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000-081 exam Dumps Source : System x Technical Principles V9
Test Code : 000-081
Test appellation : System x Technical Principles V9
Vendor appellation : IBM
: 72 existent Questions
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IBM System x Technical Principles
experiment setup. A strongly attenuated 1550 nm laser is used as an approximate single-photon supply with a scientific pulse-repetition frequency of 1 MHz. within the experimental setup Bob sends the only photons to Alice in a superposition of two time-containers with a relative section, and Alice randomly chooses one in flawless two feasible tasks, error-determine or coding. each side are managed by means of container programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and the operation of the 4 single-photon states is realized with a industrial lithium niobate modulator. PM section modulator. workstation polarization controller. PBS polarization beam splitter. ATT attenuator. CIR optical circulator. FC fiber coupler. SPD superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% detection effectivity, a hundred Hz darkish count expense and 50 ns reset time. PMFC polarization retaining filter coupler. FR Faraday rotator. credit score: mild: Science & applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-three
Quantum cozy direct verbal exchange (QSDC) is an essential department of quantum conversation, according to the principles of quantum mechanics for the direct transmission of classified tips. whereas fresh proof-of-precept experimental reviews tolerate made unbelievable growth; QSDC methods continue to exist to exist implemented in observe. In a fresh examine, Ruoyang Qi and co-workers at the departments of low-dimensional quantum physics, tips know-how, electronics and information engineering, proposed and experimentally applied a practical quantum snug communication gadget.
within the work, Qi et al. analyzed the protection of the device the expend of the Wyner wiretap channel thought. The scientists developed a coding scheme the expend of concatenation (interconnected) low-density parity-determine (LDPC) codes in a realistic environment of immoderate noise and lofty losses. The gadget operated with a repetition fee of 1 MHz throughout a distance of 1.5 kilometers and maintained a comfy communication cost of fifty bps to dispatch textual content messages, moderately sized photographs and sounds. The effects are actually published in gentle: Science & functions.
The travail with the aid of Qi et al. highlighted a sort of QSDC that can switch direct counsel without a distribution key to maintain away from vulnerability to attacks. within the work, the team used a 1550 nm laser to generate single photons that carried comfy quantum counsel, the scientists were in a position to efficaciously decode the tips upon receipt. The system was professional even in practical environments caused by means of lofty photon loss or mistakes brought as a result of noise. The common LDPC code that they used within the peer at for more suitable error-correction efficiency turned into carried out by using the Consulate Committee for space data methods (CCDS) for near-earth and deep-area functions.
global safety is dependent upon snug conversation infrastructures. At existing, communique is secured by means of encryption options such as the RSA public key scheme. The secrecy means is described because the supremum of flawless workable transmission fees with protection and reliability. In observe, it is problematic to rate the secrecy capacity in classical communique programs due to the difficulty with eavesdropping detection. In quantum systems, single photons or entangled photon pairs can transmit digital advice, giving upward shove to current aspects in quantum cryptography, impossible in classical transmission media. In principle, it's unimaginable to eavesdrop with out disturbing the transmission in an application to maintain away from detection in such a setup.
the primary quantum communique protocol become proposed with the aid of Bennett and Brassard (BB84), in accordance with exploiting quantum materials for comfy key contract. In 2000, QSDC became proposed to communicate information at once and not using a secret key and dispose of loopholes linked to key storage and ciphertext assaults. Subsequent proof-of-precept reviews tolerate verified QSDC primarily based single photons and entangled pairs, together with studies the dwelling a fiber may communicate across a significant distance of 500 m the expend of two-step QSDC protocols.
Illustration of the purposeful DL04-QSDC protocol. The “main channel” and the “wiretap channel” are discrete memoryless channels. The main channel represents a channel between the sender and the amenable receiver, while the wiretap channel represents a channel between the sender and the eavesdropper. credit score: mild: Science & applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3
in the latest examine, Qi et al. carried out a practical quantum secure direct communique system using a technique according to the DL04 protocol (with out a key). according to the Wyner wiretap model, to implement the QSDC system in practice, the gadget should quiet travail under the secrecy faculty of the channel for relaxed counsel transmission. The scientists estimated the secrecy potential of the device using interconnected low-density parity assess (LDPC) codes. They designed the scheme to chiefly operate in immoderate loss and lofty error-price regimes, entertaining for quantum communique. Qi et al. as a consequence tested the QSDC platform might with ease office in a sensible environment.
When imposing the DL04-QSDC protocol, the scientists covered a discrete memoryless 'leading channel' and a 'wiretap channel'. The main channel represented the network between the sender and the receiver. The wiretap channel represented the community between the amenable users and the eavesdropper. The protocol contained four steps:
Hypothetically, Bob is a sound assistance receiver who prepares a succession of qubits. each qubit is randomly in one of the four states (|0>, |1>, |+> and |->). He then sends the sequence of states to the tips sender Alice.
Upon receiving the only photon sequence, Alice randomly chooses some of them and measures them randomly. She publishes the positions, the measuring foundation and dimension outcomes of these single photons. Bob compares this information along with his preparations of these states and estimates the bit-error rate of the Bob-to-Alice channel and informs Alice via a broadcast channel. Alice can then rate the maximum secrecy faculty (Cs) of the Bob-to-Alice channel the usage of the wiretap channel thought.
Alice chooses a coding sequence for the remaining qubits. This scheme is based on the interconnected LDPC codes. She constructs the code phrases and returns them lower back to Bob.
Bob decodes Alice's message from the signals he got after measuring the qubits within the very foundation as he prepared. If the error expense is under the correcting faculty of the LDPC code, the transmission is a success. They then delivery once more from step 1 to ship one more Part of the secret message until they absolutely transmit the entire message. If the error cost is stronger than the correcting faculty of the LDPC code, neither Bob nor the eavesdropper Eve can reap suggestions, by which case they terminate the technique.
