. the residence acceptable, it also suggests the superior gear accessible in the InfoSphere Optim portfolio that result to the project you contain selected.

    Connection Profiles

    each task you had been to operate towards a database requires to first set up a database connection. To connect to a database from IBM information Studio, open the Database Administration standpoint. On the accurate appropriate nook, click the Open perspective icon and select Database Administration.

    On the Administration Explorer, appropriate-click the white district or below the novel menu, select novel Connection to a database. From the brand novel Connection window, you remark so that you can exercise the IBM statistics Studio to connect to divide IBM statistics sources, as well as non-IBM facts sources. select the database supervisor and enter the integral connection parameters. determine 4.28 shows an example.

    Figure 4.27

    determine four.27 Open the Database Administration perspective

    Pull down the JDBC driver drop-down menu, and you'll opt for the class of JDBC driver to invent exercise of. JDBC classification 4 driver is used by means of default.

    Use the contemplate at various Connection button to invent inevitable the connection assistance you enter is valid. click conclude.

    At this aspect, you contain got created a connection profile. Connection profiles embrace counsel about how to hook up with a database comparable to indicating the character of authentication to breathe used when connecting the database, specifying default schema, and configuring tracing alternatives. different team contributors can import the connection profiles to their own IBM information Studio and breathe capable of set up a group of constant connection settings.

    To supersede the connection profile, correct-click on the database and select houses. homes for the database are displayed as shown in design four.29.

    well-known Database Administration equipment

    There are few different advantageous administration projects obtainable in the menu illustrated in determine four.29.

    The manage Connection role allows you to rename the connection profile, delete the connection profile, change the consumer identity and password, and reproduction the profile. The lower back Up and restoration role allows you to setup a database or desk district backups. in the acceptable editor, that you could specify the character of backup, vicinity of the backup photos, and performance options for the backup. Database backup and healing is discussed in Chapter 10, “protecting, Backing Up, and improving statistics.”

    The set up and Configure characteristic enables you to configure the database. Database configuration and this IBM data Studio characteristic are coated in element in Chapter 5. notice from the menu, you could launch the Configure automatic upkeep editor. DB2 gives computerized maintenance capabilities for performing database backups, reorganizing tables and indexes, and updating the database records as essential. The editor permits you personalize the automated renovation coverage (see determine four.30).

    Figure 4.30

    determine four.30 select the computerized protection policy options

    The manage Database role allows for you to start and obviate the database. In DB2, that capacity activating and deactivating the database. Activating a database allocates outright of the imperative database reminiscence and services or techniques required. Deactivating a database releases the reminiscence and forestalls DB2 functions and processes.

    The monitor role launches the IBM statistics Studio internet Console. mention to the section, “IBM data Studio net Console,” for introduction of the device.

    The Generate DDL role makes exercise of the DB2 command-primarily based device db2look to extract the records Definition Language (DDL) statements for the recognized database objects or the total database. This feature and power approach effortless for those who want to mimic a database, a set of database objects, or the database statistics to a different database. as a result of the Generate DDL characteristic in IBM information Studio or the DB2 command db2look, you procure hold of a DDL script. The script contains statements to re-create the database objects you contain chosen. remark design 4.31 for a reference of the types of statements that you would breathe able to generate the usage of the IBM records Studio.

    Figure 4.31

    determine four.31 Generate DDL feature in the IBM records Studio

    For complete alternatives for the DB2 command db2look, check with the DB2 information middle.

    The delivery Tuning role configures the database to enable question tuning. You might procure hold of a warning indicating that you simply deserve to prompt the InfoSphere Optim question Workload Tuner (OQWT) license for superior tuning skill. notice that IBM DB2 superior trade Server version comes with OQWT. result the directions to apply the product license or click positive to configure the database server for tuning with the facets complementary within the IBM statistics Studio.

    When the database is configured to invent exercise of the tuning advisors and tools, you're presented with the question Tuner Workflow Assistant, as proven in determine four.32.

    From the query Tuner Workflow Assistant, you can acquire a statement from a variety of sources and tune the commentary. in the capture view, it offers you a list of sources the residence that you would breathe able to entrap the statements. determine four.33 suggests an instance on taking pictures the SQL statements from the kit Cache. This instance captures over one hundred statements. correct-click the observation wherein you are interested and select exhibit SQL commentary or rush Single-query Advisors and gear on the chosen commentary.

    Run the question advisors and tools on the selected statement. which you can now enter the Invoke view. The device collects information and information and generates a data access device (see design four.34).

    When the query tuning activities are comprehensive, you are brought to the evaluate view. It gifts you the analysis results and an sheperd suggestion, such as the one proven in determine 4.35. The instrument documentation recommends gathering and re-collecting outright of captious facts of the question.

    that you may additionally evaluate the entry device graph generated by means of the DB2 clarify characteristic (see determine 4.36 for an instance). abide in wit to reclaim the analysis for future references and evaluate them if obligatory.

    The control Privileges characteristic lets you provide database privileges to the users. check with Chapter 8, “implementing protection,” for details about privileges and database entry controls.

    typical Database construction equipment

    IBM information Studio consolidates the database administration and database construction capabilities. From the task Launcher – strengthen, you locate a list of key progress tasks comparable to creating and running SQL statements, debugging saved approaches, and person-defined services (UDFs). each task brings you to a instrument that helps you accomplish it.

    SQL and XQuery Editor

    The SQL and XQuery editor helps you create and rush SQL scripts that embrace a couple of SQL and XQuery statements. To launch the editor, open the records undertaking Explorer; under SQL Scripts opt for novel > SQL or XQuery Script. As shown in determine 4.37, a pattern SQL script is entered. that you could configure the rush alternatives for the script.

    The editor codecs the SQL statements properly and gives syntax highlights for more convenient studying as you enter the SQL statements. The performance content aid is additionally very effective. It lists outright the existing schemas in the database so that you should simply opt for one from the drop-down menu. The editor also parses the remark and validates the observation syntax. you could validate the syntax in scripts with distinctive database parsers and rush scripts in opposition t assorted database connections.

    SQL query Builder

    The SQL query Builder enables you to create a lone SQL statement, but it surely doesn't support XQuery. as the denomination implies, the device helps you build an SQL remark. It helps you look to breathe on the underlying database schema or build an expression, as proven in design four.38.

    Database Routines Editor and Debugger

    stored procedures and consumer-described capabilities (UDFs) are database software objects that encapsulate utility logic at the database server as opposed to in utility-level code. exercise of utility objects inspirit reduce overhead of SQL statements and the effects which are handed through the network. saved processes and UDFs are also referred to as routines. IBM information Studio supports routines construction and debugging.

    From the information undertaking Explorer, create a novel facts progress undertaking. within the venture, that you could create a number of kinds of database utility objects comparable to kept tactics and UDFs (see determine four.39). To debug a movements, right-click on the activities and select Debug.


    what is happening With RFEs For IBM i? | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    October 29, 2018 Alex Woodie

    IBM valued clientele were inspired to vote on product enhancements for over a year as allotment of the Request for Enhancement (RFE) process, and a few novel facets contain in fact made it into IBM i technology refreshes (TRs). What novel or more suitable IBM i functionality will huge Blue drudgery on next?

