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000-071 exam Dumps Source : xSeries Technical Principles
Test Code : 000-071
Test name : xSeries Technical Principles
Vendor name : IBM
: 270 existent Questions
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IBM xSeries Technical Principles
November 14, 2007 23:59 ET
real-Time Telemedicine solution for Tristan da Cunha Brings vow of stronger clinical resources to isolated Populations in every solitary place
ARMONK, substantial apple--(Marketwire - November 14, 2007) - the realm's most remote inhabited island can now entry superior telemedical care, thanks to capabilities and guide from a high-expertise team led via IBM (NYSE: IBM), Beacon fairness partners and the college of Pittsburgh medical core (UPMC). Tristan da Cunha is located greater than 1,665 miles west of Cape city, South Africa, and is attainable only by means of a ship commute lasting a week or greater. Some 270 British citizens call the island domestic.
IBM, Beacon fairness companions, and UPMC nowadays joined Medweb and the government of Tristan da Cunha in asserting the a success implementation of "assignment Tristan." This demonstrated and proven far flung medical retort combines clinical equipment, satellite tv for pc communications and remotely supported digital health-listing (EHR) expertise, permitting scientific consultants from anywhere on earth to back island clinicians of their daily practices with medical diagnoses and emergency help.
until currently, the island's only medical professional, Dr. Carel Van der Merwe, has needed to rely upon minimal expertise and limited clinical support. Working from a hospital with out so a lot as its personal mobilephone to supply boost supervision of patients, he has frequently performed existence-saving diagnoses and processes with out reform gear or specialized abilities. missing a communications system that may accept e mail attachments, back in deciphering X-Rays or EKGs, he has relied on digital photos scanned, printed and faxed to specialists lots of miles away, delaying diagnoses via days. with out a airstrip on the island, emergency evacuation or backyard scientific intervention has been and is noiseless nowadays almost impossible.
project Tristan turned into conceived by Edward Mullen, Chairman of Beacon equity companions, and Paul Grundy, MD, MPH, and IBM's Director of Healthcare know-how and Strategic Initiatives, as a means to homage the remembrance of an in depth buddy, Thomas Wiese. It became implemented with the suggestions and aid of UPMC, as well as of Dr. Richard Bakalar, Chief scientific Officer for IBM, who besides based the Navy's first built-in Telemedicine workplace on the country wide Naval clinical core in Bethesda, MD, earlier than becoming a member of IBM. Dr. Bakalar is besides President of the American Telemedicine affiliation.
venture Tristan, which is in accordance with open specifications and runs on the Linux working gadget, is expected to drastically increase the island's even of medical supervision and typical of residing. The island's health professional is now in a position to electronically capture and partake scientific statistics and suggestions, together with X-Rays and EKGs in addition to pulmonary characteristic opinions and video camera examinations with health professional consultants. satellite communications will allow clinicians to deliver true-time diagnostic recommendation and suggested cures to the attending health professional.
"The skill to partake scientific data prerogative now and easily will be a life saver for their residents," talked about Dr. Van der Merwe. "by using becoming a member of forces, IBM, Beacon equity partners, Medweb and UPMC beget not simplest created the means to carry important, patient-centric supervision to their far off island, but besides to other far locations everywhere -- on land or sea -- that require even connection to expert clinical elements."
Contributions from each group member had been as follows:
-- IBM: solution co-building, integration and stint administration for the telemedicine system supplied to Tristan da Cunha. products and features included staffing, on-website installing of the system (requiring a 25 day service name on account of the restrained skill of getting to the island), fiscal substances, IBM xSeries servers offered to Medweb and excessive-resolution screens.
-- Beacon equity partners: Co-development of the concept and funding for the challenge.
-- Medweb: Medweb servers and software and further clinical input gadgets together with a computed radiography system for digital X-Ray; integration of ECG, digital cameras, spirometry and video conferencing capabilities; configuration and checking out, remote installation, working towards and sustained guide functions on an ongoing groundwork, together with simple technical and back desk capabilities.
-- college of Pittsburgh medical middle: With its generally identified adventure in telemedicine within the U.S. and abroad, UPMC volunteered to aid contrivance and enforce venture Tristan. additionally, UPMC offered scientific professional service to the island, including medical consultations on request; relaxed and legit entry to efficient and complete multimedia medical data on Tristan patients from the Medweb Telemedicine answer; and ongoing far off training to back stint Tristan as mandatory.
-- SOAPware®: challenge Tristan elements chopping-aspect, remotely supported electronic fitness listing (EHR) expertise courtesy of SOAPware, Inc. This retort has extra allocate in websites and is in employ in additional nations than another.
"Connecting essentially the most remote inhabited spot on the visage of the earth, Tristan da Cunha, to advanced scientific supervision in existent time and over the internet is proof that the world is basically flat. here is a great step towards offering each person access to centers of healthcare excellence in spite of geographical region," pointed out Paul Grundy, MD, MPH, IBM's executive sponsor for undertaking Tristan and Director of IBM's Healthcare expertise and Strategic Initiatives. "or not it's now viable to computer screen a affected person's heart and remotely alternate the setting on a pacemaker or produce a fancy fracture diagnoses over a satellite tv for pc information superhighway connection -- even in an ambiance where the closest advanced supervision by means of a ship would in any other case beget taken every week to attain the Island and a further to arrive to the mainland for care."
In dedicating assignment Tristan to the remembrance of Weiss, who turned into lost to cancer in 2006 after a lifetime of helping others, the parties partake a imaginative and prescient of the undertaking's potential beget an impact on everything over. "Thomas had tremendous power and enthusiasm for attaining out to others," referred to Ed Mullen. "it is in reminiscence of his spirit, accept to the bottom of and guiding ideas that their crew has worked to install Tristan on Tristan da Cunha. Their unanimous purpose is to expand this superior telemedical solution to better healthcare in faraway areas world wide."
organising a usable database environment requires a fine deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will define the principles concerned in establishing a usable database ambiance.
This chapter is from the publication
probably the most basic tasks linked to the job of DBA is the technique of choosing and installation a DBMS. unluckily, many traffic executives and IT authorities without database administration historical past anticipate that as soon as the DBMS is installed, the bulk of the labor is finished. The fact is, making a option on and installing the DBMS is infrequently the most intricate a partake of a DBA’s job. setting up a usable database atmosphere requires a stately deal of skill, capabilities, and consideration. This chapter will silhouette the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.
The system of picking an commandeer DBMS for traffic database administration is not as tricky because it used to be. The variety of predominant DBMS providers has dwindled as a result of industry consolidation and domination of the sector with the aid of a few very huge avid gamers.
Yet, giant and medium-size businesses typically sprint dissimilar DBMS items, from as few as two to as many as ten. as an example, it is not distinctive for a great enterprise to employ IMS or IDMS and DB2 on the mainframe, Oracle and MySQL on a yoke of diverse UNIX servers, Microsoft SQL Server on home windows servers, in addition to pockets of other DBMS products reminiscent of Sybase, Ingres, Adabas, and PostgreSQL on a lot of platforms, not to point out single-user workstation DBMS items equivalent to Microsoft access, Paradox, and FileMaker. Who chose to installation everything these DBMSs and why?
unfortunately, often the reply is that not an dreadful lot view and planning went into the resolution-making procedure. every so often the option to purchase and install a brand original DBMS is driven with the aid of a traffic want or a original software. here is reasonably-priced if your organization has no DBMS and should purchase one for the first time. here's hardly the case, though. in spite of even if a DBMS exists on-web page, a original DBMS is commonly viewed as a requirement for a brand original utility. from time to time a brand original DBMS product is bought and installed with out first analyzing if the utility can be successfully carried out the usage of an current DBMS. Or, extra probably, the DBAs recognize the software may besides be carried out the employ of an existing DBMS but lack the organizational power or back to reject a brand original DBMS suggestion.
There are different reasons for the existence of discrete DBMS platforms in a solitary corporation. possibly the traffic purchased a commercial off-the-shelf software kit that doesn't sprint on any of the present DBMS platforms. on occasion the option to purchase a brand original DBMS is pushed through the need to guide the newest and greatest technology. as an example, many mainframe shops relocating from a hierarchic (IMS) or CODASYL (IDMS) database mannequin to the relational model deployed DB2, resulting in an additional DBMS to study and assist. Then, when customer/server computing grew to become popular, additional DBMSs had been implemented on UNIX, Linux, and windows servers.
as soon as a DBMS is allocate in, removal may besides be difficult as a result of incompatibilities among the discrete DBMSs and the need of converting application code. additionally, when a brand original DBMS is installed, historical purposes and databases are continually not migrated to it. The musty DBMS continues to be and beget to continue to be supported. This complicates the DBA’s job.
So what should noiseless be carried out? neatly, the DBA neighborhood should be empowered to produce the DBMS choices for the corporation. No traffic unit should be allowed to purchase a DBMS with out the consent of the DBA neighborhood. this is a tough provision to allocate into outcome and much more intricate to implement. enterprise politics often labor against the DBA community since it often possesses much less organizational power than other traffic executives.
opting for a DBMS
The DBA group may noiseless set a coverage related to the DBMS items to be supported inside the company. whenever viable, the policy should noiseless lower the variety of distinctive DBMS items. For a shop with varied operating techniques and numerous sorts of hardware, opt for a default DBMS for the platform. discourage aberration from the default until a compelling traffic case exists—a traffic case that passes the technical inspection of the DBA neighborhood.
most of the fundamental DBMS items beget identical features, and if the characteristic or performance does not exist today, it probably will inside 18 to 24 months. So, endeavor caution before finding out to pick a DBMS primarily based fully on its skill to back a particular function.
