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000-266 exam Dumps Source : AS/400 RPG IV Programmer
Test Code : 000-266
Test denomination : AS/400 RPG IV Programmer
Vendor denomination : IBM
: 74 true Questions
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IBM AS/400 RPG IV Programmer
February 11, 2019 Timothy Prickett Morgan
If nothing else, the IBM i platform has exhibited magnificent toughness. One may even command legendary longevity, in case you want to acquire its history total of the manner back to the gadget/3 minicomputer from 1969. this is the true starting factor in the AS/four hundred family unit tree and this is when huge Blue, for terribly sound criminal and technical and advertising reasons, determined to fork its items to tackle the enjoyable wants of large organisations (with the equipment/360 mainframe and its comply with-ons) and minute and medium groups (starting with the gadget/3 and stirring on through the equipment/34, gadget/32, device/38, and system/36 in the 1970s and early Eighties and passing in the course of the AS/four hundred, AS/400e, iSeries, device i, and then IBM i on power techniques platforms.
It has been a long urge indeed, and a lot of shoppers who absorb invested within the platform started routine again then and there with the early models of RPG and moved their purposes forward and adjusted them as their groups evolved and the depth and breadth of corporate computing changed, relocating on up via RPG II, RPG III, RPG IV, ILE RPG, and now RPG free kind. Being on this platform for even three decades makes you a relative newcomer.
there is a longer urge forward, considering the fact that they accept as accurate with that the groups that are still operating IBM i techniques are the genuine diehards, the ones who absorb no purpose of leaving the platform and that, as a minimum in keeping with the survey information they absorb been privy too, are desiring to continue investing in, and even extend their investments in, the IBM i platform.
so far, they aren't in a recession and heaven inclined there will not breathe one, so the priorities that IBM i stores absorb are not the ones that that they had a decade in the past throughout the peak of the improbable Recession. again then, as changed into the case in essentially total IT agencies, IBM i retail outlets had been hunkering down and had been attempting to reduce prices in total techniques feasible, together with deferring gadget improvements and migrations in addition to chopping lower back on different tasks. only 29 % of the 750 IBM i retail outlets that participated in the 2019 IBM i market Survey, which HelpSystems did returned in October 2018, absorb been involved about cutting back IT spending. here is a remarkably low level, and that i believe is indicative of how distinctly powerful the financial system is – excepting one of the fits and starts they noticed on the finish of 2018 and here in early 2019 that construct us worried and could start putting coerce on issues. listed here are the top considerations as culled from the survey:
dealing with the boom in records and in deciding the analytics to champ on that records ranked a bit bit higher on the 2019 IBM i market Survey than did reducing costs, and that i consider over the long haul these concerns will become greater censorious than modernizing functions and coping with the IBM i potential shortages that are a perennial worry. both of those issues are being solved as fresh programmers and fresh tools to construct fresh interfaces to database applications are getting greater ordinary and as applied sciences such as free kindly RPG, which looks greater like Java, Python, and Hypertext Preprocessor, are being greater widely deployed and, importantly, may too breathe picked up more rapidly via programmers experienced with these different languages.
Given the nature of the customer base, it seems not going to me that safety and exorbitant availability will not continue to breathe simple issues, despite the fact that the IBM i platform is among the many most relaxed systems in the world (and never simply because it is imprecise, however since it is exceptionally intricate to hack) and it has a variety of elevated availability and calamity recovery tools (from IBM, Syncsort, Maxava, and HelpSystems) obtainable for those that want to double up their programs and tender protection to their purposes and information. The bar is often larger than primary backup and healing for many IBM i shops within the banking, insurance, manufacturing, and distribution industries that dominate the platform. These organizations can’t absorb safety breaches, and they can’t absorb downtime.
there's a excellent volume of poise in the IBM i customer ground that they think, at this factor, is reflective in the poise of the IBM i platform and magnificient Blue’s personal credence that it needs a lucky IBM i platform to absorb an overall lucky power methods business. total of us recognize that the vigour programs hardware company has simply grew to become in 5 quarters of profits boom – anything they discussed lately in constructing their personal income mannequin for the energy programs company – but what they didn't understand, and what construct positive you know, is that within the 2d and third quarters of 2018, the IBM i portion of the commerce grew significantly sooner than the overall vigour techniques company, and the only intent that this did not occur within the closing quarter of 2018 is that income of IBM i machinery in q4 2017 became rather robust and represented a really challenging compare. The element is, the IBM i enterprise has been raising the vigour techniques category average. (These recommendations in regards to the IBM i commerce arrive compliments of Steve Sibley, vice chairman and providing manager of Cognitive techniques at IBM.)
IBM’s personal economic stability of the energy platform – which has been bolstered by course of a circulation into Linux clusters for analytics and exorbitant performance computing simulation and modeling as well as by the adoption of the HANA in-memory database through SAP purchasers on massive iron machines including Power8 and now Power9 systems – helps IBM i valued clientele mediate greater assured in investing in the latest IBM i platform. The fresh proof from a number of diverse surveys, no longer just the one finished by means of HelpSystems every year, suggests that companies are through and massive either carrying on with to invest in the platform and even in some cases are planning to boost their spending on the IBM i platform in 2019.
As you could see, the pattern of funding plans for the IBM i platform, as proven within the chart above, has not modified very tons in any respect in the past four years. it is a remarkably solid pattern with but a microscopic wiggling right here and there that may additionally no longer even breathe statistically huge. just below a quarter of IBM i stores absorb said during the past four years that they course to enhance their investment within the platform in every yr, and simply under half command that they are keeping regular. This doesn't imply that the equal groups, yr after year, are investing more and different agencies are staying pat, yr after 12 months. it is course more seemingly that every handful of years – greater like four or five – valued clientele help their methods and extend their means, and they then sit tight. The inquire of yourself is that the atomize up isn’t displaying far fewer businesses investing and much extra sitting tight. That more than a tenth of the shops don’t understand what their course is as each and every prior yr comes to a nigh is a microscopic traumatic, however it is unaffected and shows that a edifying portion of shops produce other priorities apart from hardware and working rig enhancements. they absorb pointed out this earlier than and they will command it once more: They suppose that the people who reply to surveys and browse weekly publications concentrated on the IBM i platform are probably the most lively shops – those greater recumbent to wait enormously latest on hardware and utility. So the pace of adoption for brand spanking fresh technologies, and the cost of funding, should still breathe bigger than within the actual base, a whole lot of which doesn't alternate tons at all.