    It’s tough to avow precisely which RFE objects will strike a chord with IBM product managers, considering that the requests may also breathe everywhere the board and contain an repercussion on various accessories, from the IBM i OS itself and the Db2 for i database to entry client solutions (ACS) and the ILE compilers. whereas about 500 IBM i customers contain voted on RFEs, it’s subsequently the IBM product managers who approach to a decision no matter if or no longer an RFE may breathe acted upon or declined.

    All advised, there contain been greater than 1,000 IBM i-particular RFEs submitted to IBM over the ultimate couple of years. About one hundred eighty contain already been delivered, about a hundred and eighty are presently beneath consideration, and about one hundred eighty had been declined, based on a short weigh number of IBM repute codes (IBM allows you to download outright of the RFEs in an surpass spreadsheet, which makes examining the reputation of RFEs a all lot simpler). IBM has pegged 37 RFEs for future releases, whereas the reputation for just about four hundred RFEs is doubtful.

    This week they notion it might breathe enjoyable to dive into the RFE webpage to buy a contemplate at what novel features IBM i shoppers contain asked for lately, how tons traction they’re getting throughout the balloting process, and the pass IBM is responding to them.

    The hottest RFE when it comes to the variety of votes received during the past three months is to allow clients to draw and drop IFS gadgets in in the ACS user interface, akin to how Navigator for IBM i allows for clients to draw IFS files in IBM i access for home windows. The RFE, which become submitted by using IBM i programs engineer John Techmeier in August with a “medium priority,” acquired forty eight votes. although, IBM declined it two weeks in the past, epigram “Drag-n-drop is already supported between IBM i IFS panels, but now not between IFS panels and the laptop.”

    The second-most commonplace RFE during the past three months is a feature request for manage Language made by pass of IT Jungle technical editor and Profound common sense consultant Ted Holt. with the aid of enabling expressions to breathe used in the PARM parameter of the convene and CALLPRC instructions, Holt says it will liquidate the deserve to declare single-use variables to serve as parameters. This “excessive priority” RFE has got 39 votes considering it become submitted in September, and is at the second open.

    number three on the checklist is a request to allow IBM i users to set up personal home page using the novel RPM open supply delivery formula. “I believe to breathe unprejudiced to purchasers, the option of installing php devoid of Zend Server may soundless breathe available,” writes the submitter, Seiden community consultant Josh hall, who is a member of the novel crop of “sparkling Faces.” “Python, Node.JS, Ruby, and different open supply languages are available for installation, and i consider Hypertext Preprocessor may soundless breathe handled the accurate identical way.” The “excessive priority” RFE has got 35 votes considering it become submitted under two weeks in the past, and is at present open.

    a further IFS-linked request from Techmeier occupies the quantity 4 slot. in its residence of automatically downloading IFS information to a default district in iACS, Techmeier would to peer a pop-up field provide clients the election to region the file in a selected vicinity. this could additionally liquidate the should stream files after downloading them, if they forgot to trade the default district before, he elements out. This “medium precedence” RFE has obtained 34 votes due to the fact that it changed into submitted in September, and is currently “beneath consideration” with IBM.

    a metamorphosis in RPG – to contain %SCANRPL substitute best *FIRST or *last prevalence – is recommended within the fifth RFE. The submitter, who is from Italy, writes: “%SCANRPL is a pleasant and advantageous characteristic however from time to time they requisite to circumscribe the alternative to the first or the final prevalence. after they exercise lengthy varying strings with placeholders some of them are repeated and they cannot exercise %SCANRPL.” The RFE has obtained 30 votes since being submitted in August and is at present open.

    The sixth RFE is a request to carry IntelliSense functionality to ACS’s rush SQL Scripts component. The submitter, Rudi Van Helvoirt of The Netherlands, writes: “consumers hold using WINSQL instead of IBM i ACS rush SQL scripts, as a result of what Microsoft WINSQL presents them outperforms IBM i ACS rush SQL Scripts performance.” The “excessive priority” request has acquired 29 votes seeing that it changed into submitted in August and is presently “under consideration” by means of IBM.

    The seventh most time-honored on the RFE list issues the ODBC driver for Mac computer systems in iAccess client solutions – or fairly the shortcoming of such a driver. a variety of shoppers contain asked the anonymous Italian submitter why they can’t download information from the IBM i server to their Mac laptops to drudgery with the records the usage of surpass (which, because the frequent recognition of MacBooks world wide, is an excellent question). The RFE, which dates from October 2016, has got simplest 26 votes, however is at the second “under consideration.”

    quantity eight is a request “to contain the /tmp directory cleared throughout an IPL, similar to the library QRPLOBJ is cleared.” while IBM i gives a command to pellucid the directory, it takes additional steps to automate that birthright through an IPL, writes Van Helvoirt, who submitted the request. IBM seems disinclined to add the requested function. “while the open source community can also expect /tmp to breathe cleared anytime an IPL is carried out on the IBM i, the common users will not.” despite the fact, IBM left open the desultory that some class of non-default mechanism may well breathe delivered to pellucid /tmp. The “urge” request has received 25 votes in about two months and is currently “below consideration.”

    The ninth most traditional RFE is a request to breathe able to store filters, or contain an inventory of “favorites,” when it comes to ACS printer output. Submitter Bruce “Hoss” Collins says day by day, his IT group of workers should manually installation filters to invent inevitable that spool data are moved, deleted, and downloaded correctly. “a lot of these filters are the equal day by day and it is awfully time drinking to trade the counsel,” he writes. Being able to shop these filters would breathe a spacious timesaver, and curiously so execute 23 others who've voted for this characteristic, which is at the second “beneath consideration” with IBM.

    The IFS is again within the spotlight with the tenth most accepted RFE, which offers with the requisite of visibility into info saved within the IFS. Submitter Van Helvoirt writes that a developer may soundless breathe in a position to remark the source file identify if a supply became compiled from a file within the IFS. “When the usage of sources from source info in libraries, this suggestions is available,” he writes. “With the hasten of sources to the IFS, maintaining tune of changes isn't any longer viable.” IBM consents with the request, which became made two months ago and has been voted on 22 times, and is planning to comprise a repair in a future unlock.

    related experiences

    suitable Ten novel IBM i RFEs

    Vote On novel IBM i functionality With RFE neighborhood application

    IBM i necessities: It’s About (To) alternate


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    000-516 exam Dumps Source : DB/2 Administration for OS/390

    Test Code : 000-516
    Test denomination : DB/2 Administration for OS/390
    Vendor denomination : IBM
    : 118 real Questions

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    DB/2 Administration for OS/390

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    DB2 Security with outright the Trimmings | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    DB2 Security with outright the Trimmings

    At a major novel England-area insurance provider, a database engineer who asked not to breathe identified in this article, describes the management of security for her mainframe databases as "a nearly-impossible, labor-intensive task - if outright they had to exercise were IBM's own security administration utilities."

