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Test Number : AWS-CDBS
Test Name : AWS Certified Database?Specialty (DBS-C01)
Vendor Name : Amazon
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AWS-CDBS test Format | AWS-CDBS Course Contents | AWS-CDBS Course Outline | AWS-CDBS test Syllabus | AWS-CDBS test Objectives

Format : Multiple choice, multiple answer
Type : Specialty
Delivery Method : Testing center or online proctored exam
Time : 180 minutes to complete the exam

The AWS Certified Database - Specialty (DBS-C01) examination is intended for individuals who perform in a database-focused role. This test validates an examinees comprehensive understanding of databases, including the concepts of design, migration, deployment, access, maintenance, automation, monitoring, security, and troubleshooting.

Response Types
There are two types of questions on the examination:
=> Multiple choice: Has one correct response and three incorrect responses (distractors).
=> Multiple response: Has two or more correct responses out of five or more options.
Select one or more responses that best complete the statement or answer the question. Distractors, or incorrect answers, are response options that an examinee with incomplete knowledge or skill would likely choose. However, they are generally plausible responses that fit in the content area defined by the test objective.
Unanswered questions are scored as incorrect; there is no penalty for guessing.

The AWS Certified Database - Specialty (DBS-C01) examination is a pass or fail exam. The examination is scored against a minimum standard established by AWS professionals who are guided by certification industry best practices and guidelines.
Your results for the examination are reported as a score from 1001,000, with a minimum passing score of 750. Your score shows how you performed on the examination as a whole and whether or not you passed. Scaled scoring models are used to equate scores across multiple test forms that may have slightly different difficulty levels.
Your score report contains a table of classifications of your performance at each section level. This information is designed to provide general feedback concerning your examination performance. The examination uses a compensatory scoring model, which means that you do not need to pass the individual sections, only the overall examination.

Domain 1: Workload-Specific Database Design 26%
Domain 2: Deployment and Migration 20%
Domain 3: Management and Operations 18%
Domain 4: Monitoring and Troubleshooting 18%
Domain 5: Database Security 18%
TOTAL 100%

Domain 1: Workload-Specific Database Design
1.1 Select appropriate database services for specific types of data and workloads
1.2 Determine strategies for disaster recovery and high availability
1.3 Design database solutions for performance, compliance, and scalability
1.4 Compare the costs of database solutions
Domain 2: Deployment and Migration
2.1 Automate database solution deployments
2.2 Determine data preparation and migration strategies
2.3 Execute and validate data migration
Domain 3: Management and Operations
3.1 Determine maintenance tasks and processes
3.2 Determine backup and restore strategies
3.3 Manage the operational environment of a database solution
Domain 4: Monitoring and Troubleshooting
4.1 Determine monitoring and alerting strategies
4.2 Troubleshoot and resolve common database issues
4.3 Optimize database performance
Domain 5: Database Security
5.1 Encrypt data at rest and in transit
5.2 Evaluate auditing solutions
5.3 Determine access control and authentication mechanisms
5.4 Recognize potential security vulnerabilities within database solutions

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What the combat that Amazon worker's face throughout the pandemic says in regards to the future of work in america.

a person standing in a parking lot: Courtney Bowden, 30, in front of the Amazon flex warehouse in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, on June 14. Bowden was fired in March. © Hannah Yoon for Vox Courtney Bowden, 30, in front of the Amazon flex warehouse in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, on June 14. Bowden turned into fired in March.

At 5:30 every morning, Rosie, an Amazon worker at a success middle in Staten Island, big apple, checks her text messages to look if she’s obtained extra unhealthy information: yet an extra colleague infected with Covid-19, on right of the as a minimum 50 americans at her facility who she says have already gotten in poor health.

CONSTELLATION manufacturers, INC.

As an older worker, Rosie is at greater risk of constructing critical problems from the disorder than many of her younger coworkers. Her two little ones beg her to stop.

“It’s scary, however you have to put on a smile and also you go to work because you need the income,” Rosie, who's being identified by way of a pseudonym as a result of she fears dropping her job for chatting with the press, instructed Recode in late may.

whereas she’s grateful for the safety precautions Amazon has added at its achievement centers in the past two months, like featuring masks and hand sanitizer stations, she’s alarmed by means of what she says she saw and heard around her: soiled air filters that aren’t replaced, a visibly unwell colleague who vomited within the bathing room — even after passing the necessary temperature checks the business instituted in early April — and workers standing shut collectively in the morning once they’re ready to get shift assignments, although the suggestions specify workers have to always stay 6 feet apart.

On a comply with-up name in late June, Rosie mentioned that since administration canceled morning meetings, there is no longer crowding earlier than shifts, and prerequisites have more suitable, but no longer thoroughly.

“It impacts your nerves, your intellectual state, your manner of pondering — since you should be cautious in everything you do now,” Rosie referred to. “It’s like I’m risking my life for a greenback. It’s twisted.”

last month, Rosie became stunned to listen to that a colleague who she heard become in his 20s — practically “a child,” she said — had died of Covid-19. management under no circumstances counseled Rosie, and she suspects many others didn’t comprehend either. instead, she observed, she discovered the information from a coworker’s fb publish.

management’s angle toward the death changed into “hush-hush, under the rug — together with what number of individuals have the disease,” Rosie instructed Recode. “here's how this enterprise runs this corporation.”

An Amazon spokesperson disputed Rosie’s account, saying the business communicated the news concerning the colleague’s demise to all and sundry working on the warehouse in grownup. The spokesperson also said Amazon has made it clear that every one employees who think ill need to reside domestic and that they have got a couple of paid and unpaid go away options.

however Rosie’s story is only one of a few equivalent money owed which have emerged from workers internal Amazon success facilities due to the fact that the pandemic started in March, prompting an exceptional sequence of inner scandals, worker protests, and public petitions which have united some of Amazon’s corporate and warehouse personnel against their employer for the first time. In flip, this unrest has attracted scrutiny from good politicians over the business’s labor practices and threatens to hurt Amazon’s popularity within the eyes of the a whole lot of tens of millions of americans who store on the platform every year. It also reveals inequalities in the economy that Amazon has flourished in, an economic system that the e-commerce massive is also shaping as its measurement and have an impact on expand.