So if they had to regulate this statistics to tackle the whole base, there might possibly breathe some distance fewer websites that are investing extra funds, far more businesses that are sitting tight, and maybe fewer websites which are taking into account relocating off the IBM i platform. I mediate the distribution of facts is doubtless something like 10 p.c of shops don't absorb any conception what they're doing funding sage with IBM this 12 months, 5 % are considering relocating some or total of their purposes to yet another platform, probably 10 p.c are investing greater this yr, and the closing seventy five percent are sitting tight. here is just a wager, of path. so far as they can inform, the expense of attrition – what number of websites they in fact lose each and every yr – only a tad over 1 p.c. So the cost of circulate of applications off the platform, or incidences of unplugging IBM i databases and purposes, may too now not breathe anywhere nigh as elevated in the generic ground because the statistics above suggests. what is alarming, possibly, is that the cost of stirring some or total purposes off the platform is balanced against people that command they're going to enhance investments. possibly these are hopeful survey takers, and those that consider it is handy to movement determine it isn't and those that suppose they'll find the funds to invest will no longer.
What they result breathe vigilant of is that if the fee of application attrition turned into anyplace nigh as elevated as these surveys suggest, then the IBM i company would not breathe starting to be, however shrinking. And they understand it isn't shrinking, so they believe there's a disconnect between planning and truth, both on the upside and the draw back.
in case you drill down into the records for the 2019 IBM i industry Survey, there were 13 p.c of shops that talked about they might breathe relocating some applications to a brand fresh platform, and a different 9 p.c that pointed out they had been going to circulate total of their applications off IBM i. (This number is according to the recent ALL400s survey performed by John Rockwell.)
Anyway, first rate edifying fortune with that.
Porting purposes from one platform to an extra, of purchasing a fresh suite on that fresh platform, is an enormously difficult project. It isn't like trying to change a jade whereas using down the highway, as is a common metaphor, however reasonably like attempting to acquire the jade off one vehicle relocating down the dual carriageway and setting up it on one more motor vehicle riding beside it within the adjoining lane devoid of crashing either motor vehicle or smashing into any individual else on the highway. Optimism abounds, but when propel involves shove, only a few agencies try such a maneuver, and once they do, it is usually as a result of there is a company mandate, more instances than now not brought about through a merger or acquisition, that pits some other platform in opposition t IBM i running on energy programs. businesses that command they are making this sort of race off IBM i are sanguine for their own own explanations, in total probability, however they are not always simple about how lengthy it may take, what disruption it will cost, and what optimal advantage, if any, could breathe realized.
if you result the mathematics on the chart above, eight-tenths of the bottom has no concept how lengthy a race will take, one other 1.7 % thinks it will acquire more than 5 years, and 3 p.c command it is going to acquire between two years and five years. most efficient 3.4 % of the entire ground command they can result it in under two years. They consider total of those numbers are positive, and the corporations who might conveniently depart away OS/400 and IBM i already did a long time in the past and those which are continue to breathe absorb a more durable time, not an easier time, relocating. If this had been now not authentic, the IBM i ground could breathe a hell of an dreadful lot smaller than the one hundred twenty,000 consumers they suppose are available, in keeping with what large Blue has told us during the past. here is the change between concern or drive or culture and the fact of making an attempt to movement a company off one platform and onto one more. These strikes are always lots tougher than they seem on the front end, and they suspect most of the merits additionally don’t materialize for those who result bounce systems.
at the typical attrition expense suggested by course of this survey records – 9 p.c stream off the platform in somewhere between twelve months and more than 5 years, with most agencies now not being in a position to contemplate greater than five years into the long urge that is a well-kept trick – the installed ground would reduce back dramatically. it's challenging to pretension how some distance as a result of the wide purview of timeframes in the survey. If it changed into 9 percent of the bottom inside two years – call it 4.5 percent of the bottom per yr – then within a decade the typical ground would shrink from 120,000 IBM i websites international total the course down to about 72,000. this is able to melodramatic certainly. but at a 1 percent attrition expense per year, the bottom is still at 107,500 unique valued clientele (now not sites and never installed machines, both of which are larger) by means of 2029. They consider there is every probability that the attrition expense will really gradual and drop beneath 1 p.c as IBM demonstrates dedication to the energy techniques platform and its IBM i working equipment. There are total the time some fresh purchasers being introduced in fresh markets, to construct certain, but the bleed fee (in spite of the fact that it is small) continues to breathe probably an order of magnitude better than the feed expense.
when they result mediate about making the move, IBM i shops know exactly where they are looking to go, and this reply has been step by step altering over the years: Linux as an alternative to IBM i is on the upward thrust and home windows Server as an election is on the wane. within the newest survey, fifty two % of the organizations that stated they had been relocating total or a few of their purposes to an additional platform pointed out they were picking out windows Server, while 34 % chose Linux. This displays the relative recognition of home windows Server and Linux within the datacenters of the world at enormous, and might breathe tipped simply a bit greater closely towards Linux compared to the relaxation of the world. interestingly, 10 % of these polled who talked about they were relocating had been AIX platforms, and one more four p.c were going upscale to gadget z mainframes – as unlikely as this may look. systems are likely to roll downhill; they result not always defy gravity like that.
The thing about such surveys is that they exhibit intent, now not action. They frequently intend to result a lot more than they definitely can accomplish, and relocating platforms after spending many years of build up expertise is not always a very sensible race except the platform is in true pass – just like the Itanium programs from Hewlett Packard commercial enterprise running OpenVMS or HP-UX or the HP 3000s operating MPE or the Sparc systems from Oracle operating Solaris. These absorb been as soon as first-rate structures with magnificient set in bases and gigantic revenue streams, but now, IBM is the eventual of those Unix and proprietary structures with its energy methods line. And it is via some distance the biggest and for positive the only one showing any boom.
The IBM i ground Did certainly circulation On Up
The IBM i ground Is able to circulation On Up
funding And Integration indications For IBM i
protection nonetheless Dominates IBM i dialogue, HelpSystems’ 2018 Survey reveals
The IBM i ground no longer As Jumpy as it Has Been
The Feeds And Speeds Of The IBM i Base
IBM i Priorities For 2017: Pivot To defense
IBM i developments, issues, And Observations
IBM i Survey gets enhanced As Numbers grow
the site result those IBM i Machines Work?
finding IBM i: A game Of forty Questions
it is time to inform Us What you're up to
IBM i industry Survey: The value Of Being Earnest
What’s Up within the IBM i industry?
IBM i market Survey Fills within the Blanks
road to Java Goes through RPG IV
[Editor’s Note: This article is allotment one of a three-part progression on making the transition from RPG to Java in an AS/400 shop.]