Qi et al. used totally attenuated lasers as an approximate single-photon source within the implementation. For enhanced approximation of a single photon source to detect eavesdropping attacks, a decoy condition quantum key distribution formulation can likewise exist used. If the secrecy capability is non-zero for any wiretap channel, i.e. if the amenable receiver has a better channel than the eavesdropper, there exists some coding scheme that achieves flawless secrecy in response to the Wyner mannequin. despite the fact, not flawless coding schemes can guarantee the protection, which essentially is dependent upon particulars of the coding.
Left: Experimental setup. correct: device stability with distinctive message blocks. ex and ez are the error prices of measurements the usage of the X-groundwork and Z-foundation, respectively, at Alice’s web site. e is the error fee at Bob’s web site. The error fee turned into estimated hide by block; each and every hide includes 1312 × 830 pulses. The imply number of photons is 0.1. The inherent want of a quantum channel is 14.5 dB, which includes the efficiency of the detector, ~70%, and the optical aspects, ~13 dB. the entire want of the rig is 25.1 dB at a distance of 1.5 km. credit score: mild: Science & applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3 The scientists then implemented the scheme in a fiber gadget with Part coding, for quantum conversation throughout long distances. during this setup, Bob prepares a succession of single-photon pulses, after polarization control and attenuation, the pulses are prepared as random qubits and sent to Alice's website through a 1.5 km-lengthy fiber. On arrival at Alice's web page, it exist separated in to 2 elements, where one goes to the encoding module and the other to the manage module for error-determine, controlled via box programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) within the setup.
simultaneously encoding happens within the encoding module. If the error-price is smaller than the threshold, the encoding Part is allowed to ship the one photons lower back to Bob by the expend of the very fiber, where they're guided to single photon detectors for size. The scientists controlled the setup along with three Part modulators (PM) and single photon detectors (SPD) to encode messages on the two sites using the FPGAs, that tolerate been extra managed with the aid of higher-place computer systems.
The strong line represents the mutual information between Alice and Bob; by using the noisy-channel coding theorem that transmission rate can not exceed the means of the leading channel. The dotted line is the mutual information between Alice and Eve, the highest information that an eavesdropper can achieve. Symbols symbolize experimental outcomes. at the side of the chosen LDPC code, the coding scheme yields a transmission rate of 0.00096 when the bit-error expense is beneath 10^−6. because the cost is enhanced than the mutual suggestions between Alice and Eve, each the protection and reliability of the counsel transmission are certain. credit score: easy: Science & applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-three in the experimental results, the scientists represented the mutual suggestions versus the want of the gadget as two straight lines. The enviornment between these two strains fashioned the suggestions theoretic cozy enviornment. due to this fact, for a coding scheme with an assistance rate in the targeted area, the security may well exist reliably guaranteed. the usage of the experimental setup, Qi et al. attained a snug information fee of 50 bps, well within the described comfy area.
Illustration of the coding scheme. A message m together with a local random bits r and public random seed s are processed by using the transpose customary hashing households UHF−1 to vector u, after which u is modified by way of LDPC code into v, which is mapped to codeword c and is then despatched to the receiver's website. because of loss and error, receiver Bob receives a degraded codeword, and then he demaps, decodes and obtains the message after performing generic hashing households UHF. credit score: gentle: Science & applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3 The scientists illustrated a coding scheme to guarantee the reliability of transmission for QSDC based on interconnected LDPC codes. Preprocessing was in response to widely wide-spread hashing households (UHF). in the process, for every message (m), the sender Alice generates a local sequence of random bit (r) and public random seed (s). next, she maps to a vector (u) by using the inverse of an accurately chosen UHF (UHF-1), which is then changed with the aid of LDPC code into (v), mapped to codeword (c) and despatched to the receiver's site.
In counsel thought, the noisy-channel coding theorem establishes professional verbal exchange for any given degree of noise illness of a communique channel. To exist positive reliability of the guidance, Alice modulates the pulses that attain the authentic receiver Bob, who makes measurements in the equal basis as he organized them. due to loss and blunder, Bob receives a degraded codeword, which he demaps and decodes after postprocessing with UHF to gain the message.
during this approach, Qi et al. implemented a realistic QSDC gadget in a sensible atmosphere of lofty noise and lofty loss. amongst different suggestions, the scientists used an LDPC code to reduce error and loss within the equipment. They analyzed the safety of the gadget intensive the usage of the Wyner wiretap channel idea. When the secrecy skill turned into non-zero; a coding scheme with an assistance rate lower than the secrecy potential ensured both protection and reliability of the counsel transmission. In complete, the scientists obtained a cozy information rate of 50 bps at a just about meaningful distance of 1.5 km. Qi et al. insinuate these parameters are untimely and envision an superior rig that can integrate the present expertise for a more robust cost of dozens of kbps assistance transmission sooner or later.
explore extra: size-machine-impartial quantum communique with out encryption
extra assistance: Implementation and security evaluation of functional quantum relaxed direct verbal exchange www.nature.com/articles/s41377-019-0132-three, Ruoyang Qi et al. 06 February 2019, easy: Science & purposes.
comfy direct conversation with a quantum one-time pad journals.aps.org/pra/summary/ … 3/PhysRevA.sixty nine.052319, Deng Fuo-Guo and long Gui Li, may additionally 2004, actual review A.
a method for acquiring digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=359342 Rivest R.L. et al. February 1978, Communications of the affiliation for Computing machinery.
A Mathematical theory of conversation dl.acm.org/quotation.cfm?identification=584093, Shannon C.E. October 1948, The Bell gadget Technical Journal, IEEE discover.
