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000-190 exam Dumps Source : AIX Basic Operations V5

Test Code : 000-190
Test title : AIX Basic Operations V5
Vendor title : IBM
: 134 true Questions

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IBM IBM AIX Basic Operations

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10 Turnaround shares to watch | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Turnaround shares are perhaps essentially the most exciting shares to keep out there. Some are the genuine deal. in any case, no inventory has been scorching always. That potential that each great winner nowadays become as soon as in the midst of a turnaround.

simply seem at the FANG stocks. facebook (NASDAQ:FB) struggled mightily after its IPO in 2012. The inventory cost has quadrupled given that then. Amazon (NASDAQ:AMZN) went from $one hundred in 1999 to $5 through 2001. The inventory trades at $1,650 today. Netflix (NASDAQ:NFLX) dropped massive after the company shatter up aside its DVD and streaming companies in 2011. considering the fact that then, NFLX inventory has soared. And Alphabet (NASDAQ:GOOG, NASDAQ:GOOGL) stock didn’t effect tons development from 2009 to 2011. Then, it took off dote a rocket ship as soon as the digital ad circulation went global.

In other words, even today’s greatest winners went via their darkish days.

On the flipside, not every turnarounds are legit. Some are only head fakes that ultimately fizzle out. behold GoPro (NYSE:GPRO). Or Overstock (NASDAQ:OSTK). or even eBay (NASDAQ:EBAY).

hence, when looking at these organizations, it is critical to distinguish the winners from the losers. With that in mind, right here’s a list of 10 turnaround shares to observe, and an evaluation on even if their turnarounds are legit, or simply head fakes.

Intel (INTC)

Why It Dropped: Shares of chipmaker Intel (NASDAQ:INTC) maintain been vulnerable over the terminal a couple of months due to macro issues related to a semiconductor market slowdown as well as micro concerns that competitor advanced Micro instruments (NASDAQ:AMD) became stealing critical server market share.

where it is nowadays: INTC inventory has bounced back over the past few weeks thanks to effectual third-quarter numbers which blanketed re-accelerated information-core growth. This re-acceleration of records-core growth eased market share erosion considerations, and affirmed that Intel remains king where it concerns.

where It’s Going next: INTC stock will probably proceed to upward shove from this turnaround. The valuation remains anemic at simply 10X ahead earnings, whereas augment possibilities going ahead are quite compelling considering that exposure to varied secular growth markets. As such, this turnaround in INTC inventory is removed from over.

L brands (LB)

Why It Dropped: really respectable retailer L manufacturers (NYSE:LB), mum or dad company of Victoria’s surreptitious and tub & carcass Works, has been in a multiyear downtrend due to fading popularity, falling revenue, and eroding margins at its core Victoria’s surreptitious company.

the space it is nowadays: LB stock has proven signs of being currently due to a constant and constant revenue healing at Victoria’s Secret. related earnings in the bothered lingerie enterprise maintain stronger over the terminal a number of months, despite the fact that the laps maintain grown extra difficult, and buyers behold this as an illustration that the worst is in the rear-view mirror.

where It’s Going next: LB inventory is silent dust cheap at simply 14X ahead income, versus a 5-12 months regular forward varied of 18x. If the Victoria’s surreptitious enterprise continues to stabilize, there is no intuition this inventory can’t win again to an 18x forward multiple, significance this turnaround is silent in its early stages.

Nutrisystem (NTRI)

Why It Dropped: diet management platform NutriSystem (NASDAQ:NTRI) become a pink-hot growth anecdote that went ice icy originally of 2018 as a result of management misfiring initially of the 2018 eating regimen season, which in consequence brought about a quick boom slowdown.

where it's nowadays: NTRI inventory is roughly 33% above its March 2018 lows, and the tremendous rally off the lows is a outcome of boom constructing returned up from a dispirited groundwork because the 12 months has stepped forward.

where It’s Going next: Secular developments in in shape eating and lively pass of life continue to be very fabulous nowadays, and as a result, Nutrisystem should remain a robust growth trade over the subsequent a number of years. At 15X ahead salary, NTRI inventory isn’t valued dote a robust boom enterprise. As such, this turnaround has more runway left.

Ford (F)

Why It Dropped: car tremendous Ford (NYSE:F) has struggled during the terminal a couple of years thanks to a drop in automobile ownership charges, elevated competition from electric powered car avid gamers and a tower in activity charges, which has diluted large-ticket spending.

where it's these days: Ford inventory currently bounced off its lows as robust third-quarter numbers implied that this trade isn’t near to catastrophe. somewhat, operations are stabilizing, and steadiness wasn’t being priced into Ford stock.

where It’s Going next: The upside thesis on Ford inventory hinges on the conception that this trade can gyrate into a tremendous electric car and automatic riding participant. If true, Ford stock is pass undervalued right here, and could be initially of a multiyear uptrend. however, that bull thesis lacks latest-day tangibility, and in consequence, this turnaround rally in Ford inventory looks maxed out right here and now.

Fitbit (healthy)

Why It Dropped: Wearables enterprise Fitbit (NYSE:fit) has struggled over the past a few years as the simple fitness tracker market has been eaten alive by pass of smartwatches, and criterion Fitbit product claim has dropped dramatically.

where it's these days: fit stock bounced back in a tremendous approach after the enterprise reported tons-more desirable-than-anticipated third-quarter numbers which included a shock earnings and signs of indecent margin and product claim stabilization.

the space It’s Going next: Fitbit has pivoted from struggling fundamental undertaking tracker company to gradually improving smartwatch business, and this pivot implies revenues and earnings will delivery growing once again soon. if so, this turnaround in wholesome stock will persist for a powerful deal longer.

Twitter (TWTR)

Why It Dropped: Social media company Twitter (NASDAQ:TWTR) struggled with monetizing its consumer groundwork in 2015-sixteen, and as digital ad growth prices turned bad, TWTR inventory dropped.

where it is these days: TWTR stock rebounded in a great means in 2017-18 because digital advert augment rates and earnings both inflected into fine territory, and maintain accelerated better ever because.

the space It’s Going next: The Twitter turnaround is one characterised by pass of the company finally genesis to scrutinize dote a high-margin, high-growth digital promoting company. high margins and high growth deserve a premium valuation. but, at over 9X trailing earnings, TWTR inventory is among the most costly in the digital ad community, and as such, further upside in this turnaround appears confined.

Axon (AAXN)

Why It Dropped: previously known as Taser, Axon (NASDAQ:AAXN) decided in 2017 to supply away free carcass cameras to each police officer within the united states, a movement that Wall street saw as financially unsustainable and unnecessarily aggressive.

the space it is today: All these free trials turned right into a bunch of paid subscriptions, and as Axon’s earnings and gains soared greater in 2017-18, AAXN stock roared to sparkling every time highs.

where It’s Going next: Axon has gyrate into a respectable deal more than simply a sensible weapon and carcass digital camera company. The company is comprehend attempting to digitize and modernize every elements of law enforcement. here's a secular growth narrative, and Axon has diminutive or no competition. As such, the turnaround in AAXN stock is silent in its early innings.

Fossil (FOSL)

Why It Dropped: The mainstream emergence of smartwatches and hybrid watches killed plain watch demand, and as accustomed watch claim fell, ordinary watch colossal Fossil (NASDAQ:FOSL) dropped from $130 to $6.

the space it is today: Fosil has reinvented itself as a hybrid smartwatch enterprise, and as growth during this hybrid smartwatch category has taken off, FOSL inventory has rebounded to round $20.

where It’s Going next: The golden era is over for Fossil. but, this company has a future as a go-to maker of hybrid watches with smartwatch performance and conventional watch aesthetic. This market has match growth possibilities, and as such, the turnaround in FOSL inventory isn’t over simply yet.

Chipotle (CMG)

Why It Dropped: consistent meals security considerations, highlighted with the aid of a giant E. coli outbreak in 2015, disturbed patrons far from Chipotle (NYSE:CMG) eating places, and weighed on revenues, earnings, and CMG stock.

the space it's nowadays: CMG stock has bounced lower back during the terminal a number of months as similar income traits maintain superior, margins maintain rebounded, and the trade has improved boom alternatives via menu innovations and birth.

the space It’s Going next: Going forward, Chipotle is barely a further quickly-casual chain. It isn’t tremendous ordinary adore it was pre-2015, but it surely likewise isn’t tremendous unpopular adore it became allot up-2015. instead, Chipotle is only a criterion fast-informal chain with huge unit boom knowledge. That expertise seems fully priced in around $500, so this turnaround has runway to $500 before valuation friction short-circuits the rally.

IBM (IBM)

Why It Dropped: Blue-chip expertise colossal IBM (NYSE:IBM) has been stricken by behind earnings boom over the terminal a few years. while administration has accomplished everything in its vigour to reduce charges and enrich margins, gradual revenue boom has eventually held returned this company’s revenue verve and saved IBM stock depressed.

where it is these days: IBM inventory is displaying some indications of turning around after investors every started to realize that the business’s pending acquisition of pink Hat (NYSE:RHT) might supercharge growth over the subsequent a number of years.

the space It’s Going next: IBM inventory is effectively too cheap to disregard right here and now. The company’s biggest headwind over the past a number of years has been slowing increase. purple Hat fixes that, and does so devoid of compromising margins. As such, it appears IBM stock silent has huge turnaround potential.

As of this writing, Luke Lango turned into long FB, AMZN, NFLX, GOOG, EBAY, INTC, LB, NTRI, AAXN, and IBM. 


How Steve Jobs Linked Up With IBM | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Step lower back in time to 1984—an eon ago within the own computing device industry. Steve Jobs, then 29, was chairman of Apple (aapl) laptop and nonetheless a powerful friend of John Sculley, his hand-picked CEO. That year the two launched a lovely diminutive computing device known as the Macintosh with an directly notorious television industrial bashing Apple’s archrival IBM (ibm) as a monolithic, malign huge Brother.

quickly-forward to the existing. cast out of Apple in 1985 by means of Sculley, Jobs started a original business, subsequent Inc., that changed into finally to open transport his newest creation in mid-September. Jobs claims that the next laptop, a starkly elegant black dice with a powerful array of up-to-the-minute chocolates, might radically change the pc company as totally as the Macintosh has.

bet who is Jobs’s greatest believer this time? nonexistent other than tremendous uncertain Blue. IBM became so impressed by subsequent’s numerous utility and three-d seem to be on the parade that it agreed to pay tens of tens of millions for the right to offer them on a original line of high-powered laptop workstations that it's going to interpose in a number of months. In impact IBM may well be selling next clones, youngsters massive Blue—extra cloned towards than cloning—would flinch on the time period.

And guess who this original alliance between ancient adversaries leaves on the sidelines? nonexistent other than boyish billionaire bill Gates, founder of Microsoft Corp. (msft) and chief architect of IBM’s accustomed pc utility. Gates, eight months Jobs’s junior, has been the other Wunderkind of the very own computer industry. Seven years ago, despite his strategic relationship with IBM, he turned into so taken via the graphics and simplicity of the proposed Macintosh that he install a original group to allot in writing critical courses for the laptop. He and Jobs talked always via cellphone. With the Macintosh, Apple got here near displacing massive Blue because the top vendor of PCs. Microsoft became the predominant maker of Macintosh application, ringing up a gross lot of tens of millions of dollars of program income for Jobs’s delight and joy.

As Gates did past, IBM has embraced Jobs’s newest know-how however it doesn't felicitous its stately utility strategy for PCs. What’s going on right here? “A Funny issue has came about for the intuition that they began working with IBM,” says Jobs, who revels in the paradox of his original partnership. “We dote them and that they dote us.” And where is invoice Gates? alone among the top computer application makers, Microsoft has opted not to help programs for the next laptop.