When deciding upon a DBMS, it is judicious to opt for a product from a tier-1 supplier as listed in table 2.1. Tier 1 represents the biggest providers having essentially the most closely implemented and supported products on the market. You can not depart wrong with DB2 or Oracle. each are familiar and back well-nigh any class of database. an additional most vital player is Microsoft SQL Server, however simplest for home windows structures. DB2 and Oracle sprint on assorted structures ranging from mainframe to UNIX, in addition to windows and even handheld gadgets. picking out a DBMS aside from these three may noiseless be accomplished most efficient below specific circumstances.
desk 2.1. Tier-1 DBMS providers
New Orchard street
Armonk, ny 10504
cell: (914) 499-1900
500 Oracle Parkway
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
cellphone: (650) 506-7000
One Microsoft way
Redmond, WA 98052
cell: (425) 882-8080
After the great three arrive MySQL, Sybase, Teradata, and Informix. desk 2.2 lists these tier-2 DBMS vendors. everything of those offerings are quality DBMS products, however their installed ground is smaller, their items are engineered and marketed for region of interest applications, or the groups are smaller with fewer supplies than the great Three (IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft), so there is some random in picking a DBMS from tier 2 in its spot of tier 1. besides the fact that children, there may well be solid explanations for deploying a tier-2 solution, such because the inordinate efficiency provided through Informix or the records warehousing and analytics capabilities of Teradata.
table 2.2. Tier-2 DBMS providers
Informix Dynamic Server
New Orchard street
Armonk, substantial apple 10504
phone: (914) 499-1900
Sybase Inc. (an SAP company)
Adaptive Server business
6475 Christie Avenue
Emeryville, CA 94608
cellphone: (510) 922-3500
Teradata service provider
10000 Innovation power
Dayton, OH 45342
cell: (937) 242-4030
MySQL (a subsidiary of Oracle supplier)
mobilephone: (208) 338-8100
Of direction, there are different DBMS products available on the market, lots of which can be nice items and priceless of consideration for distinctiveness processing, inescapable predefined wants, and niche roles. in case your company is heavily into the open-supply application flow, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, or MySQL may be possible alternatives. If an object DBMS is critical for a particular challenge, you might accept as accurate with ObjectDesign or Versant. And there are a variety of NoSQL DBMS offerings purchasable, too, reminiscent of Hadoop, Cassandra, and MongoDB.1
youngsters, for the bulk of your facts administration wants, a DBMS from a tier-1, or perhaps tier-2, DBMS dealer will bring adequate performance with minimal chance. A myriad of DBMS items can be found, each and every with inescapable points that produce them profitable of consideration on a case-by-case basis. selecting any of the lessen-tier candidates—even such essential names as software AG’s Adabas and Actian’s Ingres—comprises incurring additional risk. deal with Appendix B for a list of DBMS vendors.
I don't need it to sound as if the alternative of a DBMS is a no brainer. you're going to want a methodology and a contrivance for identifying the acceptable DBMS for your specific circumstance. When selecting a DBMS, produce certain to believe each of these factors:
working gear guide. Does the DBMS guide the operating techniques in employ at your organization, together with the models that you are at present using and contrivance on using?
class of company. boost into consideration the corporate philosophy should you opt for a DBMS. Some businesses are very conservative and love to preserve a decent rein on their environments; these groups are likely to gravitate towards ordinary mainframe environments. government operations, monetary institutions, and assurance and health agencies usually are usually conservative. more-liberal organizations are often inclined to confidence option architectures. It is not extraordinary for manufacturing organizations, dot-coms, and universities to be less conservative. eventually, some businesses simply attain not confidence windows as a mission-essential atmosphere and love to produce employ of UNIX; this guidelines out some database providers (Microsoft SQL Server, in specific).
Benchmarks. What performance benchmarks can be organize from the DBMS seller and different users of the DBMS? The Transaction Processing performance Council (TPC) publishes legitimate database efficiency benchmarks that can besides be used as a suggestion for the primary overall performance of many different types of database processing. (confer with the sidebar “The Transaction Processing efficiency Council” for greater details.) In customary, efficiency benchmarks can besides be constructive as a huge indicator of database efficiency but should noiseless not be the simplest determinant when determining a DBMS. most of the TPC benchmarks are sprint towards database implementations that are not representative of most construction database techniques and hence are not indicative of the genuine efficiency of a selected DBMS. furthermore, benchmarks are normally up-to-date to exhibit original and stronger efficiency measurements for each and every of the essential DBMS items, rendering the benchmark “winners” out of date very instantly.
Scalability. Does the DBMS guide the variety of clients and database sizes you intend to enforce? How are substantial databases constructed, supported, and maintained—with ease or with lots of ache? Are there unbiased users who can authenticate the DBMS vendor’s scalability claims?
Availability of helping software tools. Are the aiding gear you require available for the DBMS? These items may additionally consist of question and analysis equipment, information warehousing back tools, database administration tools, backup and recuperation tools, performance-monitoring equipment, ability-planning tools, database utilities, and back for a considerable number of programming languages.
The Transaction Processing efficiency Council is an independent, not-for-income company that manages and administers performance benchmark tests. Its mission is to define transaction processing and database benchmarks to deliver the trade with aim, verifiable performance data. TPC benchmarks measure and evaluate laptop functions and operations.
The definition of transaction espoused with the aid of the TPC is a company one. a customary TPC transaction includes the database updates for things corresponding to stock manage (items), airline reservations (functions), and banking (money).
The benchmarks produced by means of the TPC measure efficiency when it comes to how many transactions a given device and database can function per unit of time, for example, number of transactions per 2d. The TPC defines three benchmarks:
TPC-C, for planned construction workload in a transaction ambiance
TPC-H, a call assist benchmark which includes a collection of company-oriented ad hoc queries and concurrent facts changes
TPC-E, an up-to-date OLTP workload (in response to fiscal transaction processing)
additional information and in-depth definitions of these benchmarks will besides be discovered at the TPC web website at www.tpc.org (see determine 2.1).
Technicians. Is there a adequate provide of expert database gurus for the DBMS? accept as accurate with your wants in terms of DBAs, technical guide personnel (device programmers and administrators, operations analysts, and so on.), and software programmers.
cost of possession. what is the whole cost of possession of the DBMS? DBMS carriers saturate wildly varying expenses for his or her technology. complete saturate of possession may noiseless be calculated as a amalgam of the license can saturate of the DBMS; the license cost of any required assisting utility; the cost of database specialists to software, support, and administer the DBMS; and the saturate of the computing supplies required to function the DBMS.
liberate time table. How frequently does the DBMS supplier unencumber a brand original version? Some carriers beget speedy unlock cycles, with original releases popping out every 12 to 18 months. This can be respectable or unhealthy, reckoning on your strategy. if you need slicing-aspect facets, a quick liberate cycle is decent. however, in case your shop is greater conservative, a DBMS that adjustments generally may besides be difficult to assist. A rapid liberate cycle will occasions conservative companies either to upgrade more commonly than they would love or to reside with old-fashioned DBMS application that is not going to beget the identical even of back because the latest releases.
Reference purchasers. Will the DBMS seller give current consumer references? can you find different clients in your personal who may deliver more neutral answers? talk with present clients to elicit concerns and considerations you may besides beget neglected. How is guide? Does the vendor respond neatly to complications? attain things commonly labor as marketed? Are there lots of computer virus fixes that ought to be utilized always? what is the first-class of recent releases? These questions may besides be answered best by means of the individuals in the trenches.
When determining a DBMS, produce certain to boost into account the complexity of the products. DBMS utility is very complicated and is getting extra advanced with each original unencumber. performance that used to be supported handiest with add-on utility or independent courses is more and more being added as facets of the DBMS, as proven in determine 2.2. you will need to contrivance for and back everything of the points of the DBMS. even if there is no latest requirement for certain points, once you implement the DBMS the programmers and developers will find a intent to employ well-nigh anything the seller threw into it. it's greater to contrivance and be prepared than to enable elements to be used and not using a contrivance for assisting them.
figure 2.2. Convergence of points and functionality in DBMS utility
The assisting architecture for the DBMS environment is very critical to the success of the database functions. One wrong alternative or poorly implemented factor of the habitual architecture may occasions penniless performance, downtime, or unstable purposes.
When mainframes dominated commercial enterprise computing, DBMS architecture become a simpler challenge. every miniature thing ran on the mainframe, and that turned into that. besides the fact that children, today the IT infrastructure is allotted and heterogeneous. The habitual structure—even for a mainframe DBMS—will probably embrace diverse structures and interoperating system application. A team including enterprise and IT consultants, in preference to a solitary person or community, may noiseless produce the final architecture choice. traffic experts may noiseless embrace representatives from numerous departments, as well as from accounting and legal for utility constrict concerns. Database administration representatives (DA, DBA, and SA), as well as participants of the networking group, working system experts, operations handle personnel, programming consultants, and some other fascinated parties, should be included during this crew.
in addition, be certain that the DBMS you opt for is commandeer for the character and sort of processing you contrivance to enforce. four stages of DBMS structure can be found: enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile.
An traffic DBMS is designed for scalability and inordinate efficiency. An commercial enterprise DBMS should be in a position to supporting very great databases, a great variety of concurrent clients, and dissimilar sorts of applications. The enterprise DBMS runs on a large-scale desktop, customarily a mainframe or a excessive-conclusion server running UNIX, Linux, or windows Server. in addition, an traffic DBMS presents everything the “bells and whistles” accessible from the DBMS seller. Multiprocessor guide, back for parallel queries, and different advanced DBMS features are core components of an traffic DBMS.
A departmental DBMS, every now and then known as a workgroup DBMS, serves the hub floor. The departmental DBMS helps petite to medium-measurement workgroups inside an organization; usually, it runs on a UNIX, Linux, or windows server. The dividing line between a departmental database server and an commercial enterprise database server is rather gray. Hardware and utility improvements can permit a departmental DBMS to handle tasks that in the past may well be performed handiest via an commercial enterprise DBMS. The ceaselessly falling cost of departmental hardware and application components further contributes to decreasing the entire cost of operation and enabling a workgroup environment to scale as much as serve the enterprise.
a personal DBMS is designed for a solitary person, usually on a low- to medium-powered pc platform. Microsoft access, SQLite, and FileMaker2 are examples of non-public database utility. Of route, the essential DBMS carriers besides market very own models of their larger-powered solutions, akin to Oracle Database very own edition and DB2 personal edition. every now and then the cost-effective of a personal DBMS outcomes in a misguided attempt to opt for a private DBMS for a departmental or commercial enterprise solution. despite the fact, attain not be lured by passage of the reasonable. a personal DBMS product is commandeer most efficient for terribly small-scale tasks and will on no account be deployed for multiuser purposes.
ultimately, the mobile DBMS is a really marvelous version of a departmental or traffic DBMS. it is designed for remote users who are not continually related to the community. The mobile DBMS makes it possible for native database access and change on a desktop or handheld equipment. moreover, the cellular DBMS offers a mechanism for synchronizing far flung database alterations to a centralized enterprise or departmental database server.