© 2019 Science X community
Three months after the American Civil Liberties Union printed that Amazon supplied facial awareness know-how to local law enforcement, a current report indicates that IBM collaborated with the ny metropolis Police fork to expand a gadget that allowed officials to peer for americans by using dermis colour, hair color, gender, age, and a number of facial facets.
The Intercept and the countrywide Institute’s nonprofit Investigative Fund, citing “exclusive corporate files” and interviews with engineers worried with the challenge, write that IBM started developing the analytics platform roughly 10 years ago in partnership with huge apple’s reduce current york security Initiative counterterrorist core, following an previous test with the metropolis of Chicago. at the time, IBM turned into a subcontractor to Microsoft subsidary Vexcel.
using “hundreds” of pictures from roughly 50 cameras supplied by way of the NYPD, its desktop vision system erudite from sixteen,000 elements to identify garb colour and other corporal features, moreover talents threats enjoy unattended packages, americans getting into off-limits areas, and cars speeding up against the circulate of site visitors.
Above: An inside document record the filters supported by IBM’s equipment.
picture credit score: The Intercept
NYPD officials tolerate been reportedly checking out the utility as early as 2012, however spokesperson Peter Donald advised the Intercept its filtering rig tolerate been used most efficient for “comparison functions” and that officers were urged to exclude epidermis tone from searches. quite a few “elected leaders and stakeholders” tolerate been counseled of the department’s efforts, in keeping with Donald, however the details weren’t disclosed publicly.
Donald additionally proven that the department opted now not to set up the application, finally, and that it explicitly rejected an enhanced edition that could peer for individuals in response to ethnicity. (The Intercept notes that IBM’s intelligent Video Analytics 2.0, which become launched in 2017, offers a cadaver camera surveillance office that instantly labels people via tags akin to “Asian,” “Black,” and “White.”)
“Video, from time to time, become supplied to IBM to create positive that the product they were constructing would travail in the crowded city NYC atmosphere and aid us protect the city. there's nothing within the NYPD’s constrict with IBM that prohibits sharing facts with IBM for rig construction applications. further, flawless vendors who enter into contractual agreements with the NYPD tolerate absolutely the requirement to maintain flawless information furnished via the NYPD personal privilege through the time period of the contract, after the completion of the settlement, and in the adventure that the constrict is terminated.”
“IBM is committed to responsibly advancing and using current technologies and is identified for guidelines that promote diversity and inclusion,” IBM wrote in an announcement supplied to VentureBeat. “These values are why we're making publicly obtainable to other businesses a dataset of annotations for more than a million photos to aid remedy one of the biggest issues in facial evaluation — the inability of different information to educate AI systems.”
Facial attention methods tolerate these days near below improved scrutiny, and with respectable motive.
In July, the ACLU established that Amazon’s consciousness could, when calibrated a inevitable method, misidentify 28 sitting participants of Congress as criminals. A examine in 2012, meanwhile, confirmed that facial algorithms from dealer Cognitec performed 5 to 10 % worse on African-americans than on Caucasians. extra recently, it was published that a device deployed by way of London’s Metropolitan Police produces as many as 49 inaccurate fits for every hit.
Rick Smith, CEO of Axon, one of the most biggest suppliers of cadaver cameras in the U.S., become previous this summer time quoted as announcing that facial focus isn’t yet rectify enough for legislation enforcement applications.
“[They aren’t] where they requisite to exist to exist making operational selections off the facial attention,” he observed. “here is one where they believe you don’t want to exist premature and swirl out to exist either the dwelling you tolerate got technical failures with disastrous effects or … there’s some unintended expend case where it finally ends up being unacceptable publicly in terms of lengthy-time period expend of the technology.”
In a weblog submit in August, AWS everyday manager Matt wood wrote that “there tolerate flawless the time been and may at flawless times exist dangers” with current technological capabilities and that it’s up to companies to “act responsibly.” And in a press release today, IBM stated that it’s “one of the first agencies any dwelling to adopt a set of principles for tolerate faith and transparency for current technologies, including AI techniques.”
youngsters, critics — including Microsoft president Brad Smith, who in July called on lawmakers to investigate face-detecting algorithms and craft policies guiding their utilization — quarrel their efforts don’t travel a long way sufficient.
“think about a government monitoring everywhere you walked during the last month without your authorization or advantage. reflect about a database of every person who attended a political rally that constitutes the very essence of free speech. reflect about the outlets of a searching mall using facial attention to participate counsel with each and every other about every shelf that you browse and product you buy, devoid of asking you first. This has lengthy been the stuff of science fiction and accepted movies — like Minority document, Enemy of the State, and even 1984 — however now it’s on the verge of fitting possible,” Smith wrote.
Taking a glance again at 2018, it amazes me that the cybercrime danger landscape continues to preempt itself 12 months after year. over the last yr, we’ve viewed historical breaches, the invention of tremendous-scale vulnerabilities, the emergence of the reliance fiscal system and regulators making an attempt to aid create sense of flawless of it.
The looming generic statistics protection rules (GDPR) time restrict at last got here in might likewise after organizations spent years making ready. Now we’re in the GDPR era, and we’re nevertheless seeing organizations struggle to interpret and handle the law. agencies are asking themselves, may quiet they expose every practicable incident to exist lined or expend more time investigating incidents to ascertain them?
We likewise saw many unintended consequences from the GDPR, including the removal of WHOIS information that possibility intelligence consultants count on to determine malicious domains used via fraudsters. They realized that in Europe, agencies will requisite to perambulate through travail councils to acquire approval to deploy endpoint insurance policy rig within the wake of an incident as a result of the privacy regulation. This gives attackers a significant expertise to harvest data for an extensive amount of time — upwards of 30 to 90 days.
one in every of my protection predictions for 2018 became that agencies will delivery to score response right. We’ve viewed some progress on this, however there’s quiet loads of travail to exist carried out here. considering they opened their Cyber ambit in Cambridge, Massachusetts two years in the past, we’ve had more than 2,000 people suffer what it’s enjoy to respond to an attack.