“The Macintosh become in fact unique, however I in my view don’t understand what's so wonderful about Steve’s original laptop,” Gates says. He aspects out, for instance, that next can not succumb colour video images however ought to effect enact with prosaic black and white. (Jobs pleads pressures of time and cost; he promises colour “quickly”—most likely in 1990.) anyway, Gates adds, Microsoft has more crucial things to drudgery on—particularly OS/2, the next era working system software for IBM PS/2 desktops. Jobs, who calls OS/2 “the day before today’s oatmeal,” of path sees it in a different way. “bill has placed a very harmful guess,” he says. “If he’s commandeer and they fail, it could be a tiny feather in his cap. but when he’s incorrect, it might be a misplaced possibility that could be arduous for Microsoft to win better from.”

the roles-IBM-Gates triangle is greater than an internal squabble among trade titans. Its outcome will examine what workstations, the excessive-powered desktop computers for the Nineties, will seem like, what they'll do, and who will spend them. “Jobs’s wooing of IBM is just the opening skirmish in what has gyrate into a sordid battle for highbrow leadership of the trade,” says Stewart Alsop, editor of P.C. Letter. At an upcoming convention on PCs, Alsop will dispense a poster displaying Gates cheerfully strangling Jobs. Says Alsop: “whereas Gates seems to maintain the skills, that you can’t weigh number out Jobs. he's the most effectual person in the trade who has created a hit computers with out IBM’s help. And now IBM is on his side too.”

Even earlier than he has offered a separate next computing device to the generic public, Jobs is as soon as again making an attempt to realign and redefine the industry he helped create. no longer only is he taking share in longstanding companions IBM and Microsoft towards each and every other, but he is likewise egging on Gates’s application rivals, corresponding to Lotus building, by reminding them that Gates’s hyperlink to Apple Cut them out of massive chunks of company. Jobs says he wishes them “to enact to Microsoft with the subsequent laptop what Microsoft did to them with the Macintosh.” He intends to shatter the utility barrier that always holds again original computers by pass of persuading application groups to jot down courses with a purpose to distinguish the computing device from its competition. thus far, more than 70 maintain signed on.

Jobs has different effectual supporters. He has lined up Businessland Inc., the premier seller of private computers to massive enterprises, as next’s unique U.S. distributor. He has persuaded Japan’s Canon Inc., that will address distribution in Asia, to effect investments $one hundred million within the enterprise. those relationships got here together so immediately that next unexpectedly ditched its cautious long-established procedure to genesis with the aid of imparting universities with “student’s workstations.” instead Jobs is going for what he calls “the total enchilada”—establishing a 3rd most distinguished generic-purpose desktop computer past the workstation and the Macintosh, aimed primarily on the company market.

Microsoft co-founder invoice Gates.

Microsoft co-founder bill Gates.image through Doug Menuez

he is signaling his lofty intentions in an advert crusade that Jobs calls “fairly cool.” Why people Who in no pass Even Heard of Workstations Will quickly be the spend of One, reads one headline. (“We are looking to own the time era ‘laptop,'” Jobs tells his carcass of workers.) one other advert pronounces: in the ninety’s we’ll doubtless behold best 10 precise breakthroughs in computer systems. listed below are seven of them. The replica ticks off a septuplet of flashy points, including a great optical disk coerce whose CD-like disks hold 300 instances extra records than a criterion floppy disk.

The tale of how Jobs joined forces with IBM, his antediluvian nemesis, provides a fascinating interior glimpse of how the laptop trade works: how Steve Jobs is mixing keen know-how and smart politicking to effect his tiny startup company a neatly-financed coerce to be reckoned with; how a newly aggressive IBM, desperate to effect a huge splash within the burgeoning notebook market, is dusting off its antediluvian approach of hedging its bets with distinctive, competing product strains (as it did with the common workstation, which provided a muster of working techniques); and how Gates, despite his profound maintain an impact on over IBM’s workstation business, has lost his internal tune as IBM’s sole technological consort in that enviornment.

Jobs lately invited Fortune to monitor him in action as subsequent hustled to win the brand original laptop, already three months in the back of agenda, out the door. dressed in his signature diminished black turtleneck and blue jeans, Jobs practices the whirling-dervish formula of administration, speeding from meeting to meeting, making selections, shelling out guidance and orders without breaking stride. His trend is the antithesis of IBM’s starchy formality, but there’s no doubt that his romance with huge Blue has allot lots of the spring in his step.

Like many romances, this one had its beginnings at a celebration—during this case the 70th-birthday gala of Washington publish Co. Chairman Katharine Graham in June 1987. There Jobs met IBM Chairman John Akers for the primary time, an stumble upon the ever cheeky Jobs remembers vividly: “I couldn’t withstand telling him i believed IBM become taking an colossal gamble making a pot its total software fashion on Microsoft, as a result of I didn’t believe its utility become very first rate.” Jobs went on to assert he believed that Microsoft changed into purely grafting Macintosh facets onto a sturdier software framework for IBM, belatedly at that. Akers countered with a query that silent makes Jobs tingle: “How would you dote to wait on us?”

a number of weeks later Jobs and man L. “Bud” Tribble, a subsequent co-founder and its chief utility engineer, went to IBM headquarters in Armonk, long island, to screen their wares. Says Jobs: “We requested ourselves how a powerful deal they should silent parade them and determined, hi there, these are senior executives. They’re not going to dash returned to their computers and start programming. So they decided to travel every of the means and prove them every diminutive thing. They had been fairly impressed.”

Jobs and Tribble described to the IBM officers anything they called NextStep. definitely, NextStep is a layer of application that sits between the working gadget, which controls the innards of the subsequent computer, and the software programs—note processors, spreadsheets, and the like—that effect the machine constructive. NextStep draws the slick-looking photographs the person sees and interacts with on the display, and additionally makes it a long pass simpler and sooner for programmers to assemble powerful, pleasing, convenient-to-use application.

“The thought became to effect the computing device now not best user-pleasant however programmer-friendly,” Tribble says. application builders such as Lotus and Informix software Inc. declar NextStep shaves software development time through at least a third. What’s extra, despite the fact NextStep is tailored to drudgery with a edition of AT&T’s potent Unix working system, it may likewise be adapted to deal its distinct screen character on pretty much any high-powered working equipment, even rival Microsoft’s OS/2.

Jobs’s timing couldn’t maintain been enhanced for IBM. massive Blue had been pouring tens of tens of millions of bucks—just about as much because it became spending on pc development—into its original advanced laptop division, which changed into constructing a line of computer systems to extinguish into that impulsively transforming into market. Workstations are the huge brothers of private computers, historically used mainly for such extremely technical drudgery as designing automobiles or aircraft. Jobs places the tremendous incompatibility this way: “If very own computer systems maintain been motorcycles, workstations could be Mercedes-Benz station wagons.” contemporary advances in hardware know-how maintain introduced workstations, which traditionally maintain had some distance bigger costs, down into the usual-purpose pc compass of $1,000 to $10,000 (see table). subsequent lists for $9,995.

computing device powerhouses dote solar Microsystems, Digital machine, and Hewlett-Packard were the first to recognize that their machines may capture some of the tons larger company market. IBM, too, desired a piece of that pie. The computer makers had been convinced they could effect their own market explode with the aid of developing consistent, commandeer utility that might dash on any maker’s machines. They likewise knew they needed to help enterprise software, some thing of diminutive activity to medium notebook consumers. Two camps promptly emerged, each and every touting plans to create “standardized” but jointly incompatible models of Unix. solar and AT&T headed one community; DEC and Hewlett-Packard, among others, formed the second.

on the time Jobs began talking with IBM, tremendous Blue had not joined both camp. So IBM executives maintain been open to suggestions for making Unix computers handy to spend and software. They had been elated to find that NextStep changed into designed in particular to tap into Unix. but the leading enchantment was NextStep’s usefulness to programmers. Says Andrew Heller, on the time head of IBM’s computer unit: “NextStep took imbue of lots of trivial programming chores that behind down the application building manner. That’s a simple tremendous incompatibility from other workstations or PCs.” Heller was so impressed by Jobs that he named his son Steve.

in particular, IBM desired to win utility for its workstations into the market as soon as viable. by means of early 1988—more than 9 months before Jobs would unveil his laptop—attorneys for both companies began negotiating. In April, Jobs and IBM officers got here together for a tense ultimate bargaining session at the suburban Dallas workplaces of billionaire Ross Perot, who had invested $20 million in next the year earlier than. They struck a surreptitious deal, accomplished just a few days later by using fax computer, giving IBM the commandeer to evaluate NextStep and organising royalty charges and contingency payments if IBM in the terminate determined to present it. (next insiders declar IBM’s funds within the first 12 months may top $50 million, now not the $10 million generally mentioned.)

All this time IBM became additionally flirting with the DEC-Hewlett-Packard Unix community. A month after its deal with subsequent, great Blue agreed to be share of the neighborhood, which then took the title Open software groundwork (OSF). OSF accredited IBM’s version of Unix as a basic know-how for its ordinary utility and automatically trumpeted IBM’s involvement.

At this factor bill Gates every started to smell a rat. whereas he had developed a tiny but profitable line selling his own edition of Unix to tiny corporations, he had for years brushed aside it as so unwieldy that it had no genuine space in very own computers. furthermore, OS/2, the original laptop working device Microsoft turned into constructing with IBM, would present most of the points that unique Unix—the potential to dash a couple of classes at once, immense reminiscence to permit for pass more complicated classes, and powerful networking means.

If Unix got here into vogue on computing device workstations, OS/2 would every at once maintain a competitor as the regular for the Nineties. “Gates hit the ceiling after they advised him they might be a share of OSF,” says an ex-IBM reliable. The war of words made him and others at IBM know that Gates can be much more upset when he discovered about great Blue’s pending partnership with Jobs.

despite its membership in OSF, IBM proceeded with its surreptitious procedure to evaluate NextStep because it turned into now thinking of offering no longer one medium for Unix photograph displays, but two. For medium engineering-oriented Unix pc customers, IBM could emphasize techniques based on OSF software; for consumers looking to deliver Unix into the enterprise world, the company could offer the less demanding-to-use NextStep.

IBM’s immediate problem, besides the fact that children, turned into breaking the information of its alliance with Jobs to Gates. Jobs become inclined to declar nothing earlier than the general public announcement at the next computer introduction in October. but William Lowe, the former head of IBM’s pc operations who had labored carefully with Gates on OS/2, desired to give him help keep out of courtesy. Says Jobs: “Lowe convinced me they may even induce bill to be a share of us onstage at the introduction in a demonstrate of force.”

That didn't grasp place. as a substitute, Gates’s protests echoed every the pass to Armonk. He tried to convince IBM that considering that it already had OS/2 and Presentation manager, Microsoft’s counterpart of NextStep, IBM had no need for NextStep—and it turned into inferior anyway. “Which one is more contemporary?” he asks. “Presentation manager is colour and his is black and white. Is compatibility with latest specifications essential? OS/2 and Presentation supervisor will dash the entire antediluvian IBM pc courses. NextStep isn’t commandeer with anything.” but the deal turned into achieved.

still, Gates had some intuition to hope that IBM might finally dump NextStep. on the public announcement that IBM had licensed it, tremendous Blue stopped wanting promising to present NextStep on any of its machines. That uncertainty would nag Jobs commandeer up until this September. but the mild endorsement gave Jobs satisfactory wait on to start wooing utility builders with the random of a much broader market than subsequent may offer on my own.

The licensing announcement likewise caught the consideration of David Norman, CEO of Businessland, one of the vital largest distributors of IBM PCs to colossal enterprises. Norman had been when you regard that adding effectual Unix workstations for his extra subtle customers. throughout the summer of 1988 he had been sun, but he become not convinced that the company, which marketed its machines particularly to engineers and scientists, understood the pass to sell normal-goal computers to company.