A DBMS designed for one class of processing can be sick suited for different makes employ of. as an example, a private DBMS isn't designed for multiple clients, and an enterprise DBMS is frequently too involved for solitary clients. produce certain to suffer in intelligence the variations amongst business, departmental, personal, and mobile DBMS utility, and pick the applicable DBMS to your particular data-processing wants. You may wish to select diverse DBMS varieties—it's, a DBMS for each and every stage—with usage determined by the needs of each and every development undertaking.
in case your company requires DBMS solutions at discrete degrees, want the option of a bunch of DBMS options from the identical seller on every occasion feasible. Doing so will slit modifications in access, development, and administration. for example, want Oracle Database very own edition on your single-person DBMS needs if your corporation uses Oracle because the enterprise DBMS of alternative.
Clustering is using varied “independent” computing methods working together as a single, totally accessible gadget. a modern DBMS presents clustering aid to boost availability and scalability. the two predominant architectures for clustering are shared-disk and shared-nothing. These names attain a superb job of describing the character of the architecture—at the least at a high degree.
Shared-nothing clustering is depicted in device 2.3. In a shared-nothing structure, each and every gear has its own inner most components (reminiscence, disks, and so forth.). The clustered processors communicate via passing messages via a community that interconnects the computers. additionally, requests from valued clientele are automatically routed to the system that owns the useful resource. just one of the clustered techniques can “own” and access a specific aid at a time. within the adventure a failure occurs, useful resource ownership will besides be dynamically transferred to a different device within the cluster. The leading abilities of shared-nothing clustering is scalability. In idea, a shared-nothing multiprocessor can scale up to thousands of processors as a result of they don't intervene with one an additional—nothing is shared.
In a shared-disk ambiance, everything the linked techniques partake the equal disk contraptions, as shown in device 2.4. each and every processor nonetheless has its own inner most reminiscence, but the entire processors can directly handle the entire disks. typically, shared-disk clustering does not scale as smartly for smaller machines as shared-nothing clustering. Shared-disk clustering is more desirable desirable to significant-enterprise processing in a mainframe ambiance. Mainframes—very massive processors—are able to processing tremendous volumes of work. bizarre merits can be obtained with most efficient a few clustered mainframes, whereas many workstation and midrange processors would deserve to be clustered to achieve an identical merits.
Shared-disk clustering is constantly preferable for purposes and capabilities requiring simplest modest shared entry to information and for applications or workloads that are very intricate to partition. applications with heavy facts update necessities are likely better implemented as shared-nothing. desk 2.3 compares the capabilities of shared-disk and shared-nothing architectures.
table 2.three. evaluation of Shared-Disk and Shared-Nothing Architectures
quick adaptability to changing workloads
Can produce the most less demanding, cheaper hardware
basically unlimited scalability
Performs most useful in a heavy study atmosphere
Works neatly in a excessive-volume, study-write ambiance
data need not be partitioned
records is partitioned throughout the cluster
The principal DBMS providers deliver back for different types of clustering with discrete capabilities and necessities. as an instance, DB2 for z/OS offers shared-disk clustering with its information Sharing and Parallel Sysplex capabilities; DB2 on non-mainframe platforms makes employ of shared-nothing clustering. Oracle’s actual software Clusters deliver shared-disk clustering.
for most clients, the simple profit of clustering is the superior availability that accrues through combining processors. In some circumstances, clustering can back an commercial enterprise to obtain 5-nines (99.999 percent) availability. additionally, clustering will besides be used for load balancing and failover.
more often than not of thumb, create a coverage (or at least some elementary instructions) that beget to be adopted earlier than a original DBMS will besides be introduced into the firm. Failure to accomplish that may occasions a proliferation of different DBMS items that can be tricky to guide. it will probably besides trigger confusion related to which DBMS to produce employ of for which building effort.
As mentioned previous, there's a plethora of DBMS vendors, every touting its advantages. As a DBA, you might be bombarded with marketing and earnings efforts that attempt to persuade you that you just want one more DBMS. try to visage up to except a very compelling rationale is given and a short-time era recrudesce on funding (ROI) may besides be proven. Even when confronted with legitimate factors and first rate ROI, be certain to double-check the arguments and ROI calculations. occasionally the explanations targeted are old-fashioned and the ROI figures attain not boost every thing into account—such as the additional cost of administration.
bear in mind, each DBMS requires database administration assist. moreover, each DBMS makes employ of diverse methods to operate similar tasks. the fewer DBMS products installed, the much less advanced database administration turns into, and the superior your options revolve into of featuring positive information administration components to your firm.
When establishing a database ambiance for software development, making a option on the DBMS is simply partake of the equation. The hardware and operating system on which the DBMS will sprint will significantly beget an outcome on the reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of the database ambiance. as an instance, a mainframe platform similar to an IBM zEC12 running z/OS will likely give larger RAS than a midrange IBM xSeries computing device operating AIX, which in revolve will doubtless exceed a Dell server working home windows. That is not to claim every miniature thing should noiseless sprint on a mainframe; other concerns similar to can charge, journey, manageability, and the needs of the applications to be developed ought to be regarded. The ground line is that you simply should be certain to ingredient hardware platform and operating gadget constraints into the DBMS option criteria.
Cloud Database systems
Cloud computing (see the sidebar) is increasing in usage, above everything at petite to medium-size groups. A cloud implementation may besides be extra comparatively cheap than building a complete native computing infrastructure that requires administration and aid.
A cloud database system provides DBMS functions over the information superhighway. The trade-off nearly comes everything the passage down to trusting a cloud provider to reclaim and manage your records in recrudesce for minimizing database administration and upkeep can saturate and energy. the usage of cloud database methods can enable groups, mainly smaller ones without the materials to invest in an commercial enterprise computing infrastructure, to focus on their traffic as an alternative of their computing environment.
by passage of consolidating records sources in the cloud, it's feasible to enrich collaboration amongst partners, fork workplaces, far flung laborers, and cellular gadgets, since the statistics turns into purchasable as a provider. There is not any deserve to set up, installation, patch, or manage the DBMS software since the cloud provider manages and cares for these administrative projects. Of route, the downside is that your data is now saved and controlled by using an external agent—the cloud provider. yet another inherent random of cloud computing is the probability of nefarious brokers posing as legit consumers.
An example of a cloud database platform is Microsoft SQL Azure. it's developed on SQL Server technologies and is a partake of the home windows Azure platform.
IBM announced on Thusday, April 14th, 2005, first- quarter 2005 diluted profits per general partake of $.eighty five from carrying on with operations as pronounced, including the impact of expensing share-primarily based compensation, compared with diluted revenue on an identical foundation of $.seventy nine per partake within the first quarter of 2004, an increase of eight percent. First- quarter revenue from carrying on with operations turned into $1.41 billion, together with the adoption of expensing fairness compensation, in comparison with $1.36 billion a yr ago, an increase of three %. Revenues from carrying on with operations for the first quarter had been $22.9 billion, up three %, compared with revenues of $22.2 billion for the first quarter of 2004.
past this month, IBM announced its end to cost equity compensation within the first quarter. The adoption is in line with the implementation counsel supplied within the SEC's liberate of personnel Accounting Bulletin No. 107, and in line with the FASB's revised remark of fiscal Accounting necessities (SFAS) No. 123(R), "Share- based payments."
Samuel J. Palmisano, IBM chairman and chief government officer, talked about: "After a stalwart delivery, they had issue closing transactions in the last weeks of the quarter, in particular in international locations with choice economic situations, as well as with brief-term global features signings. as a result, they didn't achieve everything of their dreams for the quarter. Middleware application and midrange systems results were strong, and they grew enormously in company performance Transformation capabilities and within the emerging markets of China, Brazil, India and jap Europe. They back virtually $4 billion to investors in the quarter via partake repurchases and dividends. they are taking commandeer measures to sharpen their execution, as they proceed to implement their world increase suggestions."
First-quarter revenue growth of three % (1 p.c, adjusting for forex) become pushed with the aid of boom within the Americas and Europe/center East/Africa. in the Americas, first-quarter revenues from continuing operations beget been $9.three billion, up 2 percent (1 %, adjusting for forex) from the 2004 period. Revenues from Europe/center East/Africa were $7.7 billion, an increase of seven percent (2 percent, adjusting for currency). Asia-Pacific revenues grew 1 p.c (down 2 percent, adjusting for forex) to $5.2 billion. OEM revenues expanded three p.c to $691 million in comparison with the primary quarter of 2004.
Revenues grew in four of IBM's 5 industry sectors within the first quarter led via the Distribution sector, in addition to growth in earnings to petite and Medium organizations.
Revenues from international capabilities, together with preservation, elevated 6 % (3 percent, adjusting for forex) to $eleven.7 billion in the first quarter. world capabilities revenues, except protection, increased 7 percent (4 percent, adjusting for forex). IBM signed functions contracts totaling $10.0 billion and ended the quarter with an estimated features backlog, together with Strategic Outsourcing, enterprise Consulting services, integrated expertise services and maintenance, of $one hundred ten billion.
besides these signings and backlog figures there were about $200 million of Engineering and know-how capabilities signings to supply enterprise performance Transformation capabilities customers with design skill and technical capabilities.