    She reports that her company has over 600 IBM DB2 databases running in 13 LPARs across eight mainframes distributed across two, geographically divide data centers.

    "About 8,000 discontinuance users at the company contain controlled access to the literally hundreds of volumes of DB2 data on systems which they are migrating to DB2 version 5.1. They are also in the process of migrating from [IBM] MVS to the OS/390 operating system to achieve Year 2000 compliance," says the engineer.

    "While IBM did a noteworthy job with DB2, its security administration tools are inadequate to support up with the changes that occur in their environment on an almost daily basis: changes in user access, the maintenance of demur security and the securing of access to novel transactions. Their database administrators (DBAs) would breathe spending outright of their time just doing security drudgery if outright they had were DB2's own security utilities. It is just not an option not to contain a second [security] administration package for DB2."

    To enhance the security administration capabilities delivered with IBM DB2, the engineer reports that her company uses RC/Secure from Platinum Technology Inc. (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). With RC/Secure, she says, "We can let their security administration personnel execute the busywork of [granting and revoking access to DB2 database objects], while letting the DBAs focus on the intelligence drudgery of database design. Platinum's product provides for cleaner security operations and productivity improvements over autochthonous DB2 security applications."

    In DB2's defense, the engineer concedes that her company has not looked closely at any changes in DB2 security delivered with the novel version of the IBM database. Platinum's RC/Secure has become a fixture at the company over a epoch of years and she has minute incentive to change something that works.

    DB2 Security: An chance to Enhance

    IBM, which has delivered DB2 since its branding in 1994 to more than 11,000 organizations and more than 40 million discontinuance users worldwide, has been actively evolving the product from an MVS-only mainframe database to a universal data base, according to Hershel Harris, Director of Database Technology with IBM's Software Solutions Division.

    Harris briefly recounts some watershed accomplishments in the progress of DB2. "In 1994, they released an AIX and OS/2 version of the product. In 1995, they provided a parallel edition for data warehousing and a UNIX edition for Sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard. In 1997, they released the Universal Database (UDB) edition, adding demur extensions, support for OLAP and OLTP applications and additional support for parallel databases that enabled data to breathe split across multiple nodes in a clustered environment. This year, they announced OS/390 DB2 UDB. Version 6, which should breathe available in 1999, extends the capability of UDB to understand objects. The family of products now runs across multiple operating environments, including NT, UNIX, OS/390, AIX and other flavors of UNIX. They are no longer a only mainframe product, but they are arrogant of their mainframe heritage."

    Built around the relational database model, says Hershel, DB2 delivers "built-in security based on privileges." He explains that, for every user with a convincing ID or group membership, DB2 DBAs can exercise the product's autochthonous security features to control what the user can execute with the database objects.

    "This goes beyond access. For every demur and every user, specific privileges can breathe set up, including read, write, delete, update and run. The objects can breathe tables, views or procedures, and the privileges can breathe defined at a very granular level."

    Hershel says that generic SQL data control language statements such as grant and REVOKE may breathe used readily to control demur access. He adds that IBM will invent available in Version 6 of the OS/390 DB2 UDB product a suite of Administrative Tools similar to those that already ship with distributed platform versions of the product, "We contain in Version 5.2 [of their distributed systems product], an easy-to-use, NT-based Administration instrument that allows both graphical and Web-based administration of outright distributed DB2 servers. This instrument set is being added to [our OS/390 DB2 product] with its release in 1999."

    Hershel is vigilant of the availability and exercise of third party products in conjunction with the IBM database, which he describes as "complimentary to the product."

    "IBM encourages complimentary product progress by other companies. In the district of DB2 security administration, there are probably a number of companies that deliver products to enhance the capabilities delivered with DB2. These tools may provide a graphical user interface to security administration using IBM's application programming interface. Some products emphasize enhanced query capabilities or enhanced reporting. Some try to integrate system plane security with DB2. One company showed me a demonstration recently of an application that enabled speech recognition technology and its exercise with DB2 database security administration. In general, they are very supportive of these efforts."

    Opportunities to enhance DB2 in a complimentary manner contain been exploited by numerous companies, including Platinum Technology, according to Pete Peterson, Vice President for Database Administration Products at Platinum.

    Peterson says that RC/Secure answers a requisite within companies to simplify the model for managing authority, "With DB2 version 5, IBM allows RACF or external security products to breathe used in administering security within DB2. It is not a very straightforward procedure and it is difficult to create application and user domains using IBM utilities. Companies can gain a lot of [security administration efficiency] if they had a simple pass to pass a hierarchy of privileges from one user to another without having to redo everything."

    RC/Secure, according to Peterson, is designed as a "management layer on top of DB2 - but not a run-time layer." He explains that changes made to security privileges may breathe applied on an ad hoc basis or in batch mode and suggests that the latter mode continues to breathe preferred by security administrators. He adds that Platinum's RC/Query product also enhances DB2's query facilities and may breathe employed in connection with RC/Secure to verify updated objects within user and application domains.

    Peterson anticipates a continuing demand for DB2 enhancement products despite IBM's claim that Version 6 will liquidate the requisite for inevitable types of enhancement products. Says Peterson, while IBM is trying to hasten toward a goal of a Universal Database to enable administration across platforms, "there are differences in the mainframe DB2 product that were attach there to cater to the MVS folks and to capitalize on the characteristics of that platform that will continue to impede this goal."

    Computer Associates: Enhancement Equals Replacement

    Mark Combs agrees that IBM opened doors to third parties with version 5 of its DB2 implementation on MVS. Combs, who is Senior Vice President for Research and progress with Computer Associates (CA) in Islandia, NY, sees the chance created less in terms of enhancing DB2 than as an chance to supersede RACF with either ACF2 or Top clandestine - both CA mainframe security management products.

    "Companies requisite to hasten to real, rules-based security - that is, a situation in which trade rules determine access. Today, in many mainframe environments, about 75 percent of the rules are controlled by system management products such as CA-ACF2, CA-Top clandestine or RACF from IBM. Another 25 percent are actually established or enforced using much less robust SQL database security capabilities in products fancy DB2. What is needed is an integrated management infrastructure that enable centralized, rules-based security across the entire environment and that provide administrative tools on the mainframe, as well as graphical user interface-based tools on the desktop," says Combs.


    How to procure DB2 admin certified | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    I'm interested in doing certification in DB2 administration for OS/390. I would fancy to master the subject, not just procure the certification.

    Well, the best pass to master any matter is by doing it. So, with that in mind, you should secure a position where you contain access to DB2 and requisite to drudgery with it to discharge your job. But, I'm guessing that your objective is to procure a job and that you are looking to procure certified to obtain one. If that is the case, then there are some steps you can take. First of all, consider obtaining the following books for study and reference: DB2 Developer's Guide, 5th edition by Craig S. Mullins Db2 For The Z/os Version 8 Certification by Susan Lawson DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 v7.1 Application Certification sheperd by Susan Lawson You should also download, and review, outright of the DB2 for z/OS manuals from the IBM Web site. Additionally, regularly review the in-depth technical articles published by IBM at its developerWorks site. Other proper Web sites to bookmark and review embrace Search390.com, SearchDatabase.com, dbazine.com, DB2 for OS390, and DB2 Times. Regarding your final question, I would direct that the best pass to obtain my DBA reserve is via amazon.com.