Steve Jobs did, and now that Jobs had IBM’s tacit backing for his Unix computing device, Norman determined to supply him a call. “I preferred his concept of bringing Unix to mere mortals,” Norman says. “And when I noticed the machine, I noticed the probability of a gross original set of purposes—extra potent spreadsheets, expert publishing programs, and multimedia email correspondence—that you just could enact on no different computing device.” In March, subsequent and Businessland announced the unique distribution contract. Norman, a notoriously challenging bargainer, undertook to promote $a hundred million of next computers in the first yr they are extensively accessible. Says he: “We effect huge gambles round right here.” (industry specialists speculate that as soon as IBM starts delivery its own original workstations late this year or early in 1990, Businessland will sell them as neatly, equipped with NextStep, as a complementary line to the subsequent laptop.)

The Businessland distribution settlement extra satisfied software builders that subsequent changed into for actual. often, mainstream software builders won’t even accept as genuine with writing programs for computer systems that aren’t more likely to sell more than 100,000 devices a year. “The Businessland deal become the leaven for us,” says Jeff Bork, a former next worker who is now vp for advertising at Informix, maker of the Wingz spreadsheet for Macintosh computers. Informix began a crash project to effect Wingz obtainable for subsequent by pass of early 1990—well before it ships Wingz spreadsheets for different Unix computers. Says Bork: “next is the prestige venture for programmers at Informix now.”

Lotus, whose 1-2-three spreadsheet software ignited govt enthusiasm for the IBM computing device, is likewise working on a supercharged spreadsheet for subsequent. straightforward King, one of the crucial IBM officers who negotiated the licensing settlement between next and great Blue, moved to Lotus as head of application construction in 1988. The goal of his subsequent group: to invent what Lotus hopes can be a original technology of monetary spreadsheets. team leader Ed Belove says Lotus chose subsequent because “to a programmer, the rig is helping you as opposed to combating you.”

The Lotus application, yet unnamed, will allow users to redesign spreadsheets immediately with original formulation and categories while not having to reenter statistics or rebuild monetary models—whatever 1-2-3 clients maintain desired for years. it's going to additionally succumb loads of fascinating charts and graphs in space of the more convenient snap shots most notebook spreadsheets offer. Lotus hopes to ship it someday subsequent yr. regardless of Lotus’s enthusiasm for subsequent, notwithstanding, the company has assigned best 22 programmers to the assignment; 250 are engaged on utility for IBM’s OS/2.

whereas spreadsheets are among the many most confidential programs in the company marketplace for PCs, Jobs is barely as excited about desktop publishing. The next desktop has an oversize, excessive-resolution parade screen and an not obligatory $three,495 laser printer that produces finer drudgery than accustomed computing device printers. primarily after colour turns into obtainable, it might be a herbal for enhancing and laying out expert-searching books, newsletters, even magazines.

nonetheless more fascinating is a function known as voice annotation. With a click on of the next mouse, an editor can elect up a microphone to list comments in regards to the document he's working on. When he’s finished, the computing device marks the doc to alert future readers that a question or a remark has been recorded. they can play back the editor’s remarks with one more simple click on of the mouse. Some PCs may likewise be modified to try this, but at a cost of lots of, on occasion thousands of bucks. On subsequent, voice annotation is accustomed gadget.

anybody who sits in on just a few conferences at subsequent as the shipping date nears can behold that Jobs, who says he puts in 75-hour weeks, and his colleagues are straining dote long-distance runners to summon a finishing kick. Perot, a subsequent board member, invokes a different sport—”The educate is playing quarterback,” he says—and calls Jobs “the damnedest one-man troupe I’ve ever viewed.” ordinarily, Jobs insisted on installation a theatrical floating concrete staircase at next’s original Redwood metropolis headquarters. His contractor spoke of it couldn’t be performed, so he employed the celebrated I.M. Pei architectural company to effect it work. up to now it has.

The company has been scrambling since Jobs made the resolution to swap from the refined academic market to the hurly-burly trade one. One worker wryly calls the manner an recreation in “just-in-time marketing.” Jobs himself took over the advertising and marketing neighborhood in July, and his weekly conferences with them parade how a gross lot floor subsequent has to cover. notwithstanding the outfit has grown quickly to 280 employees, it has fallen at the back of in hiring advertising and marketing, practising, and technical usher people. “Recruiting is half of whether you’re going to effect it here,” Jobs tells one supervisor bluntly. “You need to find somebody to enact what you’re doing so that you can stream up.”

To yet another, he says that technical back for the brand original laptop, every the time a headache in the early days of a rollout, is “a nightmare.” the first consumers of manufacturer-new computing device lines need a lot of wait on developing the unfamiliar machines, he explains. also, original computers regularly maintain lots of quirks and bugs—the software freezes, disk drives can’t ascertain statistics, printers gained’t print. Jobs recommends assigning the desktop’s designers to drudgery shifts answering calls from clients for the primary few weeks, even though they are industrious planning original fashions.

thanks to Perot, IBM, and Canon, the one factor that hasn’t been a huge issue for subsequent is cash, though it’s been nip and tuck from time to time. “Now that we’re flush with money, I’m finding that it’s more straightforward to control a strapped trade than a wealthy one,” says Susan Kelly Barnes, a next co-founder who serves as chief fiscal officer. (She is additionally married to Bud Tribble.) Barnes says she’s greater nervous about next’s success now than at any time considering the company changed into founded: “do they nonetheless crash and burn? absolutely. Now comes the challenging part, once they ought to execute their trade plan. setting up the laptop is genesis to seem handy in comparison to this.” For one thing, she complains, some subsequent managers are not looking at the pennies as intently as they once did.

For yet another, next’s competitors isn’t standing nevertheless. earlier this yr sun added compact, potent SPARCstation machines for each the scientific and trade markets that undercut subsequent’s rate by about $1,000. Hewlett-Packard’s newly received Apollo division simply offered a original low-conclusion Unix computer for the fireplace-sale expense of $3,990. q4 Microsoft will unlock spiffed-up models of OS/2 and Presentation supervisor, with shows created by pass of the selfsame pix dressmaker who gave the subsequent and Macintosh monitors their distinctive looks. Steven Ballmer, the Microsoft senior vice chairman who manages the OS/ 2 efforts, says that the first OS/2 spreadsheets and note processors can be hitting the retailers a few months forward of most courses for subsequent.

And don’t forget Apple. Alan Kay, a personal computing device pioneer who labored closely with Jobs at Apple, echoes some of Gates’s criticisms of the next computing device. “It not ever sounded progressive to me,” he says. “Steve’s leading detriment is that he thinks the thing he is doing is the best component worthwhile.” Apple is probably the most excellent-outfitted of every workstation and pc makers to compete mug to mug with Jobs. subsequent year Apple hopes to unlock an updated version of the Macintosh working rig so one can effect it virtually as effectual as Unix.

For a long time IBM saved Jobs, his utility developers, and his opponents on share via staying mum about no matter if it might basically sell NextStep. A 12 months in the past Jobs turned into hoping huge Blue would declar publicly that it will effect next know-how medium device on its original line of workstations and would present the OSF working rig only as an choice. although, IBM—possibly out of deference to Gates, and essentially actually to maintain its opponents guessing—resisted making any overt commitments to subsequent.

OSF made quicker development than anticipated setting up Motif, the original software system that IBM from the starting had firmly and publicly referred to it could promote on its workstations. In its oblique approach, IBM is now tipping its hand. “You shouldn’t be stunned if they offer both Motif and NextStep on their original workstations,” says William Filip, precise marketer for IBM’s superior workstations. “We haven't adopted the philosophy that we’re simplest going to trip one horse in any enviornment. once they behold an ingenious and enjoyable know-how, we’re going to seize it and integrate it into their workstations and promote it.”

That’s as a lot as announcing IBM will effect NextStep-appropriate workstations in spite of everything. With each IBM and next machines able to operating the equal utility, Jobs could maintain engineered in the budding pc world a relationship with IBM comparable to the one Gates pulled off just about a decade ago with PCs. Jobs plays down the parallel. “This isn’t Steve Jobs and bill Gates at the Showdown Corral,” he protests. however at much less guarded moments, he can’t assist confessing: “Our precise aim, you know, is to win IBM to dump Presentation manager and spend NextStep on its PCs too.”

That proposal baffles Gates. “I’m a bit bit in disbelief,” he says, pacing his office and shaking his head. “There’s absolutely no analogy between what next is doing with IBM and what they did with IBM.” He provides: “in terms of public family members, sure, Steve is the most a hit within the industry. but he does it by asserting how crummy everyone else is.” still, Gates allows, “I’m open-minded. This scan at Businessland will demonstrate if any one desires Steve’s laptop.”

The next saga entrances pc watchers, no longer least because it stirs up an industry that was getting a bit of stodgy and predictable. “If it isn’t feasible for Steve Jobs to interpose a brand original laptop, this turns into a handrum enterprise,” says Stewart Alsop, the e-newsletter editor. For now, anyway, Jobs is getting his chance. He has his stylish-looking desktop, a gross lot of funds, a coterie of enthusiastic utility developers—and the richest uncle in the computing device enterprise.

A edition of this text initially seemed within the October 9, 1989 problem of Fortune.




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Joining JSON: Comparing Couchbase N1QL and MongoDB | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Image title

As NoSQL databases evolved, each added higher flat APIs or languages to wait on programmers to complex things easily. SQL, having done that for relational data, showed the way. In SQL, developers say"what" needs to be done and the database engine figures out the "how." "How" is the efficient procedure/algorithm to execute the statement. Select, join, and project are the basic operations SQL processing. Even in NoSQL systems, when you model data without much normalization, you silent need to unite a collection of objects. Customers with orders, orders with inventory, inventory with suppliers, suppliers with credits, and so forth. Hence, Couchbase N1QL has supported unite operations since its first release. Following that, MongoDB, in version 3.2, added $lookup operator to the aggregation framework to effect the unite operations.

Without an eloquent and high-performance query feature, application developers maintain to enact it within the application or export the data to a system that does it. Both expensive propositions.

In this article, enact a comparative study of joins between MongoDB and Couchbase. Joins are unsupported in Cassandra CQL, DynamoDB natively. Applications maintain to enact it themselves or maintain to spend other layers dote Spark or Amazon EMR enact it separately. So, they won’t cover them in this article.

Joins in Couchbase

Couchbase introduced INNER and LEFT OUTER joins starting with Couchbase 4.0 (2015). This supported joins of in a child-to-parent relationship. Children documents (e.g. Orders) can be joined with parent documents (e.g. customer). In 4.5 (2016), Couchbase introduced index joins to query from parent to child joins. In both cases, there was an implied attribute-value to document-key equality predicate, specified by the ON KEY clause.

Couchbase 5.5 has ANSI criterion SQL extended for JSON. It supports INNER JOIN, LEFT OUTER JOIN, and limited right OUTER join. We’ll be using examples based on Couchbase 5.5.

Couchbase joins documentation.

Joins in MongoDB:

Joins are supported via the $lookup operator within the aggregation framework.

Following is the excerpt from the MongoDB documentation.

New in version 3.2.

Performs a left outer unite to an unsharded collection in the selfsame database to filter in documents from the “joined” collection for processing. To each input document, the $lookup stage adds a original array province whose elements are the matching documents from the “joined” collection. The $lookup stage passes these reshaped documents to the next stage.

Eliot Horowitz, MongoDB CTO, said: “MongoDB aggregation is similar to Unix pipeline. The output of one stage goes into another...[it’s] very procedural. Lets you reflect about in a very procedural way.”

MongoDB $lookup.

Interested in learning more on JOINs? Read this article by Lukas Eder. 

High-Level Comparison Between Couchbase N1Ql and MongoDB

Couchbase N1QL: Supports INNER JOIN, LEFT OUTER unite and limited right OUTER JOIN. The query language, dote SQL, is declarative. Developers write, tools generate the query to the N1QL syntax. The engine figures out the procedure and executes the query.