Hardware revenues from carrying on with operations beget been very nearly flat (down 2 p.c, adjusting for currency) to $6.7 billion in the first quarter versus the first quarter of 2004. Revenues from the systems and technology neighborhood totaled $three.9 billion for the quarter, up 2 % on eServer salary increases. This includes a 12 percent enhance in pSeries UNIX servers, which is expected to gain market partake in the first quarter, and an 8 percent enhance in xSeries servers. Revenues from the zSeries mainframe product lowered 16 % compared with the prior-12 months quarter. the entire delivery of zSeries computing energy as measured in MIPS (thousands and thousands of guidelines per 2nd) reduced 11 %. Revenues for the iSeries midrange servers multiplied 1 %. Storage techniques and technology OEM extended 5 % and a yoke of p.c, respectively. Revenues from personal methods group diminished 3 percent to $2.7 billion. in the fourth-quarter 2004, IBM introduced an settlement to promote the own Computing Division, a unit of the personal techniques neighborhood, which is expected to nearby in the 2nd-quarter 2005.
Revenues from software beget been $three.6 billion, a rise of 2 p.c (flat, adjusting for currency) in comparison with the primary quarter of 2004. Revenues from IBM's middleware manufacturers, which encompass WebSphere, DB2, Rational, Tivoli and Lotus products, had been $2.eight billion, up three % versus the first quarter of 2004. operating techniques revenues diminished 2 percent to $590 million compared with the primary quarter of 2004.
Revenues for WebSphere family of utility items, which enables valued clientele' skill to manage a wide variety of company methods using open necessities to interconnect purposes, records and operating methods, increased eleven p.c. Revenues for suggestions administration increased 5 % together with revenues for DB2 database utility, which allows for valued clientele to leverage suggestions on demand, increased 9 p.c. Revenues from Tivoli application (infrastructure software that makes it possible for valued clientele to centrally control networks and storage) extended 15 percent, and revenues for Lotus software, which allows for collaborating and messaging via purchasers in true-time verbal exchange and learning administration, increased 11 %. Revenues from Rational application (integrated building tools) beget been flat in comparison with the first quarter of 2004.
consequently, IBM expects to gain or grasp market partake for the primary quarter in the collaborative application, programs administration and security software, web services and records management classes.
global Financing revenues declined 12 percent (15 percent, adjusting for forex) in the first quarter to $580 million. Revenues from the commercial enterprise Investments/different area, which includes industry- selected IT solutions comparable to product existence-cycle administration software, elevated 15 p.c (12 %, adjusting for alien money) to $332 million in comparison with the first quarter of 2004.
The company's complete Gross earnings margin from carrying on with operations turned into 36.0 % within the 2005 first quarter, which contains the outcome of expensing fairness compensation, in comparison with 35.6 percent within the first quarter of 2004 on an analogous groundwork.
within the first quarter of 2005, total rate and different income from continuing operations elevated 5 p.c to $6.2 billion and, coupled with the profits increase of three p.c, IBM's complete rate-to-earnings ratio increased 0.5 features to 27.three percent. For the quarter, the reporting periods mirror the adoption of expensing equity compensation because it pertains to each promoting, typical and administrative (SG&A) charge and analysis, construction and engineering (RD&E) expense. SG&A expense accelerated 6 % to $4.9 billion. RD&E rate accelerated 3 percent to $1.5 billion. highbrow property and customized construction salary elevated to $219 million in comparison with $a hundred and eighty million a yr ago. other (salary) and charge become $22 million of net cost in the first quarter of 2005 versus $13 million within the very era closing 12 months.
IBM's valuable tax charge from carrying on with operations in the first quarter 2005 changed into 30.0 %, in comparison with 30.1 % within the first quarter of 2004.
Share repurchases totaled approximately $3.4 billion within the first quarter. The weighted-typical number of diluted typical shares incredible in the first-quarter 2005 was 1.sixty six billion compared with 1.73 billion shares in the equal length of 2004. As of March 31, 2005, there were 1.61 billion primary common shares spectacular.
IBM ended the first quarter of 2005 with $8.7 billion of cash on hand. The stability sheet remains effective, and the enterprise is neatly placed to boost competencies of alternatives.
Debt, together with world Financing, totaled $23.four billion, compared with $22.9 billion at year-end 2004. From a management segment view, the non-world financing debt-to-capitalization ratio become 5.3 p.c on the cease of March 31, 2005, and global Financing debt declined $413 million from yr-conclusion 2004 to a complete of $21.9 billion, leading to a debt-to-equity ratio of 6.7 to 1.
ahead-looking and Cautionary Statements
apart from the historic counsel and discussions contained herein, statements contained during this unencumber might besides constitute forward- searching statements inside the that means of the inner most Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements hold a few dangers, uncertainties and different components that might trigger precise outcomes to disagree materially, as mentioned within the business's filings with the U.S. Securities and alternate fee (SEC).
Presentation of assistance during this Press liberate
with a purpose to supply traders with additional information related to the company's results as determined by passage of commonly approved accounting ideas (GAAP), the company has besides disclosed during this press release prerogative here non-GAAP suggestions which management believes provides advantageous information to traders:
- adjusting for forex
The occasions for management's employ of non-GAAP measures is protected as partake of the supplementary materials presented inside the first- quarter profits substances. These materials can be organize on the IBM investor members of the family internet web page at www.ibm.com/investor and will be covered in a subsequent submitting of a kindhearted 8-k with the SEC.
convention name and Webcast
IBM's habitual quarterly salary convention call is scheduled to start at 6:00 p.m. EDT, nowadays. buyers may boost partake with the aid of viewing the Webcast at www.ibm.com/investor/1q05.
financial outcomes connected
international traffic MACHINES CORPORATIONCOMPARATIVE economic effects(Unaudited; bucks in tens of millions except per partake quantities)
Three Months Ended March 31Percent2005 2004* alternate------- ------- -------revenue
global functions $11,696 $11,024 6.1percentGross profit margin 24.3% 23.7%
Hardware 6,749 6,735 0.2percentGross profit margin 27.5% 26.5%
software three,551 three,466 2.4percentGross profit margin 86.four% eighty five.9%
international Financing 580 662 -12.5p.cGross earnings margin fifty four.2% 60.5%
commercial enterprise Investments/different 332 288 15.2p.cGross income margin 52.5% 39.5%
complete revenue 22,908 22,a hundred seventy five 3.three%
GROSS income 8,254 7,892 4.6percentGross profit margin 36.0% 35.6%
expense AND different revenue
S,G&A 4,933 4,658 5.9p.cfee to revenue 21.5% 21.0%
R,D&E 1,459 1,416 3.0p.ccost to income 6.four% 6.4%
highbrow propertyand custom developmentincome (219) (a hundred and eighty) 21.9%other (salary) and rate 22 13 seventy one.3percentactivity cost 49 35 forty.0%
complete fee ANDOTHER income 6,244 5,942 5.1percentcost to revenue 27.3% 26.eight%
earnings FROM CONTINUINGOPERATIONS BEFOREINCOME TAXES 2,010 1,950 three.1%Pre-tax margin eight.eight% 8.8%
Provision forincome taxes 603 586 2.eight%helpful tax fee 30.0% 30.1%
earnings FROM CONTINUINGOPERATIONS $1,407 $1,364 three.2p.cnet margin 6.1% 6.1%
DISCONTINUED OPERATIONSLoss from discontinuedoperations 5 1
internet salary $1,402 $1,363 2.9%====== ======
profits/(LOSS)PER SHAREOF habitual inventory:
ASSUMING DILUTIONCONTINUINGOPERATIONS $0.eighty five $0.seventy nine 7.6p.cDISCONTINUEDOPERATIONS (0.00) (0.00)------ ------complete $0.eighty four** $0.seventy nine 6.three%====== ======BASICCONTINUINGOPERATIONS $0.86 $0.81 6.2percentDISCONTINUEDOPERATIONS (0.00) (0.00)------ ------complete $0.86 $0.81 6.2%====== ======WEIGHTED-usual NUMBEROF typical SHARESOUTSTANDING (M's)ASSUMING DILUTION 1,660.6 1,727.4BASIC 1,628.7 1,691.7
* Restated first-quarter 2004 monetary effects to embrace the impactof share-based mostly compensation fee.
** does not total due to rounding.
international traffic MACHINES CORPORATIONCONSOLIDATED commentary OF pecuniary position(Unaudited)
At At(greenbacks in hundreds of thousands) March 31, December 31, Percent2005 2004* alternate----------- ----------- -------property
cash, money equivalents,and marketable securities $eight,651 $10,570 -18.2%
Receivables - internet, inventories,prepaid fees 32,692 36,573 -10.6%
Plant, apartment machines,and other property - web 14,708 15,one hundred seventy five -3.1%
Investments and other property forty eight,848 48,685 0.three%-------- --------
complete belongings $104,899 $111,003 -5.5%======== ========
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' fairness
short-time era debt $6,329 $8,099 -21.9%long-term debt 17,083 14,828 15.2%-------- --------total debt 23,412 22,927 2.1%
accounts payable, taxes,and accruals 27,493 31,687 -13.2%
different liabilities 24,074 24,701 -2.5%-------- --------total LIABILITIES 74,979 seventy nine,315 -5.5%
STOCKHOLDERS' equity 29,920 31,688 -5.6%-------- --------complete LIABILITIES ANDSTOCKHOLDERS' fairness $104,899 $111,003 -5.5%======== ========
* Restated 2004 monetary spot to encompass the beget an outcome on ofshare-based compensation fee.