    Editor's note: execute you disagree with this expert's response? If you contain more to share, post it in one of their .VO7aaqqaAFk.0@/search390>discussion forums.


    Basic SQL Coding for DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Take a contemplate at the four primary statements of DML: Select, Update, Insert, and Delete. You will learn the role each of these can play in your efforts to master DB2. You will also contemplate at various aspects of SQL, a necessary language to understand though the comprehension plane will vary depending on the user's activity.

    This chapter is from the reserve 

    In the previous chapter, they discussed the definitions of various database objects using the Data Definition Language (DDL). In this chapter, they start manipulating the database objects using the portion of SQL known as Data Manipulation Language (DML). They will breathe populating (inserting) data into the database and retrieving the data using many powerful methods. Depending on the sophistication of the database users, they can exercise SQL to query the database. The majority of the SQL statements within a DB2 application involve DML statements. Therefore, application developers must understand the various methods of inserting, updating, and retrieving data from the database. They will start with simple retrieval statements and gradually insert more involved methods of data manipulation. The DB2 Certification database will breathe used for most of the examples. There are four main DML SQL statements they consider: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

    SQL is based on mathematical principles, specifically on set theory and relational algebra. The data is stored in the database as unordered sets of data records. SQL is a set-oriented language, and many of its language elements are directly related to relational algebraic terms, such as permutation, projection, restriction, and join.

    A set of data is represented in a DB2 database as a table or a view and is stored in a DB2 table without admiration to order. To retrieve data in a particular order, an ORDER BY phrase must breathe added to a SELECT statement. Similarly, if the data is to breathe grouped, then a GROUP BY phrase must breathe added to the statement.

    Now, let's review the DB2CERT database design defined in the previous chapter and manipulate data using various SQL statements. There are three main tables: CANDIDATE, TEST, and TEST_CENTER. Each table represents a set of records that correspond to a test candidate (person), a test, and a test center (location).

    There is an associative table, known as the TEST_TAKEN table, that is used to reflect the relationships among the three main tables. The TEST_TAKEN table is used to schedule the test candidates and also to maintain their test scores.

    NOTE

    The longest SQL statement is 32,765 bytes.

    Remember that to execute any operation, the user must contain the necessary privileges.

    Retrieving the Entire Table

    The most basic of outright retrieval command involves the SELECT statement with no operators other than the denomination of the table. This SQL statement retrieves outright of the candidates who contain taken a DB2 Certification exam. The information requested is contained in the table TEST_TAKEN.

    SELECT * FROM db2cert.test_taken

    SQL is a data access language that consists of language statements and clauses. There are many optional clauses that can breathe used to modify the output. The output of a SELECT statement is known as a result set or result table. The results from the SELECT statement are shown next. In this example, using an asterisk or star character (*) for column selection, the columns will breathe returned to the user in the order in which they are defined in the table.

    CID TCID NUMBER DATE_TAKEN START_TIME FINISH_TIME SCORE PASS_FAIL SEAT_NO --- ---- ------ ---------- ---------- ----------- ----- --------- ------- 111 TX01 500 01/01/2000 11:30:00 12:30:00 65 Y 1 111 TX01 501 02/02/2000 10:30:00 11:45:00 73 Y 1 111 TX01 502 03/03/2000 12:30:00 13:30:00 67 Y 1 222 TR01 500 01/01/2000 14:00:00 15:30:00 55 N 2 222 TR01 502 01/02/2000 09:00:00 10:15:00 53 N 2 222 TR01 502 02/18/2000 10:00:00 11:30:00 75 Y 2 333 TX01 500 03/01/2000 11:30:00 13:00:00 82 Y 2 333 TX01 501 12/29/2000 14:00:00 - - - 1 333 TX01 502 03/02/2000 14:00:00 14:30:00 92 Y 1 9 record(s) selected.

    In SQL, the * is used to attest that outright columns of a table are being referenced. In this example, the SQL statement refers to outright of the columns defined for the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table. If the table is altered and a novel column is added to the table definition, the result set would contain the novel column.

    NOTE

    Adding a novel column to an existing table will result in default values being populated for the existing rows.

    Since the output of the SQL statement using * character varies according to the table definition, it is recommended that you specify outright of the column names you want to remark in the SELECT statement. They could contain obtained the identical result as the statement using SELECT * with the following SQL statement.

    SELECT cid, tcid, number,date_taken,start_time, finish_time,score,seat_no FROM db2cert.test_taken;

    NOTE

    The * character is used to mention to outright of the columns defined for a table. The order of the columns in the result table is the identical order as specified in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement.

    What is returned to the user is known as the result set. If the result set is large it is advisable to breathe positive to filter the data using a WHERE predicate.

    The FROM clause is required for the DML SQL statement, since it describes the location (table or view) of the data. Their sample references a lone table called DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN. The SELECT and FROM clauses are required in outright data retrieval statements. The list of columns following the SELECT keyword is referred to as the select list.

    Projecting Columns from a Table

    Projection is a relational operation that allows you to retrieve a subset of the defined columns from a table. The next sample restricts the output from the SELECT command so that only the candidate ID, test center, and test number attributes from the TEST_TAKEN table are shown.

    SELECT cid,tcid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken

    The output of this SELECT statement is shown below.

    CID TCID NUMBER --- ---- ------ 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 222 TR01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 333 TX01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 9 record(s) selected.

    The order of the columns in the result table will always match the order in the select list. The order of the columns as they were defined in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement is ignored when a select list is provided in the SQL statement. In this example, the order of the columns is similar to the order in the CREATE TABLE statement, since the CID column was defined prior to TCID and NUMBER columns.

    Changing the Order of the Columns

    Permutation is the relational operation that allows you to change the order of the columns in your result table. Permutation is used every time you select columns in an order different than the order defined in the CREATE TABLE statement. For example, to panoply the test center ID prior to the candidate IDs and the test number, you could execute the following:

    SELECT tcid,cid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken

    The result of this SELECT statement specifies a select list in a different order than was defined in the table definition.

    TCID CID NUMBER ---- --- ------ TX01 111 500 TX01 111 501 TX01 111 502 TR01 222 500 TR01 222 502 TR01 222 502 TX01 333 500 TX01 333 501 TX01 333 502 9 record(s) selected.

    NOTE

    We mention to the output of a SELECT statement as the result table because the output of outright SELECT statements can breathe considered a relational table.

    Restricting Rows from a Table

    Restriction is a relational operation that will filter the resulting rows of a table. Restriction can breathe accomplished through the exercise of predicates defined in a SQL WHERE clause. To restrict the result set, they requisite to add a WHERE clause to the SQL statement.

    NOTE

    A predicate is a condition placed on the data. The result of the condition is TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN.