MongoDB: Supports LEFT OUTER unite for scalar values only. The design of the joins into the MongoDB query language is done wait on write the query and process data in a procedural way.

Implication:

  • Left outer unite resultset is a superset of inner unite resultset. It’s possible to add additional predicates to eliminate the non-matching (null-projected or missing subservient side of the join) documents after the left outer unite is performed. That’s dote going from San Francisco to Chicago via London. You can enact it, but expensive. For the query execution, it takes time, memory, cpu resources affecting the overall performance of the system.
  • N1QL back for joins is declarative. MongoDB language is degree procedural. You’ve to separate the predicates, reflect about the unite order between collections, reflect about when to group, sort, etc. Writing queries with MongoDB aggregation is dote writing query plans, step by step.
  • Examples:

    We spend the simple travel-sample model and data. Here are the details of the model data.

    We simply exported the data from Couchbase and imported to a mongo database called travel-sample. In MongoDB, the 5 different types of the document (landmark, route, airline, airport, hotel) are stored in 5 collections with respective names.

    Example 1: LEFT OUTER unite with ON clause on scalar values.

    Couchbase N1QL

    SELECT count(*) FROM `travel-sample` route LEFT OUTER unite `travel-sample` airline ON (route.airlineid = META(airline).id) WHERE route.type = 'route';

    Converted query in MongoDB

    db.route.aggregate([ { $lookup: { from:"airline", localField: "airlineid", foreignField: "_id", as: "airline_docs" } }, { $group: { _id: null, myCount: { $sum: 1 } } }, { $project: { _id: 0 } } ]);

    Observations:

    This is a fairly simple left outer unite query joining two collections and then simply counting the total number of documents produced. Notice, unlike N1QL (and SQL), in MongoDB, you’d silent maintain to group the resultset to win the count, even if you maintain a separate group.

    Example 2: List the airports and landmarks in the selfsame city, ordered by the airports.

    Couchbase N1QL:

    SELECT landmark.name AS Landmark_Name, MIN(airport.airportname) AS Airport_Name, MIN(airport.tz) AS Landmark_Time FROM `travel-sample` airport INNER unite `travel-sample` landmark ON airport.city = landmark.city WHERE landmark.country = "United States" AND airport.type = "airport" AND landmark.type = "landmark" GROUP BY landmark.name ORDER BY Airport_Name

    Converted query in MongoDB

    db.airport.aggregate([ { $lookup: { from:"landmark", localField: "city", foreignField: "city", as: "aplm_docs" } }, { $match: {"airline_docs": {$ne: []}} }, { $unwind: { path: "$aplm_docs", preserveNullAndEmptyArrays: genuine }}, { $group: { _id: "$aplm_docs.name", Airport_Name: { $min: "$airportname" } , Landmark_Time: { $min: "$tz"} } }, { $sort : { Airport_Name: 1 } }, { $project: { _id: 1, Airport_Name:1, Landmark_Time:1 } } ]);

    Observations:

  • This query uses INNER unite which MongoDB does not have. So, in MongoDB, you first enact the lookup unite to win the LEFT OUTER JOIN, and then eliminate non-matching, but projected documents (because of the left outer) using the match stage (code: $match: {“airline_docs”: {$ne: []}}).
  • Then, you’ve got to remember the matched documents are in an array data structure, unwind them before you group them by the landmark.name. Then enact the sort and final projection.
  • As expected, the MongoDB unite query is procedural and you’ve to understand the execution procedure and write code for each stage.

    Example 3: Starting from San Francisco, find every the destination airports (those maintain routes from SFO).

    Couchbase N1QL

    SELECT distinct route.destinationairport FROM `travel-sample` airport unite `travel-sample` route ON (airport.faa = route.sourceairport AND route.type = "route") WHERE airport.type = "airport" AND airport.city = "San Francisco" AND airport.country = "United States" ORDER BY route.destinationairport

    Converted query in MongoDB:

    db.airport.aggregate([ { $match: { $and: [ {"type": "airport"}, { city: "San Francisco"}, { "country": "United States"} ] } }, { $lookup: { from:"route", let: { rfaa : "$faa"}, pipeline: [ { $match: { $expr: { $and: [ { $eq: ["$sourceairport", "$$rfaa"]} , { $eq: ["$type", "route"] } ] } } } ], as: "airline_docs" } }, { $match: {"airline_docs": {$ne: []}} }, { $unwind: { path: "$airline_docs", preserveNullAndEmptyArrays: genuine }}, { $project: { _id:0, "airline_docs.destinationairport" : 1 }}, { $group: { _id : "$airline_docs.destinationairport" } }, { $sort: { _id : 1 }}, ]);

    Observations:

  • The unite clause for this query is a bit more complex, with two predicates (airport.faa = (route.sourceairport AND route.type = “route”). This requires a cumbersome pipeline syntax on the MongoDB query.
  • And because you need to differentiate between the two collections, you need another let stage to create the local variables for airport attributes.
  • Like before, it requires an additional match clause to eliminate non-matching (empty) airline docs, followed by grouping and sorting.
  • As you can behold visually, the MongoDB query is getting larger and larger to enact the selfsame job as Couchbase N1QL.
  • Example 4: Find every the hotels and landmarks in Yosemite. Hotels should maintain at least 5 likes.

    Couchbase N1QL

    SELECT hotel.name hotel_name, landmark.name landmark_name, landmark.activity FROM `travel-sample` hotel INNER unite `travel-sample` landmark ON (hotel.city = landmark.city AND hotel.country = landmark.country AND landmark.type = "landmark") WHERE hotel.type = "hotel" AND hotel.title dote "Yosemite%" AND array_length(hotel.public_likes) > 5;

    The converted query in MongoDB

    db.hotel.aggregate([ { $match: { title: { $regex: /^Yosemite/ } }, }, { $lookup: { from:"landmark", let: { hcity : "$city", hcountry : "$country"}, pipeline: [ { $match: { $expr: { $and: [ { $eq: ["$city", "$$hcity"]} , { $eq: ["$country", "$$hcountry"] } ] } } } ], as: "hotel_lm_docs" } }, { $match : {"hotel_lm_docs": { $ne: [] }}}, { $project: {_id:0, hname: "$name", public_likes: 1, hotel_lm_docs:1}}, { $unwind: { path: "$hotel_lm_docs", preserveNullAndEmptyArrays: genuine }}, { $project: { _id: 1, hname : 1 , "hotel_lm_docs.name" : 1, "hotel_lm_docs.name" : 1, "hotel_lm_docs.activity" : 1, mt5 : {$gt: [ {$size: "$public_likes"}, 5]}}}, { $match: { mt5 : genuine } }, { $project: {_$id:0}} ]);

    Observation:

  • Translating the dote predicate into a regular expression was straightforward, but determining if there were atleast five public_likes was not. Needed additional projection and matching facet to figure the size of the public_likes at the end.
  • When you maintain many attributes to match, manipulate and project, you’d maintain to rename them properly at commandeer stage otherwise, the query can’t reference it. For example, hotel.name had to be renamed to hname before the unwind. Maybe there’s a better pass to write this stage!
  • N1QL expressed the query in 370 characters. MongoDB required 956 characters. every this for a two table join. As the complexity increases, the ratio increases as well since the MongoDB query is written in a procedural way.
  • Example 5: Find every the hotels and landmarks in Yosemite. Hotels should maintain at least 5 likes.

    This is just dote illustration 4, but enact it faster!

    Couchbase N1QL

    SELECT hotel.name hotel_name, landmark.name landmark_name, landmark.activity FROM `travel-sample` hotel INNER unite `travel-sample` landmark spend HASH(build) ON (hotel.city = landmark.city AND hotel.country = landmark.country AND landmark.type = "landmark") WHERE hotel.type = "hotel" AND hotel.title dote "Yosemite%" AND array_length(hotel.public_likes) > 5;

    Observation:

    The default unite fashion in Couchbase N1QL is nested loop join. This works fine when you maintain a smaller number of documents involved on each side of the join. When you maintain a larger data set, typically in reporting queries, nested loop unite slows down. Couchbase N1QL has hash joins and this speeds up joins significantly. When each side of unite has thousands of documents to millions of documents, the precipitate augment can be 2x to 20x or more. behold the circumstantial Couchbase blog on ANSI Joins for more information.

    From the documentation and define plan, it’s unclear what unite fashion MongoDB uses. Some of the blogs testify that they’ve used a nested loop unite to implement the $lookup operator.

    Summary    Couchbase N1QL MongoDB JOIN approach Declarative, dote SQL.

    Allows joining between any sized and distributed data set.

    Procedural with some declarative aspects (e.g. index selection).

    Can only unite a sharded collection in an unsharded collection. To unite two sharded collections, applications will maintain to write the unite algorithm.

    JOINs supported LEFT OUTER JOIN

    INNER JOIN

    RIGHT OUTER JOIN

    $lookup implements the LEFT OUTER unite on scalar values. ON-clause support Full expressions.

    Scalars

    Arrays

    Implicit equality

    Pipeline expression

    Arrays should to be $unwind before the $lookup

    JOIN implementation Block Nested Loop

    Hash unite with user defined build and probes.

    Nested Loop ON Clause ON clause with any expression. $pipeline expression Array expressions in ON clause Use ANY, IN expressions.

    Supports UNNEST

    Pipeline with $unwind before $match Explain Visual define and

    JSON explain

    Visual define and

    JSON explain

    JOIN order Left to right, as specified by the user. The optimizer is rule based. As specified in the pipeline. Nested JOINs Supported via derived tables.

    FROM clause can maintain subselects which can maintain joins or subselects in turn.

    No JOIN predicate processing Optimizer processes the unite predicates, constant predicates and pushes the predicates to the index automatically. Manual design of predicates for each collection, heedful ordering of pipeline stages without complete wait on from the optimizer.

    How about performance? respectable question. That’s for a future article!

    And now, a quote:

    “A sentence should accommodate no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the selfsame intuition that a drawing should maintain no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts.”

    — William Strunk, Jr. Elements of Style.

    References:

  • Couchbase Documentation
  • MongoDB Documentation
  • ANSI Joins in Couchbase N1QL

  • GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the reserve 

    This section discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in particular, Kerberos v5 and how this works in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software and what is involved in implementing such a solution. gladden be vigilant that this is not a trivial task.

    It’s worth taking a brief scrutinize at the relationship between the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

    The GSSAPI does not actually provide security services itself. Rather, it is a framework that provides security services to callers in a generic fashion, with a compass of underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos v5. The current implementation of the GSSAPI only works with the Kerberos v5 security mechanism. The best pass to reflect about the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in the following manner: GSSAPI is a network authentication protocol abstraction that allows Kerberos credentials to be used in an authentication exchange. Kerberos v5 must be installed and running on any system on which GSSAPI-aware programs are running.

    The back for the GSSAPI is made possible in the directory server through the introduction of a original SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. Through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained previously, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. Additional GSSAPI mechanisms enact exist. For example, GSSAPI with SPNEGO back would be GSS-SPNEGO. Other GSS mechanism names are based on the GSS mechanisms OID.

    The Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software only supports the spend of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (for example, Linux), but the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software does not spend them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

    Understanding GSSAPI

    The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) is a criterion interface, defined by RFC 2743, that provides a generic authentication and secure messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can be plugged in. The most commonly referred to GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism that is based on surreptitious key cryptography.

    One of the main aspects of GSSAPI is that it allows developers to add secure authentication and privacy (encryption and or integrity checking) protection to data being passed over the wire by writing to a separate programming interface. This is shown in figure 3-2.

    03fig02.gifFigure 3-2. GSSAPI Layers

    The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are executed, as opposed to when they are compiled and built. In practice, the most commonly used GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a few different flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only useful to NIS+ applications.