We’ve seen many trade corporations near collectively in the Cyber latitude and collaborate to aid their entire industries. They additionally launched their Cyber Tactical Operations core (C-TOC), an 18-wheeler that should exist traveling Europe in 2019 to handle the extended demand for preparedness training. Of route, there’s at flawless times latitude for growth, but their traffic is making growth, and for that, I’m proud.
So what lies ahead in 2019? How will the cybercrime probability landscape change and evolve?
precise experts from IBM X-drive had been examining emerging developments and clues this year, which they reliance are warning signs of expertise major cybercriminal exercise in 2019. beneath, these consultants demonstrate their constant safety predictions for 2019 based on insights from their analysis and travail with clients. The predictions span a ambit of lore assault schemes and consequences, from industry-selected prognostications to a swift enlargement of emerging criminal schemes.
First, a few my very own predictions:
Social Insecurity Numbers Dropped for entry
With most americans’ sociable security numbers a shared secret after 2017, businesses will start to circulation away from the expend of the numbers as a kindhearted of access. In specific, corporate advantages classes frequently nevertheless expend sociable safety numbers as an identifier. hope companies and benefits programs to evolve their authentication methods ahead of regulators.
What corporations can do: cease the expend of sociable safety numbers for identification. instead, expend one-time PIN to set up money owed tied to two-factor authentication. additionally, further expend of biometrics for authentication.
unexpected penalties of the GDPR
2018 became flawless about implementation of GDPR and getting businesses organized. In 2019, new, unexpected affects of GDPR on danger intelligence will exist recognized and tolerate broader consequences in cybersecurity. With the removing of WHOIS records, identification of malicious domains linked to unhealthy actors turns into a giant problem, and we’ll seemingly behold malicious domains ramp up. businesses in Europe will battle to eradicate attackers from networks and devices as a result of a 30- to 90-day waiting length to installation endpoint insurance policy after an incident. My hope is that regulators, travail councils and safety traffic leaders can travail together in 2019 to establish some exceptions by which safety takes precedent.
possible answer: better collaboration between regulators, travail councils and protection traffic leaders to establish exceptions to regulations when protection inadvertently may endure as a result of the rules.
Now, some predictions from my fellow X-drive group individuals:
automated client service systems in Attackers’ sights
Kiosk and different self-provider techniques tolerate develop into further and further Part of their world. retailers, airways, inns and public buildings are the usage of these methods to pace up determine-ins and prick back labor expenses. In 2018, they saw a resurgence in ATM hacking, and they hope in 2019 to peer public-dealing with self-provider programs centered as a method to harvest helpful consumer information.
– Charles Henderson, X-drive purple
What agencies can do: examine hardware and utility earlier than criminals tolerate an chance to. season physical interfaces and disable unused ports on the hardware level. When the expend of third-birthday celebration accessories, create positive that they are nevertheless supported by the brand.
hearken to the podcast: highlight on ATM trying out
A Cyber assurance Market veracity check
The expand of cybersecurity insurance has risen alongside the epic growth of cybercrime. while a advantageous tool to exploit costs of a security incident or facts breach, businesses tolerate develop into too reliant on coverage, avoiding investment in different preventative applied sciences and response capabilities. In 2019, we’ll behold nearer teaming between cyber insurance providers and security vendors to fill the rising hole created by the market.
– Christopher Scott, X-force Incident Response and Intelligence functions (IRIS)
possible solution: providers of managed protection services and cyber coverage crew up collectively to present consulting features, check desultory and keep into result shielding strategies.
Have records, Will trip
Cybercriminals will shift their attractions to the lucrative databases of non-public facts maintained by way of commute and hospitality agencies. In 2018, they saw the tip of the iceberg with high-profile breaches at airways and inn chains. forecast extra mega breaches during this zone in 2019 as cybercriminals appear to monetize rewards facets and accumulate current credentials, reminiscent of passport numbers and driver licenses, to set up identities for online crime. This facts may additionally antecedent targeted, trip-linked phishing, tapping a person’s pursuits, motivations and connections.
– Wendi Whitmore, X-drive IRIS
What agencies can do: installation information obfuscation applied sciences, encryption and ordinary database undertaking monitoring. behavior common protection testing and tolerate an incident response plot in location. commonly audit the storage necessities for for my Part identifiable suggestions (PII) and set expirations for how long sensitive statistics is kept.
facts of Cybercriminal inventory Manipulation
There’s growing speculation that some shorting of shares may likewise exist tied to cyberattacks. Are criminals taking Part to time their assaults for economic benefit? In 2019, they forecast these schemes might exist extra exposed and possibly prosecuted as government regulators seize note of this exercise.
– Dustin Heywood, X-force purple
viable answer: A trespass of a public enterprise is now both a technical head as well as a fiscal disaster. rapid manipulation of stock costs can occur as a result of unsafe guys seeking to earnings or hedge cash reacting to breaking news. Your quicken of response and precision of communications will count. businesses requisite to construct and peer at various their runbooks forward of time.
Crypto-Mining Powered by way of PowerShell
PowerShell expend for malicious actions has endured to develop in 2018. IBM X-force IRIS saw the tool used by way of malicious actors to inject malware at once into memory, raise obfuscation and tarry away from antivirus detection application. In 2019, X-force IRIS anticipates that crypto-mining rig will expend PowerShell to load fileless malware onto compromised systems — corresponding to said recreation by means of the crypto-miner GhostMiner prior this yr.