foreign company MACHINES CORPORATIONSEGMENT information(Unaudited)
FIRST QUARTER 2005---------------------------------------------Pre-taxIncome(Loss)From(bucks in tens of millions) -------- revenue --------- carrying on with Pre-taxExternal internal complete Operations Margin-------- -------- ------- ---------- -------SEGMENTS
international capabilities $11,696 $745 $12,441 $942 7.6%% change 6.1% -2.2% 5.6% -4.9p.cSystems and TechnologyGroup three,869 235 four,104 109 2.7%% trade 2.5% -0.4% 2.three% -35.9percentown systems community 2,739 32 2,771 (17) -0.6%% trade -three.1% 39.1% -2.7% -fifty four.5%software three,551 461 four,012 893 22.three%% change 2.4% 15.0% 3.7% four.6percentinternational Financing 579 449 1,028 396 38.5%% trade -12.9% 60.4% eight.8% 5.9p.ccommercial enterprise Investments 292 2 294 (32) -10.9%% change 6.2% 0.0% 6.1% 38.5%
complete SEGMENTS 22,726 1,924 24,650 2,291 9.3%% exchange 3.1% 12.9% three.9% -1.5%
Eliminations / different 182 (1,924) (1,742) (281)
total IBM $22,908 $0 $22,908 $2,010 eight.eight%% alternate three.three% 3.3% three.1%
FIRST QUARTER 2004-----------------------------------------------Pre-taxIncome(Loss)From(dollars in millions) -------- profits --------- carrying on with Pre-taxExternal inner total Operations Margin-------- -------- ------- ---------- -------
global functions $eleven,024 $762 $eleven,786 $991 8.4percentSystems and TechnologyGroup 3,776 236 four,012 one hundred seventy 4.2percentpersonal systems community 2,826 23 2,849 (eleven) -0.four%software three,466 401 three,867 854 22.1%world Financing 665 280 945 374 39.6p.centerprise Investments 275 2 277 (fifty two) -18.eight%
complete SEGMENTS 22,032 1,704 23,736 2,326 9.eight%
Eliminations / other 143 (1,704) (1,561) (376)
total IBM* $22,a hundred seventy five $0 $22,one hundred seventy five $1,950 eight.eight%
* Restated first-quarter 2004 economic outcomes to encompass the impactof share-primarily based compensation expense.
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Establishing a usable database environment requires a stately deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will silhouette the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.
This chapter is from the bespeak
One of the primary tasks associated with the job of DBA is the process of choosing and installing a DBMS. Unfortunately, many traffic executives and IT professionals without database management background assume that once the DBMS is installed, the bulk of the labor is done. The veracity is, choosing and installing the DBMS is hardly the most difficult partake of a DBA’s job. Establishing a usable database environment requires a stately deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will silhouette the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.
The process of choosing a suitable DBMS for enterprise database management is not as difficult as it used to be. The number of major DBMS vendors has dwindled due to industry consolidation and domination of the sector by a few very great players.
Yet, great and medium-size organizations typically sprint multiple DBMS products, from as few as two to as many as ten. For example, it is not uncommon for a great company to employ IMS or IDMS and DB2 on the mainframe, Oracle and MySQL on several different UNIX servers, Microsoft SQL Server on Windows servers, as well as pockets of other DBMS products such as Sybase, Ingres, Adabas, and PostgreSQL on various platforms, not to mention single-user PC DBMS products such as Microsoft Access, Paradox, and FileMaker. Who chose to install everything these DBMSs and why?
Unfortunately, often the retort is that not much thought and planning went into the decision-making process. Sometimes the conclusion to purchase and install a original DBMS is driven by a traffic need or a original application. This is reasonable if your organization has no DBMS and must purchase one for the first time. This is rarely the case, though. Regardless of whether a DBMS exists on-site, a original DBMS is often viewed as a requirement for a original application. Sometimes a original DBMS product is purchased and installed without first examining if the application could be successfully implemented using an existing DBMS. Or, more likely, the DBAs know the application can be implemented using an existing DBMS but lack the organizational power or back to reject a original DBMS proposal.
There are other reasons for the existence of multiple DBMS platforms in a solitary organization. Perhaps the company purchased a commercial off-the-shelf application package that does not sprint on any of the current DBMS platforms. Sometimes the conclusion to buy a original DBMS is driven by the covet to back the latest and greatest technology. For example, many mainframe shops affecting from a hierarchic (IMS) or CODASYL (IDMS) database model to the relational model deployed DB2, resulting in an additional DBMS to learn and support. Then, when client/server computing became popular, additional DBMSs were implemented on UNIX, Linux, and Windows servers.
Once a DBMS is installed, removal can be difficult because of incompatibilities among the different DBMSs and the necessity of converting application code. Furthermore, when a original DBMS is installed, musty applications and databases are usually not migrated to it. The musty DBMS remains and must continue to be supported. This complicates the DBA’s job.
So what should be done? Well, the DBA group should be empowered to produce the DBMS decisions for the organization. No traffic unit should be allowed to purchase a DBMS without the consent of the DBA group. This is a difficult provision to implement and even more difficult to enforce. traffic politics often labor against the DBA group because it frequently possesses less organizational power than other traffic executives.
Choosing a DBMS
The DBA group should set a policy regarding the DBMS products to be supported within the organization. Whenever possible, the policy should minimize the number of different DBMS products. For a shop with multiple operating systems and multiple types of hardware, pick a default DBMS for the platform. discourage aberration from the default unless a compelling traffic case exists—a traffic case that passes the technical inspection of the DBA group.
Most of the major DBMS products beget similar features, and if the feature or functionality does not exist today, it probably will within 18 to 24 months. So, exercise caution before deciding to pick a DBMS based solely on its skill to back a specific feature.
When choosing a DBMS, it is judicious to select a product from a tier-1 vendor as listed in Table 2.1. Tier 1 represents the largest vendors having the most heavily implemented and supported products on the market. You cannot depart wrong with DB2 or Oracle. Both are common and back just about any kind of database. Another major player is Microsoft SQL Server, but only for Windows platforms. DB2 and Oracle sprint on multiple platforms ranging from mainframe to UNIX, as well as Windows and even handheld devices. Choosing a DBMS other than these three should be done only under specific circumstances.
Table 2.1. Tier-1 DBMS Vendors
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
500 Oracle Parkway
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
Phone: (650) 506-7000
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone: (425) 882-8080
After the substantial three arrive MySQL, Sybase, Teradata, and Informix. Table 2.2 lists these tier-2 DBMS vendors. everything of these offerings are quality DBMS products, but their installed ground is smaller, their products are engineered and marketed for niche purposes, or the companies are smaller with fewer resources than the substantial Three (IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft), so there is some risk in choosing a DBMS from tier 2 instead of tier 1. However, there may be solid reasons for deploying a tier-2 solution, such as the high performance offered by Informix or the data warehousing and analytics capabilities of Teradata.
Table 2.2. Tier-2 DBMS Vendors
Informix Dynamic Server
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
Sybase Inc. (an SAP Company)
Adaptive Server Enterprise
6475 Christie Avenue
Emeryville, CA 94608
Phone: (510) 922-3500
10000 Innovation Drive
Dayton, OH 45342
Phone: (937) 242-4030
MySQL (a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation)
Phone: (208) 338-8100
Of course, there are other DBMS products on the market, many of which are fine products and worthy of consideration for specialty processing, inescapable predefined needs, and niche roles. If your company is heavily into the open-source software movement, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, or MySQL might be viable options. If an object DBMS is vital for a specific project, you might consider ObjectDesign or Versant. And there are a variety of NoSQL DBMS offerings available, too, such as Hadoop, Cassandra, and MongoDB.1
However, for the bulk of your data management needs, a DBMS from a tier-1, or perhaps tier-2, DBMS vendor will deliver adequate functionality with minimal risk. A myriad of DBMS products are available, each with inescapable features that produce them worthy of consideration on a case-by-case basis. Choosing any of the lower-tier candidates—even such major names as Software AG’s Adabas and Actian’s Ingres—involves incurring additional risk. advert to Appendix B for a list of DBMS vendors.
I attain not want it to sound as if the selection of a DBMS is a no-brainer. You will need a strategy and a contrivance for selecting the commandeer DBMS for your specific situation. When choosing a DBMS, be certain to consider each of these factors:
Operating system support. Does the DBMS back the operating systems in employ at your organization, including the versions that you are currently using and contrivance on using?
Type of organization. boost into consideration the corporate philosophy when you pick a DBMS. Some organizations are very conservative and love to withhold a tense rein on their environments; these organizations minister to gravitate toward traditional mainframe environments. Government operations, pecuniary institutions, and insurance and health companies usually minister to be conservative. More-liberal organizations are often willing to consider alternative architectures. It is not uncommon for manufacturing companies, dot-coms, and universities to be less conservative. Finally, some companies just attain not confidence Windows as a mission-critical environment and prefer to employ UNIX; this rules out some database vendors (Microsoft SQL Server, in particular).
Benchmarks. What performance benchmarks are available from the DBMS vendor and other users of the DBMS? The Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) publishes official database performance benchmarks that can be used as a guideline for the basic overall performance of many different types of database processing. (Refer to the sidebar “The Transaction Processing Performance Council” for more details.) In general, performance benchmarks can be useful as a broad indicator of database performance but should not be the only determinant when selecting a DBMS. Many of the TPC benchmarks are sprint against database implementations that are not representative of most production database systems and therefore are not indicative of the actual performance of a particular DBMS. In addition, benchmarks are constantly updated to define original and improved performance measurements for each of the major DBMS products, rendering the benchmark “winners” obsolete very quickly.
Scalability. Does the DBMS back the number of users and database sizes you intend to implement? How are great databases built, supported, and maintained—easily or with a lot of pain? Are there independent users who can authenticate the DBMS vendor’s scalability claims?
Availability of supporting software tools. Are the supporting tools you require available for the DBMS? These items may embrace query and analysis tools, data warehousing back tools, database administration tools, backup and recovery tools, performance-monitoring tools, capacity-planning tools, database utilities, and back for various programming languages.
The Transaction Processing Performance Council is an independent, not-for-profit organization that manages and administers performance benchmark tests. Its mission is to define transaction processing and database benchmarks to provide the industry with objective, verifiable performance data. TPC benchmarks measure and evaluate computer functions and operations.
The definition of transaction espoused by the TPC is a traffic one. A typical TPC transaction includes the database updates for things such as inventory control (goods), airline reservations (services), and banking (money).