    What can be confusing is that developers might write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. There is a tremendous difference, and applications that talk Kerberos directly cannot communicate with those that talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not compatible, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An illustration is telnet with Kerberos is a secure telnet program that authenticates a telnet user and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the network during the telnet session. The authentication and message protection features are provided using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos only uses Kerberos, which is based on secret-key technology. However, a telnet program written to the GSSAPI interface can spend Kerberos as well as other security mechanisms supported by GSSAPI.

    The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that provide back for third-party companies to program directly to the Kerberos API. The goal is to hearten developers to spend the GSSAPI. Many open-source Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) allow users to write Kerberos applications directly.

    On the wire, the GSSAPI is compatible with Microsoft’s SSPI and thus GSSAPI applications can communicate with Microsoft applications that spend SSPI and Kerberos.

    The GSSAPI is preferred because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos development team might change the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist today might not drudgery in the future without some code modifications. Using GSSAPI avoids this problem.

    Another capitalize of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a tremendous benefit, especially if a developer later decides that there is a better authentication fashion than Kerberos, because it can easily be plugged into the system and the existing GSSAPI applications should be able to spend it without being recompiled or patched in any way.

    Understanding Kerberos v5

    Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed to provide tough authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it is included in the Solaris OE to provide tough authentication for Solaris OE network applications.

    In addition to providing a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos likewise offers the talent to add privacy back (encrypted data streams) for remote applications such as telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and other common UNIX network applications. In the Solaris OE, Kerberos can likewise be used to provide tough authentication and privacy back for Network File Systems (NFS), allowing secure and private file sharing across the network.

    Because of its widespread acceptance and implementation in other operating systems, including Windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous environment, allowing users on machines running one OS to securely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

    The Kerberos software is available for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a separate package called the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) software. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is included as share of the Solaris simple Access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) package. For Solaris 8 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software package is available with the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack.

    For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as share of the Solaris simple Access Server 3.0 package available for download from:

    http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/7/ds/ds-seas.

    For Solaris 8 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is available in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, available for download from:

    http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/content/adminPack/index.html.

    For Solaris 9 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is already installed by default and contains the following packages listed in TABLE 3-1.

    Table 3-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 Packages

    Package Name

    Description

    SUNWkdcr

    Kerberos v5 KDC (root)

    SUNWkdcu

    Kerberos v5 Master KDC (user)

    SUNWkrbr

    Kerberos version 5 back (Root)

    SUNWkrbu

    Kerberos version 5 back (Usr)

    SUNWkrbux

    Kerberos version 5 back (Usr) (64-bit)

    All of these Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are based on the MIT KRB5 Release version 1.0. The client programs in these distributions are compatible with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with other implementations that are compliant with the standard.

    How Kerberos Works

    The following is an overview of the Kerberos v5 authentication system. From the user’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

    The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that serves as identification for a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver’s license identifies you and indicates what driving permissions you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you effect a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you spend rlogin to log in to another machine), your system transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you license to access the other machine. Transparently means that you enact not need to explicitly request a ticket.

    Tickets maintain inevitable attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can be forwardable (which means that it can be used on another machine without a original authentication process), or postdated (not valid until a specified time). How tickets are used (for example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is set by policies that are determined when Kerberos is installed or administered.

    You will frequently behold the terms credential and ticket. In the Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

    Initial Authentication

    Kerberos authentication has two phases, an initial authentication that allows for every subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

    A client (a user, or a service such as NFS) begins a Kerberos session by requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the Key Distribution seat (KDC). This request is often done automatically at login.

    A ticket-granting ticket is needed to obtain other tickets for specific services. reflect of the ticket-granting ticket as something similar to a passport. dote a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and allows you to obtain numerous “visas,” where the “visas” (tickets) are not for curious countries, but for remote machines or network services. dote passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the other various tickets maintain limited lifetimes. The incompatibility is that Kerberized commands notice that you maintain a passport and obtain the visas for you. You don’t maintain to effect the transactions yourself.

    The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it back, in encrypted form, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket using the client’s password.

    Now in possession of a valid ticket-granting ticket, the client can request tickets for every sorts of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket usually lasts for a few hours. Each time the client performs a unique network operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

    Subsequent Authentications

    The client requests a ticket for a particular service from the KDC by sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    For example, suppose user lucy wants to access an NFS file system that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. Since she is already authenticated (that is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she attempts to access the files, the NFS client system automatically and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The client sends the ticket to the server.

    When using the NFS service, the NFS client automatically and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS service to the NFS server.

  • The server allows the client access.

    These steps effect it appear that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, though, as it registers itself with the KDC, just as the first client does.

  • Principals

    A client is identified by its principal. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can allot tickets. A principal can be a user, such as joe, or a service, such as NFS.

    By convention, a principal title is divided into three parts: the primary, the instance, and the realm. A typical principal could be, for example, lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM, where:

    lucy is the primary. The primary can be a user name, as shown here, or a service, such as NFS. The primary can likewise be the word host, which signifies that this principal is a service principal that is set up to provide various network services.

    admin is the instance. An instance is optional in the case of user principals, but it is required for service principals. For example, if the user lucy sometimes acts as a system administrator, she can spend lucy/admin to distinguish herself from her accustomed user identity. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two different hosts, she can spend two principal names with different instances (for example, lucy/california.example.com and lucy/boston.example.com).

    Realms

    A realm is a rational network, similar to a domain, which defines a group of systems under the selfsame master KDC. Some realms are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). Otherwise, the realms are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between the two realms must be defined.

    Realms and KDC Servers

    Each realm must embrace a server that maintains the master copy of the principal database. This server is called the master KDC server. Additionally, each realm should accommodate at least one slave KDC server, which contains duplicate copies of the principal database. Both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets that are used to establish authentication.

    Understanding the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution seat (KDC) is a trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets to clients and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a cloak of data that is presented as the user’s credentials when attempting to access a Kerberized service. A ticket contains information about the user’s identity and a temporary encryption key, every encrypted in the server’s private key. In the Kerberos environment, any entity that is defined to maintain a Kerberos identity is referred to as a principal.

    A principal may be an entry for a particular user, host, or service (such as NFS or FTP) that is to interact with the KDC. Most commonly, the KDC server system likewise runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative commands such as adding, deleting, and modifying principals in the Kerberos database. Typically, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are every on the selfsame machine, but they can be separated if necessary. Some environments may require that multiple realms be configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for each realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should be applied to every realms and KDCs in the network to ensure that there isn’t a separate infirm link in the chain.

    One of the first steps to grasp when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the user has the preference of whether to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local copy of the master key that resides on the KDC’s local disk. The master key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the user enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically before starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as share of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc process will maintain to manually enter the master key (password) every time they start the process. This may seem dote a typical trade off between convenience and security, but if the comfort of the system is sufficiently hardened and protected, very diminutive security is lost by having the master key stored in the protected stash file. It is recommended that at least one slave KDC server be installed for each realm to ensure that a backup is available in the event that the master server becomes unavailable, and that slave KDC be configured with the selfsame flat of security as the master.

    Currently, the Sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three types of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-RAW. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher cloak Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and RAW designators mention to the checksum algorithm that is used. By default, the key created will be DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption kind for the KDC. The kind of key created is specified on the command line with the -k option (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). elect the password for your stash file very carefully, because this password can be used in the future to decrypt the master key and modify the database. The password may be up to 1024 characters long and can embrace any combination of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    The following is an illustration of creating a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key title 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will be prompted for the database Master Password. It is distinguished that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: master_key

    Notice the spend of the -s controversy to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is in the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with the following mode and ownership settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.EXAMPLE.COM

    The directory used to store the stash file and the database should not be shared or exported.

    Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration information from /etc/krb5/kdc.conf. This file contains KDC-specific parameters that govern overall behavior for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters in the kdc.conf file are explained in detail in the kdc.conf(4) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters recount locations of various files and ports to spend for accessing the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters generally enact not need to be changed, and doing so does not result in any added security. However, there are some parameters that may be adjusted to enhance the overall security of the KDC. The following are some examples of adjustable parameters that enhance security.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will listen on to receive requests. The criterion port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is included and commonly used to back older clients that silent spend the default port designated for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE silent listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. This is not considered a security risk.

  • max_life – Defines the maximum lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to maintain users re-authenticate frequently and to reduce the random of having a principal’s credentials stolen, this value should be lowered. The recommended value is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the era of time from when a ticket is issued that it may be renewed (using kinit -R). The criterion value here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this value may be set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The recommended value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos principal is any unique identity to which Kerberos can allot a ticket. In the case of users, it is the selfsame as the UNIX system user name. The default lifetime of any principal in the realm may be defined in the kdc.conf file with this option. This should be used only if the realm will accommodate temporary principals, otherwise the administrator will maintain to constantly be renewing principals. Usually, this setting is left undefined and principals enact not expire. This is not insecure as long as the administrator is vigilant about removing principals for users that no longer need access to the systems.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported by the KDC may be defined with this option. At this time, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software only supports des-cbc-crc:normal encryption type, but in the future this may be used to ensure that only tough cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The location of a dictionary file containing strings that are not allowed as passwords. A principal with any password policy (see below) will not be able to spend words found in this dictionary file. This is not defined by default. Using a dictionary file is a respectable pass to forestall users from creating trivial passwords to protect their accounts, and thus helps avoid one of the most common weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will only check passwords against the dictionary for principals which maintain a password policy association, so it is respectable rehearse to maintain at least one simple policy associated with every principals in the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default system dictionary that is used by the spell program that may likewise be used by the KDC as a dictionary of common passwords. The location of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. Other dictionaries may be substituted. The format is one word or phrase per line.

    The following is a Kerberos v5 /etc/krb5/kdc.conf illustration with suggested settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. every rights reserved. # spend is matter to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth Needs touching -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words } Access Control

    The Kerberos administration server allows for granular control of the administrative commands by spend of an access control list (ACL) file (/etc/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file allows for wildcarding of principal names so it is not necessary to list every separate administrator in the ACL file. This feature should be used with powerful care. The ACLs used by Kerberos allow privileges to be broken down into very precise functions that each administrator can perform. If a inevitable administrator only needs to be allowed to maintain read-access to the database then that person should not be granted complete admin privileges. Below is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – Allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • d – Allows the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • m – Allows the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • M – Prohibits the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • c – Allows the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – Allows inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – Allows the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • L – Prohibits the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • * – Short for every privileges (admcil).

  • x – Short for every privileges (admcil). Identical to *.

  • Adding Administrators

    After the ACLs are set up, actual administrator principals should be added to the system. It is strongly recommended that administrative users maintain separate /admin principals to spend only when administering the system. For example, user Lucy would maintain two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin principal would only be used when administering the system, not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to access remote services. Using the /admin principal only for administrative purposes minimizes the random of someone walking up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative commands on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals may be differentiated by the instance share of their principal name. In the case of user principals, the most common instance identifier is /admin. It is criterion rehearse in Kerberos to differentiate user principals by defining some to be /admin instances and others to maintain no specific instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin instance identifier are assumed to maintain administrative privileges defined in the ACL file and should only be used for administrative purposes. A principal with an /admin identifier which does not match up with any entries in the ACL file will not be granted any administrative privileges, it will be treated as a non-privileged user principal. Also, user principals with the /admin identifier are given separate passwords and separate permissions from the non-admin principal for the selfsame user.

    The following is a sample /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. # every rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given complete administrative privilege lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM * # # tom/admin user is allowed to query the database (d), listing principals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@EXAMPLE.COM dlc

    It is highly recommended that the kadm5.acl file be tightly controlled and that users be granted only the privileges they need to effect their assigned tasks.