– Dave McMillen, X-force IRIS
What companies can do: agencies will are looking to ensure that they are logging, monitoring and auditing PowerShell expend in their networks. This can likewise exist finished via leveraging the newest version of PowerShell and enabling logging via neighborhood coverage Settings. These logs should exist forwarded to a pertinent dwelling the dwelling they may likewise exist analyzed.
besides logging, companies the expend of home windows 10 should quiet create inevitable to enforce an antivirus answer it really is suitable with the Anti Malware Scanning Interface (AMSI). This interface gives antivirus products the capacity to check out PowerShell code before it's achieved, allowing the product to cease malicious PowerShell earlier than it might probably run.
Meet more IBM security flawless Stars
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Kiran Medical Systems, the radiology division of Trivitron Healthcare, has ventured into Color Doppler Ultrasound with the launch of Kiran SonoRad V9 Color Doppler in India. SonoRad V9 is a superior Color Doppler Ultrasound which can exist used for wide ambit of clinical applications. The unique features of SonoRad V9 will further provide maximum value at an affordable cost and is ideal for nursing homes, diagnostic centres and great & mid-size hospitals.
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SonoRad V9 comes with strong technical features enjoy 38 cm depth penetration, 4D, existent Skin Imaging Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging, Panoramic Imaging, existent time Doppler auto-trace, Anatomical M-mode with special 3 cursors, advanced ergonomics with omni-directional mechanic arm and 19” LED Monitor with 170 degree wide view. It supports wide variety of probes to suit major applications enjoy Obstretics/Gynaecology, Radiology with lofty performance. SonoRad V9 supports cardiology features enjoy TDI as well and CW/PW/HPRF is available with supporting probe. SonoRad V9 will exist a privilege altenative for multi-dimensional and total cadaver Color Doppler with lofty performance to cost ratio.
M Brahadeesh, president - Imaging, Trivitron said, “Trivitron Healthcare Group has been involved in Ultrasound traffic for more than 2 decades through strategic partnership with Hitachi-Aloka. They tolerate an excellent team with loaded suffer in the modality, strong customer connect and dealer network across the country. Kiran SonoRad V9 will exist complimentary to Hitachi's Ultrasound ambit and will expand their customer penetration in Tier II & Tier III locations as well.”
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Having a solid expertise in research and development, Trivitron manufactures and distributes exceptional medical technology products to 180 countries since 1997. With 9 US FDA, CE certified manufacturing facilities; Trivitron spearheads innovation in the fields of newborn screening, In-Vitro Diagnostics, imaging & radiology, radiation protection, critical care and operating latitude solutions.
Experiment setup. A strongly attenuated 1550 nm laser is used as an approximate single-photon source with a systematic pulse-repetition frequency of 1 MHz. In the experimental setup Bob sends the single photons to Alice in a superposition of two time-bins with a relative phase, and Alice randomly chooses one of two practicable tasks, error-check or coding. Both sides are controlled by domain programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and the operation of the four single-photon states is realized with a commercial lithium niobate modulator. PM aspect modulator. PC polarization controller. PBS polarization beam splitter. ATT attenuator. CIR optical circulator. FC fiber coupler. SPD superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% detection efficiency, 100 Hz obscure count rate and 50 ns reset time. PMFC polarization maintaining filter coupler. FR Faraday rotator. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3
Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is an essential fork of quantum communication, based on the principles of quantum mechanics for the direct transmission of classified information. While recent proof-of-principle experimental studies tolerate made remarkable progress; QSDC systems remain to exist implemented in practice. In a recent study, Ruoyang Qi and co-workers at the departments of low-dimensional quantum physics, information technology, electronics and information engineering, proposed and experimentally implemented a practical quantum secure communication system.
In the work, Qi et al. analyzed the security of the system using the Wyner wiretap channel theory. The scientists developed a coding scheme using concatenation (interconnected) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in a realistic environment of lofty noise and lofty losses. The system operated with a repetition rate of 1 MHz across a distance of 1.5 kilometers and maintained a secure communication rate of 50 bps to dispatch text messages, reasonably sized images and sounds. The results are now published in Light: Science & Applications.
The travail by Qi et al. highlighted a profile of QSDC that can transfer direct information without a distribution key to prevent vulnerability to attacks. In the work, the team used a 1550 nm laser to generate single photons that carried secure quantum information, the scientists were able to successfully decode the information upon receipt. The method was amenable even in realistic environments caused by lofty photon loss or errors introduced due to noise. The benchmark LDPC code that they used in the study for better error-correction performance was implemented by the Consulate Committee for Space Data Systems (CCDS) for near-earth and deep-space applications.
Global security depends on secure communication infrastructures. At present, communication is secured via encryption techniques such as the RSA public key scheme. The secrecy capacity is defined as the supremum of flawless achievable transmission rates with security and reliability. In practice, it is difficult to rate the secrecy capacity in classical communication systems due to the difficulty with eavesdropping detection. In quantum systems, single photons or entangled photon pairs can transmit digital information, giving soar to current features in quantum cryptography, unattainable in classical transmission media. In principle, it is impossible to eavesdrop without disturbing the transmission so as to avoid detection in such a setup.
The first quantum communication protocol was proposed by Bennett and Brassard (BB84), based on exploiting quantum resources for secure key agreement. In 2000, QSDC was proposed to communicate information directly without a secret key and liquidate loopholes associated with key storage and ciphertext attacks. Subsequent proof-of-principle studies tolerate demonstrated QSDC based single photons and entangled pairs, including studies where a fiber could communicate across a meaningful distance of 500 m using two-step QSDC protocols.