The main entrance of an Amazon fulfillment center in Staten Island, New York, on June 22. © Dakota Santiago for Vox The main entrance of an Amazon success core in Staten Island, new york, on June 22.

Amazon, the 2nd-largest private US business enterprise after Walmart, will pay its achievement center worker's a $15 minimal hourly wage and presents advanced merits when in comparison to some important competitors. however lots of the company’s laborers nevertheless say they're struggling to stay afloat, and they have such limited work alternatives that they keep displaying as much as style, pack, and deliver shipments for Amazon at the same time as they worry the business isn’t doing adequate to hold them protected all over a world fitness disaster.

In interviews with Recode, dozens of present and former Amazon personnel, from the warehouse stage to senior company managers, shared up to now unreported details about the inner workings of the company, inconsistent enforcement of health and protection protocols, and the strategies they are saying the enterprise has employed to tamp down tensions rising amongst its group of workers.

Amazon seems to be smartly mindful that its remedy of workers throughout the pandemic concerns. Externally, the enterprise has launched a public members of the family crusade that includes television classified ads and a documentary television sequence to power home a message to purchasers that retaining the “retail heroes” in its warehouses safe is its desirable priority.

but internally, employees instructed Recode that Amazon has responded to workers’ complaints by means of cracking down on dissenters. The enterprise has fired at the least six personnel who had been concerned in fresh worker protests or who spoke out about working situations at Amazon, including a few who were seen leaders within the enterprise on employee issues. Sources informed Recode the company has additionally reprimanded as a minimum six other employees all the way through the same period who had been concerned in latest protests.

Amazon has spoke of that it terminated the employees in query for repeatedly violating internal policies on social distancing, inner communications, and habits with colleagues. It denied retaliating against employees for their criticism of the business.

true Amazon executive Dave Clark, who oversees Amazon’s global warehouse network, informed Recode in may additionally, “I’ve been right here 21 years, and i have never viewed anyone punished or terminated or anything else for speakme out or having a opposite opinion or debating whatever thing. And that remains the case.”

Courtney Bowden, a former Amazon warehouse worker in Pennsylvania who turned into fired in March shortly after organizing her colleagues to demand paid time off for half-time personnel, disagrees. Bowden says Amazon’s mentioned cause of firing her changed into for getting into a dispute with a coworker. “Amazon thinks that they could manage all these worker's talking out through firing them,” Bowden informed Recode in mid-March. “What they don’t bear in mind is that the volume of individuals doing here is just going to develop, develop, develop.”

Clark additionally instructed Recode that the company led many of its rivals in rolling out Covid-19 safety measures comparable to necessary masks, temperature assessments, and enforced social distancing in warehouses. In interviews with Recode, even warehouse employees who had been critical about Amazon’s Covid-19 safeguard practices pointed out they have considered some signals of growth due to the fact mid-March.

but people instructed Recode that other, deeper considerations that existed before the pandemic have handiest gotten worse — particularly, that how Amazon spoke back to workers’ pandemic complaints exemplifies how worker's have restrained vigour or voice in how their enterprise treats them.

What’s at stake

The interior conflicts at Amazon, coupled with transforming into outdoor scrutiny, have put the enterprise — and its shoppers — in a fraught place.

The e-commerce tremendous with a $1 trillion valuation has turn into a logo of the longstanding economic and racial inequalities within the US that the pandemic has exaggerated. The virus disproportionately kills extra Black americans than different ethnic businesses; eighty p.c of Amazon’s US warehouses are located in zip codes that have a more robust percent of Black, Latinx, and Indigenous individuals than the regional typical, in line with a latest evaluation via the worker activist neighborhood AECJ.

Like many other white-collar tech employees within the US, most of Amazon’s company employees had been capable of make money working from home. meanwhile, Amazon’s warehouse employees, who've traditionally been more racially distinct than its corporate personnel, need to exhibit up in grownup. And as tens of millions of other americans have misplaced their jobs and are struggling to have enough money needs, Amazon and organizations like it are reaping list income and hiring lots of of lots employees to group of workers their facilities, convey products, and risk exposure to an endemic that’s already killed more than one hundred twenty five,000 people within the US as of late June.

earlier than the pandemic, tens of millions of american citizens already relied on Amazon for the comfort its one- or two-day transport offered them. Covid-19 protect-in-location orders and the temporary shuttering of many physical dealers most effective expanded dependence on the company: Amazon earnings and best membership subscriptions shot up from January to March. 

however stories of the company’s labor concerns have raised uncomfortable questions. Is it possible for Amazon to retain what its CEO Jeff Bezos calls its “obsessive-compulsive focus on the customer” while additionally protecting its employees? Would consumers pay extra and accept slower start times if it intended Amazon would assist and pay its laborers extra? can they need to live, work, and store in an economic system where more and more companies are emulating Amazon’s company mannequin, and the place more americans depend on speedy-paced warehouse and delivery work to make their livelihoods? Or will politicians, Amazon’s personal personnel, and, most importantly, patrons demand changes from the business — and the economic climate during which it prospers?

These questions aren’t thoroughly new. well earlier than the pandemic, Amazon turned into seemingly unstoppable regardless of studies of grueling and sometimes dangerous circumstances at its warehouses. during the past 25 years, the business has grown from a scrappy on-line book shop to some of the world’s most constructive organizations, with its attain extending past e-commerce to streaming tv, brick-and-mortar grocery, and cloud computing.