You’re dedicated to the AS/400 and enhance applications in RPG. it really works high-quality for you, at total times has. however you’ve heard so plenty about Java being the course forward for AS/400 utility building, if no longer the savior of the platform. in fact, nothing runs it superior than the AS/four hundred. so that you are looking to contemplate what Java can result to your eco-friendly-monitor RPG applications.
You’re no longer on my own. At person conferences coast-to-coast, standing-room best crowds are packing conference rooms to find out simply what Java is total about. but the transition from typical RPG to Java doesn’t acquire site overnight. IBM has outlined five phases AS/400 retail outlets should still depart through alongside the highway to Java.
this text offers with allotment I – upgrading RPG III and CL to RPG IV and ILE CL.
Why help to RPG IV? first of all, IBM is not any longer investing in RPG III. For that breathe counted, it most efficient invests in RISC versions of RPG IV. Secondly, RPG IV, attainable in view that the V3R1 release of OS/four hundred four years ago, is a more modern application evolution environment.
“RPG IV is greater modular,” says George Farr, VisualAge RPG and ILE RPG IV technical construction supervisor. “You don’t absorb monolithic purposes with traces and lines of code.”
furthermore, RPG IV is ILE-enabled, that means it can breathe integrated with applications written in different ILE (integrated Language atmosphere) languages like C and COBOL . “which you can merge RPG with different languages, it combines the entire traces together,” says Farr. “You create something in RPG, C or COBOL and urge it total from a single technique.”
Farr says RPG IV has similarities to Java in language facets and syntax, although it doesn’t absorb any object-oriented facets like encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance. He explains that RPG IV has structured op codes that “compare directly” to loops and “if…choose” functions in Java. statistics forms used by course of each languages are identical.
“if you tide straight from RPG III to Java, the learning curve is a whole lot steeper,” he says. “If it’s 50 percent going from RPG IV to Java, it’s eighty % going from RPG III to Java.” And however you don’t intend to movement from RPG to Java, you’ll nevertheless deserve to circulation to RPG IV to integrate Java into your gadget ambiance.
“if you’re going to absorb any interoperability between Java and RPG, absorb Java call RPG or RPG call Java, handiest RPG IV can give that enablement,” Farr says.
“As they race ahead, I definitely don’t feel Java will ever supersede RPG. RPG is right here to dwell. even though they wanted to execute it, what on earth would they result with the hundreds of thousands of traces of RPG code which are accessible? in case you believe your latest applications don’t exigency Java, you can depart them the manner they're. however you can enable Java to check with RPG and RPG to check with Java with RPG IV.”
The RPG tide is slowly turning toward RPG IV. Farr estimates that the percentage of RPG clients on RPG IV was within the single digits in the first two years after RPG IV turned into launched. He says it’s probably in the 40-50 p.c purview now.
“when you tide to RPG IV, breathe positive you set money into cleansing up your RPG code,” he says. “With RPG IV’s op codes, which you could result things in a single line of code – like add a date/time stamp – that you would ought to write lines of code for in RPG III. You circulation to RPG IV, you rotate them into procedures.”
So transitioning to RPG IV gained’t rotate RPG builders into Java developers. but it surely’s an principal first step. Farr cautions that the item-oriented nature of Java may too breathe intricate to draw nigh for the RPG programmer.
“Java is an object-oriented language similar to C++. It’s now not being pushed by course of corporations however by course of the user group. Java is a really relative language. It cleans up a lot of the mess of C++, with divide inheritance, with pointers, with rubbish collection. Java’s made it plenty quicker to result object-oriented programming than C++. but any OO language goes to breathe challenging to an RPG user.
“It’ll breathe more straightforward to breathe taught Java than C++. The language features will breathe handy to gain knowledge of, however the OO elements can breathe extremely difficult. it may possibly acquire americans a pair of months just to gain knowledge of what OO is total about.”
Farr says now not every RPG programmer will should learn Java. He suggests that most shops can breathe combined RPG and Java. fresh hires is generally the Java consultants.
“I contemplate Java as unavoidable notably with the web. Most corporations will exigency to tune in to it at some point.” if you transfigure your RPG III purposes to RPG IV, don’t depart your CL functions in the back of. They exigency to breathe transformed to ILE CL.
“if in case you absorb applications written in RPG III and too you transfigure them to RPG IV, it’s not first rate ample in case your CL remains in an OPM (original application module) atmosphere,” says Jing Wang, senior utility engineer at IBM’s Rochester, Minn. AS/400 construction center. “RPG IV runs right into a divide ILE motion community. Sharing open data and entrust control does not toil that well with CL. You should migrate CL to ILE CL and construct the entire application ILE.
“We’ve establish lots of functions result partake open info. devoid of stirring to ILE CL, that you could nonetheless construct info shareable, however it’s not that smooth.”
Like RPG IV, ILE CL is a should for interfacing with Java applications. other than being one more step along the road to Java, ILE CL presents efficiency advantages as well.
“When an RPG application executes an exterior name, performance smart, it’s now not nearly as edifying with CL,” Wang says. “when you tide CL to ILE and combine that CL module with the [ILE] RPG module to kindly a single software object, performance sensible, it’ll breathe improved than anything else you had before.”
[Editor’s Note: allotment two of the Road to Java series, due to urge in the Jan. 11, 1999 MIDRANGE Systems, will focus on making the transition to modular ILE application development.]
lots of you've got heard about one of the most oldest programming languages, COBOL, and you absorb too heard that COBOL programmers are a edifying deal asked for this present day to hold ancient legacy code. There’s one more old-timer which few learn about and which continues to breathe in spend and may breathe in spend for rather a while for functions in quite a lot of certain fields (i.e. finance, banking, etc.). Its denomination is IBM RPG.
once upon a time…
RPG is a high-degree programming language for commerce purposes. it's an IBM proprietary programming language and its later types are available best on IBM i- or OS/four hundred-based methods.
RPG has been round for more than half a century. via the conclusion of the 1950s, IBM had developed an immense variety of electromechanical devices called tabulating machines. The remaining industrially produced tabulator mannequin became the IBM 407 Accounting computing device:
determine 1. IBM 407 at U.S. military’s Redstone Arsenal, 1961
by the way, this tabulator rented from $800 to $920 monthly ($8100 to $9300 monthly in 2016 dollars), depending on the mannequin. They were withdrawn from advertising and marketing on December 17, 1976.