The benchmarks produced by the TPC measure performance in terms of how many transactions a given system and database can perform per unit of time, for example, number of transactions per second. The TPC defines three benchmarks:
TPC-C, for planned production workload in a transaction environment
TPC-H, a conclusion back benchmark consisting of a suite of business-oriented ad hoc queries and concurrent data modifications
TPC-E, an updated OLTP workload (based on pecuniary transaction processing)
Additional information and in-depth definitions of these benchmarks can be organize at the TPC Web site at www.tpc.org (see device 2.1).
Technicians. Is there a adequate supply of skilled database professionals for the DBMS? consider your needs in terms of DBAs, technical back personnel (system programmers and administrators, operations analysts, etc.), and application programmers.
Cost of ownership. What is the total cost of ownership of the DBMS? DBMS vendors saturate wildly varying prices for their technology. Total cost of ownership should be calculated as a combination of the license cost of the DBMS; the license cost of any required supporting software; the cost of database professionals to program, support, and administer the DBMS; and the cost of the computing resources required to operate the DBMS.
Release schedule. How often does the DBMS vendor release a original version? Some vendors beget rapid release cycles, with original releases coming out every 12 to 18 months. This can be marvelous or bad, depending on your approach. If you want cutting-edge features, a rapid release cycle is good. However, if your shop is more conservative, a DBMS that changes frequently can be difficult to support. A rapid release cycle will occasions conservative organizations either to upgrade more frequently than they would love or to live with outdated DBMS software that is unlikely to beget the very even of back as the latest releases.
Reference customers. Will the DBMS vendor supply current user references? Can you find other users on your own who might provide more impartial answers? talk with current users to elicit issues and concerns you may beget overlooked. How is support? Does the vendor respond well to problems? attain things generally labor as advertised? Are there a lot of bug fixes that must be applied continuously? What is the quality of original releases? These questions can be answered only by the folks in the trenches.
When choosing a DBMS, be certain to boost into account the complexity of the products. DBMS software is very involved and is getting more involved with each original release. Functionality that used to be supported only with add-on software or independent programs is increasingly being added as features of the DBMS, as shown in device 2.2. You will need to contrivance for and back everything the features of the DBMS. Even if there is no current requirement for inescapable features, once you implement the DBMS the programmers and developers will find a reason to employ just about anything the vendor threw into it. It is better to contrivance and be prepared than to allow features to be used without a contrivance for supporting them.
Figure 2.2. Convergence of features and functionality in DBMS software
The supporting architecture for the DBMS environment is very critical to the success of the database applications. One wrong option or poorly implemented component of the overall architecture can occasions penniless performance, downtime, or unstable applications.
When mainframes dominated enterprise computing, DBMS architecture was a simpler concern. Everything ran on the mainframe, and that was that. However, today the IT infrastructure is distributed and heterogeneous. The overall architecture—even for a mainframe DBMS—will probably consist of multiple platforms and interoperating system software. A team consisting of traffic and IT experts, rather than a solitary person or group, should produce the final architecture decision. traffic experts should embrace representatives from various departments, as well as from accounting and legal for software constrict issues. Database administration representatives (DA, DBA, and SA), as well as members of the networking group, operating system experts, operations control personnel, programming experts, and any other interested parties, should be included in this team.
Furthermore, be certain that the DBMS you select is commandeer for the nature and kind of processing you contrivance to implement. Four levels of DBMS architecture are available: enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile.
An enterprise DBMS is designed for scalability and high performance. An enterprise DBMS must be capable of supporting very great databases, a great number of concurrent users, and multiple types of applications. The enterprise DBMS runs on a large-scale machine, typically a mainframe or a high-end server running UNIX, Linux, or Windows Server. Furthermore, an enterprise DBMS offers everything the “bells and whistles” available from the DBMS vendor. Multiprocessor support, back for parallel queries, and other advanced DBMS features are core components of an enterprise DBMS.
A departmental DBMS, sometimes referred to as a workgroup DBMS, serves the middle ground. The departmental DBMS supports petite to medium-size workgroups within an organization; typically, it runs on a UNIX, Linux, or Windows server. The dividing line between a departmental database server and an enterprise database server is quite gray. Hardware and software upgrades can allow a departmental DBMS to tackle tasks that previously could be performed only by an enterprise DBMS. The steadily falling cost of departmental hardware and software components further contributes to lowering the total cost of operation and enabling a workgroup environment to scale up to serve the enterprise.
A personal DBMS is designed for a solitary user, typically on a low- to medium-powered PC platform. Microsoft Access, SQLite, and FileMaker2 are examples of personal database software. Of course, the major DBMS vendors besides market personal versions of their higher-powered solutions, such as Oracle Database Personal Edition and DB2 Personal Edition. Sometimes the low cost of a personal DBMS results in a misguided attempt to pick a personal DBMS for a departmental or enterprise solution. However, attain not be lured by the low cost. A personal DBMS product is suitable only for very small-scale projects and should never be deployed for multiuser applications.
Finally, the mobile DBMS is a specialized version of a departmental or enterprise DBMS. It is designed for remote users who are not usually connected to the network. The mobile DBMS enables local database access and modification on a laptop or handheld device. Furthermore, the mobile DBMS provides a mechanism for synchronizing remote database changes to a centralized enterprise or departmental database server.
A DBMS designed for one kind of processing may be ill suited for other uses. For example, a personal DBMS is not designed for multiple users, and an enterprise DBMS is generally too involved for solitary users. be certain to understand the differences among enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile DBMS software, and pick the commandeer DBMS for your specific data-processing needs. You may need to pick multiple DBMS types—that is, a DBMS for each level—with usage determined by the needs of each development project.
If your organization requires DBMS solutions at different levels, favor the selection of a group of DBMS solutions from the very vendor whenever possible. Doing so will minimize differences in access, development, and administration. For example, favor Oracle Database Personal Edition for your single-user DBMS needs if your organization uses Oracle as the enterprise DBMS of choice.
Clustering is the employ of multiple “independent” computing systems working together as a single, highly available system. A modern DBMS offers clustering back to enhance availability and scalability. The two predominant architectures for clustering are shared-disk and shared-nothing. These names attain a marvelous job of describing the nature of the architecture—at least at a high level.
Shared-nothing clustering is depicted in device 2.3. In a shared-nothing architecture, each system has its own private resources (memory, disks, etc.). The clustered processors communicate by passing messages through a network that interconnects the computers. In addition, requests from clients are automatically routed to the system that owns the resource. Only one of the clustered systems can “own” and access a particular resource at a time. In the event a failure occurs, resource ownership can be dynamically transferred to another system in the cluster. The main edge of shared-nothing clustering is scalability. In theory, a shared-nothing multiprocessor can scale up to thousands of processors because they attain not tamper with one another—nothing is shared.
In a shared-disk environment, everything the connected systems partake the very disk devices, as shown in device 2.4. Each processor noiseless has its own private memory, but everything the processors can directly address everything the disks. Typically, shared-disk clustering does not scale as well for smaller machines as shared-nothing clustering. Shared-disk clustering is better suited to large-enterprise processing in a mainframe environment. Mainframes—very great processors—are capable of processing huge volumes of work. stately benefits can be obtained with only a few clustered mainframes, while many PC and midrange processors would need to be clustered to achieve similar benefits.
Shared-disk clustering is usually preferable for applications and services requiring only modest shared access to data and for applications or workloads that are very difficult to partition. Applications with heavy data update requirements are probably better implemented as shared-nothing. Table 2.3 compares the capabilities of shared-disk and shared-nothing architectures.
Table 2.3. Comparison of Shared-Disk and Shared-Nothing Architectures
Quick adaptability to changing workloads
Can exploit simpler, cheaper hardware
Almost unlimited scalability
Performs best in a heavy read environment
Works well in a high-volume, read-write environment
Data need not be partitioned
Data is partitioned across the cluster
The major DBMS vendors provide back for different types of clustering with different capabilities and requirements. For example, DB2 for z/OS provides shared-disk clustering with its Data Sharing and Parallel Sysplex capabilities; DB2 on non-mainframe platforms uses shared-nothing clustering. Oracle’s existent Application Clusters provide shared-disk clustering.
For most users, the primary profit of clustering is the enhanced availability that accrues by combining processors. In some cases, clustering can back an enterprise to achieve five-nines (99.999 percent) availability. Additionally, clustering can be used for load balancing and failover.
As a rule of thumb, create a policy (or at least some simple guidelines) that must be followed before a original DBMS can be brought into the organization. Failure to attain so can occasions a proliferation of different DBMS products that will be difficult to support. It can besides occasions confusion regarding which DBMS to employ for which development effort.
As mentioned earlier, there is a plethora of DBMS vendors, each touting its benefits. As a DBA, you will be bombarded with marketing and sales efforts that attempt to convince you that you need another DBMS. Try to resist unless a very compelling reason is given and a short-term recrudesce on investment (ROI) can be demonstrated. Even when confronted with convincing reasons and marvelous ROI, be certain to double-check the arguments and ROI calculations. Sometimes the reasons specified are outdated and the ROI figures attain not boost everything into account—such as the additional cost of administration.
Remember, every DBMS requires database administration support. Moreover, each DBMS uses different methods to perform similar tasks. The fewer DBMS products installed, the less complicated database administration becomes, and the better your chances become of providing efficient data management resources for your organization.
When establishing a database environment for application development, selecting the DBMS is only partake of the equation. The hardware and operating system on which the DBMS will sprint will greatly impact the reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of the database environment. For example, a mainframe platform such as an IBM zEC12 running z/OS will probably provide higher RAS than a midrange IBM xSeries machine running AIX, which in revolve will probably exceed a Dell server running Windows. That is not to impart everything should sprint on a mainframe; other issues such as cost, experience, manageability, and the needs of the applications to be developed must be considered. The bottom line is that you must be certain to factor hardware platform and operating system constraints into the DBMS selection criteria.
Cloud Database Systems
Cloud computing (see the sidebar) is increasing in usage, especially at petite to medium-size businesses. A cloud implementation can be more cost-effective than building an entire local computing infrastructure that requires management and support.