“after they discuss Amazon, we’re really speakme in regards to the future of work,” Stuart Appelbaum, president of the Retail, Wholesale, and branch shop Union (RWDSU), which represents worker's at fundamental agents equivalent to Macy’s, Bloomingdale’s, and H&M, told Recode. “different employers believe that in the event that they want to survive, they must discover a method to trade their working circumstances to replicate Amazon. And that’s precisely what they don’t want — they don’t want Amazon to be the model for what working goes to be like, of what the future of work goes to appear to be.”

In easy of the pandemic’s existence-or-dying consequences, assessing the future of work and Amazon’s position in it is greater pressing than ever.

The enterprise does not publicly share the entire variety of its workers infected with Covid-19, even though it has without delay messaged warehouse people for my part when there's someone with a new case at their facility. Former Indiana warehouse employee Jana Jumpp all started a undertaking to crowdsource these messages from laborers. She says she’s established pretty much 1,600 cases of Amazon warehouse employees with Covid-19 when you consider that March, and at least 9 laborers who've died of the sickness. That case complete would signify smartly under 1 % of Amazon’s US warehouse team of workers, but without Amazon’s confirmation, it’s nonetheless unclear how largely the virus has spread among its employee base.

Amazon declined to touch upon Jumpp’s reporting to Recode, but Amazon spokesperson Kelly Cheeseman instructed Recode the enterprise uses “a whole lot of information to closely video display the safety of their buildings and there is robust facts that their employees aren't proliferating the virus at work.”

Jumpp says she’s getting a gentle move of studies of as a minimum 10 to 20 new circumstances a day from Amazon worker's across the U.S., which she compiles in a spreadsheet.

“If the public basically knew what was stepping into the amenities, they could believe twice about browsing on Amazon,” Jumpp advised Recode.

That’s because what occurs interior Amazon’s warehouses doesn’t simply affect its employees. it will have an effect on the rest of us, too.

And the company’s consumers will affect its practices.

outside surveys display that Amazon’s customer popularity began slipping all through the pandemic, although the motives of this shift aren't yet clear. the percentage of americans who said they have a good impact of Amazon dropped from 74 percent in January before the pandemic hit the USA to 58 p.c in may in two similar, separate polls of more than 1,000 people conducted via Survey Monkey with Fortune and Recode, respectively.

yet another contemporary poll via RBC Capital Markets confirmed a similar style: Amazon clients are reporting list-low ranges of customer satisfaction, regardless of making greater common purchases.

For now, it’s difficult to say if we’re seeing extra negative client comments about Amazon as a result of americans encountered inventory shortages and start delays because of the coronavirus, or as a result of they’re with the aid of criticisms of Amazon’s labor practices, or every other purpose. If it’s basically searching inconveniences prompting the shift in customer belief, the business can be influenced to push its employees harder, and return to pre-Covid stages of worker productivity as without delay as viable. but when the shift relates to Amazon’s ethics as an organisation, the business has a deeper issue to resolve for, and what it does subsequent is likely to have gigantic implications for the relaxation of the us economy.

“If the general public begins helping the protests, if the shoppers beginning boycotting Amazon, then shoppers form a big type of vigour,” Thomas Anton Kochan, a professor of business relations at MIT, informed Recode. “The premiere arbiters of this debate should be the general public, no longer Amazon and never the workers themselves.”

Three months of unrest and counting

If it’s nonetheless unclear how clients will eventually reply to Amazon and how it dealt with the pandemic, what has develop into clear is that the past three months have shaken up Amazon’s inside tradition, which one worker described as an “artificial inside classification device” that has before separated corporate personnel from fulfillment center employees.

As studies emerged of the enterprise firing and cracking down on employees agitating for enhanced situations at success centers, a transforming into number of the company’s engineers, product managers, and designers have develop into embarrassed, involved, and irritated. For the primary time, they’re joining forces with their colleagues on the warehouse level to publicly criticize their employer, and a few say they misplaced their jobs on account of it. in the meantime, well-known politicians like Sens. Cory Booker and Elizabeth Warren are pressing the business on its firings of worker's throughout corporate offices and the warehouse ground alike.

“individuals wish to be proud of the company, but they're feeling somewhat ashamed and determining even if they can exchange [it] from inside or need to depart,” one longtime company Amazon employee instructed Recode in late April.

“at the conclusion of the day, I want to know what variety of enterprise does Amazon wish to be: a corporation that allows discourse and speak between employees, or a company that suppresses dissent?” an additional Amazon worker instructed Recode in late April.

for the reason that March, people have issued two petitions with more than 6,000 combined employee signatures demanding more advantageous pay and benefits, and they’ve held at least eight protests at over a dozen achievement facilities, sortation facilities, and birth stations.

Amazon’s response to its warehouse and company personnel’ concerns appears to have most effective agitated personnel greater. In public statements and interior conferences, the enterprise seems to be treating the scrutiny of warehouse situations like a PR problem instead of an opportunity to locate and repair competencies operational flaws.

“we now have their critics, both right here in the united states and worldwide, who — some are absolutely inconvincible,” right Amazon spokesperson Jay Carney spoke of all over an internal video mp;A with company employees in early may, of which Recode received an audio recording.

“appear, you've got instances where they have a protest at a achievement center and we've greater organizers than real Amazon employees out in the street.” Carney went on, “I believe the total number of protesters in the city and states has been less than a fraction of a half of a fraction of a p.c of their employee base, but one of the vital media insurance suggests that that’s not the case.”

Cheeseman reiterated what the business in the past stated in a statement in regard to employee protests: that the “overwhelming majority” of Amazon employees have not participated and that the walkouts had “no measurable influence on operations.”

“We inspire anybody interested in the records to compare their general pay and advantages, as well as their speed in managing this disaster, to other retailers and foremost employers across the nation,” Cheeseman instructed Recode.