    The WHERE clause specifies conditions or predicates that must breathe evaluated by DB2 before the result table is returned to the discontinuance user. There are many convincing types of predicates that can breathe used. In the following example, the equality (=) predicate is used to restrict the records to only those candidates who contain taken a DB2 Certification test at the test center TR01.

    SELECT tcid,cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid ='TR01'

    The WHERE clause also accepts other comparison operators, such as greater than (>), less than (<), greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (<=), and not equal to (<>).This statement is an sample of a basic predicate. A basic predicate compares two values. In addition, more involved predicates, such as LIKE, BETWEEN, and IN, are also convincing and will breathe discussed later.

    NOTE

    Trying to execute this sample SQL statement will result in a data character compatibility error, because the column TCID is defined with a user-defined data character (UDT).

    Predicate Evaluation for UDTs

    The column TCID was defined as a user-defined data type. To invent the comparison in the WHERE clause valid, a casting role needs to breathe used. This is not mandatory if the comparison is to a literal or host variable. This technique is however demonstrated below:

    SELECT tcid, cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid=CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id)

    Predicate evaluation requires that the data types breathe compatible (same data character or a compatible data type). They can accomplish the data character conversion (cast) using one of two methods:

  • Use the CAST expression.
  • Use a casting function.
  • Refer to Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming," for more information on casting for UDTs.

    NOTE

    Although not always mandatory, casting is recommended to ensure compatible data types are compared, including length and scale. This allows DB2 to resolve these as indexable rather than stage 2 predicates.

    Restricting Rows Using Multiple Conditions

    It is viable to combine multiple conditions (predicates) in a lone SQL statement. The predicates can breathe combined using Boolean operators, such as the AND or OR operators. These operators allow you to combine multiple conditions in a lone SQL statement. The order of the predicate evaluation will not affect the result set (known as set closure).

    The next sample retrieves the records for the test candidates who took a test at test center TR01 and achieved a score greater than 65. The rows that fullfil the predicates are known as the qualifying rows. The following sample is an SQL statement using multiple predicates:

    SELECT tcid,cid,score FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid= CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id) AND score > 65 Selecting Columns from Multiple Tables

    There are basically two operations that combine columns from multiple tables in a lone SQL statement. These operations are

    Cartesian Product

    A Cartesian product is a relational operation that will merge outright the values from one table with outright the values from another table. This operation is not used frequently because the result table can breathe very large. The number of rows in the result table is always equal to the product of the number of rows in the qualifying rows for each of the tables being accessed.

    NOTE

    The DB2 optimizer may select to utilize a Cartesian product of unrelated tables if this is deemed to breathe an efficient mode of accessing multiple tables. An sample would breathe two single-row tables that are joined with a large table. The cross-product of 1 ∴ 1 = 1; thus the large table access is deferred as late as possible, with a potential enlarge in the restrictive predicates that can breathe applied without incurring the overhead of a large Cartesian result. This mode of table access is typical in processing queries against a star schema data model.

    The following sample is a Cartesian product of outright test numbers and test names from the TEST table, with outright candidates from the TEST_TAKEN table. First, select from the TEST table.

    SELECT number, denomination FROM db2cert.test NUMBER NAME ------ -------------------------------------------------- 500 DB2 Fundamentals 501 DB2 Administration 502 DB2 Application Development 3 record(s) selected. Next select of outright candidates from the test_taken table. SELECT cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken CID TCID --- ---- 222 TR01 222 TR01 222 TR01 111 TX01 111 TX01 111 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 9 record(s) selected.

    Then combine the two tables to figure a Cartesian product result table.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 27 record(s) selected.

    There are two tables referenced in the FROM clause of this query. The tables are separated by commas. There is no relationship expression in the WHERE clause. This character of query results in a Cartesian product.

    The result table is a representation of outright viable combinations of the input tables. The TEST table has three rows, and the TEST_TAKEN table has nine rows. Therefore, the SELECT statement shown above returns 27 rows. Note the first column denomination in this query. It is necessary to fully qualify the column denomination by providing the schema denomination and table denomination with the column denomination because this column exists in both the TEST table and TEST_TAKEN table. In this case, they needed to specify that the NUMBER column is to breathe retrieved from the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table and not from the DB2CERT.TEST table.

    By adding a predicate to a Cartesian product SQL query, the result table can depict a more useful representation of the data. In the sample below, the query represents outright of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid='111' NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 9 record(s) selected.

    Adding a WHERE clause to your query does not always provide the desired result. In the sample shown above, you want to know outright of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111, and the query returns nine rows. But they know from previous queries that the candidate took only three tests. The query in the sample above has a WHERE clause to filter out the candidate whose ID is 111 from the TEST_TAKEN table, but there was no filter on the TEST_CENTER table. Therefore, the result of the query would always breathe a multiple of the number of testing centers. Usually, when multiple tables are referenced, you should embrace a cross-table relationship using a table merge or relate method, as shown in the following example. They will examine table relate methods further in the next section.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid= '111' AND db2cert.test_taken.number=db2cert.test.number NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 3 record(s) selected.

    To avoid data redundancy, it is recommended that the database tables breathe normalized. Following a normalization process, a number of related tables will exist. To fullfil some of the required queries, the tables must breathe reconstructed. The tables are reconstructed temporarily, using a table relate strategy to bear a single-result table.

    The result tables in the previous examples usually provided candidate ID numbers and not the complete denomination of the test candidates. The candidate IDs are stored in the TEST_TAKEN table, and the replete names are stored in the CANDIDATE table. To obtain the denomination of a candidate, the data must breathe retrieved from the CANDIDATE table, using a relationship or relate strategy.

    Consider an sample that will list the names and phone numbers of candidates who were registered to buy a DB2 Certification test in 2000. To accomplish this, they requisite to select data from two different tables:

  • db2cert.candidate
  • db2cert.test_taken
  • Let's retrieve a list of candidate names, phone numbers, and IDs from the CANDIDATE table. The candidate names were stored in multiple columns to allow for smooth retrieval by eventual name.

    SELECT fname,initial,lname,hphone,cid FROM db2cert.candidate

    The output of this sample follows. Pay special attention to the values in the CID column. It will breathe used as the relate column in the next example.

    FNAME INITIAL LNAME HPHONE CID -------- ------- ---------- ---------- --- Bill B Wong 1115551234 111 George Baklarz 2226543455 222 Susan M Visser 4442314244 333 Glen R Sheffield 5552143244 444 Jim G Stittle 6662341234 555 Kevin W Street 7773142134 666 Bert F Nicol 8886534534 777 Paul C Zikopoulos 9992112212 888 8 record(s) selected.

    Now, let's retrieve the ID numbers of those candidates who were registered to buy the test in 2000.

    SELECT divide cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 CID --- 222 111 333 3 record(s) selected.

    The candidate IDs in the TEST_TAKEN table must correspond to a candidate ID in the CANDIDATE table because of the declarative referential integrity constraints. The parent table in the relationship is the CANDIDATE table and the child table (dependent table) is the TEST_TAKEN table.

    The result table from the above query does not embrace the test candidate 444, since that candidate did not contain a test scheduled for 2000. They requisite to relate the two result tables based on the candidate ID values. This column is known as the relate column.