    Creating Host Keys

    Creating host keys for systems in the realm such as slave KDCs is performed the selfsame pass that creating user principals is performed. However, the -randkey option should always be used, so no one ever knows the actual key for the hosts. Host principals are almost always stored in the keytab file, to be used by root-owned processes that wish to act as Kerberos services for the local host. It is rarely necessary for anyone to actually know the password for a host principal because the key is stored safely in the keytab and is only accessible by root-owned processes, never by actual users.

    When creating keytab files, the keys should always be extracted from the KDC on the selfsame machine where the keytab is to reside using the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If this is not feasible, grasp powerful imbue in transferring the keytab file from one machine to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file could spend these keys from the file in order to gain access to another user or services credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever principal that the key represented and further compromise the security of that Kerberos realm. Some suggestions for transferring the keytab are to spend Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to spend the secure file transfer programs scp or sftp offered with the SSH package (http://www.openssh.org). Another safe fashion is to space the keytab on a removable disk, and hand-deliver it to the destination.

    Hand delivery does not scale well for great installations, so using the Kerberized ftp daemon is perhaps the most convenient and secure fashion available.

    Using NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm need to maintain their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable time limit (default 300 seconds). The safest, most secure pass to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP client and NTP server software (SUNWntpu package). behold the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the individual commands. For more information on configuring NTP, mention to the following Sun BluePrints OnLine NTP articles:

    It is critical that the time be synchronized in a secure manner. A simple denial of service attack on either a client or a server would involve just skewing the time on that system to be outside of the configured clock skew value, which would then forestall anyone from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized services on that system. The default clock-skew value of five minutes is the maximum recommended value.

    The NTP infrastructure must likewise be secured, including the spend of server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security features. Using the Solaris Security Toolkit software (formerly known as JASS) with the secure.driver script to create a minimal system and then installing just the necessary NTP software is one such method. The Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/jass/

    Documentation on the Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/blueprints

    Establishing Password Policies

    Kerberos allows the administrator to define password policies that can be applied to some or every of the user principals in the realm. A password policy contains definitions for the following parameters:

  • Minimum Password Length – The number of characters in the password, for which the recommended value is 8.

  • Maximum Password Classes – The number of different character classes that must be used to effect up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and valid values are 1, 2, and 3. The recommended value is 2.

  • Saved Password History – The number of previous passwords that maintain been used by the principal that cannot be reused. The recommended value is 3.

  • Minimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password must be used before it can be changed. The recommended value is 3600 (1 hour).

  • Maximum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The maximum time that the password can be used before it must be changed. The recommended value is 7776000 (90 days).

  • These values can be set as a group and stored as a separate policy. Different policies can be defined for different principals. It is recommended that the minimum password length be set to at least 8 and that at least 2 classes be required. Most people mind to elect easy-to-remember and easy-to-type passwords, so it is a respectable thought to at least set up policies to hearten slightly more difficult-to-guess passwords through the spend of these parameters. Setting the Maximum Password Lifetime value may be helpful in some environments, to coerce people to change their passwords periodically. The era is up to the local administrator according to the overriding corporate security policy used at that particular site. Setting the Saved Password History value combined with the Minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from simply switching their password several times until they win back to their original or favorite password.

    The maximum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which only supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption method, DES-CBC-CRC. In order to forestall password guessing attacks, it is recommended that users elect long passwords or pass phrases. The 255 character limit allows one to elect a tiny sentence or simple to remember phrase instead of a simple one-word password.

    It is possible to spend a dictionary file that can be used to forestall users from choosing common, easy-to-guess words (see “Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is only used when a principal has a policy association, so it is highly recommended that at least one policy be in upshot for every principals in the realm.

    The following is an illustration password policy creation:

    If you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin displays the syntax (usage information) for that command. The following code box shows this, followed by an actual add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] policy options are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy Policy: passpolicy Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of antediluvian keys kept: 3 Reference count: 0

    This illustration creates a password policy called passpolicy which enforces a maximum password lifetime of 90 days, minimum length of 8 characters, a minimum of 2 different character classes (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password history of 3.

    To apply this policy to an existing user, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@EXAMPLE.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy that is applied to every user principals in a realm, change the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 default kadmin: get_policy default Policy: default Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of antediluvian keys kept: 3 Reference count: 1

    The Reference weigh value indicates how many principals are configured to spend the policy.

    The default policy is automatically applied to every original principals that are not given the selfsame password as the principal title when they are created. Any account with a policy assigned to it is uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /etc/krb5/kdc.conf) to check for common passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC system should be made regularly or according to local policy. However, backups should exclude the /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local policy requires that backups be done over a network, then these backups should be secured either through the spend of encryption or possibly by using a separate network interface that is only used for backup purposes and is not exposed to the selfsame traffic as the non-backup network traffic. Backup storage media should always be kept in a secure, fireproof location.

    Monitoring the KDC

    Once the KDC is configured and running, it should be continually and vigilantly monitored. The Sun Kerberos v5 software KDC logs information into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, but this location can be modified in the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging section.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should maintain read and write permissions for the root user only, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root other 750 25 May 10 17:55 /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos Options

    The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file contains information that every Kerberos applications spend to determine what server to talk to and what realm they are participating in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is covered in the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism Software Installation Guide. likewise mention to the krb5.conf(4) man page for a complete description of this file.

    The appdefaults section in the krb5.conf file contains parameters that control the behavior of many Kerberos client tools. Each utensil may maintain its own section in the appdefaults section of the krb5.conf file.

    Many of the applications that spend the appdefaults section, spend the selfsame options; however, they might be set in different ways for each client application.

    Kerberos Client Applications

    The following Kerberos applications can maintain their behavior modified through the user of options set in the appdefaults section of the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file or by using various command-line arguments. These clients and their configuration settings are described below.

    kinit

    The kinit client is used by people who want to obtain a TGT from the KDC. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following kinit options: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.

    telnet

    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that control its behavior. mention to the man page for complete information. However, there are several absorbing security issues involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet client uses a session key even after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains active even after the ticket originally used to gain access, is no longer valid. This is insecure in a strict environment, however, the trade off between ease of spend and strict security tends to skinny in favor of ease-of-use in this situation. It is recommended that the telnet connection be re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a original ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is defined by the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), normally defined as eight hours.

    The telnet client allows the user to forward a copy of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system using the -f and -F command-line options. The -f option sends a non-forwardable copy of the local TGT to the remote system so that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other local Kerberized services on that system only. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the remote system so that the TGT can be used from the remote system to gain further access to other remote Kerberos services beyond that point. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward options are set to erroneous in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments can be used to override those settings, thus giving individuals the control over whether and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x option should be used to gyrate on encryption for the data stream. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not back encryption, the session is closed. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following telnet options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the client to try and attempt to log in without prompting the user for a user name. The local user title is passed on to the remote system in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh clients behave much the selfsame as their non-Kerberized equivalents. Because of this, it is recommended that if they are required to be included in the network files such as /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the root users directory be removed. The Kerberized versions maintain the added capitalize of using Kerberos protocol for authentication and can likewise spend Kerberos to protect the privacy of the session using encryption.

    Similar to telnet described previously, the rlogin and rsh clients spend a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. Thus, for maximum security, rlogin and rsh sessions should be re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x options in the selfsame style as the telnet client. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following rlogin options: forward, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line options override configuration file settings. For example, if the rsh section in the krb5.conf file indicates encrypt false, but the -x option is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.

    rcp

    Kerberized rcp can be used to transfer files securely between systems using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It does not prompt for passwords, the user must already maintain a valid TGT before using rcp if they wish to spend the encryption feature. However, beware if the -x option is not used and no local credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the standard, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. It is highly recommended that users always spend the -x option when using the Kerberized rcp client.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] option.

    login

    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is separate from the criterion Solaris OE login daemon and thus, the criterion Solaris OE features such as BSM auditing are not yet supported when using this daemon. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is set to true, then the login program will generate a original Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the user upon proper authentication.

    ftp

    The Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp client uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 as the default mechanism. This means that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption through the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The only Kerberos-related command-line options are -f and -m. The -f option is the selfsame as described above for telnet (there is no need for a -F option). -m allows the user to specify an alternative GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to spend the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The protection flat used for the data transfer can be set using the protect command at the ftp prompt. Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports the following protection levels:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • Safe data is integrity protected using cryptographic checksums

  • Private data is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • It is recommended that users set the protection flat to private for every data transfers. The ftp client program does not back or reference the krb5.conf file to find any optional parameters. every ftp client options are passed on the command line. behold the man page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In summary, adding Kerberos to a network can augment the overall security available to the users and administrators of that network. Remote sessions can be securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks can be secured and encrypted across the network. In addition, Kerberos allows the database of user and service principals to be managed securely from any machine which supports the SEAM software Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with other RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and some MS Windows 2000 active Directory services. Adopting the practices recommended in this section further secure the SEAM software infrastructure to wait on ensure a safer network environment.

    Implementing the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Software and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This section provides a high-level overview, followed by the in-depth procedures that recount the setup necessary to implement the GSSAPI mechanism and the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of EXAMPLE.COM for this purpose. The following list gives an initial high-level overview of the steps required, with the next section providing the circumstantial information.

  • Setup DNS on the client machine. This is an distinguished step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • Install and configure the Sun ONE Directory Server version 5.2 software.

  • Check that the directory server and client both maintain the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • Install and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • Move the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /etc/gss/mech file.

  • Create original principals using kadmin.local, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration system.

  • Modify the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This access is necessary for the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • Check that you maintain a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • Perform an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line utensil from the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software to test and verify.

  • The sections that succeed fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS Client

    To be a DNS client, a machine must dash the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a separate program. It is a set of dynamic library routines used by applications that need to know machine names. The resolver’s function is to resolve users’ queries. To enact that, it queries a title server, which then returns either the requested information or a referral to another server. Once the resolver is configured, a machine can request DNS service from a title server.

    The following illustration shows you how to configure the resolv.conf(4) file in the server kdc1 in the example.com domain.

    ; ; /etc/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; domain example.com nameserver 192.168.0.0 nameserver 192.168.0.1

    The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain title in the form:

    domain domainname

    No spaces or tabs are permitted at the terminate of the domain name. effect confident that you press recrudesce immediately after the terminal character of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself in the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-only title servers that the resolver should consult to resolve queries. title server entries maintain the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP address of a slave or cache-only DNS title server. The resolver queries these title servers in the order they are listed until it obtains the information it needs.

    For more circumstantial information of what the resolv.conf file does, mention to the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (Master KDC)

    In the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm title = EXAMPLE.COM

  • DNS domain title = example.com

  • Master KDC = kdc1.example.com

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • Online wait on URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This procedure requires that DNS is running.

    Before you open this configuration process, effect a backup of the /etc/krb5 files.

  • Become superuser on the master KDC. (kdc1, in this example)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You need to change the realm names and the names of the servers. behold the krb5.conf(4) man page for a complete description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = kdc1.example.com admin server = kdc1.example.com } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = { help_url = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956 }

    In this example, the lines for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and every domain_realm entries were changed. In addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ in the [realms] section was deleted and the line that defines the help_url was edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You must change the realm name. behold the kdc.conf( 4) man page for a complete description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM= { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s need touching ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth }

    In this example, only the realm title definition in the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database by using the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s option, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself before the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key title 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will be prompted for the database Master Password. It is distinguished that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: key

    The -r option followed by the realm title is not required if the realm title is equivalent to the domain title in the server’s title space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access control list file (kadm5.acl).

    Once populated, the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file contains every principal names that are allowed to administer the KDC. The first entry that is added might scrutinize similar to the following:

    lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM *

    This entry gives the lucy/admin principal in the EXAMPLE.COM realm the talent to modify principals or policies in the KDC. The default installation includes an asterisk (*) to match every admin principals. This default could be a security risk, so it is more secure to embrace a list of every of the admin principals. behold the kadm5.acl(4) man page for more information.

  • Edit the /etc/gss/mech file.