Illustration of the practical DL04-QSDC protocol. The “main channel” and the “wiretap channel” are discrete memoryless channels. The main channel represents a channel between the sender and the legitimate receiver, while the wiretap channel represents a channel between the sender and the eavesdropper. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3
In the present study, Qi et al. implemented a practical quantum secure direct communication system using a procedure based on the DL04 protocol (without a key). According to the Wyner wiretap model, to implement the QSDC system in practice, the system should travail below the secrecy capacity of the channel for secure information transmission. The scientists estimated the secrecy capacity of the system using interconnected low-density parity check (LDPC) codes. They designed the scheme to specifically operate in lofty loss and lofty error-rate regimes, unique for quantum communication. Qi et al. thus demonstrated the QSDC platform could effectively office in a realistic environment.
When implementing the DL04-QSDC protocol, the scientists included a discrete memoryless 'main channel' and a 'wiretap channel'. The main channel represented the network between the sender and the receiver. The wiretap channel represented the network between the legitimate users and the eavesdropper. The protocol contained four steps:
Hypothetically, Bob is a legitimate information receiver who prepares a sequence of qubits. Each qubit is randomly in one of the four states (|0>, |1>, |+> and |->). He then sends the sequence of states to the information sender Alice.
Upon receiving the single photon sequence, Alice randomly chooses some of them and measures them randomly. She publishes the positions, the measuring basis and measurement results of those single photons. Bob compares this information with his preparations of these states and estimates the bit-error rate of the Bob-to-Alice channel and informs Alice through a broadcast channel. Alice can then rate the maximum secrecy capacity (Cs) of the Bob-to-Alice channel using the wiretap channel theory.
Alice chooses a coding sequence for the remaining qubits. This scheme is based on the interconnected LDPC codes. She constructs the code words and returns them back to Bob.
Bob decodes Alice's message from the signals he received after measuring the qubits in the very basis as he prepared. If the error rate is below the correcting capability of the LDPC code, the transmission is successful. They then start again from step 1 to dispatch another Part of the secret message until they completely transmit the entire message. If the error rate is greater than the correcting capacity of the LDPC code, neither Bob nor the eavesdropper Eve can obtain information, in which case they terminate the process.
Qi et al. used highly attenuated lasers as an approximate single-photon source in the implementation. For better approximation of a single photon source to detect eavesdropping attacks, a decoy condition quantum key distribution method can exist used. If the secrecy capacity is non-zero for any wiretap channel, i.e. if the legitimate receiver has a better channel than the eavesdropper, there exists some coding scheme that achieves flawless secrecy according to the Wyner model. However, not flawless coding schemes can guarantee the security, which essentially depends on details of the coding.
Left: Experimental setup. Right: System stability with different message blocks. ex and ez are the error rates of measurements using the X-basis and Z-basis, respectively, at Alice’s site. e is the error rate at Bob’s site. The error rate was estimated hide by block; each hide contains 1312 × 830 pulses. The imply number of photons is 0.1. The inherent loss of a quantum channel is 14.5 dB, which includes the efficiency of the detector, ~70%, and the optical elements, ~13 dB. The total loss of the system is 25.1 dB at a distance of 1.5 km. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3 The scientists then implemented the scheme in a fiber system with aspect coding, for quantum communication across long distances. In this setup, Bob prepares a sequence of single-photon pulses, after polarization control and attenuation, the pulses are prepared as random qubits and sent to Alice's site through a 1.5 km-long fiber. On arrival at Alice's site, it's separated in to two parts, where one goes to the encoding module and the other to the control module for error-check, controlled by domain programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in the setup.
Simultaneously encoding occurs in the encoding module. If the error-rate is smaller than the threshold, the encoding Part is allowed to dispatch the single photons back to Bob via the very fiber, where they are guided to single photon detectors for measurement. The scientists controlled the setup consisting of three aspect modulators (PM) and single photon detectors (SPD) to encode messages at the two sites using the FPGAs, which were further controlled by upper-position computers.
The solid line represents the mutual information between Alice and Bob; by the noisy-channel coding theorem that transmission rate cannot exceed the capacity of the main channel. The dotted line is the mutual information between Alice and Eve, the maximum information that an eavesdropper can obtain. Symbols limn experimental results. Together with the chosen LDPC code, the coding scheme yields a transmission rate of 0.00096 when the bit-error rate is under 10^−6. Because the rate is greater than the mutual information between Alice and Eve, both the security and reliability of the information transmission are assured. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3 In the experimental results, the scientists represented the mutual information versus the loss of the system as two straight lines. The zone between these two lines formed the information theoretic secure area. As a result, for a coding scheme with an information rate within the specified area, the security could exist reliably guaranteed. Using the experimental setup, Qi et al. attained a secure information rate of 50 bps, well within the defined secure area.
Illustration of the coding scheme. A message m together with a local random bits r and public random seed s are processed by the transpose universal hashing families UHF−1 to vector u, and then u is changed by LDPC code into v, which is mapped to codeword c and is then sent to the receiver's site. Because of loss and error, receiver Bob receives a degraded codeword, and then he demaps, decodes and obtains the message after performing universal hashing families UHF. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3 The scientists illustrated a coding scheme to guarantee the reliability of transmission for QSDC based on interconnected LDPC codes. Preprocessing was based on universal hashing families (UHF). In the process, for each message (m), the sender Alice generates a local sequence of random bit (r) and public random seed (s). Next, she maps to a vector (u) by the inverse of an appropriately chosen UHF (UHF-1), which is then changed by LDPC code into (v), mapped to codeword (c) and sent to the receiver's site.
In information theory, the noisy-channel coding theorem establishes amenable communication for any given degree of noise contamination of a communication channel. To ensure reliability of the information, Alice modulates the pulses that attain the legitimate receiver Bob, who makes measurements in the very basis as he prepared them. Due to loss and error, Bob receives a degraded codeword, which he demaps and decodes after postprocessing with UHF to obtain the message.