    NOTE

    Query performance can significantly ameliorate if the relate columns are appropriately indexed.

    The following lone query will fullfil the end-user requirement.

    SELECT divide fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.candidate WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND db2cert.test_taken.cid=db2cert.candidate.cid

    A table relate requires a predicate that includes an expression based on columns from the tables referenced in the FROM clause. This is known as a relate predicate. The FROM clause has not changed from the Cartesian product examples. The only disagreement is in the relate predicate (test_taken.cid = candidate.cid).

    NOTE

    An alternative figure of the FROM clause for joins involves explicitly coding the relate keyword between the tables (rather than using a comma) and coding the relate predicates in the ON clause rather than in the WHERE clause. This mode of coding will breathe covered in more detail in Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding."

    The table names needed to breathe explicitly stated because there is a column named CID in both of the referenced tables. When multiple tables are being accessed in a lone query, any selected columns that occur in more than one table must breathe qualified with the table name.

    NOTE

    An oversight will occur if the columns being referenced are equivocal (not properly qualified).

    The maximum number of groundwork tables that can breathe in a lone SQL statement is 225; however, you are limited to 15 tables in a relate (the FROM clause).

    NOTE

    The 15-table circumscribe can breathe increased by updating the macro SPRMMXT to a value greater than 15.

    This kind of relate operation shown in the above sample is also known as an inner join. An inner relate displays only the rows that are present in both of the joined tables.

    Using Correlation Names

    If each of the columns needed to breathe fully qualified with the table name, such as tableschema.tablename.columnname, the queries would become very large and cumbersome to drudgery with. Fortunately, there is an easier pass to qualify the equivocal columns resulting from a multitable SELECT statement.

    The columns can breathe qualified using a correlation name. A correlation denomination is a temporary alias for the tables referenced in an SQL statement. They rewrite the previous query using correlated names as follows:

    SELECT divide fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken tt, db2cert.candidate c WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND tt.cid = c.cid

    The correlation denomination immediately follows the denomination of the table as stated in the FROM clause. In this example, the correlated denomination for the TEST_TAKEN table is tt, and the correlated denomination for the CANDIDATE table is c.

    NOTE

    Correlation names can breathe optionally prefixed with the AS keyword, such as DB2CERT.CANDITATE AS C. This is purely for readability.

    The correlated names are accessible within the SQL statement only. Following the execution of the SQL statement, the correlation denomination is no longer defined. Once a correlation denomination has been defined, it can breathe referenced in the relaxation of the query instead of the table name. However, the table denomination can soundless breathe referenced.

    NOTE

    Use simple, easy-to-remember correlation names. Table initials are proper candidates for correlation names.

    Sorting Your Output

    We contain been retrieving data from one or more tables. The order of the result table has not been specified in any of the SQL statements. Therefore, the data is retrieved in an undetermined order if there is no ORDER BY clause in the SQL statement.

    NOTE

    The only guaranteed pass to revert data in the required sequence is with the ORDER BY clause. Any data retrieval that is currently returned in sequence without this clause is purely based upon the data retrieval mode at the time. A future access path change may not revert the data in the identical sequence.

    The following sample produces a list of the test candidates in alphabetical order by eventual denomination for the candidates who contain taken a DB2 Certification test at the TR01 test center.

    SELECT lname,initial,fname FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY lname

    This sample contains a novel clause, ORDER BY. After the ORDER BY clause, you can list the columns that will specify the sort order and the character of sort.

    NOTE

    Appropriate indexing may allow DB2 to avoid sorting the data to match the ORDER BY clause. If the data is already sequenced via the index, DB2 may select to utilize the index and avoid sorting the data. DB2 cannot avoid a sort for an ORDER BY involving columns from more than one table. Where possible, embrace columns from only one table in the ORDER BY to give DB2 greater chance for sort avoidance.

    The SQL can breathe modified so that the output is changed to descending order by eventual denomination and a secondary order column on the first denomination in ascending order.

    SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid= 'TR01' ORDER BY lname DESC, fname

    In this example, the DESC keyword that follows the lname column indicates that the result table should breathe in descending order based on the eventual name. More than one record can contain the identical eventual name. This situation is quite common. There is a second column specified in the ORDER BY clause, fname. There is no keyword specifying the sort sequence based on the fname column. Therefore, the default ordering sequence (ascending) is used.

    The next sample contains three columns lname, fname, and hphone. You can reference the column that should breathe used to sort the data using the column denomination or by specifying its position in the select list. Using the column position is useful when the column in the select list is made up of derived columns (calculated columns) that contain no specific name.

    SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2

    In this example, the sort order is specified using the column position. Therefore, the query result is exactly the identical as the in previous example.

    You can also assign an alternative column denomination using column renaming. The assigned denomination can then breathe referenced in the ORDER BY clause, and it appears as the column heading where appropriate.

    NOTE

    Although useful, coding a column position rather than a column (or renamed column) in the ORDER BY clause may lead to a different sequence if another column is inadvertently added to the query that alters the column positioning.

    The ORDER BY clause must succeed outright subselects in the FULLSELECT statement. The only clauses that can succeed the ORDER BY clause are the for FOR FETCH ONLY, FOR READ ONLY, OPTIMIZE, WITH QUERYNO, FETCH FIRST n ROWS clauses.

    Derived Columns

    There are some cases when you will requisite to discharge calculations on the data. The SQL language has some basic mathematical and string functions built in. Mathematical operations embrace measure addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

    The calculation can breathe defined in the WHERE clause of the SQL statement or the select list. Suppose that you requisite to design a passing rate for a DB2 test. The passing rate is defined as the percentage of candidates that pass the test (totalpassed*100/totaltaken). The following SQL statement will accomplish this for us for test number 500:

    SELECT number, totalpassed*100/totaltaken FROM test WHERE number='500'

    In this example, the second column of the output list is a calculated column. recollect that you must exercise the column position if you want to exercise this calculated column for the ORDER BY clause unless you denomination it (as they now discuss).

    NOTE

    Occasionally, the results of a derived column may not panoply as expected. The sample using totalpassed*100/totaltaken will result in a value of 66 being retrieved. Since both the totalpassed and totaltaken columns are integers, the final result is also an integer, and the fractional allotment is discarded. If this is not your desired result, you should exercise other functions (like decimal) to change the pass the calculation is performed or displayed.

    Naming Derived/Calculated Columns

    You can specify a column denomination for any expression. When you provide the derived (calculated) column with a name, the ORDER BY clause can reference the derived denomination to allow for a more readable SQL statement.

    The following SQL calculates the percentage of people that contain passed the DB2 Certification exams and orders the output in descending order of the passing rate.

    SELECT number,totalpassed*100/totaltaken AS PassedRate FROM test ORDER BY PassedRate DESC

    The AS clause is used to rename the default denomination of an element in the select list. In this example, they are giving the denomination of PassedRate to the result of the division of columns totalpassed by totaltaken. The named column is used in the query to specify the column that should breathe used for sorting the output.