    The /etc/gss/mech file contains the GSSAPI based security mechanism names, its kick identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the services for that mechanism under the GSSAPI. Change the following from:

    # Mechanism title kick Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism title kick Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    You can add as many admin principals as you need. But you must add at least one admin principal to complete the KDC configuration process. In the following example, lucy/admin is added as the principal.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.local kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Re-enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin.local:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind service.

    The following command sequence creates a special keytab file with principal entries for lucy and tom. These principals are needed for the kadmind service. In addition, you can optionally add NFS service principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and so on.

    When the principal instance is a host name, the fully qualified domain title (FQDN) must be entered in lowercase letters, regardless of the case of the domain title in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal kadmin/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption kind DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal changepw/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption kind DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local:

    Once you maintain added every of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin.local as follows:

    kadmin.local: quit
  • Start the Kerberos daemons as shown:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc start kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master start

    Note

    You desist the Kerberos daemons by running the following commands:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals by using the SEAM Administration Tool.

    To enact this, you must log on with one of the admin principal names that you created earlier in this procedure. However, the following command-line illustration is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the master KDC host principal which is used by Kerberized applications such as klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/kdc1.example.com Principal "host/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • (Optional) Create the master KDC root principal which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/kdc1.example.com Enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Re-enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Principal "root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host principal to the master KDC’s keytab file which allows this principal to be used automatically.

    kadmin: ktadd host/kdc1.example.com kadmin: Entry for principal host/kdc1.example.com with ->kvno 3, encryption kind DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    Once you maintain added every of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: quit
  • Run the kinit command to obtain and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the principal.

    This ticket is used for authentication by the Kerberos v5 system. kinit only needs to be dash by the client at this time. If the Sun ONE directory server were a Kerberos client also, this step would need to be done for the server. However, you may want to spend this to verify that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/kdclient.example.com Password for root/kdclient.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: passwd
  • Check and verify that you maintain a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reports if there is a keytab file and displays the principals. If the results prove that there is no keytab file or that there is no NFS service principal, you need to verify the completion of every of the previous steps.

    # klist -k Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO Principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/host.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

    The illustration given here assumes a separate domain. The KDC may reside on the selfsame machine as the Sun ONE directory server for testing purposes, but there are security considerations to grasp into account on where the KDCs reside.

  • With regards to the configuration of Kerberos v5 in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software, you are finished with the Kerberos v5 part. It’s now time to scrutinize at what is required to be configured on the Sun ONE directory server side.

    Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As previously discussed, the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), is criterion interface that enables you to spend a security mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate clients. The server uses the GSSAPI to actually validate the identity of a particular user. Once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to apply the GSSAPI mapping rules to obtain a DN that is the bind DN for every operations during the connection.

    The first detail discussed is the original identity mapping functionality.

    The identity mapping service is required to map the credentials of another protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the directory server. As you will behold in the following example, the identity mapping feature uses the entries in the cn=identity mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each protocol is defined and whereby each protocol must effect the identity mapping. For more information on the identity mapping feature, mention to the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Documents.

    To effect the GSSAPI Configuration for the Sun ONE Directory Server Software
  • Check and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is returned as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    Example of using ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and win the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s groundwork "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=EXTERNAL supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • Verify that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    By default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    Example of using ldapsearch to verify that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=Directory Manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=security,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # Should return # cn=SASL, cn=security, cn=config objectClass=top objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/Sun/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the Sun ONE Directory Server so that it contains the redress suffix for your directory server.

    You need to enact this because by default, no GSSAPI mappings are defined in the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

    Example of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: default dsMappedDN: uid=${Principal},ou=people,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: ${Principal} dsMatching-regexp: (.*)@example.com dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com

    It is distinguished to effect spend of the ${Principal} variable, because it is the only input you maintain from SASL in the case of GSSAPI. Either you need to build a dn using the ${Principal} variable or you need to effect pattern matching to behold if you can apply a particular mapping. A principal corresponds to the identity of a user in Kerberos.

    You can find an illustration GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    The following is an illustration using ldapmodify to enact this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -f identity-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • Perform a test using ldapsearch.

    To effect this test, kind the following ldapsearch command as shown below, and respond the prompt with the kinit value you previously defined.

    Example of using ldapsearch to test the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@EXAMPLE.COM" -b "" -s groundwork "(objectclass=*)"

    The output that is returned should be the selfsame as without the -o option.

    If you enact not spend the -h hostname option, the GSS code ends up looking for a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an oversight occurs.


  • Guide to vendor-specific IT security certifications | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Despite the wide selection of vendor-specific information technology security certifications, identifying which...

    ones best suit your educational or career needs is fairly straightforward.

    This usher to vendor-specific IT security certifications includes an alphabetized table of security certification programs from various vendors, a brief description of each certification and counsel for further details.

    Introduction: Choosing vendor-specific information technology security certifications

    The process of choosing the right vendor-specific information technology security certifications is much simpler than choosing vendor-neutral ones. In the vendor-neutral landscape, you must evaluate the pros and cons of various programs to select the best option. On the vendor-specific side, it's only necessary to succeed these three steps:

  • Inventory your organization's security infrastructure and identify which vendors' products or services are present.
  • Check this usher (or vendor websites, for products not covered here) to determine whether a certification applies to the products or services in your organization.
  • Decide if spending the time and money to obtain such credentials (or to fund them for your employees) is worth the resulting benefits.
  • In an environment where qualified IT security professionals can elect from numerous job openings, the benefits of individual training and certifications can be arduous to appraise.

    Many employers pay certification costs to develop and retain their employees, as well as to boost the organization's in-house expertise. Most behold this as a win-win for employers and employees alike, though employers often require complete or partial reimbursement for the related costs incurred if employees leave their jobs sooner than some specified payback era after certification.

    There maintain been quite a few changes since the terminal survey update in 2015. The Basic category saw a substantial jump in the number of available IT security certifications due to the addition of several Brainbench certifications, in addition to the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) Cyber Ops certification, the Fortinet Network Security Expert Program and original IBM certifications. 

    2017 IT security certification changes

    Certifications from AccessData, Check Point, IBM and Oracle were added to the Intermediate category, increasing the total number of certifications in that category, as well. However, the number of certifications in the Advanced category decreased, due to several IBM certifications being retired. 

    Vendor IT security certifications Basic information technology security certifications 

    Brainbench basic security certificationsBrainbench offers several basic-level information technology security certifications, each requiring the candidate to pass one exam. Brainbench security-related certifications include:

  • Backup Exec 11d (Symantec)
  • Check Point FireWall-1 Administration
  • Check Point Firewall-1 NG Administration
  • Cisco Security
  • Microsoft Security
  • NetBackup 6.5 (Symantec)
  • Source: Brainbench Information Security Administrator certifications

    CCNA Cyber OpsPrerequisites: nonexistent required; training is recommended.

    This associate-level certification prepares cybersecurity professionals for drudgery as cybersecurity analysts responding to security incidents as share of a security operations seat team in a great organization.

    The CCNA Cyber Ops certification requires candidates to pass two written exams.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Cyber Ops

    CCNA SecurityPrerequisites: A valid Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching, Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician or Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification.

    This credential validates that associate-level professionals are able to install, troubleshoot and monitor Cisco-routed and switched network devices for the purpose of protecting both the devices and networked data.

    A person with a CCNA Security certification can be expected to understand core security concepts, endpoint security, web and email content security, the management of secure access, and more. He should likewise be able to demonstrate skills for building a security infrastructure, identifying threats and vulnerabilities to networks, and mitigating security threats. CCNA credential holders likewise possess the technical skills and expertise necessary to manage protection mechanisms such as firewalls and intrusion prevention systems, network access, endpoint security solutions, and web and email security.

    The successful completion of one exam is required to obtain this credential.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Security

    Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80Prerequisites: Basic information of networking; CCSA training and six months to one year of sustain with Check Point products are recommended.

    Check Point's foundation-level credential prepares individuals to install, configure and manage Check Point security system products and technologies, such as security gateways, firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs). Credential holders likewise possess the skills necessary to secure network and internet communications, upgrade products, troubleshoot network connections, configure security policies, protect email and message content, safeguard networks from intrusions and other threats, anatomize attacks, manage user access in a corporate LAN environment, and configure tunnels for remote access to corporate resources.

    Candidates must pass a separate exam to obtain this credential.

    Source: Check Point CCSA Certification

    IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0Prerequisites: IBM suggests that candidates be highly confidential with the IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 console. They should maintain sustain taking actions; activating analyses; and using Fixlets, tasks and baselines in the environment. They should likewise understand patching, component services, client log files and troubleshooting within IBM Endpoint Manager.

    This credential recognizes professionals who spend IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 daily. Candidates for this certification should know the key concepts of Endpoint Manager, be able to recount the system's components and be able to spend the console to effect routine tasks.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Editor's note: IBM is retiring this certification as of May 31, 2017; there will be a follow-on test available as of April 2017 for IBM BigFix Compliance V9.5 Fundamental Administration, Test C2150-627.

    Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0

    IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud ProtectionPrerequisites: IBM recommends that candidates maintain sustain with network data communications, network security, and the Windows and Mac operating systems.

    This credential pertains mainly to sales engineers who back the Trusteer Fraud product portfolio for web fraud management, and who can implement a Trusteer Fraud solution. Candidates must understand Trusteer product functionality, know how to deploy the product, and be able to troubleshoot the product and anatomize the results.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud Protection

    McAfee Product SpecialistPrerequisites: nonexistent required; completion of an associated training course is highly recommended.

    McAfee information technology security certification holders possess the information and technical skills necessary to install, configure, manage and troubleshoot specific McAfee products, or, in some cases, a suite of products.

    Candidates should possess one to three years of direct sustain with one of the specific product areas.

    The current products targeted by this credential include:

  • McAfee Advanced Threat Defense products
  • McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator and VirusScan products
  • McAfee Network Security Platform
  • McAfee Host Intrusion Prevention
  • McAfee Data Loss Prevention Endpoint products
  • McAfee Security Information and Event Management products
  • All credentials require passing one exam.

    Source: McAfee Certification Program

    Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA)Prerequisites: None; training recommended.

    This credential started as an academic-only credential for students, but Microsoft made it available to the general public in 2012.

    There are 10 different MTA credentials across three tracks (IT Infrastructure with five certs, Database with one and development with four). The IT Infrastructure track includes a Security Fundamentals credential, and some of the other credentials embrace security components or topic areas.

    To win each MTA certification, candidates must pass the corresponding exam. 

    Source: Microsoft MTA Certifications

    Fortinet Network Security Expert (NSE)Prerequisites: Vary by credential.

    The Fortinet NSE program has eight levels, each of which corresponds to a separate network security credential within the program. The credentials are:

  • NSE 1 -- Understand network security concepts.
  • NSE 2 -- Sell Fortinet gateway solutions.
  • NSE 3 (Associate) -- Sell Fortinet advanced security solutions.
  • NSE 4 (Professional) -- Configure and maintain FortiGate Unified Threat Management products.
  • NSE 5 (Analyst) -- Implement network security management and analytics.
  • NSE 6 (Specialist) – Understand advanced security technologies beyond the firewall.
  • NSE 7 (Troubleshooter) -- Troubleshoot internet security issues.
  • NSE 8 (Expert) -- Design, configure, install and troubleshoot a network security solution in a live environment.
  • NSE 1 is open to anyone, but is not required. The NSE 2 and NSE 3 information technology security certifications are available only to Fortinet employees and partners. Candidates for NSE 4 through NSE 8 should grasp the exams through Pearson VUE.

    Source: Fortinet NSE

    Symantec Certified Specialist (SCS)This security certification program focuses on data protection, high availability and security skills involving Symantec products.

    To become an SCS, candidates must select an district of focus and pass an exam. every the exams cover core elements, such as installation, configuration, product administration, day-to-day operation and troubleshooting for the selected focus area.