Amazon presents full-time warehouse personnel the identical health care coverage and 401(ok) options as corporate employees. at first of the pandemic, it additionally led other groups by being probably the most first to grant worker's a $2-per-hour wage hike, and it doubled additional time pay and provided unlimited unpaid break day. (All of these pandemic-connected guidelines ended on June 1, prompting loud pushback from some employees.)

“Our focal point remains on retaining buddies in their operations network,” Cheeseman noted.

Amazon has practically 600,000 full-time and part-time personnel in the US, the significant majority of whom work in its warehouse community, so the a whole bunch of employees protesting are indeed most effective a tiny percent of its staff. but one corporate employee who doesn’t agree with himself an activist and hasn’t been thinking in any fresh protests advised Recode, “Many people don't feel comfortable strolling off a job for a protest, specially in this climate. So the voice of organizers may still be heard as consultant of the staff they’re organizing for.”

Of course, Amazon’s many personnel have a number perspectives on how their provider treats them in everyday and the way it’s handled their defense right through the pandemic. Some cost how Amazon pays all employees a $15-per-hour minimum wage, as well as the way it offers health care and dental assurance, and incredibly subsidized tuition or vocational working towards to extra personnel’ careers.

“Amazon is a pretty good job in lots of techniques: first rate advantages, it pays decent, there are alternatives for extra time, to move to college,” pointed out Jumpp.

Others empathize with the enterprise and the astounding challenges Covid-19 has created for it.

but a big number of Amazon’s personnel, in warehouses and in its headquarters, think it has let them down, and that’s fueling their criticism of the company.

The transforming into dissent among Amazon’s company group of workers followed a number of key strikes Amazon made within the early days of the pandemic: First, the company fired Christian Smalls, a warehouse worker in Staten Island, new york, who led an early protest towards the business in March.

Then business executives, led by using properly attorney David Zapolsky, strategized in an govt assembly attended by means of Bezos about a way to downplay Smalls’s complaints by way of characterizing him as “no longer smart or articulate.” Then, when Zapolsky’s notes from this assembly leaked to the clicking and corporate personnel begun to protest and query Amazon’s moves on interior business listservs, the business fired three key company activists in mid-April and commenced restricting personnel’ capacity to communicate on massive listserv. It paused imposing these restrictions after Recode mentioned on them.

Amazon employees instructed Recode in April they had been certainly concerned via what they noticed as racist overtones within the notes from the govt assembly focused on Smalls, who's Black. Amazon advised Recode in April that Zapolsky was ignorant of Smalls’s race when he made the comments.

considering then, laborers’ unease has grown as a result of 4 of the six laborers Amazon has fired on account that March are individuals of color.

Cheeseman, the Amazon spokesperson, informed Recode that the company “works complicated to foster a subculture where inclusion is the norm for each and every and each one” of its personnel.

“We don't tolerate any kind of discrimination in their place of work,” Cheeseman talked about.

John Hopkins is another employee who says Amazon targeted him in may additionally for his activism at work. The company lifted his suspension in June after an interior health and security investigation; considering then, he has endured to be vocal about what he sees as retaliation and racial injustice at Amazon.

Hopkins instructed Recode it didn’t count that Zapolsky said he wasn’t aware of Smalls’s race when he said Smalls wasn’t articulate.

“sooner or later, he [Zapolsky] didn’t need to be aware about his [Smalls’s] race — he should were privy to the options,” Hopkins informed Recode. “regardless of no matter if he knew especially, he has to grasp the variety of African American laborers in warehouses is far greater than in AWS [Amazon Web Services]. The options he become going to assert that a few Black employee are better.

“Race permeates every little thing. These aren’t disconnected concerns; what’s on the heart of all of them is implicit bias,” Hopkins added.

Amazon said it fired Smalls as a result of he violated social distancing policies whereas he was on paid quarantine go away, and that it terminated the corporate employees after they violated company policies around inside communications. “There are also a variety of [employees] who're continually speaking to reporters and publishing various things that, you be aware of, I disagree completely with,” Clark, the Amazon government, told Recode. “but they come returned to work every day, are paid well, and nothing negative happens to them.”

The six currently fired employees have all disputed Amazon’s explanations for his or her terminations.

“It’s now not ok that Amazon did that and fired that worker [Smalls]; these issues aren’t normal,” one former Amazon engineer who recently left the company instructed Recode in late April, speaking on condition of anonymity out of worry of retaliation. “I’m no longer ok with going to work every day and continuing my day job while issues are occurring in the background. I should show help for different people in the company.”

Smalls’s case additionally caught the consideration of politicians like long island metropolis Mayor bill de Blasio and new york legal professional widespread Letitia James, who have launched investigations into the incident, in addition to Sen. Booker, who has sent a couple of letters urgent Bezos on the rely.

“What’s annoying to me is that you've people who're, frankly, just talking towards the crisis, and that they’re seeing retaliation this is unacceptable,” Booker informed Recode in early can also. given that Booker wrote the letter about Smalls, the enterprise has fired a few extra warehouse people concerned in activism. “These firings extra marginalize employees who already think in fact pressured.”

while Amazon’s termination of seen activist leaders both within company headquarters and at its achievement facilities has scared some employees, they haven’t stopped organizing. The firings additional angered and encouraged essential personnel to circulation discussions off corporate systems that will talk about their ethical qualms about their organisation extra discreetly — and freely.

“I consider temporarily people will be discouraged from speaking, nonetheless it’s not going to silence their inner issues,” one worker instructed Recode in late April.