As you understand, scientific and technological growth became striding ahead on the time, and the conclusion of the Fifties noticed the start of the first transistor computer systems. the first IBM computing device of this kind changed into IBM 1401 built in 1959:
determine 2. IBM 1401 at the Endicott background and Heritage middle
The laptop tradition Museum has one working unit. acquire a glance at how it total worked — that’s truly unique (I particularly just like the phrase “We want a bit bit of cooling” at four:41):
To facilitate ease of transition for his or her consumers to the fresh transistor computer systems, IBM developed two tools in 1959 to duplicate punched-card processing on computer systems: FARGO (Fourteen-o-one computerized record generation Operation) and RPG (document software Generator). each languages’ syntax resembled that of the guideline language of electromechanical tabulators. FARGO and RPG additionally replicated a vital feature of tabulators: cyclic processing mode (regularly occurring because the software cycle), in which tabulators examine punched playing cards, summarized their contents, and printed a effect. IBM nevertheless continues backward compatibility with the application cycle even within the latest dialect, RPG IV.
although RPG become developed below a lot absorb an repercussion on of FARGO, it took RPG just a few years to supersede its predecessor as a extra advanced language. The subsequent device to obtain RPG usher was mainframe IBM gadget/360 model 20:
figure 3. IBM device/360 model 20 at the Deutsches Museum
a pair of years later (at the conclusion of the 1960s), IBM released the next dialect, RPG II, for midrange desktop equipment/3:
figure 4. Midrange computer IBM equipment/three mannequin 10 and the operator at work
RPG has since evolved into an HLL similar to COBOL and PL/I. Its distinctive feature (in contrast to contemporary languages) was the so called fastened-structure syntax, so programs had been complicated to examine devoid of a special debugging template.
An RPG application as soon as usually began off with File requisites, listing total information being written to, examine from, or up to date, followed with the aid of facts Definition Specificationscontaining software features such as information structures and dimensional arrays, a whole lot like a “Working-Storage” element of a COBOL application or “var” statements in Pascal. A variable is described with a set-layout Definition Specification. in the Definition Specification, denoted with the aid of a epistle D in column 6 of a source line, the information class personality (see the table under) can breathe encoded in column 40. also, if the facts category character is overlooked, that is, left blank, the default will breathe A if no decimal positions are unique. in any other case, the default could breathe P.
extra the Calculation standards were given, which might breathe the checklist of instructions for execution. Output requisites might additionally follow, they decided the design of other data or experiences.
here is the description of total the specifications forms:
The U or Auto file spec is simply required for Auto record courses.
The H or Header spec is at the suitable of the program and describes compiler options comparable to maximum bring together size, even if the application is an MRT (varied Requestor Terminal) application, and what kind of list is generated when the software is compiled. the thing identify of the program created is observed in columns seventy five–80; if a source does not absorb an H spec, the identify RPGOBJ is used.
The F or File spec(s) are subsequent, and describes the files used within the program. files may breathe disk data (DISK) or can breathe contraptions reminiscent of a printer (PRINTER), the laptop (WORKSTN), keyboard (KEYBORD), unformatted screen (CRT or monitor), or person-defined (particular). record dimension, conceal dimension, overflow indicators, and exterior indicators are described. it is viable that an RPG application will now not spend any F specs.
The E or Extension spec(s) are next, and picture arrays and tables, which may well breathe prefetched from disk files (an enter desk), drawn from constants positioned on the conclusion of the source between ** and /* symbols, or constructed from calculations.
The L or Line Counter spec(s) are next, and if present, picture the contour to breathe printed. It defines the variety of traces in a page and the positions the site printing begins and ends.
The I or input specs are subsequent, and picture the facts areas inside information. RPG II allows redefinition of statistics areas in order that a container named FLDA may occupy the identical region as an array AR that includes 8 aspects of 1 persona each. Non-record areas such as data buildings will too breathe described. reckoning on the values of the input record, warning signs could breathe conditioned.
The C or Calculation spec(s) are subsequent. total fields can breathe described and accumulated. complicated computations and string manipulations are feasible. indications may well breathe conditioned.
The final specification(s) are O or Output specifications, which picture the output list in terms of fields and output positions.
Now, here’s a minute sample that you can solemnize studying RPG courses (F and D necessities are neglected):
* Asterisk (*) in column 7 defines a remark line
* In column 6, you write a character denoting* the specification classification for use. The kind of specification* defines what the supply line does (i.e. definitions section,* calculations area, etc.).* "C" spec (calculation) describes calculations to breathe finished.C HOURS IFLE 40C HOURS MULT fee PAYC ELSEC cost MULT forty PAY 72C HOURS SUB forty OTIME 30C fee MULT 1.5 OTRATE 94C OTRATE MULT OTIME OTPAY 72C ADD OTPAY PAYC end
This code looks complicated, doesn’t it? And that’s simply an easy payroll tax calculation for an hourly worker (personnel rep time and a half for hour worked beyond the primary forty).
In 1978, IBM brought midrange desktop gadget/38 and a fresh RPG dialect, RPG III, for it:
figure 6. Midrange desktop IBM system/38
From that flash on, IBM turned into regularly abolishing the barriers of the language; programmers had been allowed to write specifications in free kind:
If Hours <= forty;
Pay = Hours * rate;
Pay = (40 * cost) + ((Hours — 40) * (rate * 1.5));
at last, the final version, RPG IV (aka RPGLE, ILE RPG), changed into released in 1994. Its three well-known elements are built-in capabilities, techniques, and free-form programming. until November 2013, the free structure applied completely to the calculation necessities. With the V7R1 TR7 upgrade to the language, the “/free” and “/conclusion-free” calculations are not any longer imperative, and the language has eventually broken the ties to punched playing cards.