    As of this writing, the following exams are available:

  • Exam 250-215: Administration of Symantec Messaging Gateway 10.5
  • Exam 250-410: Administration of Symantec Control Compliance Suite 11.x
  • Exam 250-420: Administration of Symantec VIP
  • Exam 250-423: Administration of Symantec IT Management Suite 8.0
  • Exam 250-424: Administration of Data Loss Prevention 14.5
  • Exam 250-425: Administration of Symantec Cyber Security Services
  • Exam 250-426: Administration of Symantec Data seat Security -- Server Advanced 6.7
  • Exam 250-427: Administration of Symantec Advanced Threat Protection 2.0.2
  • Exam 250-428: Administration of Symantec Endpoint Protection 14
  • Exam 250-513: Administration of Symantec Data Loss Prevention 12
  • Source: Symantec Certification

    Intermediate information technology security certifications 

    AccessData Certified Examiner (ACE)Prerequisites: nonexistent required; the AccessData BootCamp and Advanced Forensic Toolkit (FTK) courses are recommended.

    This credential recognizes a professional's proficiency using AccessData's FTK, FTK Imager, Registry Viewer and Password Recovery Toolkit. However, candidates for the certification must likewise maintain moderate digital forensic information and be able to interpret results gathered from AccessData tools.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one online exam (which is free). Although a boot camp and advanced courses are available for a fee, AccessData provides a set of free exam preparation videos to wait on candidates who prefer to self-study.

    The certification is valid for two years, after which credential holders must grasp the current exam to maintain their certification.

    Source: Syntricate ACE Training

    Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) Security Prerequisites: CCNA Security or any CCIE certification.

    This Cisco credential recognizes professionals who are answerable for router, switch, networking device and appliance security. Candidates must likewise know how to select, deploy, back and troubleshoot firewalls, VPNs and intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system products in a networking environment.

    Successful completion of four exams is required.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNP Security

    Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE)Prerequisite: CCSA certification R70 or later.

    This is an intermediate-level credential for security professionals seeking to demonstrate skills at maximizing the performance of security networks.

    A CCSE demonstrates a information of strategies and advanced troubleshooting for Check Point's GAiA operating system, including installing and managing VPN implementations, advanced user management and firewall concepts, policies, and backing up and migrating security gateway and management servers, among other tasks. The CCSE focuses on Check Point's VPN, Security Gateway and Management Server systems.

    To acquire this credential, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: Check Point CCSE program

    Cisco Cybersecurity SpecialistPrerequisites: nonexistent required; CCNA Security certification and an understanding of TCP/IP are strongly recommended.

    This Cisco credential targets IT security professionals who possess in-depth technical skills and information in the province of threat detection and mitigation. The certification focuses on areas such as event monitoring, event analysis (traffic, alarm, security events) and incident response.

    One exam is required.

    Source: Cisco Systems Cybersecurity Specialist

    Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)Prerequisites: nonexistent required; training is recommended.

    The CSSA exam covers basic administration of SonicWall appliances and the network and system security behind such appliances.

    Classroom training is available, but not required to win the CSSA. Candidates must pass one exam to become certified.

    Source: SonicWall Certification programs

    EnCase Certified Examiner (EnCE)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend 64 hours of authorized training or maintain 12 months of computer forensic drudgery experience. Completion of a formal application process is likewise required.

    Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the spend of Guidance Software's EnCase computer forensics tools and software.

    Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a practical component.

    Source: Guidance Software EnCE

    EnCase Certified eDiscovery Practitioner (EnCEP)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend one of two authorized training courses and maintain three months of sustain in eDiscovery collection, processing and project management. A formal application process is likewise required.

    Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the spend of Guidance Software's EnCase eDiscovery software, and it recognizes their proficiency in eDiscovery planning, project management and best practices, from legal hold to file creation.

    EnCEP-certified professionals possess the technical skills necessary to manage e-discovery, including the search, collection, preservation and processing of electronically stored information in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

    Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a scenario component.

    Source: Guidance Software EnCEP Certification Program

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium V10.0Prerequisites: IBM recommends basic information of operating systems and databases, hardware or virtual machines, networking and protocols, auditing and compliance, and information security guidelines.

    IBM Security Guardium is a suite of protection and monitoring tools designed to protect databases and tremendous data sets. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium credential is aimed at administrators who plan, install, configure and manage Guardium implementations. This may embrace monitoring the environment, including data; defining policy rules; and generating reports.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: IBM Security Guardium Certification

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6Prerequisites: IBM recommends a working information of IBM Security QRadar SIEM Administration and IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager, as well as general information of networking, risk management, system administration and network topology.

    QRadar Risk Manager automates the risk management process in enterprises by monitoring network device configurations and compliance. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6 credential certifies administrators who spend QRadar to manage security risks in their organization. Certification candidates must know how to review device configurations, manage devices, monitor policies, schedule tasks and generate reports.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager Certification

    IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1Prerequisites: IBM recommends a basic information of the IBM Security Network Intrusion Prevention System (GX) V4.6.2, IBM Security Network Protection (XGS) V5.3.1, Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Server operating system administration and network security.

    The Security SiteProtector System enables organizations to centrally manage their network, server and endpoint security agents and appliances. The IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1 credential is designed to certify security analysts who spend the SiteProtector System to monitor and manage events, monitor system health, optimize SiteProtector and generate reports.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Security SiteProtector Certification

    Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Certified Security AdministratorPrerequisite: Oracle Certified Professional, Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator.

    This credential aims to certify experienced Solaris 10 administrators with security interest and experience. It's a midrange credential that focuses on general security principles and features, installing systems securely, application and network security, principle of least privilege, cryptographic features, auditing, and zone security.

    A separate exam -- geared toward the Solaris 10 operating system or the OpenSolaris environment -- is required to obtain this credential.

    Source: Oracle Solaris Certification

    Oracle Mobile SecurityPrerequisites: Oracle recommends that candidates understand enterprise mobility, mobile application management and mobile device management; maintain two years of sustain implementing Oracle Access Management Suite Plus 11g; and maintain sustain in at least one other Oracle product family.

    This credential recognizes professionals who create configuration designs and implement the Oracle Mobile Security Suite. Candidates must maintain a working information of Oracle Mobile Security Suite Access Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Administrative Console, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Notification Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Containerization and Oracle Mobile Security Suite Provisioning and Policies. They must likewise know how to deploy the Oracle Mobile Security Suite.

    Although the certification is designed for Oracle PartnerNetwork members, it is available to any candidate. Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: Oracle Mobile Security Certification

    RSA Archer Certified Administrator (CA)Prerequisites: nonexistent required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product sustain as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, administer, maintain and troubleshoot the RSA Archer Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) platform.

    Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on integration and configuration management, security administration, and the data presentation and communication features of the RSA Archer GRC product.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Archer Certification

    RSA SecurID Certified Administrator (RSA Authentication Manager 8.0)Prerequisites: nonexistent required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product sustain as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, maintain and administer enterprise security systems based on RSA SecurID system products and RSA Authentication Manager 8.0.

    RSA SecurID CAs can operate and maintain RSA SecurID components within the context of their operational systems and environments; troubleshoot security and implementation problems; and drudgery with updates, patches and fixes. They can likewise effect administrative functions and populate and manage users, set up and spend software authenticators, and understand the configuration required for RSA Authentication Manager 8.0 system operations.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Authentication Manager Certification

    RSA Security Analytics CAPrerequisites: nonexistent required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product sustain as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    This Dell EMC certification is aimed at security professionals who configure, manage, administer and troubleshoot the RSA Security Analytics product. information of the product's features, as well the talent to spend the product to identify security concerns, are required.

    Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on RSA Security Analytics functions and capabilities, configuration, management, monitoring and troubleshooting.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Security Analytics

    Advanced information technology security certifications 

    CCIE SecurityPrerequisites: nonexistent required; three to five years of professional working sustain recommended.

    Arguably one of the most coveted certifications around, the CCIE is in a league of its own. Having been around since 2002, the CCIE Security track is unrivaled for those interested in dealing with information security topics, tools and technologies in networks built using or around Cisco products and platforms.

    The CCIE certifies that candidates possess expert technical skills and information of security and VPN products; an understanding of Windows, Unix, Linux, network protocols and domain title systems; an understanding of identity management; an in-depth understanding of Layer 2 and 3 network infrastructures; and the talent to configure end-to-end secure networks, as well as to effect troubleshooting and threat mitigation.

    To achieve this certification, candidates must pass both a written and lab exam. The lab exam must be passed within 18 months of the successful completion of the written exam.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCIE Security Certification

    Check Point Certified Managed Security Expert (CCMSE)Prerequisites: CCSE certification R75 or later and 6 months to 1 year of sustain with Check Point products.

    This advanced-level credential is aimed at those seeking to learn how to install, configure and troubleshoot Check Point's Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension.

    Professionals are expected to know how to migrate physical firewalls to a virtualized environment, install and manage an MDM environment, configure high availability, implement global policies and effect troubleshooting.

    Source: Check Point CCMSE

    Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM)Prerequisites: CCSE R70 or later and sustain with Windows Server, Unix, TCP/IP, and networking and internet technologies.

    The CCSM is the most advanced Check Point certification available. This credential is aimed at security professionals who implement, manage and troubleshoot Check Point security products. Candidates are expected to be experts in perimeter, internal, web and endpoint security systems.

    To acquire this credential, candidates must pass a written exam.

    Source: Check Point CCSM Certification

    Certified SonicWall Security Professional (CCSP)Prerequisites: Attendance at an advanced administration training course.

    Those who achieve this certification maintain attained a high flat of mastery of SonicWall products. In addition, credential holders should be able to deploy, optimize and troubleshoot every the associated product features.

    Earning a CSSP requires taking an advanced administration course that focuses on either network security or secure mobile access, and passing the associated certification exam.

    Source: SonicWall CSSP certification

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Tivoli Monitoring V6.3Prerequisites: Security-related requirements embrace basic information of SSL, data encryption and system user accounts.

    Those who attain this certification are expected to be capable of planning, installing, configuring, upgrading and customizing workspaces, policies and more. In addition, credential holders should be able to troubleshoot, administer and maintain an IBM Tivoli Monitoring V6.3 environment.

    Candidates must successfully pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Tivoli Certified Administrator

    Master Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)The Master CSSA is an intermediate between the base-level CSSA credential (itself an intermediate certification) and the CSSP.

    To qualify for Master CSSA, candidates must pass three (or more) CSSA exams, and then email training@sonicwall.com to request the designation. There are no other charges or requirements involved.

    Source: SonicWall Master CSSA

    Conclusion 

    Remember, when it comes to selecting vendor-specific information technology security certifications, your organization's existing or planned security product purchases should impose your options. If your security infrastructure includes products from vendors not mentioned here, be confident to check with them to determine if training or certifications on such products are available.

    About the author:Ed Tittel is a 30-plus year IT veteran who's worked as a developer, networking consultant, technical trainer, writer and expert witness. Perhaps best known for creating the Exam Cram series, Ed has contributed to more than 100 books on many computing topics, including titles on information security, Windows OSes and HTML. Ed likewise blogs regularly for TechTarget (Windows Enterprise Desktop), Tom's IT Pro and GoCertify.



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    Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic ImpactOperations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact
    By Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones
    Publisher : Pearson (Feb 2018)
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    ISBN13 : 9781292176130
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    Subject : Business & Economics
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    Computer Security: Principles and PracticeComputer Security: Principles and Practice
    By William Stallings, Lawrie Brown
    Publisher : Pearson (Aug 2017)
    ISBN10 : 0134794109
    ISBN13 : 9780134794105
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    Subject : Computer Science & Technology
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    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
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    Urban EconomicsUrban Economics
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    Understanding BusinessUnderstanding Business
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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Feb 2018)
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    Publisher : McGraw-Hill (Jan 2018)
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