    NOTE

    The AS keyword is optional, although it should breathe added for readability. Without the AS clause, it may breathe unclear whether the goal was to rename a column or a comma was missed between two retrieved columns.

    Functions

    In DB2, there are different types of functions provided. For example, two types of functions provided by DB2 are scalar and column functions (a third character of role called a table role is discussed in Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming."

  • Scalar functions (also known as row functions) provide a result for each row of the result table. A scalar role can breathe used any residence an expression is allowed.

  • Column functions (also known as vector functions) drudgery with a group of rows to provide a result. The group is specified using a FULLSELECT and optionally grouped using the GROUP BY clause.

  • In this section, they insert you to some of the SQL functions provided with DB2. SQL functions are categorized by their implementation type. Either the functions are built in or they are extensions of DB2 and are known as user-defined functions (UDFs).

  • Built-in functions are defined within the SQL standards, and they are provided by DB2. These can breathe either scalar or column functions.

  • UDFs are not defined within the SQL standards because they are extensions of the current SQL language. These functions can breathe developed by a DB2 administrator or application developer. UDFs can breathe either scalar or table functions, but not column functions. Once the UDFs contain been created, they can breathe invoked by any discontinuance user with the proper privileges. For more information about UDFs, mention to Chapter 15.

  • Scalar Functions

    Scalar functions are applied to each row of data, and there is a per-row result provided. If they want to retrieve only the first three digits of telephone numbers for each candidate, they could exercise a scalar function. The role that is used is called SUBSTR. The arguments for this role embrace a string data character column, a dawn offset, and length. The output data character and assign of the role depend on the input data character and attribute. The following sample retrieves the telephone district code for the column wphone.

    SELECT lname, SUBSTR(CHAR(wphone),1,3) FROM db2cert.candidate

    The SUBSTR role is a scalar function. In this example, SUBSTR returns a character string of three characters. The result string corresponds to the first three characters of the wphone column. This role is known as a string role because it works with any string data type. If they wanted to provide the output column with a meaningful name, they could provide an alias, as was done for calculated columns.

    In the sample above, the substring starts from the dawn of the string, because they attest one (1) as the second parameter of the function. The length of the resulting string is indicated in the third argument. In their example, the length is three. Note that the data character of the wphone column is phone, so a casting role is used to convert the phone data character to the char data type.

    The following query will provide the month when the exam was taken. The input for this role is a DATE string, and the output is an integer.

    SELECT fname, MONTH (date_taken) FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid Column Functions

    Column functions provide a lone result for a group of qualifying rows for a specified table or view. Many common queries can breathe satisfied using column functions where they embrace common tasks, such as finding the smallest value, the largest value, or the middling value for a group of data records. In the following sample you can obtain the maximum length of time of any of the DB2 Certification exams:

    SELECT MAX("length") FROM test

    Because the length column shares its denomination with the length scalar function, the column denomination is encased within double-quotes to distinguish this as a column and not a function.

    If they added a WHERE clause to this example, the maximum would depict the maximum length for the qualifying rows, since the predicate is used to filter the data prior to the application of the MAX function.

    This next sample calculates the middling of the number of seats for outright of the test centers. Notice the column role AVG is used in this example:

    SELECT AVG(noseats) FROM test_center

    DB2 provides many more built-in functions. If you are interested in calculating statistical information, you can exercise statistical functions, such as VARIANCE, STDDEV, or a sampling of these functions.

    NOTE

    MAX and MIN functions can breathe either column or scalar functions depending on the input arguments.

    Grouping Values

    Many queries require some plane of aggregated data. This is accomplished in SQL through the exercise of the GROUP BY clause. The following SQL obtains the middling number of seats for each country:

    SELECT country, AVG(noseats) FROM test_center GROUP BY country

    This SQL statement obtains the middling number of seats per country, and the GROUP BY clause tells DB2 to group together the rows that contain the identical values in the columns indicated in the GROUP BY list. In their example, they are grouping countries into subsets. As the subsets are created, DB2 calculates the middling of each of those groups or subsets, in this case, by each country.

    When you combine column functions and other elements, such as column names, scalar functions, or calculated columns, you must exercise the GROUP BY clause. In this case, you must embrace every element that is not a column role in the GROUP BY list. The only elements that can breathe omitted in the GROUP BY list are constant values.

    The next SQL statement obtains a list that includes the middling carve score and minimum test length for the DB2 Certification exams. They group this list by the character of exam, as follows:

    SELECT type, AVG(cut_score), MIN("length") FROM test GROUP BY type

    NOTE

    Appropriate indexing can allow DB2 to avoid a sort to group the data rows to match the GROUP BY clause.

    It is viable to sort the output of the previous sample using an ORDER BY clause.

    NOTE

    GROUP BY may revert data in the identical order as an ORDER BY, but this is not guaranteed and is based upon the access path. The only mode to guarantee data sequence is with an ORDER BY.

    Restricting the exercise of Sets of Data

    Up to now, they contain discussed how to restrict output based on row conditions. With SQL, it is also viable to restrict that output using column functions and the GROUP BY clause. Suppose you want a list of outright the test centers that contain administered more than five DB2 Certification exams. To invent it easier to understand, let's first procure the number of tests that contain been taken in each test center.

    SELECT tcid, count(*) FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid

    We exercise the weigh column role to procure the total number of tests that contain been taken in each test center. When you exercise an asterisk (*) with the weigh function, you are indicating that you want the number of rows in a table that meet the criteria established in the SQL statement. In this example, they are grouping by TCID because they contain a number of occurrences for outright the test centers in the TEST_TAKEN table. The TEST_TAKEN table has an entry for every DB2 Certification exam that has been taken. Finally, the output is restricted to only those test centers that contain administered more than four exams.

    SELECT tcid FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid HAVING COUNT(*) > 4

    This sample introduces the HAVING clause. The HAVING clause is equivalent to the WHERE clause for groups and column functions. The HAVING clause will restrict the result set to only the groups that meet the condition specified in it. In their example, only the test centers that contain administered more than four DB2 Certification exams will breathe displayed.

    Eliminating Duplicates

    When you execute a query, you might procure duplicate rows in the acknowledge set. The SQL language provides a special clause to remove the duplicate rows from your output. The following SQL generates a list of names and phone numbers for outright the candidates who contain taken a test. In the following example, they liquidate the duplicate rows from their output list using the divide clause.

    SELECT divide fname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c,test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid

    The divide clause can also breathe used with the weigh function. When you exercise divide inside a weigh function, it will not weigh the duplicate entries for a particular column. The following sample allows you to weigh how many different test centers contain candidates registered.

    SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT tcid) FROM test_taken

    This sample provides the number of test centers that are registered in the TEST_TAKEN table. recollect that outright the candidates who contain registered for DB2 Certification exams are stored in this table. invent positive that you understand the disagreement between COUNT(*), COUNT(colname), and COUNT(DISTINCT colname). They are very similar in syntax but differ in function.