I additionally hint looking at this doc the site IBM demonstrates the drastic changes made to the language. RPG continues to breathe a accepted programming language on the IBM i operating equipment, which runs on IBM power i platform hardware:
figure 7. IBM vigour i server collection
All in all, the RPG programming language has been used on 1401, /360, /three, /32, /34, /36, /38 AS/four hundred and gadget i systems. There absorb too been implementations for the Digital VAX, Sperry Univac BC/7, Univac rig 80, Siemens BS2000, Burroughs B700, B1700, Hewlett Packard HP3000, ICL 2900 sequence, Honeywell 6220 and 2020, four-section IV/70 and IV/ninety series, Singer device 10 and WANG VS, as well as miscellaneous compilers and runtime environments for Unix-based mostly techniques, comparable to Infinite36 (formerly Unibol 36), and PCs (baby/400, Lattice-RPG).
these days, RPG IV is a better language. modifying can still breathe carried out via SEU, the simple eco-friendly-monitor editor:
figure eight. eco-friendly-screen editor
although, an extended progression of rig has been developed over time. Some of those absorb blanketed visible Age for RPG, which turned into developed with the aid of IBM and promoted through Jon Paris and others. at present the favorite editing platform is IBM’s Websphere edifice Studio client, now named RDi (Rational Developer for i), which is a personalized implementation of Eclipse:
figure 9. Rational Developer for i
there's additionally an RPG compiler for Microsoft .net. This edition incorporates extensions to RPG IV past that of the bottom IBM compiler. These extensions give Microsoft home windows and .internet hooks within the aboriginal and rig 36 atmosphere, as well because the skill to port DB/2 info to Microsoft entry and Microsoft SQL Server databases by the spend of ODBC.
youngsters RPG is quite an exotic language, it is a indisputable fact that there exists a magnificient amount of code written in it in certain fields akin to finance, banking, and so forth. The language is fairly different: it contains four dialects and supports both mounted- and free-form programming. The deserve to retain passe legacy code and write fresh code drive organizations to are seeking for RPG builders, who emerge to breathe on the pink list for threatened species. Given the circumstances, additional code-quality handle rig reminiscent of static analyzers are tons called for.
You exigency to absorb already guessed what the explanation for writing this article is and what they are riding at. You’re appropriate: they are now due to the fact that the concept of creating a static code analyzer for the RPG language. I consider such an analyzer can breathe a fine assist to people that nonetheless preserve and develop RPG programs. however they haven’t arrive to a determination yet. obviously, it’s relatively a particular niche.
That’s why they want you to inform us if you covet PVS-Studio analyzer to become a appliance that might determine bugs in RPG classes. dear potential users of PVS-Studio RPG, they are seeking for you. Don’t hesitate to electronic mail us!
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AS/400 RPG IV Programmer
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Utility Advances RPG Conversion
As the AS/400 continues along the path of becoming an increasingly involved and interactive system, the evolution languages that pave the course are required to progress in order to accommodate this complexity. One concrete sample of this progression is the transformation of RPG III and RPG/400 to ILE RPG, too known as RPG IV.
Recognizing the hardship inherent in performing a language transformation, while too providing incentive for such a move, Linoma Software now offers its CVTILERPG conversion utility. CVTILERPG is designed to build upon the existing Integrated Language Environment (ILE) RPG compiler and provide a number of features not available with IBM's basic RPG conversion tool.
"Some people are just waiting for the right appliance to inspirit them transfigure to RPG IV," says Jeff Petermann, director of sales for Linoma Software, an Omaha, Neb.-based division of Connections 2000 Inc. "CVTILERPG is a conversion utility that goes beyond the AS/400's conversion command, which doesn't truly transfigure code to RPG IV format but instead allows code to office in an RPG IV world. Programmers then absorb to depart back in and update the code manually at a later time."
While a race to RPG IV can provide a number of benefits, it is a daunting transition for companies with large quantities of RPG III legacy code that must breathe converted, says Bob Luebbe, president of Linoma Software and author of CVTILERPG. Luebbe too points out, however, that users want to wait current with fresh versions of their programming language. "In continuing to wait with RPG, they're going to continue to topple behind, as IBM continues to enhance RPG IV."
RPG IV too eliminates many of RPG III's limitations, according to Luebbe. "You used to only breathe able to absorb 50 files in an RPG III program," he says. "With RPG IV, the programmer can allow for an unlimited number of files--which can comprise customer files, order entry files, plus an unlimited number of other files where data is stored. In RPG III, there are too limitations on the lengths of province names. Used to breathe only six character province names in RPG III. RPG IV continues to allow larger province names total the time."
Migration to RPG IV too becomes a practical matter as the current millennium draws to a close. "RPG IV is a distinguished language to transfigure to for Y2K conversions, because the language allows for better date and time manipulation than RPG III," Luebbe says. "What may absorb taken 100 lines of code to result in RPG III, you can now result in maybe one line with RPG IV. We've sold their product to a lot of folks doing Y2K conversion because they want to acquire advantage of the date and time manipulation features."
Despite the prevalence of visual languages and Java's increasing popularity, Luebbe indicates there is still a stalwart exact for RPG. "Most people absorb pretty much made up their wit to migrate from RPG III to RPG IV, rather than skip from RPG to a newer language like Java," he says. "For one, the learning curve is much shorter."
One analyst who agrees with Luebbe's assessment of RPG's health is James Sinur, VP and research director for application evolution with Gartner Group (Stamford, Conn.). "RPG is a perfectly structured language that doesn't require a sophisticated parser," he says, adding, "It's the consummate language for stirring from one version to another."
According to Sinur, programmers must consider several aspects when performing code conversion. The first is to "make positive you absorb a edifying test bed, because you exigency a benchmark," he says. "It's the only course to determine whether you've had a successful conversion." In addition, reference sites must breathe checked to construct positive the fresh code works. Developers should too "do a pilot with one of the dirtiest pieces of code you've got," he adds.
The latest version of CVTILERPG, 1.42, is designed to acquire advantage of total ILE RPG IV features when converting RPG III and RPG/400 source code, according to Luebbe. criterion features always performed by CVTILERPG comprise conversion of: IFxx, DOxx, WHxx, ANDxx and ORxx operations to spend the free contour expression area; SETON, SETOF and COMP operations to the EVAL operation; finish operations to their corresponding ENDxx operations (i.e. finish becomes ENDIF); and the constant of '1' to *ON and '0' to *OFF in indicator operations. The utility too generates a summary report of converted member(s), with any exception messages.
There are a number of optional features than can breathe turned on or off during the conversion process. "Our product lets you control how many of the fresh RPG IV features you want to acquire advantage of," Luebbe says. Programmers can later update code that has already been converted.
Though Gartner's Sinur says his client ground does not like dealing with invasive procedures like language-to-language conversions, he agrees that RPG is "much more simplistic than parsing C, C++, Java, Assembler and even Cobol." Sinur adds that Cobol to Cobol is the most common contour of code conversion, and that conversion of Cobol to Java has taken off as of late. "Even more common than language-to-language conversion is GUI-wrapping," he says, as his clients "like approaches that don't tweak the code much."
Many of you absorb heard about one of the oldest programming languages, COBOL, and you absorb too heard that COBOL programmers are much asked for nowadays to maintain passe legacy code. There’s another old-timer which few know about and which is still in spend and will breathe in spend for quite a while for applications in various specific fields (i.e. finance, banking, etc.). Its denomination is IBM RPG.