In this way, Qi et al. implemented a practical QSDC system in a realistic environment of lofty noise and lofty loss. Among other techniques, the scientists used an LDPC code to reduce error and loss in the system. They analyzed the security of the system in depth using the Wyner wiretap channel theory. When the secrecy capacity was non-zero; a coding scheme with an information rate less than the secrecy capacity ensured both security and reliability of the information transmission. In total, the scientists obtained a secure information rate of 50 bps at a practically meaningful distance of 1.5 km. Qi et al. imply these parameters are premature and envision an improved system that can integrate the existing technology for a higher rate of dozens of kbps information transmission in the future.
Explore further: Measurement-device-independent quantum communication without encryption
More information: Implementation and security analysis of practical quantum secure direct communication www.nature.com/articles/s41377-019-0132-3, Ruoyang Qi et al. 06 February 2019, Light: Science & Applications.
Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time pad journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/ … 3/PhysRevA.69.052319, Deng Fuo-Guo and Long Gui Li, May 2004, Physical Review A.
A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=359342 Rivest R.L. et al. February 1978, Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery.
A Mathematical Theory of Communication dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=584093, Shannon C.E. October 1948, The Bell System Technical Journal, IEEE Explore.
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Paul Allen funded the evolution of SpaceShipOne, which won the Ansari X Prize in 2004. But Allen’s death last October has affected another space company he founded, Stratolaunch. (credit: J. Foust)
by Roger HandbergMonday, February 18, 2019
Pushing out toward the final frontier is difficult both in the physical sense of edifice vehicles capable of carrying people out into the unknown as well as in the human sense. The former refers to the fact that simply reaching outer space safely and pushing outward from there is expensive, dangerous, and requires a long-term mindset. The lonely tinker working in their garage (e.g. the Wright Brothers) represented one path forward in the early days of human flight, albeit not spaceflight. Spaceflight requires significant resources, which traditionally has meant that the government or other organizations must exist persuaded to provide that funding over relatively long periods of time. The Smithsonian, for example, supported Goddard’s early travail leading to a liquid fueled launch vehicle albeit little in size.
Finding a sponsor for the project, one with profound pockets and a willingness to continue funding even as test flight failures mount up, has been arduous to find historically.
To exist truly successful, spaceflight cannot exist a one-off venture but instead must proceed through distinct steps in the evolution process, from drawings, models to prototypes to actual launch vehicles. That is what distinguishes such developers from leaders pursuing publicity and glory by launching modified rockets as a one-off stunt. Scaling up a prototype to a truly useable flight vehicle, one not experimental in nature, is a long process often fraught with frequent testing failures. Space history is littered with such failures, including spectacular explosions.
Which brings one to the other side of the equation: finding a sponsor for the project, one with profound pockets and a willingness to continue funding even as test flight failures mount up. From spaceflight’s earliest days, such sponsors were arduous to find, with the result that most successful pursuers of spaceflight linked up with national militaries. Funders such as the Smithsonian Institution lacked the profound pockets necessary for more advanced work. The military came looking for usable weapons initially but, in time, supported other space applications that possessed military value such as reconnaissance and communications.
However, these funding sources were often narrowly focused on the mission objective sought by the funding organization. During World War II in Germany, Nazi security officials were reportedly concerned that the builders of the V-2 were more interested in pursuing space exploration than edifice the best military applications. Whether this was constant is unimportant because a similar situation arose later in the United States in the 1950s when US Army leaders were concerned that Werhner von Braun and his team were more interested in reaching orbit than achieving the goal of developing a useful ballistic missile. So, each test launch was reportedly inspected prior to flight to ensure that payload was going downrange, not up into orbit.
After Sputnik 1 was launched in October 1957, US concern became getting to orbit as quickly as practicable especially after the nationally televised Vanguard launch fiasco. Thus, the pattern was set: space advocates could obtain government funding for space activities, but those after the Apollo program were not a priority but rather a “nice to have”. Evidence to this point is seen in the decline in NASA’s relative participate of the US federal budget compared to the its heyday during the Apollo program. This view ignores the reality of how extraordinary the Apollo program was in terms of political support, but even NASA’s budget quickly receded in terms of relative budget participate prior to the Apollo 11 mission landing in 1969.
With the growth of commercial space activities, the impetus for government champion was further lessened since the private sector can finish many of the tasks NASA accomplished or had developed earlier. The federal government continues to fund space activities such as space science missions, while human spaceflight continues as a major office but represents a much lower national priority despite political rhetoric to the balky across multiple presidential administrations.
Searching for alternatives
Given this reality, the search for other, more pristine sources of funding for space evolution began—pristine in that the motives ascribed were not explicitly political or military, although often commercial in ultimate intent. These sponsors motivated by some personal dream or vision of a bold space future. For obvious reasons, such sponsors are arduous to find.
Patrons enter the domain due to their impatience with the pace of progress. They are convinced an chance exists that their investment or involvement but more importantly their vision can.
Such a quest became practicable because the massive and continuous government investment in space technologies ultimately flowed into the commercial sector: the concept of off-the-shelf space technologies became realistic. Commercial startups quiet had to engage in arduous research and development, but the principles were clearer and the lead designers and engineers had both suffer and expertise to bolster their chances at success. This opened the door for patrons to enter the field.
Patrons are individuals and/or families who possess enough resources to invest long term in projects that grabbed their attention. Earlier in history, such individuals funded craft and music and, in some cases, scientists, explorers, and engineers. Their motives varied, but the key was their commitment to a project. In time, as costs rose, governments and large-scale businesses replaced such patrons. Such activities continue today but government funding becomes often an essential facet of the funding. In recent times, patrons tolerate returned to prominence due to government shortfalls or withdrawals from funding a particular area. Otherwise, patrons otherwise enter the domain due to their impatience with the pace of progress. They are convinced an chance exists that their investment or involvement but more importantly their vision can.