A cloud database system delivers DBMS services over the Internet. The trade-off essentially comes down to trusting a cloud provider to store and manage your data in recrudesce for minimizing database administration and maintenance cost and effort. Using cloud database systems can enable organizations, especially smaller ones without the resources to invest in an enterprise computing infrastructure, to focus on their traffic instead of their computing environment.
By consolidating data sources in the cloud, it is possible to better collaboration among partners, fork offices, remote workers, and mobile devices, because the data becomes accessible as a service. There is no need to install, set up, patch, or manage the DBMS software because the cloud provider manages and cares for these administrative tasks. Of course, the downside is that your data is now stored and controlled by an external agent—the cloud provider. Another inherent risk of cloud computing is the possibility of nefarious agents posing as legitimate customers.
An example of a cloud database platform is Microsoft SQL Azure. It is built on SQL Server technologies and is a component of the Windows Azure platform.
November 14, 2007 23:59 ET
Real-Time Telemedicine Solution for Tristan da Cunha Brings vow of Improved Medical Resources to Isolated Populations Everywhere
ARMONK, NY--(Marketwire - November 14, 2007) - The world's most remote inhabited island can now access advanced telemedical care, thanks to services and back from a high-technology team led by IBM (NYSE: IBM), Beacon Equity Partners and the University of Pittsburgh Medical hub (UPMC). Tristan da Cunha is located more than 1,665 miles west of Cape Town, South Africa, and is accessible only by a boat trip lasting a week or more. Some 270 British Citizens call the island home.
IBM, Beacon Equity Partners, and UPMC today joined Medweb and the Government of Tristan da Cunha in announcing the successful implementation of "Project Tristan." This tested and proven remote medical solution combines medical equipment, satellite communications and remotely supported electronic health-record (EHR) technology, allowing medical experts from anywhere in the world to assist island clinicians in their daily practices with medical diagnoses and emergency support.
Until recently, the island's only physician, Dr. Carel Van der Merwe, has had to rely upon minimal technology and limited medical support. Working from a hospital without so much as its own telephone to provide supervision for patients, he has often performed life-saving diagnoses and procedures without proper gear or specialized expertise. Lacking a communications system that could accept email attachments, back in interpreting X-Rays or EKGs, he has depended on digital images scanned, printed and faxed to specialists thousands of miles away, delaying diagnoses by days. With no airstrip on the island, emergency evacuation or outside medical intervention has been and remains today virtually impossible.
Project Tristan was conceived by Edward Mullen, Chairman of Beacon Equity Partners, and Paul Grundy, MD, MPH, and IBM's Director of Healthcare Technology and Strategic Initiatives, as a passage to homage the remembrance of a nearby friend, Thomas Wiese. It was implemented with the guidance and back of UPMC, as well as of Dr. Richard Bakalar, Chief Medical Officer for IBM, who besides established the Navy's first integrated Telemedicine Office at the National Naval Medical hub in Bethesda, MD, prior to joining IBM. Dr. Bakalar is besides President of the American Telemedicine Association.
Project Tristan, which is based on open standards and runs on the Linux Operating System, is expected to greatly enhance the island's even of medical supervision and yardstick of living. The island's physician is now able to electronically capture and partake medical data and information, including X-Rays and EKGs as well as pulmonary function evaluations and video camera examinations with physician consultants. Satellite communications will enable clinicians to provide real-time diagnostic recommendation and suggested treatments to the attending physician.
"The skill to partake medical data quickly and easily will be a life saver for their residents," said Dr. Van der Merwe. "By joining forces, IBM, Beacon Equity Partners, Medweb and UPMC beget not only created the capability to bring critical, patient-centric supervision to their remote island, but besides to other far locations around the world -- on land or sea -- that require constant connection to expert medical resources."
Contributions from each team member were as follows:
-- IBM: Solution co-development, integration and project management for the telemedicine system provided to Tristan da Cunha. Products and services included staffing, on-site installation of the system (requiring a 25 day service call because of the limited means of getting to the island), pecuniary resources, IBM xSeries servers provided to Medweb and high-resolution monitors.
-- Beacon Equity Partners: Co-development of the concept and funding for the project.
-- Medweb: Medweb servers and software and additional medical input devices including a computed radiography system for digital X-Ray; integration of ECG, digital cameras, spirometry and video conferencing capabilities; configuration and testing, remote installation, training and sustained back services on an ongoing basis, including primary technical and back desk services.
-- University of Pittsburgh Medical Center: With its widely recognized sustain in telemedicine in the U.S. and abroad, UPMC volunteered to back contrivance and implement Project Tristan. Additionally, UPMC offered clinical professional service to the island, including medical consultations on request; secure and trustworthy access to robust and comprehensive multimedia medical data on Tristan patients from the Medweb Telemedicine solution; and ongoing remote training to back Project Tristan as needed.
-- SOAPware®: Project Tristan features cutting-edge, remotely supported Electronic Health Record (EHR) technology courtesy of SOAPware, Inc. This solution has more installed sites and is in employ in more nations than any other.
"Connecting the most remote inhabited spot on the visage of the earth, Tristan da Cunha, to advanced medical supervision in existent time and over the Internet is proof that the world is really flat. This is a substantial step towards providing everyone access to centers of healthcare excellence regardless of geographical location," said Paul Grundy, MD, MPH, IBM's executive sponsor for Project Tristan and Director of IBM's Healthcare Technology and Strategic Initiatives. "It's now possible to monitor a patient's heart and remotely change the setting on a pacemaker or produce a involved fracture diagnoses over a satellite Internet connection -- even in an environment where the closest advanced supervision via a ship would otherwise beget taken a week to reach the Island and another to recrudesce to the mainland for care."
In dedicating Project Tristan to the remembrance of Weiss, who was lost to cancer in 2006 after a lifetime of helping others, the parties partake a vision of the project's potential impact around the world. "Thomas had huge energy and enthusiasm for reaching out to others," said Ed Mullen. "It is in remembrance of his spirit, resolve and guiding principles that their team has worked to deploy Tristan on Tristan da Cunha. Their unanimous goal is to expand this advanced telemedical solution to better healthcare in remote locations around the world."
IBM announced on Thusday, April 14th, 2005, first- quarter 2005 diluted earnings per common partake of $.85 from continuing operations as reported, including the outcome of expensing share-based compensation, compared with diluted earnings on a similar basis of $.79 per partake in the first quarter of 2004, an increase of 8 percent. First- quarter income from continuing operations was $1.41 billion, including the adoption of expensing equity compensation, compared with $1.36 billion a year ago, an increase of 3 percent. Revenues from continuing operations for the first quarter were $22.9 billion, up 3 percent, compared with revenues of $22.2 billion for the first quarter of 2004.
Earlier this month, IBM announced its end to expense equity compensation in the first quarter. The adoption is based on the implementation guidance provided in the SEC's release of Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, and in accordance with the FASB's revised Statement of pecuniary Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 123(R), "Share- based Payments."
Samuel J. Palmisano, IBM chairman and chief executive officer, said: "After a stalwart start, they had vicissitude closing transactions in the final weeks of the quarter, especially in countries with soft economic conditions, as well as with short-term Global Services signings. As a result, they did not achieve everything of their goals for the quarter. Middleware software and midrange systems results were solid, and they grew significantly in traffic Performance Transformation Services and in the emerging markets of China, Brazil, India and Eastern Europe. They returned nearly $4 billion to investors in the quarter through partake repurchases and dividends. They are taking commandeer measures to sharpen their execution, as they continue to implement their global growth strategies."
First-quarter revenue growth of 3 percent (1 percent, adjusting for currency) was driven by growth in the Americas and Europe/Middle East/Africa. In the Americas, first-quarter revenues from continuing operations were $9.3 billion, up 2 percent (1 percent, adjusting for currency) from the 2004 period. Revenues from Europe/Middle East/Africa were $7.7 billion, an increase of 7 percent (2 percent, adjusting for currency). Asia-Pacific revenues grew 1 percent (down 2 percent, adjusting for currency) to $5.2 billion. OEM revenues increased 3 percent to $691 million compared with the first quarter of 2004.
Revenues grew in four of IBM's five industry sectors in the first quarter led by the Distribution sector, as well as growth in sales to petite and Medium Businesses.
Revenues from Global Services, including maintenance, increased 6 percent (3 percent, adjusting for currency) to $11.7 billion in the first quarter. Global Services revenues, excluding maintenance, increased 7 percent (4 percent, adjusting for currency). IBM signed services contracts totaling $10.0 billion and ended the quarter with an estimated services backlog, including Strategic Outsourcing, traffic Consulting Services, Integrated Technology Services and Maintenance, of $110 billion.
In addition to these signings and backlog figures there were about $200 million of Engineering and Technology Services signings to provide traffic Performance Transformation Services customers with design skill and technical capabilities.
Hardware revenues from continuing operations were essentially flat (down 2 percent, adjusting for currency) to $6.7 billion in the first quarter versus the first quarter of 2004. Revenues from the Systems and Technology Group totaled $3.9 billion for the quarter, up 2 percent on eServer revenue increases. This includes a 12 percent increase in pSeries UNIX servers, which is expected to gain market partake in the first quarter, and an 8 percent increase in xSeries servers. Revenues from the zSeries mainframe product decreased 16 percent compared with the prior-year quarter. The total delivery of zSeries computing power as measured in MIPS (millions of instructions per second) decreased 11 percent. Revenues for the iSeries midrange servers increased 1 percent. Storage Systems and Technology OEM increased 5 percent and 2 percent, respectively. Revenues from Personal Systems Group decreased 3 percent to $2.7 billion. In the fourth-quarter 2004, IBM announced an agreement to sell the Personal Computing Division, a unit of the Personal Systems Group, which is expected to nearby in the second-quarter 2005.
Revenues from Software were $3.6 billion, an increase of 2 percent (flat, adjusting for currency) compared with the first quarter of 2004. Revenues from IBM's middleware brands, which embrace WebSphere, DB2, Rational, Tivoli and Lotus products, were $2.8 billion, up 3 percent versus the first quarter of 2004. Operating systems revenues decreased 2 percent to $590 million compared with the first quarter of 2004.