“individuals earlier than have been announcing, ‘Oh, possibly Amazon’s now not so unhealthy,’ but after they see the silencing, and the censorship, and the firings, and the now not listening — that is the ultimate straw for lots of people,” former longtime Amazon corporate worker Maren Costa instructed Recode. Costa and her colleague Emily Cunningham were fired on April 10, presently after they both shared a petition all started by using Amazon warehouse workers about the risks warehouse people face throughout the pandemic. Amazon informed Recode that the pair have been terminated for violating Amazon’s inner policies, together with one that bars employees from the usage of business components to solicit their coworkers for signatures.

both Costa and Cunningham were energetic leaders of an internal employee neighborhood that pushes the business to turn into more environmentally friendly, referred to as Amazon personnel for climate Justice (AECJ). After they were fired, Costa and Cunningham helped host two digital panel discussions between warehouse worker's and corporate personnel about protection requisites at warehouses, environmental policies, and unionization. around 400 personnel attended each and every experience, according to the organizers.

“we are in reality on the appropriate side of background,” Cunningham instructed Recode in late April. “Even these of us which have more privilege doesn’t mean we’re proof against the precise hurt it truly is already coming their means. … There’s simplest so tons insulation except you’re an incredibly prosperous billionaire.”

Dozens of warehouse worker's Recode spoke with emphasized the value of corporate personnel like Cunningham and Costa speaking out on their behalf.

“while warehouse and tech people are handled otherwise in many methods by way of Amazon, fresh pursuits have evidently proven how we’re still within the equal struggle, like in opposition t retaliation from Amazon for exercising free speech,” Ted Miin, a warehouse employee on the DCH1 facility in Chicago and member of the worker community DCH1 Amazonians United, instructed Recode in early might also.

This newfound solidarity between entrance-line and office people displays a starting to be gulf between the company and segments of its team of workers, who say the company’s leaders — each in its headquarters and people managing its warehouses — are disconnected from the challenges worker's lessen in the company face.

“americans earlier than were saying, ‘Oh, probably Amazon’s no longer so dangerous,’ however after they see the silencing, and the censorship, and the firings, and the no longer listening — it is the closing straw for a lot of people”

in case you believe the size of Amazon’s tremendous network of warehouses — which contains one hundred ten success facilities in the US and hundreds of smaller sorting and beginning facilities — as smartly as the computer-like efficiency required to retain this operation operating, that’s not excellent. The pandemic has just raised the stakes.

“Amazon treats the people in the warehouses as fungible contraptions of choose-and-pack competencies,” Tim Bray, a former VP-stage engineer at the business, wrote in a now-viral public blog publish he published in late April after quitting in protest of Amazon’s firings of Costa, Cunningham, Smalls, Bowden, and different whistleblowers. Bray referred to as administration’s choices “bird s---” and accused the enterprise of fostering a “local weather of fear” amongst its employees. (Bray later deleted the “fowl s---” language after he said americans he revered told him it turned into “suggest-spirited.”)

The day after Bray posted his observe, Brad Porter, the enterprise’s vice chairman of robotics, defended Amazon’s measures to protect its employees in a LinkedIn post. In it, he mentioned technological solutions his teams have been rolling out: using AI to be sure employees are social distancing, installing thermal cameras to determine worker's’ temperatures, and developing cell ultraviolet sanitation to kill Covid-19 in warehouses.

but, as several employees wrote in internal emails that Recode bought and in public comments on LinkedIn, Porter sidestepped one of the crucial leading focuses of Bray’s critique: that the business is allegedly retaliating towards workers who question the company’s remedy of achievement center laborers.

“This Linkedin submit has honestly left me a bit ailing for several motives, because it just indicates how keenly and brazenly VPs don't get it,” wrote one Amazon employee in a may additionally 6 put up on an inner corporate listserv that Recode received. “The indisputable fact that Brad Porter does not once mention the fired personnel — whatever Tim Bray certainly and it appears that evidently states to be the reason behind his resignation — in his exculpatory publish makes things very clear: they don’t see this as a controversy.”

Others mentioned that Porter’s options had been generally technical fixes to a extremely human difficulty.

“notwithstanding they eventually have all the know-how in place for a COVIDfree place of work, if people don’t think protected to talk, that’s no longer a secure area,” wrote a different employee on the identical listserv.

Amazon turned into a troublesome place to work before. The pandemic has made it worse.

How Amazon is coping with people’ dissent is only one a part of the problem, laborers say. the dimensions and pace of its operations have always had downsides, but now the force of a deadly disease is making them greater visible.

Amazon has lengthy been primary for hiring shiny, information-focused managers in its warehouse network to support enhance efficiency whereas conserving charges down. The outcomes has been a global-classification logistics operation that offers low-priced next-day start to hundreds of thousands of americans. however there are drawbacks to that records-obsessed approach, too: quotas and metrics that don’t account for an worker having a nasty day — or now not feeling well — and some managers who are extra comfy evaluating numbers than human feelings.

“Algorithms may also be very, very bad … and that’s where Amazon is presently,” a former senior HR supervisor at Amazon instructed Recode. “There is not any different enterprise on earth it is more effective. but the downside is … you're taking individuals who don’t have lifestyles experiences, or just don’t have empathy, and it becomes very handy to examine records as the end-all, be-all, as adverse to as a e-book.”

Cheeseman refuted that characterization and referenced two emails that Clark despatched to warehouse managers right through the pandemic, which expressed the value of holding employees suit and safe.

“To be abundantly clear, your most essential job right now has nothing to do with a metric,” Clark wrote to managers in a March 14 email that Amazon confirmed Recode. “It’s running your floors, talking to your teams, assisting them if they need support or have [any] questions, and guaranteeing all the defense measures we've rolled out are carried out and followed.”

Amazon seems conscious that a few of its warehouse managers center of attention too narrowly on assembly achievement desires, despite the fact that it gained’t talk about it publicly. The business prior to now developed a pc equipment, Recode has learned, that periodically prompts some warehouse supervisors to get out from at the back of their laptop and go have interaction with their entrance-line group of workers. corresponding to how employees criticized Porter’s response to Bray’s resignation notice, it’s an Amazonian answer to a very human difficulty.