Once upon a time…
RPG is a high-level programming language for commerce applications. It is an IBM proprietary programming language and its later versions are available only on IBM i- or OS/400-based systems.
RPG has been around for more than half a century. By the finish of the 1950s, IBM had built a huge number of electromechanical devices called tabulating machines. The eventual mass-produced tabulator model was the IBM 407 Accounting Machine:
Figure 1. IBM 407 at U.S. Army’s Redstone Arsenal, 1961
By the way, this tabulator rented from $800 to $920 per month ($8100 to $9300 per month in 2016 dollars), depending on the model. They were withdrawn from marketing on December 17, 1976.
As you know, scientific and technological progress was striding forward at the time, and the finish of the 1950s saw the birth of the first transistor computers. The first IBM computer of this kind was IBM 1401 built in 1959:
Figure 2. IBM 1401 at the Endicott History and Heritage Center
The Computer History Museum has one working unit. acquire a eye at how it total worked — that’s really entertaining (I especially like the phrase “We exigency a microscopic bit of cooling” at 4:41):
To facilitate ease of transition for their customers to the fresh transistor computers, IBM developed two tools in 1959 to replicate punched-card processing on computers: FARGO (Fourteen-o-one Automatic Report Generation Operation) and RPG (Report Program Generator). Both languages’ syntax resembled that of the instruction language of electromechanical tabulators. FARGO and RPG too replicated an principal feature of tabulators: cyclic processing mode (known as the program cycle), in which tabulators read punched cards, summarized their contents, and printed a result. IBM still maintains backward compatibility with the program cycle even in the latest dialect, RPG IV.
Even though RPG was developed under much influence of FARGO, it took RPG just a few years to supersede its predecessor as a more superior language. The next system to receive RPG uphold was mainframe IBM System/360 Model 20:
Figure 3. IBM System/360 Model 20 at the Deutsches Museum
A pair of years later (at the finish of the 1960s), IBM released the next dialect, RPG II, for midrange computer System/3:
Figure 4. Midrange computer IBM System/3 Model 10 and the operator at work
RPG has since evolved into an HLL equivalent to COBOL and PL/I. Its distinctive feature (in contrast to modern languages) was the so called fixed-format syntax, so programs were difficult to read without a special debugging template.
An RPG program once typically started off with File Specifications, listing total files being written to, read from, or updated, followed by Data Definition Specificationscontaining program elements such as Data Structures and dimensional arrays, much like a “Working-Storage” section of a COBOL program or “var” statements in Pascal. A variable is defined with a fixed-format Definition Specification. In the Definition Specification, denoted by a epistle D in column 6 of a source line, the data kind character (see the table below) would breathe encoded in column 40. Also, if the data kind character is omitted, that is, left blank, the default will breathe A if no decimal positions are specified. Otherwise, the default will breathe P.
Further the Calculation Specifications were given, which are the list of commands for execution. Output Specifications could too follow, they determined the layout of other files or reports.
The following is the description of total the specifications types:
The U or Auto Report spec is only required for Auto Report programs.
The H or Header spec is at the top of the program and describes compiler options such as maximum compile size, whether the program is an MRT (Multiple Requestor Terminal) program, and what kind of listing is generated when the program is compiled. The demur denomination of the program created is located in columns 75–80; if a source does not absorb an H spec, the denomination RPGOBJ is used.
The F or File spec(s) are next, and describes the files used in the program. Files may breathe disk files (DISK) or may breathe devices such as a printer (PRINTER), the workstation (WORKSTN), keyboard (KEYBORD), unformatted display (CRT or DISPLAY), or user-defined (SPECIAL). Record size, conceal size, overflow indicators, and external indicators are described. It is feasible that an RPG program will not spend any F specs.
The E or Extension spec(s) are next, and picture arrays and tables, which may breathe prefetched from disk files (an Input table), drawn from constants placed at the finish of the source between ** and /* symbols, or built from calculations.
The L or Line Counter spec(s) are next, and if present, picture the contour to breathe printed. It defines the number of lines in a page and the positions where printing begins and ends.
The I or Input specs are next, and picture the data areas within files. RPG II permits redefinition of data areas so that a province named FLDA might occupy the identical region as an array AR that contains 8 elements of 1 character each. Non-record areas such as data structures can breathe described. Depending on the values of the input record, indicators may breathe conditioned.
The C or Calculation spec(s) are next. Total fields may breathe described and accumulated. involved computations and string manipulations are possible. Indicators may breathe conditioned.
The eventual specification(s) are O or Output specifications, which picture the output record in terms of fields and output positions.
Now, here’s a minute sample for you to rehearse reading RPG programs (F and D specifications are omitted):
* Asterisk (*) in column 7 defines a remark line
* In column 6, you write a character denoting* the specification kind to breathe used. The kind of specification* defines what the source line does (i.e. definitions section,* calculations section, etc.).* "C" spec (calculation) describes calculations to breathe done.C HOURS IFLE 40C HOURS MULT RATE PAYC ELSEC RATE MULT 40 PAY 72C HOURS SUB 40 OTIME 30C RATE MULT 1.5 OTRATE 94C OTRATE MULT OTIME OTPAY 72C ADD OTPAY PAYC END
This code looks complicated, doesn’t it? And that’s just a simple payroll tax calculation for an hourly employee (employees rep time and a half for hour worked beyond the first 40).
In 1978, IBM introduced midrange computer System/38 and a fresh RPG dialect, RPG III, for it:
Figure 6. Midrange computer IBM System/38
From that flash on, IBM was gradually abolishing the limitations of the language; programmers were allowed to write specifications in free form:
If Hours <= 40;
Pay = Hours * Rate;
Pay = (40 * Rate) + ((Hours — 40) * (Rate * 1.5));
Finally, the eventual version, RPG IV (aka RPGLE, ILE RPG), was released in 1994. Its three prominent features are built-in functions, procedures, and free-form programming. Until November 2013, the free format applied exclusively to the calculation specifications. With the V7R1 TR7 upgrade to the language, the “/free” and “/end-free” calculations are no longer necessary, and the language has finally broken the ties to punched cards.
I too recommend looking at this document where IBM demonstrates the drastic changes made to the language. RPG remains a accepted programming language on the IBM i operating system, which runs on IBM Power i platform hardware:
Figure 7. IBM Power i server series
All in all, the RPG programming language has been used on 1401, /360, /3, /32, /34, /36, /38 AS/400 and System i systems. There absorb too been implementations for the Digital VAX, Sperry Univac BC/7, Univac system 80, Siemens BS2000, Burroughs B700, B1700, Hewlett Packard HP3000, ICL 2900 series, Honeywell 6220 and 2020, Four-Phase IV/70 and IV/90 series, Singer System 10 and WANG VS, as well as miscellaneous compilers and runtime environments for Unix-based systems, such as Infinite36 (formerly Unibol 36), and PCs (Baby/400, Lattice-RPG).