Revenues for WebSphere family of software products, which facilitates customers' skill to manage a wide variety of traffic processes using open standards to interconnect applications, data and operating systems, increased 11 percent. Revenues for Information Management increased 5 percent including revenues for DB2 database software, which enables clients to leverage information on demand, increased 9 percent. Revenues from Tivoli software (infrastructure software that enables customers to centrally manage networks and storage) increased 15 percent, and revenues for Lotus software, which allows collaborating and messaging by customers in real-time communication and learning management, increased 11 percent. Revenues from Rational software (integrated development tools) were flat compared with the first quarter of 2004.
As a result, IBM expects to gain or hold market partake for the first quarter in the collaborative software, systems management and security software, Web services and data management categories.
Global Financing revenues declined 12 percent (15 percent, adjusting for currency) in the first quarter to $580 million. Revenues from the Enterprise Investments/Other area, which includes industry- specific IT solutions such as product life-cycle management software, increased 15 percent (12 percent, adjusting for currency) to $332 million compared with the first quarter of 2004.
The company's total Gross profit margin from continuing operations was 36.0 percent in the 2005 first quarter, which includes the outcome of expensing equity compensation, compared with 35.6 percent in the first quarter of 2004 on a similar basis.
In the first quarter of 2005, total expense and other income from continuing operations increased 5 percent to $6.2 billion and, coupled with the revenue increase of 3 percent, IBM's total expense-to-revenue ratio increased 0.5 points to 27.3 percent. For the quarter, the reporting periods reflect the adoption of expensing equity compensation as it relates to both selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expense and research, development and engineering (RD&E) expense. SG&A expense increased 6 percent to $4.9 billion. RD&E expense increased 3 percent to $1.5 billion. Intellectual property and custom development income increased to $219 million compared with $180 million a year ago. Other (income) and expense was $22 million of net expense in the first quarter of 2005 versus $13 million in the very era last year.
IBM's efficient tax rate from continuing operations in the first quarter 2005 was 30.0 percent, compared with 30.1 percent in the first quarter of 2004.
Share repurchases totaled approximately $3.4 billion in the first quarter. The weighted-average number of diluted common shares outstanding in the first-quarter 2005 was 1.66 billion compared with 1.73 billion shares in the very era of 2004. As of March 31, 2005, there were 1.61 billion basic common shares outstanding.
IBM ended the first quarter of 2005 with $8.7 billion of cash on hand. The poise sheet remains strong, and the company is well positioned to boost edge of opportunities.
Debt, including Global Financing, totaled $23.4 billion, compared with $22.9 billion at year-end 2004. From a management segment view, the non-global financing debt-to-capitalization ratio was 5.3 percent at the cease of March 31, 2005, and Global Financing debt declined $413 million from year-end 2004 to a total of $21.9 billion, resulting in a debt-to-equity ratio of 6.7 to 1.
Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements
Except for the historical information and discussions contained herein, statements contained in this release may constitute forward- looking statements within the acceptation of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties and other factors that could occasions actual results to disagree materially, as discussed in the company's filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Presentation of Information in this Press Release
In an trouble to provide investors with additional information regarding the company's results as determined by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), the company has besides disclosed in this press release the following non-GAAP information which management believes provides useful information to investors:
- adjusting for currency
The rationale for management's employ of non-GAAP measures is included as partake of the supplementary materials presented within the first- quarter earnings materials. These materials are available on the IBM investor relations Web site at www.ibm.com/investor and will be included in a subsequent filing of a configuration 8-K with the SEC.
Conference call and Webcast
IBM's regular quarterly earnings conference call is scheduled to initiate at 6:00 p.m. EDT, today. Investors may participate by viewing the Webcast at www.ibm.com/investor/1q05.
Financial Results Attached
INTERNATIONAL traffic MACHINES CORPORATIONCOMPARATIVE pecuniary RESULTS(Unaudited; Dollars in millions except per partake amounts)
Three Months Ended March 31Percent2005 2004* Change------- ------- -------REVENUE
Global Services $11,696 $11,024 6.1%Gross profit margin 24.3% 23.7%
Hardware 6,749 6,735 0.2%Gross profit margin 27.5% 26.5%
Software 3,551 3,466 2.4%Gross profit margin 86.4% 85.9%
Global Financing 580 662 -12.5%Gross profit margin 54.2% 60.5%
Enterprise Investments/Other 332 288 15.2%Gross profit margin 52.5% 39.5%
TOTAL REVENUE 22,908 22,175 3.3%
GROSS PROFIT 8,254 7,892 4.6%Gross profit margin 36.0% 35.6%
EXPENSE AND OTHER INCOME
S,G&A 4,933 4,658 5.9%Expense to revenue 21.5% 21.0%
R,D&E 1,459 1,416 3.0%Expense to revenue 6.4% 6.4%
Intellectual propertyand custom developmentincome (219) (180) 21.9%Other (income) and expense 22 13 71.3%Interest expense 49 35 40.0%
TOTAL EXPENSE ANDOTHER INCOME 6,244 5,942 5.1%Expense to revenue 27.3% 26.8%
INCOME FROM CONTINUINGOPERATIONS BEFOREINCOME TAXES 2,010 1,950 3.1%Pre-tax margin 8.8% 8.8%
Provision forincome taxes 603 586 2.8%Effective tax rate 30.0% 30.1%
INCOME FROM CONTINUINGOPERATIONS $1,407 $1,364 3.2%Net margin 6.1% 6.1%
DISCONTINUED OPERATIONSLoss from discontinuedoperations 5 1
NET INCOME $1,402 $1,363 2.9%====== ======
EARNINGS/(LOSS)PER SHAREOF COMMON STOCK:
ASSUMING DILUTIONCONTINUINGOPERATIONS $0.85 $0.79 7.6%DISCONTINUEDOPERATIONS (0.00) (0.00)------ ------TOTAL $0.84** $0.79 6.3%====== ======BASICCONTINUINGOPERATIONS $0.86 $0.81 6.2%DISCONTINUEDOPERATIONS (0.00) (0.00)------ ------TOTAL $0.86 $0.81 6.2%====== ======WEIGHTED-AVERAGE NUMBEROF COMMON SHARESOUTSTANDING (M's)ASSUMING DILUTION 1,660.6 1,727.4BASIC 1,628.7 1,691.7
* Restated first-quarter 2004 pecuniary results to embrace the impactof share-based compensation expense.
** Does not total due to rounding.
INTERNATIONAL traffic MACHINES CORPORATIONCONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF pecuniary POSITION(Unaudited)
At At(Dollars in millions) March 31, December 31, Percent2005 2004* Change----------- ----------- -------ASSETS
Cash, cash equivalents,and marketable securities $8,651 $10,570 -18.2%
Receivables - net, inventories,prepaid expenses 32,692 36,573 -10.6%
Plant, rental machines,and other property - net 14,708 15,175 -3.1%
Investments and other assets 48,848 48,685 0.3%-------- --------
TOTAL ASSETS $104,899 $111,003 -5.5%======== ========
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Short-term debt $6,329 $8,099 -21.9%Long-term debt 17,083 14,828 15.2%-------- --------Total debt 23,412 22,927 2.1%
Accounts payable, taxes,and accruals 27,493 31,687 -13.2%
Other liabilities 24,074 24,701 -2.5%-------- --------TOTAL LIABILITIES 74,979 79,315 -5.5%
STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY 29,920 31,688 -5.6%-------- --------TOTAL LIABILITIES ANDSTOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY $104,899 $111,003 -5.5%======== ========
* Restated 2004 pecuniary position to embrace the impact ofshare-based compensation expense.
INTERNATIONAL traffic MACHINES CORPORATIONSEGMENT DATA(Unaudited)
FIRST QUARTER 2005---------------------------------------------Pre-taxIncome(Loss)From(Dollars in millions) -------- Revenue --------- Continuing Pre-taxExternal Internal Total Operations Margin-------- -------- ------- ---------- -------SEGMENTS
Global Services $11,696 $745 $12,441 $942 7.6%% change 6.1% -2.2% 5.6% -4.9%Systems and TechnologyGroup 3,869 235 4,104 109 2.7%% change 2.5% -0.4% 2.3% -35.9%Personal Systems Group 2,739 32 2,771 (17) -0.6%% change -3.1% 39.1% -2.7% -54.5%Software 3,551 461 4,012 893 22.3%% change 2.4% 15.0% 3.7% 4.6%Global Financing 579 449 1,028 396 38.5%% change -12.9% 60.4% 8.8% 5.9%Enterprise Investments 292 2 294 (32) -10.9%% change 6.2% 0.0% 6.1% 38.5%
TOTAL SEGMENTS 22,726 1,924 24,650 2,291 9.3%% change 3.1% 12.9% 3.9% -1.5%
Eliminations / Other 182 (1,924) (1,742) (281)
TOTAL IBM $22,908 $0 $22,908 $2,010 8.8%% change 3.3% 3.3% 3.1%
FIRST QUARTER 2004-----------------------------------------------Pre-taxIncome(Loss)From(Dollars in millions) -------- Revenue --------- Continuing Pre-taxExternal Internal Total Operations Margin-------- -------- ------- ---------- -------
Global Services $11,024 $762 $11,786 $991 8.4%Systems and TechnologyGroup 3,776 236 4,012 170 4.2%Personal Systems Group 2,826 23 2,849 (11) -0.4%Software 3,466 401 3,867 854 22.1%Global Financing 665 280 945 374 39.6%Enterprise Investments 275 2 277 (52) -18.8%
TOTAL SEGMENTS 22,032 1,704 23,736 2,326 9.8%
Eliminations / Other 143 (1,704) (1,561) (376)
TOTAL IBM* $22,175 $0 $22,175 $1,950 8.8%
* Restated first-quarter 2004 pecuniary results to embrace the impactof share-based compensation expense.