“We do have mechanisms to remind their teams what’s essential to us, and that does encompass recognizing and connecting with pals,” Cheeseman observed.

“we've their critics, each right here within the u.s. and around the globe, who — some are fully inconvincible”

Amazon wasn’t always so intensely focused on performance metrics. A longtime former company employee, who changed into an HR supervisor concentrated on warehouses, told Recode they noticed a major shift in that path at Amazon round 2010.

“after I joined, it changed into very apparent to me that the leaders in the facility really cared about the individuals,” the previous HR supervisor spoke of. “The Amazon that I left in fulfillment changed into … not that method.”

a part of the alternate this former manager noticed will also be attributed to an elevated reliance on performance information, as neatly because the implementation of so-called general operating procedures. “We just about overindexed on strategies,” spoke of the previous HR manager, whereas also acknowledging the business upsides to including extra constitution to warehouse work.

however the other element within the shift turned into the classification of warehouse leaders the company recruited as Amazon elevated to satisfy exploding client demand. “It turned into all about simply power, pressure, power, and there have been no longer loads of very kind leaders,” based on the previous supervisor.

A former Amazon information science engineer focused on warehouse metrics informed Recode, “I knew that every single time they developed a tool, they are only adding drive.

“The pressure to be constant and operate every single second there is large,” the employee delivered. “now not everyone is a similar.”

despite the note Clark despatched warehouse managers in mid-March urging them to prioritize defense measures above beginning metrics, several employees instructed Recode as these days as late April that one of the business’s rigid middle managers in success centers have been gradual to empathize with the wonderful setbacks of working all over an epidemic and have been enforcing strict work quotas.

An Amazon employee at a success middle in New Jersey, who spoke to Recode on the condition of anonymity for fear of losing her job, talked about in late April that the tempo demanded in her warehouse made it, in her view, inconceivable to effectively social distance: “when you’re deciding upon an order, the bins and pallets … they’re all shut collectively, and that they’re used by using diverse people at one time. And in case you’re now not picking up definite objects inside a undeniable time frame, you’re penalized.” The equal employee told Recode that by means of early may, administration at her web page had superior on safeguard considerations at the warehouse — making bin aisles one-way for foot site visitors, and easing up enforcement of employee productiveness fees.

Miin, the worker in Chicago, told Recode in early April that the business become inconsistently enforcing social distancing requirements within the fulfillment middle the place he labored. In a follow-up interview in late June, Miin noted he thought the warehouse was still facing the same concerns.

“when we’re protesting situations, they bring up the 6-ft rule. however, of path, they don’t deliver that up when people are trying to work tough and speedy internal the warehouse — these suggestions are left out,” Miin pointed out.

Cheeseman pointed out the company denies these accusations. “That’s not authentic,” she wrote to Recode. “we've a coverage concerning social distancing and we're imposing it across all sites.” Cheeseman stated the business has applied several tips on how to display screen social distancing, together with spending $85 million to circulate current personnel into new “social distancing ambassadors” roles.

Interviews with personnel at other Amazon warehouses from late March through June point out that at some facilities, management meticulously and efficaciously enforced social distancing. however in keeping with Recode’s interviews with greater than 30 personnel across the enterprise’s entire community, now not every warehouse changed into operating on the same level.

At many Amazon warehouses, social distancing is rigidly upheld: “At my constructing, the protection committee is at all times on true of each person about being secure and donning your mask,” one Amazon associate at the ACY5 fulfillment middle in Swedesboro, New Jersey, told Recode in late may additionally, talking on the condition of anonymity for concern of losing her job for chatting with the press. “even though you’re 5 toes aside, they’re at all times yelling at you to be 6 ft aside.”

The associate said she has plentiful entry to masks, wipes, and hand sanitizer, and that normal she feels protected at work. but she pointed out that situations appear to differ from warehouse to warehouse. She observed her facility had only had one Checked worker case of Covid-19 to this point in may additionally, whereas she heard an extra website nearby in West Deptford, New Jersey, has dozens of situations. (Jumpp’s report indicates over 20 recorded situations at the West Deptford website as of late June.)

“It’s like a sequence restaurant, like a Chili’s or some thing — each and every franchise can be run in a different way,” the Amazon associate stated.

In an interview with Recode in mid-might also, Clark, the Amazon senior vp, pointed out he doesn’t agree that there have been tremendous inconsistencies within the company’s response to the pandemic. “I’d like to say that they had been ultimate. but I don’t believe any one had a playbook for this thing,” Clark pointed out. “We’ve learned as we’ve long past, and i believe we’ve performed tremendously neatly.”

Patrick Penfield, a professor of deliver chain management at Syracuse college, advised Recode he thinks Amazon is working difficult to protect its laborers from the coronavirus.

“The issue is this coronavirus is whatever we’ve by no means ever encountered before — here's the catch 22 situation,” Penfield talked about.

Clark instructed Recode the company faced challenges in ingredients of March “the place in every a part of the provide chain — even the scientific community — getting adequate sanitizer and some of those things have been very challenging.”

“however for weeks we’ve been in a place the place we’ve procured sufficient substances where at every bit of the operation, they have overages to guide what groups need,” he spoke of within the 2nd week of may additionally.

Amazon has not been by myself in battling the challenge of protecting the coronavirus out of its amenities.

d presented ninety three million sanitizing sprays and wipes, more than one hundred million masks, and more than 2,000 new hand-washing stations throughout its fulfillment core community.

And though Amazon ended its pandemic pay raises and unlimited day without work in June, Clark advised Recode that employees still have a number of other go away alternate options, together with ones that practice to folks with college-age little ones or personnel with preexisting conditions. As of mid-may, Clark stated more than 10,000 personnel have used these different break day options, even though Bloomberg mentioned in June that some warehouse personnel are having situation accessing these alternate options on account of a totally automated, and overwhelmed, human elements operation.

however even with all the precautions that Amazon has applied since mid-March, the coronavirus continues to unfold in the US, and it’s nevertheless infecting Amazon’s worker's. people informed Recode that Amazon’s refusal to disclose exactly how many people are infected at each and every web page makes displaying up for work more annoying than it has to be.