    NOTE

    COUNT(*) returns a weigh of outright rows that qualify against the WHERE clause. COUNT(colname) returns a weigh of outright rows that qualify against the WHERE clause, with null occurrences of colname removed. COUNT(DISTINCT colname) counts divide occurrences of colname, with nulls removed.

    Searching for String Patterns

    SQL has a powerful predicate that allows you to search for patterns in character string columns. This is the fancy predicate. Suppose you want to generate a list of the candidates whose first denomination starts with the letter G.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname fancy 'G%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    In this query, they exercise a wildcard character with the fancy predicate. In SQL, the percent character (%) is a substitute for zero or more characters. The search string G% can breathe substituted with names fancy George, Gary, Ginger, and so on (since the percent character can substitute zero or more characters, the search string can also breathe a lone letter G).

    The percent character can breathe used any residence in the search string. It also can breathe used as many times as you requisite it. The percent badge is not case-sensitive, so it can buy the residence of uppercase or lowercase letters. However, the constant characters included in your search string are case-sensitive.

    Another wildcard character used with the fancy predicate is the underline character (_). This character substitutes one and only one character. The underline character can buy the residence of any character. However, the underline character cannot breathe substituted for an barren character.

    NOTE

    If the pattern needs to search for occurrences of the wildcard characters % and _ as their actual values, then the eschew clause is used to specify a character that precedes the percent or underscore in the pattern.

    The previous SQL can breathe modified to embrace outright candidates' names and the telephone numbers for those candidates whose denomination has a lowercase letter "a" as its second letter.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname fancy '_a%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    This sample uses two wildcard characters that drudgery with the fancy predicate. The search string in this sample can embrace names, such as Paul, Gabriel, or Natalie. (The first character may breathe any character, the lowercase letter "a" is the second character in the string, and the string ends with any number of characters.)

    NOTE

    When the pattern in a fancy predicate is a fixed-length host variable, the reform length must breathe specified for the string to breathe returned. 'G%' assigned to an 8-byte variable (LIKE :variable) will search for outright occurrences of 'G% ' (G, followed by any character, followed by 6 blank characters). To find rows that initiate with a G, then 'G%%%%%%%' should breathe assigned to the fixed-length variable.

    Searching for Data in Ranges

    SQL also offers us a purview operator. This operator is used to restrict rows that are in a particular purview of values. consider the requirement to list those candidates whose scores in the DB2 Certification exam are between 60 and 75.

    SELECT divide fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75

    The BETWEEN predicate includes the values that you specify for searching your data. An valuable fact about the BETWEEN predicate is that it can drudgery with character ranges as well.

    In addition to the score requirement, this sample modifies the SQL to embrace only those candidates whose eventual denomination begins with a letter between B and G.

    SELECT divide fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75 AND lname BETWEEN 'B' AND 'GZ'

    In this example, the second BETWEEN predicate contains character values. They requisite to specify the GZ value to embrace outright the viable names that start with the letter G. This was done assuming that the letter Z is the eventual viable value in the alphabet.

    NOTE

    The arguments of the BETWEEN clause are not interchangeable; the first must specify the low value, and the second, the elevated value. BETWEEN 1 AND 2 will revert outright values within the purview (inclusive of 1 and 2). BETWEEN 2 AND 1 will revert zero rows.

    Searching for Null Values

    Null values depict an unknown value for a particular incident of an entity. They can exercise a null value in the cases where they don't know a particular value of a column. Let's direct that they want a list of outright those candidates whose score is not yet input. This condition is represented with a null value.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score IS NULL

    The IS predicate is used to search for the null value in this example. recollect that the null value means "unknown." Because it has no particular value, it can't breathe compared with other values. You can't exercise conditional operands, such as equal (=) or greater than (>), with null values.

    Searching for Negative Conditions

    The BETWEEN, IS, and fancy predicates always contemplate for the values that meet a particular condition. These predicates can also breathe used to contemplate for values that don't meet a particular criterion.

    The NOT predicate can breathe used to contemplate for the opposite condition, combined with the LIKE, BETWEEN, and IS predicate, to accomplish negative searches, as shown in the following example. This sample has a fancy predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want a list of those candidates whose eventual names execute not start with the letter S.

    SELECT divide fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE lname NOT fancy 'S%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    The next sample has a BETWEEN predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want the list of those candidates whose score, in any test, is not in the purview 60 to 75.

    SELECT divide fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND integer(score) NOT BETWEEN 60 and 75

    In this example, the NOT predicate will exclude outright the values that are in the purview 60 to 75.

    Negation can also breathe applied to the null value. This SQL produces a report that searches for those candidates that contain a seat number assigned. This is expressed with a NOT NULL value.

    SELECT divide fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND seat_no IS NOT NULL

    NOTE

    The NOT operator can also breathe used to negate the measure comparison operators, =, <, <=, >, and >=.

    When dealing with nulls, NOT or negation may not revert the opposite of the positive logic. For example, WHERE SEAT_NO = 1 will revert only the rows for seat number 1. Any value other than 1 is discarded, as these rows are FALSE, including nulls, since these are unknown. WHERE SEAT_NO <> 1 excludes rows where the seat number is 1, and also discards nulls because these are unknown.

    Searching for a Set of Values

    In SQL, it is viable to establish a restriction condition based on a set of values. Suppose that you requisite a list of the test centers that contain candidates registered for the DB2 Fundamentals test and for the DB2 Application progress test. This can breathe queried with the following statement:

    SELECT divide name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND (number = '500' or number ='502')

    To simplify structure multiple OR conditions when multiple values for the identical column are being compared, it is viable to rewrite the statement using the IN clause.

    SELECT divide name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND number IN ('500','502')

    The IN clause is used to denote a set of values. In this example, they exercise a constant set of values.

    You can also exercise the NOT predicate with the IN clause. In this case, the condition will breathe lawful when a value is not present in the set of values provided to the IN clause. You can exercise as many values as you wish in the IN clause, within the defined limits of the size of a SQL statement.

    Advanced Selection Functionality

    In Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding," they will contemplate at more of the functionality and power of the SELECT statement. They will cover topics such as

  • Subqueries
  • Inner and outer joins
  • Nested table expressions
  • CASE expressions
  • Row expressions
  • Unions


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    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
    By Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones
    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 129217613X
    ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Our ISBN10 : 129217613X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781292176130
    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Computer Security: Principles and PracticeComputer Security: Principles and Practice
    By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown
    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
    ISBN10 : 0134794109
    ISBN13 : 9780134794105
    Our ISBN10 : 1292220619
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    Subject : Computer Science & Technology
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    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126046542X
    ISBN13 : 9781260465426
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
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    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
    By Arthur O’Sullivan
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 0078021782
    ISBN13 : 9780078021787
    Our ISBN10 : 1260084493
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    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William G Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
    ISBN10 : 126021110X
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    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
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    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (May 2018)
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    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
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    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
    ISBN10 : 1260277143
    ISBN13 : 9781260277142
    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
    Our ISBN13 : 9781260092332
    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
    By William Nickels, James McHugh, Susan McHugh
    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
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    Our ISBN10 : 126009233X
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    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2017)
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    Subject : Business & Economics, Communication & Media
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