Today, RPG IV is a more robust language. Editing can still breathe done via SEU, the simple green-screen editor:
Figure 8. Green-screen editor
However, a long progression of tools has been developed over time. Some of these absorb included Visual Age for RPG, which was developed by IBM and promoted by Jon Paris and others. Currently the preferred editing platform is IBM’s Websphere evolution Studio client, now named RDi (Rational Developer for i), which is a customized implementation of Eclipse:
Figure 9. Rational Developer for i
There is too an RPG compiler for Microsoft .NET. This version contains extensions to RPG IV beyond that of the ground IBM compiler. These extensions provide Microsoft Windows and .NET hooks in the aboriginal and System 36 environment, as well as the competence to port DB/2 files to Microsoft Access and Microsoft SQL Server databases via ODBC.
Although RPG is quite an exotic language, it is a fact that there exists a large amount of code written in it in specific fields such as finance, banking, and the like. The language is quite diverse: it includes 4 dialects and supports both fixed- and free-form programming. The exigency to maintain passe legacy code and write fresh code coerce companies to seek RPG developers, who seem to breathe on the Red List for threatened species. Given the circumstances, additional code-quality control tools such as static analyzers are much called for.
You must absorb already guessed what the reason for writing this article is and what they are driving at. You’re right: they are now considering the scheme of creating a static code analyzer for the RPG language. I believe such an analyzer would breathe a distinguished aid to those who still maintain and develop RPG programs. But they haven’t arrive to a determination yet. Needless to say, it’s quite a specific niche.
That’s why they exigency you to declare us if you want PVS-Studio analyzer to become a appliance that could detect bugs in RPG programs. Dear potential users of PVS-Studio RPG, they are looking for you. Don’t hesitate to email us!
February 11, 2019 Timothy Prickett Morgan
If nothing else, the IBM i platform has exhibited extraordinary longevity. One might even command legendary longevity, if you want to acquire its history total the course back to the System/3 minicomputer from 1969. This is the true starting point in the AS/400 family tree and this is when magnificient Blue, for very sound legal and technical and marketing reasons, decided to fork its products to address the unique needs of large enterprises (with the System/360 mainframe and its follow-ons) and minute and medium businesses (starting with the System/3 and stirring on through the System/34, System/32, System/38, and System/36 in the 1970s and early 1980s and passing through the AS/400, AS/400e, iSeries, System i, and then IBM i on Power Systems platforms.
It has been a long urge indeed, and many customers who absorb invested in the platform started course back then and there with the early versions of RPG and moved their applications forward and changed them as their businesses evolved and the depth and breadth of corporate computing changed, stirring on up through RPG II, RPG III, RPG IV, ILE RPG, and now RPG free form. Being on this platform for even three decades makes you a relative newcomer.
There is a longer urge ahead, since they believe that the companies that are still running IBM i systems are the accurate diehards, the ones who absorb no purpose of leaving the platform and that, at least according to the survey data they absorb been privy too, are intending to continue investing in, or even expand their investments in, the IBM i platform.
Thus far, they are not in a recession and heaven willing there will not breathe one, so the priorities that IBM i shops absorb are not the ones that they had a decade ago during the height of the distinguished Recession. Back then, as was the case in just about total IT organizations, IBM i shops were hunkering down and were trying to reduce costs in total ways possible, including deferring system upgrades and migrations as well as cutting back on other projects. Only 29 percent of the 750 IBM i shops that participated in the 2019 IBM i Marketplace Survey, which HelpSystems did back in October 2018, were concerned about reducing IT spending. This is a remarkably low level, and I mediate is indicative of how relatively stalwart the economy is – excepting some of the fits and starts they saw at the finish of 2018 and here in early 2019 that construct us nervous and could start putting pressure on things. Here are the top concerns as culled from the survey:
Dealing with the growth in data and in figuring out the analytics to chew on that data ranked a microscopic bit higher on the 2019 IBM i Marketplace Survey than did reducing costs, and I mediate over the long haul these issues will become more principal than modernizing applications and dealing with the IBM i skills shortages that are a perennial worry. Both of these issues are being solved as fresh programmers and fresh tools to construct fresh interfaces to database applications are becoming more common and as technologies such as free contour RPG, which looks more like Java, Python, and PHP, are being more widely deployed and, importantly, can breathe picked up more quickly by programmers experienced with these other languages.
Given the nature of the customer base, it seems unlikely to me that security and elevated availability will not continue to breathe primary concerns, despite the fact that the IBM i platform is among the most secure platforms on the planet (and not just because it is obscure, but because it is exceedingly difficult to hack) and it has a purview of elevated availability and calamity recovery tools (from IBM, Syncsort, Maxava, and HelpSystems) available for those who want to double up their systems and protect their applications and data. The bar is often higher than simple backup and recovery for many IBM i shops in the banking, insurance, manufacturing, and distribution industries that dominate the platform. These companies can’t absorb security breaches, and they can’t absorb downtime.
There is a remarkable amount of stability in the IBM i customer ground that they think, at this point, is reflective in the stability of the IBM i platform and magnificient Blue’s own credence that it needs a sound IBM i platform to absorb an overall sound Power Systems business. They total know that the Power Systems hardware commerce has just turned in five quarters of revenue growth – something they discussed recently in developing their own revenue model for the Power Systems commerce – but what they did not know, and what you should know, is that in the second and third quarters of 2018, the IBM i portion of the commerce grew significantly faster than the overall Power Systems business, and the only reason that this did not occur in the final quarter of 2018 is that sales of IBM i machinery in Q4 2017 was quite stalwart and represented a very tough compare. The point is, the IBM i commerce has been raising the Power Systems class average. (These hints about the IBM i commerce arrive compliments of Steve Sibley, vice president and offering manager of Cognitive Systems at IBM.)
IBM’s own financial stability of the Power platform – which has been bolstered by a race into Linux clusters for analytics and elevated performance computing simulation and modeling as well as by the adoption of the HANA in-memory database by SAP customers on magnificient iron machines including Power8 and now Power9 systems – helps IBM i customers feel more confident in investing in the current IBM i platform. The recent evidence from several different surveys, not just the one done by HelpSystems every year, suggests that companies are by and large either continuing to invest in the platform or even in some cases are planning to extend their spending on the IBM i platform in 2019.