“people wish to be proud of the enterprise, but they're feeling somewhat ashamed and finding out even if they can change [it] from within or should leave”

When there are confirmed Covid-19 cases in its amenities, Amazon noted that it stories video footage to determine each person an contaminated employee has been in shut contact with after which notifies those people which will go on paid leave. “We alert each adult on the website anytime there is a Checked prognosis,” Amazon has mentioned in an announcement. “This alert comprises when the person with the tested prognosis became ultimate within the building.”

Clark informed Recode that he believes a more robust metric for picking even if Amazon warehouses are secure is the number of personnel it quarantines after they arrive into shut contact with a coworker who later Checked high-quality. inside statistics shows that as of the primary week in may additionally, Amazon has most effective necessary to quarantine one extra employee for each four tested situations, Clark said.

“It potential that the infections that they see … always come from spread inside a community, now not interior the constructing.”

The company said it additionally interviews those that look at various nice to see whether they've had close contact with coworkers outdoor of work, too. but a few personnel advised Recode they worked carefully with someone they comprehend changed into later confirmed to have Covid-19, and had now not heard anything else from the enterprise, even several days after talents exposure.

Amazon’s Cheeseman referred to the enterprise uses CDC counsel for what constitutes publicity — standing within 6 feet for more than quarter-hour — or native fitness suggestions if it’s stricter. She brought that personnel have a number of easy methods to amplify considerations if they suppose they were exposed.

When Recode requested dozens of warehouse laborers in the event that they idea Amazon was any more advantageous or worse than rivals like Walmart in how they deal with worker's, many noted that these companies could be just as dangerous. however they said they expected more from Amazon and its leadership as a result of the enterprise’s success.

“What in reality makes me mad is that Jeff Bezos is likely one of the richest guys on the planet,” talked about Billie Jo Ramey, a worker at the DTW1 fulfillment middle in Romulus, Michigan, on a call with newshounds in April. “He can have the funds for to keep us safe.”

What occurs next

more than three months after the pandemic transformed Amazon from being a handy provider to an essential one offering substances to tens of millions of homebound americans, the company has found itself in a delicate circumstance. Amazon itself calls its people “heroes.” but many of these warehouse heroes — and their company colleagues — are irritated with their organisation in methods they’ve never been earlier than.

“It’s a new second when a whole bunch of worker's are taking action and when tens of lots extra are signing their petitions and expressing their cohesion online,” Dania Rajendra, director of Athena, a coalition of nonprofits and companies scrutinizing Amazon’s business practices, advised Recode. “americans who are not the executives of extraordinarily prosperous establishments are realizing they’re during this collectively.”

while unions have succeeded in organizing some of Amazon’s European personnel, no US facility has been unionized. The closing attempt, in 2014, ended with a small neighborhood of Amazon technicians at a Delaware facility balloting towards unionization. during the past, Amazon has staved off makes an attempt at warehouse organizing by using monitoring and discouraging any preliminary indications of employee harmony speak on the shop flooring, and through conceding on a few of laborers’ demands earlier than they boost further.

This time, quelling organizers’ efforts received’t be so easy — but Amazon has long been making ready for the competencies of unionization, which a former Amazon government told Recode in April “is likely the single biggest threat to [Amazon’s] company mannequin.”

As early as the 2000s, Amazon begun monitoring the potential for unionization at each of its warehouses, building a warmth map in Excel to determine “scorching spots” in its success network, a former senior chief in Amazon’s human resources branch advised Recode. This calculation turned into according to at the least dozens of metrics, together with worker survey information, timing of the closing pay lift, the defense checklist of the power, and even the monetary power of native unions, the former HR supervisor observed.

in response to this employee, who spoke on the situation of anonymity, Amazon tracked these details to examine “where can they swoop in to work out if there’s a problem with management or possibly there’s one peculiarly toxic worker who is definitely inflicting chaos.” total meals, which Amazon got in 2017, now employs a similar union monitoring equipment, company Insider stated in April.

Cheeseman said she couldn’t verify or deny the existence of the Excel-based unionizing-monitoring tool as a result of employees who would have overseen it not work for Amazon. however she recounted that Amazon does “computer screen carefully websites where personnel have considerations and issues to be sure we’re solving them.”

a couple of existing and former Amazon warehouse personnel told Recode there were greater contemporary talks of unionization amongst rank-and-file personnel, but additionally common worry that doing so might can charge worker's their jobs or different repercussions.

“when I labored there, I joked that if I even noted the note ‘union,’ I’d be kicked out. They referred to as it [unions] the ‘u-note,’” Jumpp said. “There’s a lot of discuss unions, however I don’t know if they’ll work or now not.”

while based unions like United food & business workers international Union (UFCW) and RWDSU have been informally helping Amazon warehouse worker's in pushing for enhanced situations, the first true step toward unionization — actively saying a bargaining unit and calling for a vote — hasn’t took place yet.

although Amazon laborers are still a long way from officially unionizing, their organizing and the public attention it’s drawn offers a gap to politicians able to capture a chance to rein within the unparalleled vigour the enterprise has consolidated in the past decade.

On may additionally 12, a gaggle of 13 US state attorneys general pressed the business for records on Covid-linked worker infections. new york metropolis’s fee on Human Rights and the new york state legal professional normal are investigating Christian Smalls’s firing. Some Republican lawmakers, like Sen. Josh Hawley, in the meantime, have used the pandemic as a time to push the enterprise on antitrust concerns, arguing that their business practices are destroying mother-and-pop agencies.