Rise of the billionaire space patron
Recently, space activities in several areas tolerate witnessed the recrudesce of the patron to prominence. Vast fortunes are being accumulated by individuals who tolerate interests in pursuing current technology. Some enter the space domain because of what they perceive as a stagnant domain essentially replicating itself without advancing. Their views are driven by their earlier roles as disrupters—that is, generating major changes or else creating current fields of economic growth. These “space baron” billionaires, as Christian Davenport described them in his recent book, are much celebrated, including Paul Allen, Bill Gates, Elon Musk, Richard Branson, and Jeff Bezos. Bill Gates is the one least likely to exist included but his original investments in the Teledesic application was a change agent in that it introduced the concept of the giant constellation of communications satellites. Teledesic was conceived as 840 LEO satellites, plus spares, in an interconnected web providing global coverage. The project was scaled down to 288 satellites, and less in later iterations, before being cancelled due to cost and technical issues. Ahead of its time, Teledesic signaled one path to the future being aggressively pursued today by multiple players proposing broadband megaconstellations.
The patrons’ role is to act as catalyst, hopefully sparking a boom in whichever facet of space activities they pursue. This expectation of considerable success is based on their earlier being at the cusp of change in their original endeavor. Musk appears more frequently in the media but is likewise the least wealthy with his resources committed to several enterprises, including Tesla and SpaceX. Paul Allen was the model for the space age patron with his first public presence coming during the Ansari X Prize competition. He funded the winning entry in 2004 when SpaceShipOne completed its second suborbital flight within a two-week period, opening the door to suborbital human spaceflight on a commercial basis. Subsequently, Allen funded evolution of Stratolaunch, edifice a giant airplane to serve as an air-launch platform.
Richard Branson followed up on the Ansari X Prize with commercialization of the flight concept in a second-generation SpaceShipTwo. That developmental process has dragged due to technical issues and a lethal flight accident during testing. Most recent estimates are that the system will enter commercial service later this year. The concept has been broadened to incorporate scientific and commercial payloads that require some time in microgravity, while an offshoot, Virgin Orbit, develops its own air-launch system. Branson’s Virgin Galactic represents an early application at operationalizing tourist flights with possibly multiple flight locations spread across the globe wherever the customer basis is found, such as Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. The challenge is that others may duplicate that model or perambulate past it to orbital flights for tourists and companies needing cheaper access to space.
Death has already claimed one of these patrons: Paul Allen, whose passing is already leading to a scaling back of the dream that he pursued.
Jeff Bezos, in a occult and secretive manner, has engaged in a flight evolution process at Blue inception that appears long-term in nature. The early application focused on suborbital reusable flight but is expected to expand to orbital flight for both passengers and payloads. Presently, everything is developmental in nature such as the current Shepard aimed at suborbital flight, while current Glenn will provide orbital launch services. The latter has already been able to acquire several launch contracts, most recently for Telesat’s broadband constellation. This activity is flawless in the future, but establishes Blue inception as a earnest contender in an increasingly competitive launch marketplace.
These patrons or space barons, with their tech-derived fortunes in most cases (Branson being the exception), limn an alternative to corporate and government funding. flawless their efforts are driven by their personal goal of making space activities more existent and in result “down to Earth” in that they are trying to both fracture the chains of the past and build upon the accomplishments of those earlier space pioneers, either engineers or entrepreneurs. Their success will open doors relatively faster, but the question that arises is whether their companies or endeavors will endure past their tenure.
Death has already claimed one of these patrons: Paul Allen, whose passing is already leading to a scaling back of the dream that he pursued. The company has announced that it will not pursue evolution of a family of rockets capable of carrying a variety of payloads to orbit. Instead, the program will focus on launching Pegasus vehicles, an already established technology, no longer pushing the boundaries forward. The prior announcement of the rocket family was fairly current and preceded Allen’s death by several months.
Others tolerate had other life events occur that potentially could exist disruptive of plans such as Jeff Bezos’ recently announced plans for a divorce. Most attention has focused on practicable impact on Amazon and its operations, although that is likely the most stable situation in the current context because that company has in dwelling a structure that can office even if the leader is distracted—its impact would exist lessened and more likely long term in nature. Bezos’ assignation in Blue inception is more personal and therefore more likely matter to practicable disruption through events in his personal life.
In Elon Musk’s situation, his behavior has apparently become an issue in that there is concern whether his sample permeates the organization, SpaceX. NASA said last plunge it was performing a safety review of the commercial crew program, of which SpaceX is a partner, while the Pentagon’s inspector universal last week announced plans to audit whether the Air compel followed procedures when it certified SpaceX’s rockets.
Those issues should exist resolvable, but they illustrate the point that dependence on a patron or space baron is a single point failure situation. Allen’s untimely death has apparently ended the vision that underlay the original impetus for Stratolaunch. Paul Allen bought the vision that the company pursued until his death, but now the company appears much less ambitious and visionary.
A patron with profound pockets can finish much to foster a domain of endeavor, but the weakness is that progress may quit when that individual dies, becomes disinterested or bankrupt, or otherwise decreases the resources needed to implement that vision. Paul Allen was a serial patron—the Ansari X Prize first, then Stratolaunch (along with a diversity of other projects)—but that vision was not institutionalized, so it may tolerate ended with his death. Families such as the Rockefellers attempted, through funding Rockefeller University along with the University of Chicago and the family foundation, to institutionalize the family’s interest in inevitable topics. Individuals of extreme wealth, or those with the faculty to leverage what they have, can quiet tolerate an impact on space activities especially in the commercial sector. The question is whether that results in an enduring impact or just a succession of vanity projects.
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