As you can see, the pattern of investment plans for the IBM i platform, as shown in the chart above, has not changed very much at total in the past four years. It is a remarkably stable pattern with but a microscopic wiggling here and there that may not even breathe statistically significant. Just under a quarter of IBM i shops absorb reported in the past four years that they course to extend their investment in the platform in each year, and just under half command that they are holding steady. This does not add up to that the identical companies, year after year, are investing more and other companies are staying pat, year after year. It is far more likely that every handful of years – more like four or five – customers upgrade their systems and expand their capacity, and they then sit tight. The sensation is that the split isn’t showing far fewer companies investing and far more sitting tight. That more than a tenth of the shops don’t know what their course is as each prior year comes to a nigh is a bit disturbing, but it is honest and shows that a significant portion of shops absorb other priorities aside from hardware and operating system upgrades. They absorb said this before and they will command it again: They mediate that the people who respond to surveys and read weekly publications focused on the IBM i platform are the most dynamic shops – the ones more likely to wait relatively current on hardware and software. So the pace of adoption for fresh technologies, and the rate of investment, should breathe higher than in the actual base, much of which does not change much at all.
So if they had to adjust this data to acquire on the whole base, there might breathe far fewer sites that are investing more money, far more companies that are sitting tight, and maybe fewer sites that are contemplating stirring off the IBM i platform. I mediate the distribution of data is probably something like 10 percent of shops absorb no scheme what they are doing investment sage with IBM this year, 5 percent are thinking about stirring some or total of their applications to another platform, maybe 10 percent are investing more this year, and the remaining 75 percent are sitting tight. This is just a guess, of course. As far as they can tell, the rate of attrition – how many sites they actually lose each year – just a tad over 1 percent. So the rate of movement of applications off the platform, or incidences of unplugging IBM i databases and applications, may not breathe anywhere near as elevated in the overall ground as the data above suggests. What is alarming, perhaps, is that the rate of stirring some or total applications off the platform is balanced against those who command they will extend investments. Perhaps these are hopeful survey takers, and those who mediate it is easy to race find it is not and those who mediate they will find the money to invest will not.
What they result know is that if the rate of application attrition was anywhere near as elevated as these surveys suggest, then the IBM i commerce would not breathe growing, but shrinking. And they know it is not shrinking, so they mediate there is a disconnect between planning and reality, both on the upside and the downside.
If you drill down into the data for the 2019 IBM i Marketplace Survey, there were 13 percent of shops that said they would breathe stirring some applications to a fresh platform, and another 9 percent that said they were going to race total of their applications off IBM i. (This number is consistent with the recent ALL400s survey done by John Rockwell.)
Anyway, edifying luck with that.
Porting applications from one platform to another, of buying a fresh suite on that fresh platform, is an exceedingly difficult task. It is not like trying to change a jade while driving down the road, as is a common metaphor, but rather like trying to acquire the jade off one car stirring down the highway and installing it on another car driving beside it in the adjacent lane without crashing either car or smashing into anyone else on the road. Optimism abounds, but when propel comes to shove, very few companies try such a maneuver, and when they do, it is usually because there is a corporate mandate, more times than not caused by a merger or acquisition, that pits some other platform against IBM i running on Power Systems. Companies that command they are making such a race off IBM i are sanguine for their own personal reasons, perhaps, but they are not necessarily realistic about how long it might take, what disruption it will cost, and what ultimate benefit, if any, will breathe realized.
If you result the math on the chart above, eight-tenths of the ground has no scheme how long a race will take, another 1.7 percent thinks it will acquire more than five years, and 3 percent command it will acquire between two years and five years. Only 3.4 percent of the total ground command they can result it in under two years. They mediate total of these numbers are optimistic, and the companies who could easily leave OS/400 and IBM i already did a long time ago and those that are remain absorb a harder time, not an easier time, moving. If this were not true, the IBM i ground would breathe a hell of a lot smaller than the 120,000 customers they mediate are out there, based on what magnificient Blue has told us in the past. This is the incompatibility between scare or pressure or culture and the reality of trying to race a commerce off one platform and onto another. These moves are always a lot harder than they seem on the front end, and they suspect many of the benefits too don’t materialize for those who result jump platforms.
At the detached attrition rate suggested by this survey data – 9 percent race off the platform in somewhere between one year and more than five years, with most companies not being able to contemplate more than five years into the future that is a well-kept trick – the installed ground would shrink dramatically. It is tough to command how far because of the wide purview of timeframes in the survey. If it was 9 percent of the ground within two years – call it 4.5 percent of the ground per year – then within a decade the overall ground would shrink from 120,000 IBM i sites worldwide down to about 72,000. This would melodramatic indeed. But at a 1 percent attrition rate per year, the ground is still at 107,500 unique customers (not sites and not installed machines, both of which are larger) by 2029. They mediate there is every haphazard that the attrition rate will actually late and drop underneath 1 percent as IBM demonstrates commitment to the Power Systems platform and its IBM i operating system. There are always some fresh customers being added in fresh markets, to breathe sure, but the bleed rate (even if it is small) is still probably an order of magnitude larger than the feed rate.
When they result mediate about making the move, IBM i shops know exactly where they want to go, and this reply has been gradually changing over the years: Linux as an alternative to IBM i is on the ascend and Windows Server as an alternative is on the wane. In the latest survey, 52 percent of the companies that said they were stirring total or some of their applications to another platform said they were choosing Windows Server, while 34 percent chose Linux. This reflects the relative popularity of Windows Server and Linux in the datacenters of the world at large, and may breathe tipped just a microscopic more heavily towards Linux compared to the leisure of the world. Interestingly, 10 percent of those polled who said they were stirring were looking at AIX platforms, and another 4 percent were going upscale to System z mainframes – as unlikely as this may seem. Platforms attend to roll downhill; they result not usually defy gravity like that.
The thing about such surveys is that they parade intent, not action. They often intend to result a lot more than they actually can accomplish, and stirring platforms after spending decades of edifice up expertise is not usually a very smart race unless the platform is in true anguish – like the Itanium systems from Hewlett Packard Enterprise running OpenVMS or HP-UX or the HP 3000s running MPE or the Sparc systems from Oracle running Solaris. These were once distinguished platforms with huge installed bases and tremendous revenue streams, but now, IBM is the eventual of these Unix and proprietary platforms with its Power Systems line. And it is by far the biggest and for positive the only one showing any growth.
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