The condo Judiciary Committee, which is investigating Amazon and the three other big Tech giants (fb, Google, and Apple), recently asked Jeff Bezos to testify on considerations including how Amazon competes with its own market merchants. Bezos pointed out he would demonstrate up, beneath definite conditions. And the Federal exchange commission has been conducting an off-the-cuff probe of Amazon considering last 12 months. These investigations, if they effect in legislation or new antitrust laws, might current an existential hazard to Amazon’s grip on the on-line retail market.

And Democrats like Sen. Booker are the usage of Amazon as a chance to mount a full-throated defense of stronger labor rights in the US extra extensively, drawing on the larger financial anxieties americans face all the way through the recession.

“I strongly believe that they need to make sure that labor has a voice, has the appropriate to organize, and has the vigour to discount and strike,” Booker informed Recode. “If no longer, we're going to see the country continue during this dull and perverse direction. ... It actually is a worrisome trend that you’re seeing during this country where individuals who're working hard each day are discovering themselves economically compromised, economically fragile.”

Booker and the other politicians who scrutinize Amazon accomplish that as a result of they understand the company influences much more americans than the a whole bunch of lots they without delay employ. Amazon delivered essentially three.5 billion programs globally final 12 months — and that determine doesn’t even count Amazon orders delivered by means of partners like united states of americaor USPS. This has helped make Bezos the richest man on the planet; meanwhile, most american citizens haven’t received a significant raise in many years.

unless large political action or law on Amazon comes — if it ever does — labor organizers are attempting to shame the enterprise into motion, like when Sen. Bernie Sanders helped force Amazon to carry its minimum wage to $15 an hour lower back in 2018, or how in 2019, local activists, labor companies, and politicians in ny metropolis pushed Amazon to withdraw its plans to build a brand new headquarters in long island metropolis.

“It’s very intricate to look this [employee activism] stream death out when to a certain diploma it’s a success,” observed an Amazon company employee who is lively on employee organizing around local weather trade and warehouse worker rights.

a group of people holding a sign: John Hopkins (center) at a workers rally endorsed on June 19 in Oakland. Hopkins has been organizing colleagues in his area in part of a new worker group, Bay Area Amazonians. © Brian L. Frank for Vox John Hopkins (core) at a worker's rally counseled on June 19 in Oakland. Hopkins has been organizing colleagues in his enviornment partially of a new employee community, Bay area Amazonians.

after which there’s the have an impact on of all this on Amazon’s loyal and ever-becoming base of clients. if they birth to understand Amazon as a company that, on the total, is weakening rather than strengthening the working class, will their allegiance to two-day shipping and prime subscriptions alternate? If customers demand alterations from Amazon, could it elevate the bar for labor not simply at Amazon but at different sellers that imitate the business’s business practices to be able to compete with it?

Amazon is “a technological leader, the primary region the place most americans turn to store online, and a hugely influential political energy,” former US Secretary of Labor Robert Reich advised Recode. “So its worker practices are watched and sure to be emulated by way of each other big American enterprise. When it treats its laborers badly, these tawdry practices reverberate throughout the country.”

Some people are skeptical that customers will care, no be counted what happens in Amazon’s warehouses.

“The American psyche is so selfish that it doesn’t remember what goes on in there,” mentioned one longtime Amazon warehouse employee in Lexington, Kentucky, who’s been internally vocal about what he feels is an absence of sanitation at his facility. “It’s, ‘simply get my package to me. just get my kit to me.’ The business is feeding off of that as a result of on the walls and internal the facility it peculiarly states, ‘we are customer-obsessed.’”

For now, customers are by using no capability rushing to cancel their major subscriptions, although polls indicate that their typical belief of the business is declining. however employee unrest items an extended-term reputational issue for Amazon. major tech groups like facebook, Uber, and Google have all made missteps in contemporary years, from failing to offer protection to consumer data to allegedly masking up sexual harassment issues, that have stained their reputations and often can charge them earnings.

employee unrest at Amazon has larger stakes, though: It has ramifications for the relaxation of the financial system. Amazon has been ascending to dominance for years, and the pandemic has sped it up. What do its personnel, who're a key part of this success, deserve? And what vigor may still they have got in shaping the route of the enterprise?

“I suppose the situation in their financial system is that americans are used to it being damaged and not working for them,” stated AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Liz Shuler. “That’s the manner the economy has been for some time, and not simply as a result of Covid. however employees should be able to have greater expectations, to have vigour and strength as working people. to go to the desk [with management] and say, ‘We should still be in this collectively.’”

Even in any case their agitations for change all over the pandemic, Amazon people are nevertheless combating to be heard.

right through his interview with Recode in can also, Amazon’s Clark twice brought up Smalls, the warehouse employee whose firing sparked different employees’ anger in opposition t the enterprise. despite the internal and exterior criticism Amazon confronted over how its true attorney known as Smalls “no longer sensible or articulate” in a leaked memo, Clark used Smalls in the interview as an example of what dissenting laborers have carried out wrong.

In a latest interview with Recode, Smalls mirrored on the significance of the memo that propelled him into the media highlight.

a man riding a skateboard up the side of a building: Christian Smalls in Los Angeles on June 15. © Damon Casarez for Vox Christian Smalls in los angeles on June 15.

“When the leaked memo got here out, it exposed who Jeff Bezos is as a person, who’s round him, who’s giving him counsel — the forms of conversations that they have got about their employees, and their center of attention on smearing me. That tells you correct there they don’t care about us,” stated Smalls. “It’s on no account going to be Amazon v. Chris Smalls. It’s Amazon v. the individuals.”

aid Vox’s explanatory journalism

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ISC2 [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [25 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITIL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Linux-Foundation [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [25 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [70 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [413 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
MuleSoft [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [42 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliances [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [38 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [317 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PCI-Security [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Qlik [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ServiceNow [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Splunk [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [137 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [34 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
Watchguard [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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